WorldWideScience

Sample records for quality non-attainment areas

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  2. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  3. An urban-forest control measure for ozone in the Sacramento, CA federal non-attainment area (SFNA) Sustainable Cities and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider Taha; James Wilkinson; Robert Bornstein; Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson; Jim Simpson; Charles Anderson; Steven Lau; Janice Lam; Cindy Blain

    2015-01-01

    Urban forest strategies of gradually replacing high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) with low-emitting species are being considered as voluntary or emerging control measures for maintenance of the 8-h ozone standard in the Sacramento Federal Non-Attainment Area (SFNA). We describe a regulatory modeling study demonstrating the air-quality impacts...

  4. Non-attainment policy: A viable approach for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Research Council recently completed a three-year study entitled open-quotes Alternatives for Groundwater Cleanupclose quotes. One of the conclusions of this study indicated that for sites with a complex geologic and hydrologic set up, existing technologies may not be able to restore contaminated aquifers to health-based standards. Therefore, the most logical approach in these cases, perhaps, could be to adopt the open-quotes non-attainment zoneclose quotes policy. The essence of this policy is to first contain the plume and stop any further migration of contaminated groundwater, and then to remove the source of contamination. This paper briefly discusses some of the problems encountered with this approach for a contaminated area at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory

  5. Advancing Understanding of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production Operations to Support EPA’s Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Non-Attainment Areas; Final Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary Environmentally responsible development of oil and gas assets requires well-developed emissions inventories and measurement techniques to verify emissions and the effectiveness of control strategies. To accurately model the oil and gas sector impacts on air qual...

  6. Understanding Emissions from Control-Related Equipment used in Oil and Gas Production Operations to Support EPA’s Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Non-attainment Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas production has increased significantly in the United States over the past ten years. Improperly maintained and controlled oil and gas extraction and production (E&P) processes have the potential to emit significant amounts of pollutants that can impact human health an...

  7. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING AIR QUALITY IN DEVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN DRAGOTA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects regarding air quality in Deva area. The attenuation of air quality in the urban environment is determined by artificial warming, a result of the radiation emitted by constructions, economic activities, as well as the climatic elements characteristics. In the survey regarding air quality in Deva we will analyse the concentrations of NO2, O3, SO2 and their implications on air quality.

  9. Air Quality Benefits of Nighttime Construction in Texas Non-Attainment Counties--Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The practice of performing some work zone activities at night has existed in the United States since at least the 1960s. Night work is most commonly initiated where it is impractical to close traffic lanes on certain high-volume roadways during norma...

  10. Soil Quality of Bauxite Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terezinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The study on soil quality index (SQI) aims to assess the current state of the soil after use and estimating its recovery through sustainable management practices This type of study is being used in this work in order to check the efficiency of forest recovery techniques in areas that have been deeply degraded by bauxite mining process, and compare them with the area of native forest, through the determination of SQI. Treatments were newly mined areas, areas undergoing restoration (topsoil use with planting of native forest species), areas in rehabilitation (employment of the green carpet with topsoil and planting of native forest species) and areas of native forests, with six repetitions, in areas of ALCOA, in the municipality of Poços de Caldas/MG. To this end, we used the additive pondered model, establishing three functions: Fertility, water movement and root development, based on chemical parameters (organic matter, base saturation, aluminum saturation and calcium content); physical (macroporosity, soil density and clay content); and microbiological testing (basal respiration by the emission of CO2 ). The SQIs obtained for each treatment was 41%, 56%, 63% and 71% for newly mined areas, native forest, areas in restoration and rehabilitation, respectively. The recovering technique that most approximates the degraded soil to the soil of reference is the restoration, where there was no statistically significant difference of areas restored with native forest. It was found that for the comparison of the studied areas must take into account the nutrient cycling, that disappear with plant removal in mining areas, once the soil of native forest features low fertility and high saturation by aluminum, also taking in account recovering time.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  12. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  13. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  14. Assessment of Soil Environmental Quality in Huangguoshu Waterfalls Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongbin; Feng, Kaiyu; Gu, Bo; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper concentrates on five major heavy metal pollutants as soil environmental quality evaluation factors, respectively Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), based on the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB15618 - 1995), we used single factor index evaluation model of soil environmental quality and comprehensive index evaluation model to analyze surface soil environmental quality in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area. Based on surface soil analysis, our results showed that the individual contamination index, Pb, Hg, As and Cr in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area met class I according to requirements of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards, which indicated that Pb, Hg, As and Cr were not main heavy metal pollutants in this area, but the individual contamination index of Cd in soil was seriously exceeded National Soil Environmental Quality Standards’ requirement. Soil environmental quality in Shitouzhai, Luoshitan, Langgong Hongyan Power Plant have exceeded the requirement of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards “0.7soils had been slightly polluted; the classification of soil environmental quality assessment in Longgong downstream area was above “Alert Level”, it indicated that soil in this area was not polluted. Above all, relevant measures for soil remediation are put forward.

  15. From Quality Assurance to Quality Enhancement in the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on recent trends in quality assurance initiatives, analyses how the European Higher Education Area promotes quality enhancement mechanisms and their implications for quality cultures in universities. It presents and discusses two approaches towards quality enhancement both at the institutional and programme level: 1. Quality…

  16. hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABDULRASHEED

    alkaline indices (CAI), were calculated for irrigation purposes. The results were presented as spatial distribution maps for interpretation and further inferences. Comparison of the groundwater quality in the area with local and international ...

  17. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  18. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  19. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  20. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  1. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  2. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 10 (1990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  3. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 10 (1987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  4. Estimation of biogenic emissions with satellite-derived land use and land cover data for air quality modeling of Houston-Galveston ozone nonattainment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Daewon W; Kim, Soontae; Czader, Beata; Nowak, David; Stetson, Stephen; Estes, Mark

    2005-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) is one of the most severe ozone non-attainment regions in the US. To study the effectiveness of controlling anthropogenic emissions to mitigate regional ozone nonattainment problems, it is necessary to utilize adequate datasets describing the environmental conditions that influence the photochemical reactivity of the ambient atmosphere. Compared to the anthropogenic emissions from point and mobile sources, there are large uncertainties in the locations and amounts of biogenic emissions. For regional air quality modeling applications, biogenic emissions are not directly measured but are usually estimated with meteorological data such as photo-synthetically active solar radiation, surface temperature, land type, and vegetation database. In this paper, we characterize these meteorological input parameters and two different land use land cover datasets available for HGA: the conventional biogenic vegetation/land use data and satellite-derived high-resolution land cover data. We describe the procedures used for the estimation of biogenic emissions with the satellite derived land cover data and leaf mass density information. Air quality model simulations were performed using both the original and the new biogenic emissions estimates. The results showed that there were considerable uncertainties in biogenic emissions inputs. Subsequently, ozone predictions were affected up to 10 ppb, but the magnitudes and locations of peak ozone varied each day depending on the upwind or downwind positions of the biogenic emission sources relative to the anthropogenic NOx and VOC sources. Although the assessment had limitations such as heterogeneity in the spatial resolutions, the study highlighted the significance of biogenic emissions uncertainty on air quality predictions. However, the study did not allow extrapolation of the directional changes in air quality corresponding to the changes in LULC because the two datasets were based on vastly different

  5. New quality assessment procedure for exchange area cable transmission parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P. A.

    To best represent the customers' needs, a method of evaluating the transmission quality of exchange area cable must have representative requirements, a statistically powerful method of evaluating the conformance of cables to the requirements and a means of combining the results in a fashion that reflects the end use of the product. The method described herein utilizes a requirement structure containing nominal and maximum requirements to define a desirable distribution for each parameter.

  6. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  7. Water quality in the coastal area of Santa Marta (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Francisco; Palacio Carlos; Garcia Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality at the Santa Marta coastal area where a submarine out fall that discharges 1 m3/s of domestic wastewater is located. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster and principal component analysis and Krigging interpolation were considered for this report. Temporal variation showed two heterogeneous periods. From December to April, and July, where the concentration of the water quality parameters is higher; the rest of the year (May, June, August-November) were significantly lower. The spatial variation reported two areas where the water quality is different, this difference is related to the proximity to the submarine out fall discharge. Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  8. Soil Quality in Mining Areas Undergoing Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Bizuti, Denise T. G.; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

    2014-05-01

    Mining is one of the anthropogenic activities most impactful to natural resources, and can profoundly affect the resilience of ecosystems depending on the level of soil degradation. Ecological restoration has generated promising results even in situations of degradation as intense as those of mining. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the soil in areas explored by the bauxite extraction undergoing restoration: recently mined, seven years, 20 years and native forest. The studied areas are located in the municipality of Poços de Caldas-MG, belonging to ALCOA Alumínio. The mined-out areas for seven and twenty years were uncompressed and received topsoil, liming and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Samples for chemical analyses of soil fertility were carried out at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Soil quality was evaluated by pondered additive model. The parameters were considered organic matter (0.6) and bases saturation (0.4) for soil fertility function (0.6) and calcium (0.5) and aluminum saturation (0.5) for the function root development (0.4) - (the numbers in parentheses represent the weights attributed). Despite the high content, only the organic matter was not a parameter enough to classify the soil quality, once the native forest has very low base saturation (7%). The soil quality index(SQI) obtained allowed to classify the areas, being the first restored 20 years ago with SQI equal to 0.7 followed of the restored 7 years ago, native forest and newly mined with SQIs equal to 0.6, 04 and 0.3, respectively. The native tropical forests have low soil fertility, keeping by the cycling of nutrients. This demonstrates the need for the degraded areas, especially the mined, are uncompressed to allow storage of water and root development, in addition to the replacement of nutrients and soil acidity correction, especially high levels of aluminum saturation (66%) and low calcium (3 mmolcdm-3).

  9. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  11. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  12. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  13. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  14. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 2.5 Annual (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  15. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 2.5 24 hr (2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  16. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  17. Role of renal function in risk assessment of target non-attainment after standard dosing of meropenem in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Lisa; Zoller, Michael; Minichmayr, Iris K; Scharf, Christina; Maier, Barbara; Schmitt, Maximilian V; Hartung, Niklas; Huisinga, Wilhelm; Vogeser, Michael; Frey, Lorenz; Zander, Johannes; Kloft, Charlotte

    2017-10-21

    Severe bacterial infections remain a major challenge in intensive care units because of their high prevalence and mortality. Adequate antibiotic exposure has been associated with clinical success in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the target attainment of standard meropenem dosing in a heterogeneous critically ill population, to quantify the impact of the full renal function spectrum on meropenem exposure and target attainment, and ultimately to translate the findings into a tool for practical application. A prospective observational single-centre study was performed with critically ill patients with severe infections receiving standard dosing of meropenem. Serial blood samples were drawn over 4 study days to determine meropenem serum concentrations. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance according to the Cockcroft and Gault equation (CLCR CG ). Variability in meropenem serum concentrations was quantified at the middle and end of each monitored dosing interval. The attainment of two pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets (100%T >MIC , 50%T >4×MIC ) was evaluated for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2 mg/L and 8 mg/L and standard meropenem dosing (1000 mg, 30-minute infusion, every 8 h). Furthermore, we assessed the impact of CLCR CG on meropenem concentrations and target attainment and developed a tool for risk assessment of target non-attainment. Large inter- and intra-patient variability in meropenem concentrations was observed in the critically ill population (n = 48). Attainment of the target 100%T >MIC was merely 48.4% and 20.6%, given MIC values of 2 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively, and similar for the target 50%T >4×MIC . A hyperbolic relationship between CLCR CG (25-255 ml/minute) and meropenem serum concentrations at the end of the dosing interval (C 8h ) was derived. For infections with pathogens of MIC 2 mg/L, mild renal impairment up to augmented renal function was

  18. Water quality in gravel pits in the Bratislava area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Rohacikova, A.; Zenisova, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The gravel pits around Bratislava have an esthetic, urban and recreational function. Open water table areas are in a direct contact with the air and acquire some characteristics of the surface water. The quality of open water table is much more susceptible to pollution than that of groundwater. Wet and dry deposition, water inflow from the surrounding surface, unmanageable sewerage effluents, solid and liquid wastes, but also the water birds contribute to the pollution. The Department of Hydrogeology has monitored the water quality in six gravel pits (Cunovo, Drazdiak, Strkovec, Pasienky, Zlate Piesky, Vajnory) since 1976 with an an interruption between 1988 - 1993. Two sampling per year have been made since 1994 and after 1998 the analyses have been supplemented by Na, K, Fe, Mn, by oxygen regime parameters, by trace elements (As, Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and by organic pollutants. As regards the oxygen regime, the water quality pits is very good. The anthropogenic influence is expressed mainly by the increased contents of sulfates and chlorides. Most problematic trace elements are the mercury and vanadium (Drazdiak, Zlate Piesky and Vajnory). (authors)

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  20. [Ecological hygienic assessment of soils quality in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V

    Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.

  1. Groundwater quality around Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Y.; Nagaraju, A.

    2017-11-01

    The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed in Tummalapalle area. Forty groundwater samples were analysed for major cations, anions and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and total hardness (TH). The parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio, adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), per cent sodium, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated for the evaluation of irrigation water quality. Groundwater chemistry was also analysed by statistical analysis, USSL, Wilcox, Doneen, Piper and Chadhas diagrams, to find out their suitability for irrigation. TDS and TH were used as main parameters to interpret the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficient matrix between the hydrochemical parameters was carried out using Pearson's correlation to infer the possible water-rock interactions responsible for the variation of groundwater chemistry and this has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The results indicate that the groundwater in Tummalapalle area is alkaline in nature. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. Water chemistry of the study area strongly reflects the dominance of weathering of rock-forming minerals such as bicarbonates and silicates. All parameters and diagrams suggest that the water samples of the study are good for irrigation, and the plots of TDS and TH suggest that 12.5% of the samples are good for human consumption.

  2. Decision Support Tool for Nighttime Construction and Air Quality - User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Research Project 0-6864 Investigate the Air Quality Benefits of Nighttime Construction in Non-attainment Counties investigated the potential air quality benefits of shifting construction/maintenance acti...

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY CONTROL OF RECREATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recreation areas are composed of environmental matrices primary contact with the population (water and sand and therefore need to be periodically monitored, because pathogenic microorganisms can be found that offer risks to human and animal health. This study aimed to develop critical topics in environmental sanitation as use of water and sand in recreation places, biomarkers associated with health risks, diseases caused by exposure to contaminated environmental matrices and indicate the importance of bioindicators in laws that underpin the supervisory board, to secure the most complete monitoring and give support the actions of environmental control and health agencies. The literature review was used as instrumental to the research. In Brazil, the acceptable limits standards are described in Resolution by National Environmental Council for coliforms present in bathing water, but not exist to sand matrix. Only isolated initiatives of municipal environmental agencies have established limits for the classification of sand matrix, based on only bacteriological parameters. Concluded that scientific studies may support others biomarkers of sanitary conditions are being conducted in Brazil, proposing fungi and parasites in evaluating the sanitary quality of recreation areas.

  4. Quality control related to total quality: why not to nuclear area too?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    We're living in a new economical age, where quality, productivity, competence, competitiveness and costumer satisfaction are necessary. We must develop our capacity more and more, daily, for could survive and to excel in this new age. Only through Total Quality Control (TQC) is that we'll go to achieve these requirements. TQC is expanding all over the world and is already, the new universal language. Why not get the TQC's benefits to nuclear area too? We must stay within this reality. With our quality assurance systems turned to TQC, certainly we'll get best results. This is the intention of this paper: to call the nuclear professionals attention to knowledge, application and commitment to TQC's philosophy. (author)

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  7. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  8. Quality of life in elderly age: areas of concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life in elderly age has special features, depending primarily on the state of health, assessment of the spent life, internal standards, support and ability to operate effectively in changing circumstances. In later ages estimation of quality of life affects the mechanisms of pathogenesis of somatic and mental disorders. Up to date there is no agreement among researchers on criteria of identification and assessment of the quality of life in later ages. This article describes the modern understanding of quality of life and its components. It highlights the issues impeding the improvement of quality of life. The article lists the methods for the evaluation of quality of life in later ages. It also presents the analysis of the main factors affecting the quality of life in elderly patients.

  9. The structure of water quality monitoring in the disaster area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Described are monitoring systems of water environment at usual times and after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster, and measures taken by the Ministry of the Environment (ME) for radioactive substances in the water environment. At usual times, the monitoring of hazardous substance in water environment is conducted by local governments. At/after the Disaster, ME conducted the monitoring investigation concerning the environmental quality standards and toxicants like dioxins in the river, sea and groundwater from late May to late July, 2011 because undesirable effects on health and life of the residents had been feared due to possible leak of hazardous substances in public water area and underground water of victim prefectures, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. As the results, no high contamination due to the Disaster was found, and a part of regions exhibited the slight chemical contamination, where continuous and additional monitoring was to be kept locally with guidance of drinking the concerned well water. ME measured radioactive iodine and cesium at 29 places of Fukushima rivers to find <65 and <30,000 Bq/kg, respectively, of 4 spots of river bed material alone (late May); then Cs 32 Bq/L in water at 1 spot and <26,000 Bq/kg in bed at all places after rain (early July). In groundwater, no radioactive nuclides above were detected in any of 111 places of Fukushima Prefecture (late June to early August). Cs was not found in sea water of 9 places of concerned prefectures, but was in the sea bottom soil, <1,380 Bq/kg (middle June). As well, local governments measured those two radioactive nuclides in water and ambient dose rate of 551 sea bathing beaches (late May to early Oct.) and found only one beach (Iwaki City, Fukushima) inappropriate for swimming play. Hereafter, ME is still to investigate the bed material of public water area and to continue to monitor the marine environment in cooperation with related authorities. (T.T.)

  10. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  11. Nonattainment Areas in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [Nonattainment_LA_EPA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — EPA Region 6 NonAttainment Areas in Louisiana, current as of May 2006. This shapefile contains parish boundaries and attributes that determine whether the parishes...

  12. 78 FR 54835 - Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Troy Area 2008 Lead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... 4] Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Troy Area 2008 Lead... Troy 2008 Lead nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as the ``Troy Area'' or ``Area''). The Troy... submittal regarding the attainment plan based on Alabama's attainment demonstration for the Troy Area. The...

  13. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10 -4 Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility

  14. Quality Assurance in the Determination of Overlapping Peak Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Heydorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of different computer programs to yield accurate peak areas in statistical control in the case of partially overlapping photopeaks has been tested by the Analysis of Precision. A modified Covell method, two commercially available peak-fitting programs from Nuclear Data and Ortec, and ...

  15. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  16. [Water quality and personal hygiene in rural areas of Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, A; Ndiaye, N M; Faye, D; Tal-Dia, A

    2011-02-01

    The high prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries is mostly due to poor water quality and hygiene practices. The purpose of this study was to assess water quality as well as hygiene practices and their determinants in Ngohé, i.e., a rural community (RC) in Senegal. A combined approach consisting of a cross-sectional descriptive survey and bacterial analysis of water was used. Study was conducted in 312 randomly selected households. Data was collected through individual interviews with the assistance of a guide. Water for bacteriological analysis was collected from various sources, i.e., 3 modem borehole wells, 2 protected wells, and 10 traditional wells. Study points included home water treatment, drinking water source, latrine use, hand washing habits, and bacteria identified in water. A multiple regression model was used for data analysis. The household survey population was 59% male, 61% illiterate, and 93% married. Mean age was 44.8 +/- 18.1 years. Chlorination technique was inadequate in 62% of cases. Latrines were not restricted to adult use in 76% of homes. Hand washing was not performed at critical times in 94%. Drinking water was drawn from traditional wells in 48% of households, modem borehole wells in 45% and protected wells in 7%. Escherichia coli was found in water from all three sources and Vibrio cholerae was found in two traditional wells. Level of education, average monthly income, knowledge about chlorination techniques, and source of the water consumed were the main behavioral determinants (p < 0.05). Water treatment at the source and in the home as well as protection of water sources is necessary to ensure water quality. This will require effective public education campaigns and financial support for improvement of sanitary facilities.

  17. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for waste area grouping 7 and solid waste storage area 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the drilling and installation of the groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7 and at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 1, which is a part of WAG 1. Installation of GQM wells was required at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for regulatory compliance. Data obtained from these wells will be used to characterize and assess groundwater quality at the perimeter of each WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells in WAG 7 and SWSA 1 were drilled and developed during the period from June 1989 to March 1990

  18. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  19. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  20. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R [Agence de l` Environnement et de la Maitrise de l` Energie, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  1. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  2. Measurement of air quality within storage domes in technical area 54, areas G and L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium inside of storage domes at TA-54 were measured to assess worker exposure and support the Area G site characterization, including the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Samples were collected at 2-3 locations within Domes 48, 49, and 153 on up to six days during the summer of 1994. Samples were collected to evaluate three scenarios: (1) normal working activities with the domes open; (2) after domes were closed overnight; and (3) after domes were closed for three days. Eight-hour integrated samples were collected and analyzed in Radian's Austin laboratories. Tritium activities from 17.1 to 69,900 pCi/m 3 were measured. About two dozen individual VOCs were identified in each sample, but most of the concentration levels were very low (e.g.; 20%) than when the domes were closed only overnight. The data were used to generate estimated annual dome emission rates of 0.3 Ci/yr of tritium and less than 100 lbs/yr of VOCs. The measured VOC concentrations were collected during the warmest months of the year and therefore should represent worst-case air impacts

  3. Rainwater Quality Measurements in the Area of Bricks Manufacturing at Kajhu Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina .

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of rainwater quality measurement has been done in brick manufacturing area of Kajhu, Aceh Besar. The measurements are taking place in the three different places when the rain fall from the sky in Kajhu area. The physical parameters that will be measured are pH, TDS, conductivity and potential of electricity.

  4. Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang. ... mining area. Water samples were collected at Kuantan River, Riau River, Pinang River and Pandan Rivers. ... All these rivvers were classified into class II based on INWQS and required conventional treatment for water supply purposes.

  5. Quality assurance plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) is concerned with design and construction (Sect. 2) and characterization and monitoring (Sect. 3). The basis for Sect. 2 is the Quality Assurance Plan for the Design and Construction of Waste Area Grouping 6 Closure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the basis for Sect. 3 is the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Combining the two areas into one plan gives a single, overall document that explains the requirements and from which the individual QAPs and quality assurance project plans can be written. The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 QAP establishes the procedures and requirements to be implemented for control of quality-related activities for the WAG 6 project. Quality Assurance (QA) activities are subject to requirements detailed in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), QA Program and the Environmental Restoration (ER) QA Program, as well as to other quality requirements. These activities may be performed by Energy Systems organizations, subcontractors to Energy Systems, and architect-engineer (A-E) under prime contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), or a construction manager under prime contract to DOE. This plan specifies the overall Energy Systems quality requirements for the project. The WAG 6 QAP will be supplemented by subproject QAPs that will identify additional requirements pertaining to each subproject

  6. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  7. Monitoring air quality with lichens: A comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods. - The mapping of epiphytic lichens in open areas is more suitable for air quality assessment than mapping in forest sites in the Salek Valley, Slovenia

  8. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  9. Analysis of Louisiana vehicular input data for MOBILE 6 : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require that non-attainment and air quality : maintenance areas regularly conduct regional emissions analyses. In Louisiana, Baton Rouge : and Lake Charles are ozone non-attainment areas while New Orleans i...

  10. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-10-01

    To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease.

  11. Air quality monitoring Edson and Hinton area September 1999 to June 2000 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Edson and Hinton areas of Alberta were the subject of a mobile, ambient air quality monitoring survey. The monitoring involved four surveys of a week each, over four seasons, for one year. This area had been selected for monitoring to meet three major objectives: the determination of concentrations of air pollutants representative of the monitored locations in the survey area, to establish a comparison of air pollutant levels to data from other locations in the province of Alberta, and to provide a comparison of air pollutant levels to Alberta's air quality guidelines. These surveys formed an integral part of the air quality monitoring program of Alberta Environment. Using the Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML), personnel from Alberta Environment appear on location unannounced. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, total reduced sulphur and ammonia are the substances measured and monitored. Eighteen sites in the Edson and Hinton area were selected, as well as downwind of industrial facilities in the Edson area, and air quality was monitored using the mobile lab for twenty days. To allow comparison to the air quality guidelines, monitoring was conducted for a minimum of one hour at each location. As a result, approximately 152 hours of air quality monitoring information was obtained, providing data in the vicinity of both populated and industrial areas. The periods comprised September 13-16, 1999 (Fall), February 7-9, 2000 (Winter), April 18-19, 25-27, 2000 (Spring), and June 4-5, 13-16, 2000 (Summer). The results were provided in this report. Most results were below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. refs., 16 tabs., 18 figs

  12. Evaluation of Ecological Environmental Quality in a Coal Mining Area by Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effective method of the comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area. Firstly, we analyzed the ecological environmental effect of the coal mining area according to Pigovian Tax theory and, according to the results of the analysis and the demand for the selection of evaluation indices by the comprehensive evaluation, built the corresponding comprehensive evaluation index system. We then used the correlation function method to determine the relative weights of each index. We determined the basic standards of a comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area according to the actual situation of ecological environmental quality assessments in coal mining areas in our country and the relevant provisions of the government. On this basis, we built the two-level extension comprehensive evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological environmental quality in mining areas. Finally, we chose a certain coal mining area of Yanzhou Coal Mining Company Limited as the specific case. We used the relevant statistic data, technical and economic indices and the extension evaluation model to do the applied research of the comprehensive evaluation and tested the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation model.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LAND QUALITY USING ECOPEDOLOGICAL INDICATORS - JEBEL AREA, TIMIŞ COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costina Roxana URUIOC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studied area is placed in North-East Jebel locality. Based on the physical and chemical characteristics and soil morphology profile, the following types of soil were identified: typical preluvosol, typical and gleyic eutricambosols, luvic solonet, gleysol, gleyic vertisol and gleyic-stagnic vertisol. The assessment of land quality (fertility was determined by bonitation. For the notes of bonitation calculation, the following ecopedological indicatories have been used: annual medium temperature, annual medium precipitations, depth of the underground water, texture in Ap horizon, gleization, pseudogleization, salinization, edafic volume, porosity, soil reaction (pH, humus reserve and content of CaCO3. The way that these indicators influence the notes of bonitation is different from a type of soil to another and the use of land. Thus, for grassland, typical preluvosol, the note of bonitate is 81 and it’s included in class II of quality (favorability, luvic solonet with 63 points in class IV of quality, typical eutricambosols with 58 points and vertisol with 57 points, in class V of quality, gleysol with 32 points and gleyic eutricambosol with 36 points, in class VII of quality. In case of using the land for growing maize, we have the following: typical preluvosol with 90 points which is in class II of quality, typical eutricambosol with 54 points and gleyic vertisol with 60 points, in class V of quality, luvic solonet with 49 points in class VI of quality, gleyic-stagnic vertisol with 35 points, in class VII of quality, gleysol with 24 points and gleyic eutricambosol with 29 points, in class VIII of quality. The notes of bonitation calculation, including them in the favorability classes, showed up that lands from Jebel area are good and very good quality, exception those that develop on gleysol and gleyic eutricambosols soils.

  14. FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN AREA OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research presents chronology and trends in area of quality management system through nonconformities. The aim of the work is to forecast possible scenario to foresee activities for future period and time what will point out on critical indicators and on possible measures for improvement. Furthermore, research identifies advantages, disadvantages and possibilities, especially for production and service sectors. The work presents long-term research on quality management system and experience and knowledge that are obtained based on real indicators.

  15. Analysis of soil quality in some areas of Jharia coal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, D.P.; Singh, Gurdeep; Panigrahi, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies carried out on soil quality parameters in seven mining sites divided in to three zones viz. non-fire, intermediate fire and fire zones, located in the eastern part of Jharia coalfield. It has been observed that the soil quality in fire areas have relatively low pH, low moisture content, low organic carbon, high conductivity and low levels of macro-nutrients than those of non-fire and intermediate fire zones. (author)

  16. Hyperspectral water quality retrieval model: taking Malaysia inshore sea area as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Li, Jing; Lim, Boonleong; Roslinah, Samad

    2007-11-01

    Remote sensing technique provides the possibility of rapid and synchronous monitoring in a large area of the water quality, which is an important element for the aquatic ecosystem quality assessment of islands and coastal zones, especially for the nearshore and tourism sea area. Tioman Island of Malaysia is regarded as one of ten of the best islands in the world and attracts tourists from all over the world for its clear sea, beautiful seashore and charming scenery. In this paper, on the basis of in situ dataset in the study area, distribution discipline of water quality parameters is analyzed to find that phytoplankton pigment, rather than suspended sediment is the main water quality parameter in the study area; seawater there is clean but not very oligotrophic; seawater spectra contains distinct features. Then water quality hyperspectral retrieval models are developed based on in situ data to calculate the chlorophyll a concentration ([chl-a]), transparency (SD) with satisfactory performance. It's suggested that model precision should be validated further using more in-situ data.

  17. How to understand architectural quality when working with social housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirstine Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    This paper debates how to understand architectural quality when working with social housing areas. The concept is discussed through three approaches: 1) Social housing is debated in relation to societal and historical contributions. 2) Well known definitions (from the old-timer Vitruvius...... to the current sustainability agenda) are outlined according to their pros´n cons when working with social housing areas. 3) On the ground of interviews with practitioners the everyday use and understanding of the concept is scrutinized In this vein the paper agitates that architectural quality in social housing...

  18. Governance, Institutional Quality and the Euro Area Crisis: What Lessons to East Asian Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Gwan Baek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We find that institutional quality of an individual country was highly and significantly correlated with its economic performance in the euro area. We argue that governance reforms proposed at present do not suffice to resolving the fundamental problems of the EMU governance system unless disparities of institutional quality in member states are dissolved. Regarding regional integration, East Asia is far behind the Eurozone not only in institutional elements of the governance system but also in institutional quality at the level of individual nations.

  19. Aging and quality of life of elderly people in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaccio, Juliana Ladeira; Tonaco, Luís Antônio Batista; Estêvão, Wilson Goulart; Barcelos, Bárbara Jacome

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life and health of elderly in rural areas of Minas Gerais State's center-west. Cross-sectional study, in four municipalities of Minas Gerais State, by interviewing elderly people. Associations between socio-demographic and quality of life variables were tested, separated into "satisfactory"/"unsatisfactory" with values from the median of positive answers. It was used the chi-square test, Fisher's test and regression. 182 elderly answered the questions and showed a relation with the "satisfactory" quality of life - bivariate (p cognitive aspect, access to services, goods, habits, but awareness must be constant due to their weakness.

  20. Deciphering the Environmental Impacts on Rice Quality for Different Rice Cultivated Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiukun; Wu, Lian; Geng, Xin; Xia, Xiuhong; Wang, Xuhong; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2018-01-19

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and is one of mankind's major staple foods. The interaction of environmental factors with genotype effects major agronomic traits such as yield, quality, and resistance in rice. However, studies on the environmental factors affecting agronomic traits are often difficult to conduct because most environmental factors are dynamic and constantly changing. A series of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica/japonica cross were planted into four typical rice cultivated areas arranging from latitude N22° to N42°. The environmental data from the heading to mature (45 days) stages were recorded for each RIL in the four areas. We determined that light, temperature, and humidity significantly affected the milling quality and cooking quality overall the four areas. Within each area, these environmental factors mainly affected the head rice ratio, grain length, alkali consumption, and amylose and protein content. Moreover, the effect of these environmental factors dynamically changed from heading to mature stage. Compared to light and humidity, temperature was more stable and predictable, and night temperature showed a stronger correlation efficiency to cooking quality than day temperature, and the daily temperature range had contrary effects compared to day and night temperature on grain quality. The present study evaluated the critical phase during the grain filling stage by calculating the dynamic changes of correlation efficiency between the quality traits and climate parameters. Our findings suggest that the sowing date could be adjusted to improve rice quality so as to adjust for environmental changes.

  1. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  2. Real-Time Supervisory Control for Power Quality Improvement of Multi-Area Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Lee, Tzung-Lin; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the power quality (PQ) improvement of Multi-Area Microgrid (MAMGs) is addressed. To this aim, mitigation of voltage harmonics and unbalance is considered by using Distributed Generators (DGs) and Active Power Filters (APFs) in a proper way. As a novel approach, the main goal...

  3. Supply Selection and Supply Chain Maturity - important areas of the quality production assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Koblen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper pays attention to selected information focused on the key requirements and criteria used in both the conventional supplier selection and sustainable supplier selection processes. The authors introduce the supply chain maturity levels, which, together with the supplier selection and assessment issue, is the essential area for the assurance of the high quality, safety and dependability of the products.

  4. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  5. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  6. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 2001 through September 2012, water years (WYs) 2002-12, were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1982 through September 2012 (WYs 1983-2012). Water samples were collected and analyzed by the Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and orthophosphate were calculated for WYs 2003-12 for all 37 monitoring stations. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform bacteria and E. coli, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate were calculated for all sampling dates during WYs 2003-12 for 23 monitoring stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared with State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, varying classes of timber operations, and impervious surface areas.

  7. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  8. Quality assessment of urban areas based on neural network modeling and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Pustovgar, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    In this article the authors carry out the research of the urban development areas structure and propose the system of its characteristics on the basis of sector affiliation of the municipal economy. The authors have developed an algorithm for quality assessment of urban development areas. The results of the research are presented on the example of several central quarters of Arkhangelsk city. The city's residential development was formed in the periods from 1900-1950, 1950-1980 and from 2002 to date. It is currently presented by low-rise wooden, homestead type residential houses and barracks-type houses; mid-rise and high-rise brick and panel buildings of typical development, buildings of large-panel housing construction. Structural SOM-analysis compiled separate quarters of Arkhangelsk into 5 groups with a high level of characteristic similarity: "Commercial", "Prospective complex development", "Sustainable development", "Perspective renovation of residential development", "Investment-unattractive". Typical development strategies for each group of quarters are determined. Most developed areas characterized by upward height. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. Using GIS allows to visually reflect the state and assess the quality of the urban development area by the aggregate of all parameters, and also to assess the quality of the quarters for each sector.

  9. Quality-of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosević, Jadranka; Odović, Gordana; Rapaić, Dragan; Davidović, Mladen; Trgovcević, Sanja; Milovanović, Verica

    2015-11-01

    The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012), the life of those with family members (p = 0.009), and health status (p = 0.000), in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040), predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720). For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  10. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  11. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahul Hameed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. These changes are expected to affect the quality of life of the elderly. Methods: In the rural area, cross‐sectional community‐based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above. WHO Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: Among the study population, the mean perceived overall quality of life scores were 62.1}16.4 and the mean perceived overall health status scores were 59.8}17.4. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Among <70 years better physical domain scores were seen compared to ≥70 years. Among the literates and currently married elderly, all the domain scores were higher compared to illiterates and those without partners respectively. Conclusion: All the domains of quality of life were significantly affected for those who were illiterate or were single. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Such perceived quality of life study helps to highlight the inequalities among the elderly, which can be targeted to improve the quality of life.

  12. Aging and quality of life of elderly people in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the quality of life and health of elderly in rural areas of Minas Gerais State’s center-west. Method: Cross-sectional study, in four municipalities of Minas Gerais State, by interviewing elderly people. Associations between socio-demographic and quality of life variables were tested, separated into “satisfactory”/“unsatisfactory” with values from the median of positive answers. It was used the chi-square test, Fisher’s test and regression. Results: 182 elderly answered the questions and showed a relation with the “satisfactory” quality of life - bivariate (p < 0.05: age by 69 years (61.6%, married (61.7%, living by 54 years in rural areas (68%, with no financial support (59.5%, living with someone else (61%, non-smoker (60%, presenting good health (76.7%, satisfied with life (69.6%; regression: not having financial support, living with someone else and not smoking. Conclusion: Elderly people in rural areas present good quality of life/health in the cognitive aspect, access to services, goods, habits, but awareness must be constant due to their weakness.

  13. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  14. Air quality in natural areas: Interface between the public, science and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Karnosky, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315 million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O 3 ) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O 3 exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O 3 impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O 3 risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy. - Appropriate endpoints and exposure-response indices can improve assessment of air pollutant risk to forests in natural areas

  15. Air quality status of an open pit mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulya, S K

    2005-06-01

    This investigation presents the assessment of ambient air quality carried out at an open pit coal mining area in Orissa state of India. The 24-h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM, particles of less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular interval throughout one year at 13 monitoring stations in residential area and four stations in mining/industrial area. During the study period, the 24-h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol in most of the residential and industrial areas. However, the 24-h and annual average concentrations of SO2 and NO(x) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS in both residential and industrial areas. A management strategy is formulated for effective control of particulate matter at source and other mitigative measures are recommended including implementation of green belts around the sensitive areas.

  16. Air quality in natural areas: Interface between the public, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, K.E. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7 (Canada)], E-mail: kpercy@nrcan.gc.ca; Karnosky, D.F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315 million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O{sub 3} exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O{sub 3} impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O{sub 3} risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy. - Appropriate endpoints and exposure-response indices can improve assessment of air pollutant risk to forests in natural areas.

  17. VoroMQA: Assessment of protein structure quality using interatomic contact areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechnovič, Kliment; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2017-06-01

    In the absence of experimentally determined protein structure many biological questions can be addressed using computational structural models. However, the utility of protein structural models depends on their quality. Therefore, the estimation of the quality of predicted structures is an important problem. One of the approaches to this problem is the use of knowledge-based statistical potentials. Such methods typically rely on the statistics of distances and angles of residue-residue or atom-atom interactions collected from experimentally determined structures. Here, we present VoroMQA (Voronoi tessellation-based Model Quality Assessment), a new method for the estimation of protein structure quality. Our method combines the idea of statistical potentials with the use of interatomic contact areas instead of distances. Contact areas, derived using Voronoi tessellation of protein structure, are used to describe and seamlessly integrate both explicit interactions between protein atoms and implicit interactions of protein atoms with solvent. VoroMQA produces scores at atomic, residue, and global levels, all in the fixed range from 0 to 1. The method was tested on the CASP data and compared to several other single-model quality assessment methods. VoroMQA showed strong performance in the recognition of the native structure and in the structural model selection tests, thus demonstrating the efficacy of interatomic contact areas in estimating protein structure quality. The software implementation of VoroMQA is freely available as a standalone application and as a web server at http://bioinformatics.lt/software/voromqa. Proteins 2017; 85:1131-1145. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Study of Heavy Metals on Sediment Quality of Kuala Perlis Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, A. A. Ahmad; Saad, F. N. Mohd; Dahalan, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    The contamination of heavy metals gives bad implications to the aquatic environment. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the sediment quality by using different contamination indices such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Each sediment sample was collected at the surface (0-15cm) at 5 locations based on the land use activity; jetty port (A), seaside restaurant (B), roadside area (C), power plant (D) and residential area (E). All samples were undergoes acid digestion and analyzed with AAS. Four elements identified from the sediment samples which are Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were used to calculate the respective indices. Results show that, the highest EF value of Pb which categorized as very severe enrichment was at point E. Meanwhile minor enrichment was detected at point B for Cu while Cr and Zn at point A. Based on Igeo value the sediment quality along Kuala Perlis was in the unpolluted-moderately polluted condition (class 1). As for PLI it shows that the sediment of the coastal area is unpolluted (PLI<1). Therefore, this study revealed that, the main contributor of heavy metals in this area is Pb while the sediment quality of Kuala Perlis was in minor pollution condition.

  19. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  20. An index to measure depreciation in air quality in some coal mining areas of Korba industrial belt of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-11-01

    The comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standards does not always depict a true picture of the Air Quality Status of a study area. As an alternative an index that measures depreciation in Air Quality on more realistic terms has been proposed and applied to the ambient air monitoring data collected from some areas of Korba Coalfields in India. Results have been discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the proposed index and utility in bringing out more realistic air quality assessment.

  1. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zamri Daud; Pereira, J.J.; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH 3 -N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH 3 -N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH 3 -N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH 3 -N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and

  2. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  3. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  4. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  5. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  6. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  7. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  8. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  9. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  10. Gender and perceived quality of life - research with professors from the health area

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, ERA; Garcia, AL; Gomes, MJ; Bittar, TO; Pereira, AC

    2012-01-01

    The rapid process of change in the global economy in recent years and the organization of labor have influenced gender relations in the teaching profession. These transformations have been disadvantageous for women, leaving them in a situation of occupational overload. The scope of this study was to analyze the working conditions of female teachers in higher education in the health education area in the city of Vitoria, State Espirito Santo, and their implications on health and quality of lif...

  11. TENDENCIES OF IMPROVEMENT THE QUALITY OF TRANSPORT TOURISM BY TOURISM ENTERPRISES IN RECREATION AREAS OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Копитко, В. І.; Терещак, Ю. В.

    2016-01-01

    Tendences of improvement the quality of transport tourism by enterprises in the tourism industry in recreational regions of Ukraine using cultural and educational potential of resort are reviewed.It is advisable for tourism industry businesses in resort areas to combine the two models concept of cultural and educational tourism, where the element of knowledge involving natural and cultural values serves as the main purpose of trip by transport, or as an additional service, which is typical fo...

  12. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  13. Effect of area x-ray beam equalization on image quality and dose in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jerry; Xu Tong; Husain, Adeel; Le, Huy; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2004-08-21

    In mammography, thick or dense breast regions persistently suffer from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions. Optimal equalization parameters with respect to image quality and patient dose were determined through computer simulations and validated with experimental observations on a step phantom and an anthropomorphic breast phantom. Three parameters important in equalization digital mammography were considered: attenuator material (Z = 13-92), beam energy (22-34 kVp) and equalization level. A Mo/Mo digital mammography system was used for image acquisition. A prototype 16 x 16 piston driven equalization system was used for preparing patient-specific equalization masks. Simulation studies showed that a molybdenum attenuator and an equalization level of 20 were optimal for improving contrast, CNR and figure of merit (FOM = CNR{sup 2}/dose). Experimental measurements using these parameters showed significant improvements in contrast, CNR and FOM. Moreover, equalized images of a breast phantom showed improved image quality. These results indicate that area beam equalization can improve image quality in digital mammography.

  14. [Gender and perceived quality of life: research with professors from the health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Garcia, Atala Lotti; Gomes, Maria José; Bittar, Telmo Oliveira; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The rapid process of change in the global economy in recent years and the organization of labor have influenced gender relations in the teaching profession. These transformations have been disadvantageous for women, leaving them in a situation of occupational overload. The scope of this study was to analyze the working conditions of female teachers in higher education in the health education area in the city of Vitória, State Espírito Santo, and their implications on health and quality of life. This is qualitative research into data gathered from interviews upon which Bardin content analysis was also employed. This technique revealed three categories: leisure, rest and health; sense of loss of social and family interaction; and perceived quality of life. The results show that insufficient leisure time may lead to sleep disturbances predisposing the individual to psychic illness; overwork; significant alterations in labor organization compromising social and family interaction with repercussions on health and quality of life. The work performed by female professors in the health area contributes to the onset of illness, with pejorative effects on their family, love, social, environmental and professional lives, with consequent loss of quality of life.

  15. An overall index of environmental quality in coal mining areas and energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I; Kaliampakos, Demetrios C

    2006-12-01

    An approach to measuring environmental quality and trends in coal mining and industrial areas was attempted in this work. For this purpose, the establishment of a reference scale characterizing the status of environmental quality is proposed by developing an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The methodology involves three main components: social research, the opinion of environmental experts, and the combination of new or existing indices. A survey of public opinion was carried out to identify the main environmental problems in the region of interest. Environmental experts carried out a survey, and the weights of specific environmental problems were obtained through a fuzzy Delphi method and pairwise comparison. The weight attributed to each environmental problem was computed, using new or existing indices (subindices) in the relevant literature. The EQI comprises a combination of the subindices with their own weights. The methodology was applied to a heavily industrialized coal basin in northwestern Macedonia, Greece. The results show that the new index may be used as a reliable tool for evaluating environmental quality in different areas. In addition, the study of EQI trends on an interannual basis can provide useful information on the efficiency of environmental policies already implemented by the responsible authorities.

  16. Ambient air quality at the wider area of an industrial mining facility at Stratoni, Chalkidiki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidajis, Georgios; Angelakoglou, Komninos; Gazea, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    To assess ambient air quality at the wider area of a mining-industrial facility in Chalkidiki, Greece, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM(10)) and its content in characteristic elements, i.e., As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn were monitored for a period of three years (2008-2010). Gravimetric air samplers were employed for the particulate matter sampling at three sampling stations located in the immediate vicinity of the industrial facility and at a neighbouring residential site. Monitoring data indicated that the 3-year median PM(10) concentrations were 23.3 μg/m(3) at the residential site close to the facility and 28.7 μg/m(3) at the site within the facility indicating a minimal influence from the industrial activities to the air quality of the neighbouring residential area. Both annual average and median PM(10) concentration levels were below the indicative European standards, whereas similar spatial and temporal variation was observed for the PM(10) constituents. The average Pb concentrations measured for the three sampling sites were 0.2, 0.146 and 0.174 μg/m(3) respectively, well below the indicative limit of 0.5 μg/m(3). The quantitative and qualitative comparison of PM(10) concentrations and its elemental constituent for the three sampling stations did not indicate any direct influence of the mining-industrial activities to the air quality of the Stratoni residential area.

  17. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  18. Clinical Determinants of Target Non-Attainment of Linezolid in Plasma and Interstitial Space Fluid: A Pooled Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis with Focus on Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichmayr, Iris K; Schaeftlein, André; Kuti, Joseph L; Zeitlinger, Markus; Kloft, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess linezolid pharmacokinetics in the plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of patients with sepsis, diabetic foot infections or cystic fibrosis and healthy volunteers. The impacts of joint characteristics and disease on plasma and target-site exposure were to be identified together with the benefit of dose intensification in critically ill patients. Rich plasma (n = 1598) and ISF concentrations in subcutaneous adipose (n = 1430) and muscle tissue (n = 1089) measured by microdialysis were pooled from three clinical trials with 51 individuals receiving 600 mg of intravenous and oral linezolid. All data were analysed simultaneously by a population approach also considering methodological aspects of microdialysis. The impact of covariates on the attainment of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets, AUC/MIC = 100 (area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) and fT >MIC  = 99 % (time that unbound concentrations exceed the MIC), was assessed by deterministic and Monte Carlo simulations. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with nonlinear elimination and tissue distribution factors accounting for differences between plasma and ISF concentrations adequately predicted all measurements. Clearance (CL) was highest in septic patients (11.2 L/h vs. CL Healthy /CL Cystic fibrosis /CL Diabetic  = 7.67/6.87/6.35 L/h). Penetration into subcutaneous adipose ISF was lowest in diabetic patients (-34.9 % compared with healthy volunteers). Creatinine clearance and total body weight further impacted linezolid exposure. To achieve timely efficacious therapy, front-loaded dosing and continuous infusion seemed beneficial in septic patients. Our analysis suggests that after standard linezolid doses, particularly patients with sepsis and conserved renal function are at risk of not attaining pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets and would benefit from initial dose intensification.

  19. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  20. Generating a quality management system for application in the field of management of nuclear energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, L.; Arias, M.

    2013-01-01

    The actual work has as a main objective to present the development of a quality management system to be applicable to the Nuclear Energy Management confines at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Argentina Republic. The GAEN Quality Management Section (SGC) has as main central tasks to streamline, collaborate and facilitate the development of activities and their applications on quality management systems in all the sections and projects belonging to GAEN. This achievement will tend to accredit, certificate and qualify them. Groups of work cooperating with each other integrate the GAEN. They are at present dealing with several tasks. Some outstanding ones are research activities, technology development, design, engineering, assembling, starting, services, and human resources development on Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Supplies, particularly on powerful nuclear reactors. In 2012, at the annual CNEA Presidential meeting, it was presented one of the several projects from the SGC. It consists in the development of a quality management system available to every area belonging to the GAEN. To carry this project out, it was first begun with the elaboration of Guide Documents which were available for everybody. The documents establish the criteria and general requirements for obtaining guaranteed quality results about the performed activities. At the same time, several areas, sections and Management groups of work have been working united and well-disposed towards the application on their own Management System using the Guide Documents and considering, in addition, some own regards. In conclusion, this first step shows that the developed work facilitates the implementation of Management Systems around the GAEN. (author)

  1. Danube quality water assessment from the microbiological point of view in Cernavoda nuclear plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundri, Mirela Iuliana

    2003-01-01

    Herein are analysed the following microbiological parameters: total viable count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, which represent a standard indicator for water quality. The study has been done during 1998-2002 upon the water in the Danube River and in the channels for cooling water used by Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant condensers. In this area, based on these values of evaluated parameters, the water feature is placed in the quality classes II and III (moderate and critical pollution), in conformity with European Community Directives. Bacterial communities, component part of aquatic biocenoses, are very important for matter and energy flux. Their contribution to self-purification processes of rivers is of great interest related to the water quality assessment. Microorganisms are ideal sensors, because they respond fast to the fluctuation of environmental conditions by specific changes, detectable physiologically and metabolically. The temperature is a major factor, which directly affects the intensity of all microbial processes. Because the microorganisms are interconnected with the other living organisms, the qualitative or quantitative changes of their activity will affect the functions of the whole ecosystem. Bacterial indicators such as total viable count (colony count), total coliforms or faecal coliforms (thermo-tolerant coliforms) are widely applied to the assessment of water quality. Because of their mostly allochthonus origin, these are used as indicators of changes in the natural water conditions; they point out an organic matter or faecal water pollution. Although the water quality can be considered acceptable from the chemical or biological point of view, the bacteriological parameters might be detected in critical concentration. The objectives of this microbiological assessment are analysis of the variation of bacteriological indicators in some sampling points of Cernavoda aquatic ecosystems area, and monitoring the manner of using the water by

  2. Bank filtered water quality characteristics in Okgog-Ri area of Youngsan-River, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Youl; Kim, Hyoung-Soo [Korea Water Resources Corp., Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-02-28

    Preliminary artificial recharge groundwater intake method using bank filtering had been conducted in Okgog-Ri of Youngsan-River to evaluate the possibility of substitution of surface water intake method in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics of bank filtered groundwater, we examined the hydrogeological properties of alluvium and water quality of stream and groundwater. It is observed that nitrate in stream water from synthetic fertilizer and poultry manure is almost consumed during bank filtering in this area. This implies that denitrification of organic carbon and the oxidation of pyrite present in the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater samples from bank filtering show high Mn concentration. This high Mn concentration may be resulted from decreasing redox potential due to denitrification and increasing mobility due to redox reaction of Mn-oxide. In the study area, there is a typical tendency that Al concentrations of water samples decrease according to increasing pH. This tendency is interpreted as forming of amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} precipitates by reducing the Al{sup 3+} solubilities. It is revealed that the bank filtered groundwater in the area is not edible because color, turbidity, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform and Mn of the groundwater exceed the guideline of drinking water. Even though the bank filtered groundwater without treatment does not satisfy the guideline of drinking water, the groundwater shows a good water quality compared with stream water. So, the water treatment method using bank filtered groundwater can be more economical and efficient than the treatment using direct intake of stream water in the aspect of water quality. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality of areas with persistent ground- water contamination near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Groveland-Collins area near Blackfoot, Idaho, has a history of either periodic or persistent localized groundwater contamination. Water users in the area report offensive smell, metallic taste, rust deposits, and bacteria in water supplies. During 1984 and 1985, data were collected to define regional and local geologic, hydrologic, and groundwater quality conditions, and to identify factors that may have affected local groundwater quality. Infiltration or leakage of irrigation water is the major source of groundwater recharge, and water levels may fluctuate 15 ft or more during the irrigation season. Groundwater movement is generally northwestward. Groundwater contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions and characteristically has more than 200 mg/L hardness. Groundwater near the Groveland-Collins area may be contaminated from one or more sources, including infiltration of sewage effluent, gasoline or liquid fertilizer spillage, or land application of food processing wastewater. Subsurface basalt ridges impede lateral movement of water in localized areas. Groundwater pools temporarily behind these ridges and anomalously high water levels result. Maximum concentrations or values of constituents that indicate contamination were 1,450 microsiemens/cm specific conductance, 630 mg/L bicarbonate (as HCO3), 11 mg/L nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen), 7.3 mg/L ammonia (as nitrogen), 5.9 mg/L organic nitrogen, 4.4 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, 7,000 micrograms/L dissolved iron, 5 ,100 microgram/L dissolved manganese, and 320 microgram/L dissolved zinc. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.9 mg/L in uncontaminated areas to 0 mg/L in areas where food processing wastewater is applied to the land surface. Stable-isotope may be useful in differentiating between contamination from potato-processing wastewater and whey in areas where both are applied to the land surface. Development of a ground-water model to evaluate effects of land applications

  4. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  5. [Water quality evaluation in rural areas of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Rodrigues, Luciano Dos Santos; Costa, Claudionor C; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Israel José; de Jesus, Eder Ferreira Moraes; Rolim, Renata G

    2006-09-01

    In addition to personal interviews, laboratory analyses were performed using 80 water samples from 45 rural areas that are crossed by the Agua Limpa and Santa Cruz streams close to the city of Lavras, southern Minas Gerais State. The results allowed comparing the quality of water used for agriculture and the identification of determinant factors. The Agua Limpa stream mostly crosses an area used primarily for housing and characterized by low schooling. Many houses are supplied by shallow water wells and have ordinary cesspits for human waste disposal. All springs are polluted. The Santa Cruz stream displays a different scenario. The land is used mostly for agricultural purposes. Most owners live in town, with widely varied levels of school, from none to university. The houses are supplied by surface water. Most of the springs are polluted. The perception by both home and land owners concerning quality of the drinking water is determined solely by the water's physical and organoleptic characteristics. Sanitary parameters are not taken into account. Moreover, there is no relationship between fecal contamination and the type of spring. Land use and anthropic activity are far more important than the type of spring for water quality.

  6. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  7. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Vitharana, U.W.A.; Wuytack, T.; Potters, G.; Samson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  8. Willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukert, K.; Telser, H.; Vaterlaus, S.; Mahler, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area. First, the starting point of the study and definitions of quality of supply and security of supply are noted. The methods used in the study are presented and macro-economic aspects are reviewed. The costs of black-outs are examined and the carrying out of surveys in the electricity market is discussed. The results of surveys made in households and commercial enterprises concerning the willingness to pay for security of supply and the costs incurred when supplies fail are presented and discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of references and an appendix containing the results of the various tests and surveys made.

  9. Quality control for the first large areas of triple-GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2018-02-01

    The CMS Collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple-GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the High-Luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R&D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100 m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  10. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  11. Quality control for the first large areas of triple-GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaneo D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The CMS Collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple-GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the High-Luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R&D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100 m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  12. Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health is at risk from physical and chemical contaminants in the drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. The data from the current study was evaluated for groundwater quality in the rural villages of Neyshabur County in Iran. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, water samples were collected from 30 randomly-selected water wells during 2013 and 2014. The samples were tested in situ to measure physical parameters of pH and electrical conductivity and chemical parameters of total dissolved solids, total hardness and levels of calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfates. The APHA method was applied to determine the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. Keywords: Ground water quality index, Rural area, Neyshabur, Iran

  13. Quality control for the first large areas of triple-GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068936; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M.S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A.H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S.K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple-GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the High-Luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R&D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100 m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  14. [Perception of professionals' quality of life in the Asturias a Health Care Area, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fernández, M; Iglesias Carbajo, A I; Franco Vidal, A

    2002-11-15

    To report on the perceived quality of life of professionals in the health services sector. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Directorate of Primary Care of Health Care Area VIII in Asturias, Spain. Two hundred thirty-seven professionals in the health care sector and other sectors. Internal mail was used to send all employees the CV-35 self-administered questionnaire, which measures perceived professional quality of life, understood as the balance between work demands and the capacity to cope with them. The instrument consists of 35 items that evaluate three dimensions: perception of demands, emotional support received from superiors, and intrinsic motivation. Each item was scored on a quantitative scale of 1 to 10. One hundred thirty-five completed questionnaires were received (59.5%). Mean professional quality of life was 5.35 (5.12-5.58); there were no significant differences between age groups, sexes or employment status. Mean score for perceived demands at the workplace was 6.03 (5.89-6.17), and mean score for emotional support received from superiors was 4.78 (4.63-4.97). This support was valued most highly by employees who held a position of responsibility. Mean score for intrinsic motivation was 7.45 (7.34-7.56). Employees in Health Care Area VIII in Asturias perceived their professional quality of life to be moderately good, perceived a moderate degree of support received, and had a high level of intrinsic motivation to cope with high demands at the workplace.

  15. Extraction and textural characterization of above-ground areas from aerial stereo pairs: a quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Dissard, O.; Jamet, O.; Maître, H.

    Above-ground analysis is a key point to the reconstruction of urban scenes, but it is a difficult task because of the diversity of the involved objects. We propose a new method to above-ground extraction from an aerial stereo pair, which does not require any assumption about object shape or nature. A Digital Surface Model is first produced by a stereoscopic matching stage preserving discontinuities, and then processed by a region-based Markovian classification algorithm. The produced above-ground areas are finally characterized as man-made or natural according to the grey level information. The quality of the results is assessed and discussed.

  16. [Professional quality of life in workers of the Toledo primary care health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarín Castro, A; Méndez García, T; Zuzuárregui Gironés, M S; Sánchez Serrano, S; Conejo Ocaña, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the professional quality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area and to analyse its components. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed on workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area with an online self-administered questionnaire. age, sex, health centre, professional group, seniority, management experience, collaboration in working groups, employment situation, and the PQL-35 professional quality of life questionnaire. A total of 430 completed questionnaires were received (45.3%), of which 68.4% were women. The mean age was 47.7±8.6 years old. Mean seniority was 21.5±9.7 years. PQL-35 results were: perception of management support 4.8±1.5; perception of workload 6.2±1.3; intrinsic motivation 7.9±1.1; job disconnection capacity 6.3±2.6; and professional quality of life 5.2±2.1. Gender differences were found in perception of management support (4.5±1.5 in males vs 4.9±1.5 in females; P=.031) and professional quality of life (4.9±2.0 vs 5.3±2.1; p=.044). Depending on the professional group, differences were found in the perception of workload (6.4±1.1 in physicians, 6.3±1.3 in nurses, 5.9±1.6 in non-sanitary professionals, and 5.3±1.2 in support units professionals; Pquality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area is similar to that of other Spanish Health Areas, even in a time of economic crisis. The intrinsic motivation of the professionals is very high, in contrast with their high perception of workload and their low perception of management support. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  18. The air quality in inhabited areas located near from a petroleum perforation and extraction company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, J.; Diaz, M.; Fuentes, E.; Teutelo, R.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of the air is studied in inhabited areas located near from a petroleum perforation and extraction company. Three halfway points of the areas of more racking and of treatment of product were selected and it was determined the day variation of the levels of concentration of SO2 and SH2 with a frequency of sampling of every 6 hours. By means of the statistical analysis it concludes that the ambient air in the valued points receives a severe contamination with directions of East component wind and variable speed, and the potential sources of emissions that influence on each point settle down. It is recommended to improve the hermetic in the storage and pumping of crude oil systems in the central battery of the company to minimize the fugitive emissions of SH2

  19. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  20. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  1. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  2. Water Quality Assessment for Deep-water Channel area of Guangzhou Port based on the Comprehensive Water Quality Identification Index Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The comprehensive water quality identification index method is able to assess the general water quality situation comprehensively and represent the water quality classification; water environment functional zone achieves pollution level and standard objectively and systematically. This paper selects 3 representative zones along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port and applies comprehensive water quality identification index method to calculate sea water quality monitoring data for different selected zones from year 2006 to 2014, in order to investigate the temporal variation of water quality along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port. The comprehensive water quality level from north to south presents an increased trend, and the water quality of the three zones in 2014 is much better than in 2006. This paper puts forward environmental protection measurements and suggestions for Pearl River Estuary, provides data support and theoretical basis for studied sea area pollution prevention and control.

  3. Air quality and urban form in U.S. urban areas: evidence from regulatory monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2011-08-15

    The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.

  4. Flared gases and other pollutants associated with air quality in industrial areas of Nigeria: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Avwiri, Greg O

    2005-10-01

    Nigeria, like any other developing nation, is faced with the twin problem of development without destruction. Industrialization, though an important component of development, has had a large share in the despoilation of air quality in the country by the release of high amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere. Petroleum hydrocarbons from refineries, flared gases, dusts, and fumes of metal-smelting and cement works, odorous gases of chemical and allied industries, carbon monoxide and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen of internal combustion engines, the charred particulates and sulfur dioxide emissions of the steel industries etc., all constitute pollutants or co-pollutants of the Nigerian atmosphere. This review article gives an insight into the phenomenal concentrations of some of these pollutants in the Nigerian atmosphere, which point to their unsafe levels and concomitant health risks. It is against this background that there should be continuous but sound monitoring exercise of the Nigerian environment, devoid of the peculiar mix of politics and science, in order to properly audit the quality of air, especially in areas of heavy industrial pollution. Such checks and balances would provide empirical data to assess the various trade-offs of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas of the country such as the Niger Delta region where oil and gas are produced. There should also be enforcement, thereof, of all existing and/or revised standards or regulations such as the compliance limits of the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) or the erstwhile Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA).

  5. STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF EDUCATION QUALITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREA: CASE OF PRIVATE CZECH UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of education, lessons, subjects and teachers perceived by students is currently often discussed topic regarding strategic management of universities. Assessment of higher education learning outcomes represents internalization of a higher education competition. The aim of the article is to evaluate perception of education quality of lectures, subjects and teachers by university students in the area of human resource management in private Czech university and to identify main approaches to academic staff. The data were collected by quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection (n=218. Students state that subjects, lessons and teachers in the area of human resource management lessons mostly satisfied their expectations (average value between 1.09 and 1.97. The students emphasised that the staff creates positive atmosphere and gives the opportunity to express an opinion which is very important for students at the university. Research outcomes show there is a dependency between the effort of teacher, student understanding and teachers’s willingness to give students an opportunity to express an opinion. The paper is extension of conference paper presented on ERIE conference 2016.

  6. Anew applied approach for dynamic air quality simulation in industrial and nuclear polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Air pollution transport and diffusion and diffusion models are the only tools for inferring a quantitative deterministic relation between pollutant emissions and ambient air quality. This study deals with the simulation of pollutants transport and diffusion at shobra El-Khemia, where this site is considered the most public and polluted area in greater cairo city. The results of such a model matches to a great extent with the measured ones because it takes into consideration dry and wet deposition and first-order reaction chemistry. Specified time period was chosen to simulate the pollutant of sulphur dioxide over the studied area. The meteorological parameters were measured to calculate the hourly stability classes and height of mixing layer. Also, the concentration of sulphur dioxide was continuously measured at the faculty of agriculture to compare between its values and the estimated results. Yen's factory was taken to be the source of pollutant, thus, the emission rate and concentration of sulphur dioxide were measured at the top of their stacks. The analysis of estimated results provided that, at neutral condition, there was only one maximum concentration while at unstable conditions, there were more than one maximum concentration. The maximum estimated average hourly concentration and the average daily measuring concentration at shoubra Elkheima were within the air quality limit of egyptian law no. 4 (1994). The measured values are greater than the estimated ones by 15 to 30 % . This could be attributed to the effect of transportation, which was neglected during the application of model

  7. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  8. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  9. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  10. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of agrarian activities and also by holistically promoting local food in a direct connection to local gastronomy, rural heritage and tradition, with positive effects on the endogenous development in rural areas. The aim of the paper was to assess the role of agritourism in raising the socio-economic development of rural space by the diffusion of certified quality food using a quantitative approach and to assess if agritourist and certified quality food were tools able to implement the living conditions in the countryside. The findings have disclosed that tourists from abroad have increased the level of farmer income giving value towards high quality food and farm holidays farms. Instead, the impact of Italian agritourists has been relatively poor because of the economic crisis.

  11. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  12. Air quality high resolution simulations of Italian urban areas with WRF-CHIMERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The new European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC) encourages the use of modeling techniques to support the observations in the assessment and forecasting of air quality. The modelling system based on the combination of the WRF meteorological model and the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to perform simulations at high resolution over the main Italian cities (e.g. Milan, Rome). Three domains covering Europe, Italy and the urban areas are nested with a decreasing grid size up to 1 km. Numerical results are produced for a winter month and a summer month of the year 2010 and are validated using ground-based observations (e.g. from the European air quality database AirBase). A sensitivity study is performed using different physics options, domain resolution and grid ratio; different urban parameterization schemes are tested using also characteristic morphology parameters for the cities considered. A spatial reallocation of anthropogenic emissions derived from international (e.g. EMEP, TNO, HTAP) and national (e.g. CTN-ACE) emissions inventories and based on the land cover datasets (Global Land Cover Facility and GlobCover) and the OpenStreetMap tool is also included. Preliminary results indicate that the introduction of the spatial redistribution at high-resolution allows a more realistic reproduction of the distribution of the emission flows and thus the concentrations of the pollutants, with significant advantages especially for the urban environments.

  13. Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Johanna; Cabeza, Mar

    2017-07-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Assessing and monitoring soil quality at agricultural waste disposal areas-Soil Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Kavvadias, Victor; Sarris, Apostolos; Lolos, Polykarpos; Liakopoulou, Nektaria; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris

    2014-05-01

    The necessity of elaborating indicators is one of the priorities identified by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The establishment of an indicator monitoring system for environmental purposes is dependent on the geographical scale. Some indicators such as rain seasonality or drainage density are useful over large areas, but others such as soil depth, vegetation cover type, and land ownership are only applicable locally. In order to practically enhance the sustainability of land management, research on using indicators for assessing land degradation risk must initially focus at local level because management decisions by individual land users are taken at this level. Soils that accept wastes disposal, apart from progressive degradation, may cause serious problems to the surrounding environment (humans, animals, plants, water systems, etc.), and thus, soil quality should be necessarily monitored. Therefore, quality indicators, representative of the specific waste type, should be established and monitored periodically. Since waste composition is dependent on their origin, specific indicators for each waste type should be established. Considering agricultural wastes, such a specification, however, could be difficult, since almost all agricultural wastes are characterized by increased concentrations of the same elements, namely, phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, etc.; contain large amounts of organic matter; and have very high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and electrical conductivity. Two LIFE projects, namely AgroStrat and PROSODOL are focused on the identification of soil indicators for the assessment of soil quality at areas where pistachio wastes and olive mill wastes are disposed, respectively. Many soil samples were collected periodically for 2 years during PROSODOL and one year during AgroStrat (this project is in progress) from waste disposal areas and analyzed for 23 parameters

  15. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  16. Toronto area ozone: Long-term measurements and modeled sources of poor air quality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, C. H.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B. A.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Cooke, M. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.; Fogal, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments each has over a decade of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements in southern Ontario. We present the Toronto area FTIR time series from 2002 to 2013 of two tropospheric trace gases—ozone and carbon monoxide—along with surface in situ measurements taken by government monitoring programs. We interpret their variability with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and determine the atmospheric conditions that cause pollution events in the time series. Our analysis includes a regionally tagged O3 model of the 2004-2007 time period, which quantifies the geographical contributions to Toronto area O3. The important emission types for 15 pollution events are then determined with a high-resolution adjoint model. Toronto O3, during pollution events, is most sensitive to southern Ontario and U.S. fossil fuel NOx emissions and natural isoprene emissions. The sources of Toronto pollution events are found to be highly variable, and this is demonstrated in four case studies representing local, short-, middle-, and long-range transport scenarios. This suggests that continental-scale emission reductions could improve air quality in the Toronto region. We also find that abnormally high temperatures and high-pressure systems are common to all pollution events studied, suggesting that climate change may impact Toronto O3. Finally, we quantitatively compare the sensitivity of the surface and column measurements to anthropogenic NOx emissions and show that they are remarkably similar. This work thus demonstrates the usefulness of FTIR measurements in an urban area to assess air quality.

  17. Ambient Air Quality Assessment of Al-Mansoriah Residential Area in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Al-Salem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3 , non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, methane (CH4 , nitrogen oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 , carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S and sulfur dioxide (SO2 of a Kuwaiti residential area, Al-Mansoriah, were analyzed to evaluate and determine: (a the exceedances of air quality from permissible limits set by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA, (b the diurnal patterns of air pollutants, (c the predominant sources of airborne pollutants in the surrounding area, and (d the ''weekend effect'' on ozone levels. The dataset covered the period of five consecutive years, from January 2000 to December 2004. High levels of ozone were witnessed; recording a number of exceedances. Inhabitants of Al-Mansoriah were exposed, during the period of study, to acute and chronic levels of SO2 . Concerning NMHC, the permissible limit (0.24 ppm- rolling average between 6-9 am, was violated in each of the monitoring years. NO diurnal pattern showed two distinct strong peaks during the months from October to March, in which the low solar radiation does not cause intense photochemical reactions, which lead to NO destruction. A clear H2 S source (considered as a primary one was witnessed from Kuwait city (Sharq district. The backed up sewage lines and maintenance work coinciding with study period clearly affected Al- Mansoriah. A clear "weekend effect", in terms of difference in levels occurring during midweek and weekends, was ascertained. The analysis suggests that Al-Mansoriah residential area should be considered a NOx sensitive region of Kuwait.

  18. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  19. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Quality of Public Use Management in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Benayas, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the goal of nature preservation has faced, almost worldwide, an increase in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing protected areas resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. The rapidly increasing numbers of visitors have prompted administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it the best way? This research focuses on developing and applying a new instrument for evaluating the quality of visitor management in parks. Different areas are analyzed with this instrument (78 semi-quantitative indicators): planning and management capacity (planning, funding, human resources), monitoring, reception, information, interpretation, environmental education, training, participation and volunteer's programs. Thus, we attempt to gain a general impression of the development of the existing management model, detecting strengths and weaknesses. Although Spain's National Parks constituted the specific context within which to develop the evaluation instrument, the design thereof is intended to provide a valid, robust and flexible method for application to any system, network or set of protected areas in other countries. This paper presents the instrument developed, some results obtained following its application to Spanish National parks, along with a discussion on the limits and validity thereof.

  20. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  1. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  2. Correlation Between Dermatology Life Quality Index and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in Patients with Psoriasis Treated with Ustekinumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Egeberg, Alexander; Loft, Nikolai Dyrberg

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of biological treatment efficacy for psoriasis is based on clinical evaluation and patient's quality of life. However, long-term correlation between Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in real life has not been studied in patients treated...

  3. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  4. Groundwater quality in a mining activity area (The Bierzo Basin-Leon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losa, A. de la; Moreno, L.; Nunez, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Bierzo Basin presents large coal mining structures without restore where the air exposition of metallic sulphurs could become a source of heavy metal pollution and acification of waters. This paper presents the results of a research focused on groundwater quality affected by the mining activity. A sampling campaign of both ground and surface waters was carried out. Altogether, 37 sampling points has been selected including 26 springs, 7 shallow wells for agricultural use and 4 river water samples, all of them directly or indirectly connected to groundwater. The interpretation of results is based on the multivariate analysis application. Sulphate is the dominant anion in both water types, and it is related, in most cases, to oxidation of sulphurs, widely represented in the study area. However, the main conclusion is that surface water and groundwater samples have no high abnormal contents of heavy metals due to the induced alteration by mining activity. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  6. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  7. THE CONSISTENCY AND THE QUALITY OF TOURISM SERVICES IN GUESTHOUSES FROM VAMA AND POJORITA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that tourists who visit Bucovina relate more and more to quality standards promoted by the EU, forces the guesthouses administrators to point a big part of their attention towards creating a memorable holiday atmosphere. Since we intend, periodically, to check the balance of power between visitors' expectations and what the area can offer in terms of tourism, the accommodations from Vama and Pojorîta – Bucovina’s standard in hospitality - were subjected to a careful qualitative analysis, in the period April-May 2014. Although we could highlight a number of positive aspects on the local hospitality, cleanliness and the traditional aspects present in the guesthouses, some improvements regarding mainly the qualifications and fidelity of staff, touristic signalling and accessibility, leisure diversification, feedback and inducting a home sentiment to tourists are, however, required.

  8. Water quality management of contaminated areas and its effects on doses from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Sansone, U.; Zhelesnyak, M.; Bugai, D.

    1996-01-01

    A critical analysis of remedial actions performed in the Chernobyl close zone are presented in term of effectiveness to dose reduction and money expenditure. The Chernobyl experience proved the need to consolidate the international water protection capacity on the basis of scientific knowledge which should exclude inefficient use of national resource. Strategical and technological interventions on water quality management need to be revised on the base of the experience gained after the 1986 accident. The lesson learned from the Chernobyl experience has to be used as a key element in the adoption of a strategy of water bodies management. Remedial actions have to be based with an integrated approach considering: dose reduction, secondary environmental effects of countermeasures, synergisms of radionuclides and countermeasure applications with other toxicants, social and economical factors of the contaminated areas

  9. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  10. Evaluating the Quality of Protected Areas for Species: A Case Study in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Species’ distributions refl ect the quality of landscape conditions, and represent an important component of protected area management. However, distributions are diffi cult to estimate, and consequently, often determined through a combination of limited fi eld data and expert opinion, which may lead to biases. We demonstrate the use of occupancy models to map distributions and estimate landscape quality. We used occupancy models for two species, the red fox and toad-headed agama, to map their distributions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve located in southeastern Mongolia. We then used occupancy probability as a measure of quality and tested whether differences existed in quality between three areas: 1 inside the reserve, 2 inside the reserve’s core protected area, and 3 outside the reserve, using 30 sample sites in each. Occupancy probability varied from 0.084 to 0.997 for red foxes and 0.022 to 0.949 for agamas in maps. Landscape quality was highest in the core area and lowest outside the reserve for red foxes, and highest outside the reserve and lowest in the core area for agamas. Our results provide visual depictions of distributions across the Ikh Nart landscape and a means of assessing the quality of the Ikh Nart protected area that may inform management activities.

  11. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  12. Lacking quality in research: Is behavioral neuroscience affected more than other areas of biomedical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Anton; Steckler, Thomas

    2018-04-15

    There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields. Within neuroscience, behavioral studies are the most blamed for being poorly designed, underpowered and mis-reported and there are indeed several factors that may be rather unique for behavioral research, such as a multitude of environmental conditions that are difficult to control and that are often not reported, ethical concerns about in vivo research and the pressure to reduce animal numbers, contributing to under-powered studies, and the complexity of study design and analysis, creating too much room for post hoc data massaging and selective reporting. Also, the blood-brain barrier as a frequently neglected complicating factor has to be considered in CNS research. The importance of these factors is increasingly recognized and urgent efforts are needed to demonstrate that behavioral methods of preclinical neuroscience research deliver results that can be as robust as with the non-behavioral methods Until this goal is achieved, behavioral neuroscience and neuroscience in general may be losing young talent, CNS drug discovery may lack the needed investment and this field may indeed be amongst the most affected by the current preclinical data quality crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Aquatic Vegetation on Water Quality in the Everglades Agricultural Area Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S. M.; Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Josan, M. S.; Daroub, S. H.

    2011-12-01

    The canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area contain an abundance of floating aquatic vegetation (FAV) and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). These FAV flourish in waters with high phosphorus (P) concentrations and prevent the co-precipitation of P with the limestone bedrock (CaCO3). To test the effects of FAV and SAV and the presence of sediments on water quality in the canals, a lysimeter study was set up and stocked with FAV (water lettuce) and SAV (filamentous algae). There were four treatments with four replicates Treatment one contained limerock, sediment from the canals, and FAV. Treatment two contained limerock, sediment, and SAV. Treatment three contained limerock and FAV, while treatment four had limerock and SAV. After 7 days, the buckets were drained and replaced the water with new, high P canal water. Water samples were taken at 0, 0.25, 1, 3, and 7 days after each weekly water exchange. To test water quality soluble reactive P, total P, total dissolved P, Ca, and total organic carbon were analyzed. The impact of FAV and SAV and canal sediments on water quality will be discussed. We hypothesize water lettuce treatments will initially result in a reduction in P-concentration in all species, but will only serve as a short-term sink because of their high turn-over rate and production of labile high-P sediment (floc). In addition, we hypothesize the treatments with no sediment will have more P reduction because of the availability for P to co-precipitate with CaCO3.

  14. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  16. Indoor air quality in the Greater Beirut area: a characterization and modeling assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine; Oulabi, Mawiya

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of IAQ at various environments selected from different geographic categories from the Greater Beirut area (GBA) in Lebanon. For this purpose, background information about indoor air quality was reviewed, existing conditions were characterized, an air-sampling program was implemented and mathematical modeling was conducted. Twenty-eight indoor buildings were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments (commercial and residential...). Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected and analyzed using carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (TSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) as indicators of indoor air pollution (IAP).Samples were further analyzed using the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) for the presence of major priority metals including iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and bromine (Br). Indoor and outdoor measured levels were compared to the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and health-based National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS), respectively. For the priority metals, on the other hand, indoor measured values were compared to occupational standards recommended by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  17. Calibrating an optical scanner for quality assurance of large area radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Hildén, T.; Berdova, M.; Lauhakangas, R.; Heino, J.; Tuominen, E.; Franssila, S.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2014-11-01

    A gas electron multiplier (GEM) is a particle detector used in high-energy physics. Its main component is a thin copper-polymer-copper sandwich that carries Ø =70  ±  5 µm holes. Quality assurance (QA) is needed to guarantee both long operating life and reading fidelity of the GEM. Absence of layer defects and conformity of the holes to specifications is important. Both hole size and shape influence the detector’s gas multiplication factor and hence affect the collected data. For the scanner the required lateral measurement tolerance is ± 5 µm. We calibrated a high aspect ratio optical scanning system (OSS) to allow ensuring the quality of large GEM foils. For the calibration we microfabricated transfer standards, which were imaged with the OSS and which were compared to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The calibration fulfilled the ISO/IEC 17025 and UKAS M3003 requirements: the calibration factor was 1.01  ±  0.01, determined at 95% confidence level across a 950  ×  950 mm2 area. The proposed large-scale scanning technique can potentially be valuable in other microfabricated products too.

  18. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  19. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  20. The physical and aesthetic quality of ground water in rural areas of Lahore district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salik, M.; Mahmood, K.; Sadiq, M.

    2009-01-01

    Physical and aesthetic parameters of drinking water include total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity (EC), taste, odour, colour and turbidity, Although these parameters are not considered to be harmful for health, but they do effect the look and taste of the water, and may cause it to be undrinkable by some people. Addressing these water quality problems is therefore important and all have relatively simple solutions. A study was conducted in twenty villages of Lahore district to, assess the physical and aesthetic quality of ground water. It was observed that in rural area ground water is used for domestic and drinking purpose. Therefore, tube wells water samples were twenty villages were collected, Bore depths .ranged from 60 to 380 feet. Three water samples were collected from each of twenty villages and were analyzed for total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity (EC), taste, odour, colour and turbidity, Analysis showed that regarding colour, odour and taste all, water samples were fit. Considering World Health Organization permissible limit for turbidity (5 Nephlometric Turbidity Unit) all the water samples were fit. Regarding total dissolved solids, 33.3 % water samples were unfit while, 64.7 % were fit considering the WHO criteria (1000 mill). Regarding pH. 7.5 % of water samples were unfit for drinking and only 25 % water samples fall within safe limit. Considering all the parameters, 10 samples (16.6 %) were fit and remaining 50 samples were unfit out of total 60 water samples. (author)

  1. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  2. Light spectrum on the quality of fruits of physalis species in subtropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of colored-shade nets on the physicochemical characteristics of physalis in subtropical area. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with a 4 × 5 factorial, being four species of physalis (Physalis peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa and four net colors (white, blue, red and black, besides the control under full sun. Titratable acidity (TA, pH, vitamin C, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. It was observed that P. peruviana and P. pubescens have more acid fruits, and P. minima shows vitamin C content higher than the other species. In general, fruits of P. peruviana and P. pubescens have better quality when grown in white, blue or black shade net; fruits of P. minima are physicochemically superior when produced under full sun or under white or blue shade net; finally, fruits of P. ixocarpa have low quality when produced under black net.

  3. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  4. Effects of Cable Sway, Electrode Surface Area, and Electrode Mass on Electroencephalography Signal Quality during Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Evangelia-Regkina; Nordin, Andrew D; Hairston, W David; Ferris, Daniel P

    2018-04-03

    More neuroscience researchers are using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure electrocortical dynamics during human locomotion and other types of movement. Motion artifacts corrupt the EEG and mask underlying neural signals of interest. The cause of motion artifacts in EEG is often attributed to electrode motion relative to the skin, but few studies have examined EEG signals under head motion. In the current study, we tested how motion artifacts are affected by the overall mass and surface area of commercially available electrodes, as well as how cable sway contributes to motion artifacts. To provide a ground-truth signal, we used a gelatin head phantom with embedded antennas broadcasting electrical signals, and recorded EEG with a commercially available electrode system. A robotic platform moved the phantom head through sinusoidal displacements at different frequencies (0-2 Hz). Results showed that a larger electrode surface area can have a small but significant effect on improving EEG signal quality during motion and that cable sway is a major contributor to motion artifacts. These results have implications in the development of future hardware for mobile brain imaging with EEG.

  5. Impact of agricultural and industrial activities on ground water quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, M.A.; Latif, Z.; Butt, S.; Afzal, M.; Ali, M.; Afzal, M.; Khan, I.H.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of agricultural and industrial activities on groundwater quality. Kasur area was selected to study the influence of chemical fertilizers and tannery effluents on groundwater with the help of /sup 15/N of water nitrates. Bremner and keeney methods with certain modifications ware adopted for extraction of nitrate nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions. Ammonium concentrates were converted to nitrogen gas using potassium hypo bromide solution and analyzed on GD-150 mass spectrometer. /sup 15/N of nitrates from groundwater (n=14), pond water and Kisan urea were determined. There is a pronounced difference in the /sup 15/N values of nitrates from various sources. /sup 15/N of pond water (mixture of tannery effluents, sewerage and rainwater) was found to be +31.99% and +21.26% for the first and the second samplings respectively. /sup 15/N of Kisan urea sample was determined to be - 1.00%. The nitrate concentration of groundwater ranged from 1-171 ppm and / sup 15/N was found to be -0.40 to WHO permissible limits (45 ppm). Temporal variation was also observed but the values were still above the WHO limits. It is concluded that the major source of nitrates pollution in the Kasur area is due to chemical fertilizers and +37.10%. Out of 14 drinking water samples six have nitrate contents above biological wastes but not due to the tannery effluents. (author)

  6. Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area: The Emergence of a German Market for Quality Assurance Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Velarde, Kathia E.

    2008-01-01

    Most European countries have introduced systematic quality assurance as part of an overall governance reform aimed at enhancing universities' autonomy. Researchers and economic entrepreneurs tend, however, to underestimate the political dimension of accreditation and evaluation when they consider the contribution of quality assurance to the…

  7. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate AGENCY... designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada because the designations are no longer necessary. These designations relate to the attainment or unclassifiable areas for total suspended...

  8. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  9. Quality of Life Assessment Based on Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Vegetation Area Derived from Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life in urban areas is a function of many parameters among which, one highly important is the number and quality of green areas for people and wildlife to thrive. The quality of life is also a political concept often used to describe citizen satisfaction within different residential locations. Only in the last decades green areas have suffered a progressive decrease in quality, pointing out the ecological urban risk with a negative impact on the standard of living and population health status. This paper presents the evolution of green areas in the cities of South-Eastern Romania within the last 20 years and sets forth the current state of quality of life from the perspective of vegetation reference. By using state-of-the-art processing tools applied on high-resolution satellite images, we have derived knowledge about the spatial and temporal expansion of urbanized regions. Our semi-automatic technologies for analysis of remote sensing data such as Landsat 7 ETM+, correlated with statistical information inferred from urban charts, demonstrate a negative trend in the distribution of green areas within the analyzed cities, with long-term implications on multiple areas in our lives.

  10. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-10-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Large area high quality silicon detectors for scientific research and radioactivity monitoring in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, D.; Perevertailo, V.; Frolov, O.; Kononenko, Yu.; Pugatch, V.; Rozenfeld, A.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Investigation of detector and special test structures made on detector wafers was carried out. Si wafer with a diameter of 76 mm, n-type, specific resistance 2-6 kΩ·cm, made of Si produced at a titanium-magnesium factory in Zaporozh'e (Ukraine) were used. C-V curves were measured on p + -n-junctions of various areas (0.1 cm 2 to 20 cm 2 ) and various configuration. In coordinated C 3 (dC/dV) -1 vs V initial parts of the curves are horizontal lines, that indicates a uniform dopant concentration into the depth of a sample, while starting with some voltage a rise is observed associated with full depletion of the sample. However this rise is more smooth then one described by a simple model. The smooth rise is due to non-uniformity of the depletion depth over the p + -n-junction area caused by non-uniform distribution of dopant concentration over the wafer surface. As a results, full depletion doesn't occur simultaneously in all regions of the junction and is stretched along the voltage scale. A theory is developed to define a distribution of the sample areas over full depletion voltage V fd or over dopant concentration N and, given a fixed voltage, to define the distribution of non-depleted junction ares over a thickness of non-depleted area. Results show possibility of non uniform N and, correspondingly, V fd by up to 2 times with big junction sizes. A high level of non-uniformity was observed not only on Si made in Zaporozh'e, but also on Wacker Si. This method of measurements and analysis may be helpful both in working with detectors and detector Si quality control. Measurements of current and capacitance in a gate-controlled junction (a MOS structure partially overlapped with a p + -n-junction) allowed division of surface into the depth of the crystal. Some peculiarities are observed in current curves compared to previous reports associated with low dopant concentration in our experiments. Local defect areas near the p-n-junction encouraging avalanche

  12. Water quality and hydrology in the Fort Belvoir area, Virginia, 1954-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an investigation of water quality and hydrology in the Fort Belvoir, Va., area for the period August 1954 to September 1955. It summarizes and evaluates information about the water resources of this area that are pertinent to the choice of location and operation of an Army nuclear power reactor. The quantity, quality, nature, and use of the local water that might be affected by the location and operation of a reactor in the area were subjects of investigation. Variations in the quality of the water caused by variation in streamflow, tidal effects, and pollution were important facets of the investigation. During extended periods of low streamflow in the Potomac River (usually in the late summer months), salty water moves upstream from Chesapeake Bay and increases the dissolved solids content of the surface waters adjacent to Fort Belvoir. When the streamflow is low the concentration of dissolved solids in the water near the river bottom exceeds that near the surface. The waters in Gunston Cove usually contain more dissolved oxygen than those in the Potomac River. During the summer, the content of dissolved oxygen in the cove waters frequently exceeds 100 percent of saturation. Surface floats that were released on a flood tide in Gunston Cove moved toward the inner portion of the cove in the same direction as the wind and the tide. The maximum average velocity of these floats was 0.65 feet per second. On an ebb tide, many surface floats that were released in Gunston Cove moved toward the inner portion of the cove in the direction of the wind, in opposition to the direction of the tidal movement. Floats released near the mouth of the cove on the same tide, moved with the tide out of the cove through a narrow pass at the end of a submerged sandbar extending from the Fort Belvoir shoreline. The maximum average velocity of the floats in the pass on this ebb tide was 0.85 feet per second. Measurements of subsurface flow direction

  13. Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Areas: Potential Co-Benefits of Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Forkel, R.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Even though much progress has been achieved through dedicated approaches to improving air quality in many European cities, there are various threats which still remain unchanged. According to the World Health Organization, outdoor air pollution was linked to 3.7 million deaths in year 2012. As climate changes, the frequency of days with harmful levels of air pollutants may significantly increase causing exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of alternative emission strategies on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem; Grell et al., 2005) to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The investigation area included the city of Munich (1.5 million inhabitants). The model performance has been evaluated against available air quality observations from the monitoring database "AirBase". The chemical species including O3, NO, NO2 and PM10 simulated by WRF/Chem compare favorably with the observations. The model performs especially well in resolving the observed O3 concentrations. In the ongoing study, different emission reduction scenarios are compared to a baseline 2009 scenario based on Germany's National Emissions Inventory. To investigate health effects associated with air pollution concentrations a local-scale health impact assessment (HIA) will be conducted. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) link the change in mortality rates to the change in concentrations of air pollutants. CRFs are applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence estimate numbers of attributable deaths and associated

  14. Soil quality in the Lomellina area using in vitro models and ecotoxicological assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Colombo, Andrea [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Romeo, Margherita [Department of Molecular Biochemistry and Pharmacology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Cambria, Felice; Teoldi, Federico; Lodi, Marco [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Diomede, Luisa [Department of Molecular Biochemistry and Pharmacology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS—Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Soil quality is traditionally evaluated by chemical characterization to determine levels of pollutants. Biological tools are now employed for soil monitoring since they can take account of the global biological effects induced by all xenobiotics. A combined monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, human-related in vitro models and ecotoxicological assay was applied in the Lomellina, a semirural area of northern Italy. Chemical characterization indicated overall good quality of the soils, with low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as heavy metals, PAHs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs. HepG2 cells were used as a model for the human liver and BALB/c 3T3 cells to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matter (EOM) and the MTS assay, DNA release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity only at doses of 500 and 1000 mg soil equivalents/ml. Potential issues for human health can be hypothesized after ingestion of soil samples from some sites. No statistically significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs, indicating that the levels of the soil-extracted organic pollutants were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. An acute phytotoxicity test and studies on Caenorhabditis elegans were used as ecotoxicological assays for plants and small invertebrates. No significant alerts for ecotoxicity were found. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells detected differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs, indicating that this cell line could be appropriate to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil. Additional information on the carcinogenic potential of mixtures was provided by the cell transformation assay, strengthening the combined approach. - Highlights: • A combined approach for evaluation of soil quality is

  15. Inkjet printed large-area flexible circuits: a simple methodology for optimizing the printing quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Wu, Youwei; Shen, Xiaoqin; Lai, Wenyong; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a simple methodology was developed to enhance the patterning resolution of inkjet printing, involving process optimization as well as substrate modification and treatment. The line width of the inkjet-printed silver lines was successfully reduced to 1/3 of the original value using this methodology. Large-area flexible circuits with delicate patterns and good morphology were thus fabricated. The resultant flexible circuits showed excellent electrical conductivity as low as 4.5 Ω/□ and strong tolerance to mechanical bending. The simple methodology is also applicable to substrates with various wettability, which suggests a general strategy to enhance the printing quality of inkjet printing for manufacturing high-performance large-area flexible electronics. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB648300, 2017YFB0404501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21422402, 21674050), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20140060, BK20130037, BK20140865, BM2012010), the Program for Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professors (No. RK030STP15001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0872), the NUPT "1311 Project" and Scientific Foundation (Nos. NY213119, NY213169), the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), the Leading Talent of Technological Innovation of National Ten-Thousands Talents Program of China, the Excellent Scientific and Technological Innovative Teams of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (No. TJ217038), the Program for Graduate Students Research and Innovation of Jiangsu Province (No. KYZZ16-0253), and the 333 Project of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BRA2017402, BRA2015374).

  16. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  17. Quality of life among residents in a sub-urban area. Case study: Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Oliver Ling Hoon; Mahbot, Norseha Mohd; Asma Aqmalina Hadzaman, Nur; Azyyati Marzukhi, Marlyana; Abdullah, Jamalunlaili

    2018-02-01

    Along with the sub-urbanisation, people working in urban can stay in the sub-urban areas. Sub-urban housing areas provide cheaper and larger houses and more greenery environment. However, the residents are required to travel in longer distance. The effect on Quality of Life (QOL) due to the migration to sub-urban areas may not be positive even with the better environmental quality and lower direct housing cost. Puncak Alam, a new sub-urban area in Selangor, Malaysia had been chosen as the study area to examine the change of QOL among the residents after they moved into the study area. Through a questionnaire survey, the satisfaction of residents on the various aspects/indicators of QOL were examined. Through the statistical analysis, it is found that slightly more than half of the respondents felt that the QOL was dropped after they were moved to the study area. The sub-urban area did provide better quality for their residents. It had increased respondents’ satisfaction on most of the indicators in the aspects of economic, social and physical. However, due to the decreasing of satisfaction in job opportunities, family life, social activities, safety, and transportation system, most of the respondents were felt that their QOL were dropped.

  18. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  19. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S; Higgins, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the prospect of collecting human vital signs, early detection of abnormal medical conditions, real-time healthcare data transmission and remote telemedicine support. However, due to the technical constraints of sensor batteries, the supply of power is a major bottleneck for healthcare system design. Moreover, medium access control (MAC) needs to support reliable transmission links that allow sensors to transmit data safely and stably. In this Letter, the authors provide a flexible quality of service model for ad hoc networks that can support fast data transmission, adaptive schedule MAC control, and energy efficient ubiquitous WBASN networks. Results show that the proposed multi-hop communication ad hoc network model can balance information packet collisions and power consumption. Additionally, wireless communications link in WBASNs can effectively overcome multi-user interference and offer high transmission data rates for healthcare systems.

  20. Adapting enzyme-based microbial water quality analysis to remote areas in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Adam; Benami, Maya; Weisbrod, Noam

    2013-09-17

    Enzyme-substrate microbial water tests, originally developed for efficiency gains in laboratory settings, are potentially useful for on-site analysis in remote settings. This is especially relevant in developing countries where water quality is a pressing concern and qualified laboratories are rare. We investigated one such method, Colisure, first for sensitivity to incubation temperatures in order to explore alternative incubation techniques appropriate for remote areas, and then in a remote community of Zambia for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking-water samples. We sampled and analyzed 352 water samples from source, transport containers and point-of-use from 164 random households. Both internal validity (96-100%) and laboratory trials (zero false negatives or positives at incubation between 30 and 40 °C) established reliability under field conditions. We therefore recommend the use of this and other enzyme-based methods for remote applications. We also found that most water samples from wells accessing groundwater were free of E. coli whereas most samples from surface sources were fecally contaminated. We further found very low awareness among the population of the high levels of recontamination in household storage containers, suggesting the need for monitoring and treatment beyond the water source itself.

  1. Software Quality Assurance Plan for GoldSim Models Supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-01-01

    This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) applies to the development and maintenance of GoldSim models supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). Two PA models have been approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as of November 2006 for the PA maintenance work undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). NNSA/NSO asked NSTec to assume the custodianship of the models for future development and maintenance. The models were initially developed by Neptune and Company (N and C)

  2. Software Quality Assurance Plan for GoldSim Models Supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites Performance Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-01-03

    This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) applies to the development and maintenance of GoldSim models supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). Two PA models have been approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as of November 2006 for the PA maintenance work undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). NNSA/NSO asked NSTec to assume the custodianship of the models for future development and maintenance. The models were initially developed by Neptune and Company (N&C).

  3. 76 FR 53853 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Action Network (LEAN) v. EPA, No. 02-60991). The issues raised concerned EPA's decision to approve... Ambient Air Quality Standard,'' Memorandum from John S. Seitz, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning...

  4. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  5. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  6. Development of water quality objectives and management systems for the lower Athabasca River in the oil sands area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noton, L.; McEachern, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addressed environmental concerns related to the increased oil sands activity along the lower Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta. The concerns include potential effects on water quality of the river even though wastewaters do not currently reach the Athabasca River, nor do they have any significant effects. However, as the industry expands, there is concern that releases of wastewater may increase significantly. A multi-stakeholder group called the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) has addressed some of these environmental management issues in the Athabasca area by establishing a water quality task group that examines water quality protection and management activities. The task group intends to develop and recommend water quality objectives and management options on the lower Athabasca River. Their 4 part process includes: (1) defining the problem, (2) setting goals, (3) measuring performance, and (4) managing and adapting to potential impacts. The group has identified and defined about 35 water quality variables of potential concern. It has also identified the uses of water it wants to protect and intends to prevent the degradation of water quality. A plan for developing site specific water quality objectives has been established following a review of water quality guidelines. Performance will be measured using water quality models that simulate full development scenarios. The modelling work will be instrumental in designing management schemes for any potential impacts

  7. Evaluation of quality of permanent teeth restorations in children of areas contaminated by heavy metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Avakov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the environment on the child health is one of priority issues of the present time and it is of great social importance. Increased dental diseases associated with climatic and geographical characteristics of the area are widely discussed in the literature. The leading among them are environmentally determined dental diseases in children associated with geochemical and technogenic pollution of the area where they live. Increasing amounts of hard metal salts is the urgent hygienic problem, due to severity of their multi-element analysis in microsubjects, and negative influence on health of the children population, due to tropism, ability to cumulation, long biological life in the body and antagonism of heavy metal salts to the number of microelements. Influence of hard metal salts on dental diseases development is undeniable. Particular attention is paid to their influence on caries process and treatment peculiarities. Despite the fact that modern аdhesive dentistry in recent years has made a significant breakthrough in improving adhesive systems, correct choice of adhesive system depending on changes in the structure of hard tissue under geochemical contaminants (like heavy metal salts is the most important step. It is the decisive factor for adaptation and connection of restoration with the restoration base. We should remember that on the way of adhesive system there is an altered structure preventing from deep penetration of such system and, consequently, leading to violation of restoration tightness. Therefore, early detection of complications by clinical evaluation of quality of the restorations is of great interest. Multi-vector approach to treatment of dental caries in children living in conditions of technogenic pollution by heavy metal salts is extremely urgent and important issue. Significant niche in this approach is given to adhesive preparation methods combined with local fluoridation, using fluoride medication of the

  8. Air quality analysis for the Western Area Power Administration's 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.; Dagle, J.E.; Bilyard, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (plus 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other resources. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from these resources. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by other regulatory agencies. The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a marketing plan that defines the products and services it would offer beyond the year 2004 and the eligibility and allocation criteria for its electric power resources. Because determining levels of long-term firm power resources to be marketed and subsequently entering into contracts for the delivery of related products and services could be a major Federal action with potentially significant impacts to the human environment, the 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement (2004 EIS) is being prepared. Decisions made by the Sierra Nevada Region on how and when to supply power to its customers would influence the operation of power plants within the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC). If the resources affected are thermal resources, this could in turn affect the amount, timing, and location of pollutant emissions to the air at locations throughout the western United States. This report has been produced in conjunction with the 2004 EIS to provide a more detailed discussion of the air quality implications of the 2004 power marketing plan

  9. Effects of land use change and management on SOC and soil quality in Mediterranean rangelands areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Requejo, Ana; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    . Nevertheless, in olive grove and cereal conservationist practices increased the SOC stocks. Therefore, conservationist practices contributed to a better soil quality and to increased carbon sequestration and, consequently, this management is an excellent alternative to conventional tillage. A change in land use from dehesa to olive grove or cereal under conservationist practices appeared to increase the SOC. When calculated for the total soil profile these differences were equivalent to 20-25 Mg ha-1 of SOC. This is potentially very important for many agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area which are characterized by low organic matter content. These differences in the SOC stock were not apparent when the change in land use occurred under conventional tillage; even in the land use change from dehesa to cereal the SOC stock was reduced. This suggests that management in addition to change in land use is an important consideration and particularly the degree of soil disturbance which should be minimized. REFERENCES Brevik, E.C., 2012. Soils and climate change: gas fluxes and soil processes. Soil Horizons 53(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sh12-04-0012 Corral-Fernández, R., Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Stratification ratio of soil organic C, N and C:N in Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland with conventional and organic tillage. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 164, 252-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.11.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D., 2014. Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113, 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014. Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (southern Spain). Solid Earth, 5, 299- 311. http://dx.doi.org/10

  10. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  11. Integrating geochemical investigations and geospatial assessment to understand the evolutionary process of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Alharbi, Talal; Mansour, Basma

    2018-04-12

    Groundwater is the key for life in arid areas. Aquifer overexploitation and climatic conditions can significantly deteriorate groundwater quality. The Al-Qassim area in central Saudi Arabia is characterized by dense agricultural use and is irrigated mainly by fossil groundwater from the Saq Aquifer. Understanding the area's hydrochemistry, major factors governing groundwater quality, and alternative uses of the groundwater are the main goals of this study. Groundwater samples were collected and examined for major, minor, and trace elements. Ionic relationships, hydrochemical facies, geospatial distributions, and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the hydrochemical processes at play. The salinity and nitrate concentrations of the Saq Aquifer's groundwater were found to increase in the outcrop areas more than the confined areas. The spatial distributions were fragmented by three main factors: (i) modern recharge by relatively brackish water, (ii) irrigation return flow in intensive farming areas, and (iii) overexploitation and draining of deep and relatively saline zones of the aquifer. Seven water types were found representing the alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate-chloride ions and earth alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate and chloride. Mixing between fresh and brackish water, dissolution of mineral phases, silicate weathering, and reverse ion exchange were recognized as the evolutionary processes, while evaporation played a minor role. Cluster analyses characterized the fresh groundwater zone, modern groundwater recharge zone, and anthropogenic influence zone. In the confined areas, nearly all the groundwater was appropriate for domestic use and irrigation. In the outcrop areas, some limitations were found due to unsuitable conditions.

  12. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  13. Dose reduction according to the exposure condition in intervention procedure: Focus on the change of dose area and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jun Ho; Jung, Ku Min; Lee, Kyung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to reduce the dose by Analyzing the dose area product (DAP) and image quality according to the change of tube current using NEMA Phantom. The spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were used as evaluation criteria in addition to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR), which are important image quality parameters of intervention. Tube voltage was fixed at 80 kVp and the amount of tube current was changed to 20, 30, 40, and 50 mAs, and the dose area product and image quality were compared and analyzed. As a result, the dose area product increased from 1066 mGycm2 to 6160 mGycm2 to 6 times as the condition increased, while the spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were higher than 20 mAs and 30 mAs, Spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were observed below the evaluation criteria. In addition, the SNR and CNR increased up to 30 mAs, slightly increased at 40 mAs, but not significantly different from the previous one, and decreased at 50 mAs. As a result, the exposure dose significantly increased due to overexposure of the test conditions and the image quality deteriorated in all areas of spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, SNR and CNR.

  14. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have

  15. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets: Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have one additional image

  16. Improvement of the beam quality of a broad-area diode laser using double feedback from two external mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, M.; Bøgh, A.-S.; Thestrup, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, a symmetric double-feedback configuration, to improve the beam quality of broad-area diode lasers is demonstrated. With this configuration, a symmetric double-lobed far field can be obtained, and this configuration leads to good beam quality. The beam quality factor M-2 of a diode...... laser with the emitting area 1 mumx200 mum is improved by using both the asymmetric single feedback and the symmetric double feedback. M-2 values of 4.3 for the asymmetric single-feedback laser system and 3.3 for the symmetric double-feedback laser system are obtained, whereas the M-2 value...... of the freely running laser is 42. The far and the near fields are also measured and compared for the three conditions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  17. 76 FR 56701 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ....regulations.gov website is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or...? IV. What is the effect of these actions? V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. What actions is... recorded in EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) database. This review addresses air quality data collected in...

  18. 77 FR 16447 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... County, Western Mojave Desert, South Coast Air Basin, Eastern Kern County, and San Diego County. DATES... April 30, 2004 final rule, we designated the Western Mojave Desert area as a moderate nonattainment area... reclassification of several areas for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard. See 75 FR 24409 (May 5, 2010). The Western...

  19. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett

    1996-01-01

    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  20. Ground-water quality in agricultural areas, Anoka Sand Plain Aquifer, east-central Minnesota, 1984-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer was studied as part of the multiscale Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) study by collecting water samples from shallow wells during August through November 1990. The sampling was conducted to: (1) aid in selection of the MSEA research area; (2) facilitate comparison of results at the MSEA research area to the regional scale; and (3) evaluate changes in ground-water quality in the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer since a previous study during 1984 through 1987. Samples were collected from 34 wells screened in the upper 6 meters of the surficial aquifer and located in cultivated agricultural areas. Water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and presence or absence of triazine herbicides were determined at all sites and samples from selected wells were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, major cations and anions, nutrients, and selected herbicides and herbicide metabolites. The results of the study indicate that the water-quality of some shallow ground water in areas of predominantly agricultural land use has been affected by applications of nitrogen fertilizers and the herbicide atrazine.

  1. Mapping of spatial and temporal variations of' water quality in an industrial area: a remote sensing and GIS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, T.V.; Reddy, M.A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrate the impact of industrialization on water quality in and around Nakkavagu Watershed, due to unplanted industrial development. The study area falls between 78 deg. 05' - 78 deg. 25'E. longitude and 17 deg. 25'-17 deg. 45'N latitude, the catchment area extends 734 sq. km in Medak district, Andhra Predesh, India. The study area lies in the Godavari Basin. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of water quality with respect to land use / land cover (Lu /Lc) changes for a period of three decades. Spatial database consisting of drainage network and geomorphology and land use / land cover change detection maps (1970-2004) have been generated for the entire watershed using remote sensing satellite data. Attribute database consisting of (water quality analysis is carried out and corresponding water quality index is calculated on a five point scale: 0- 25 Excellent, 26 -50 Good, 51 -75 Poor, 76 -100 Very poor, and> 100 Unfit for Drinking. Integrated study to establish the impact of Lu / Lc on water quality is carried out using GIS Analysis. Maps showing Lu / Lc changes and corresponding spatial distribution of water quality index were generated for the years 1979, 1989,2004. The results indicate that the water quality index in the entire Nakkavagu watershed during 1979 is excellent and good and by 2004, the entire watershed is rated in to poor, very poor and unfit for drinking. Best environmental management plans were suggested for restoration of the Nakkavagu watershed. (author)

  2. [Monitoring and analysis on evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality in urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke

    2013-02-01

    In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst; 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit; 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process; 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%.

  3. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  4. Improvement of the beam quality of a diode laser with two active broad-area segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Thestrup, B.; Mortensen, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The beam quality of a diode laser with two active segments was improved using an external cavity with collimating optics, a grating, and an output coupler. The beam quality of the output beam, which is the first-order diffractive beam from the grating, was improved by a factor of 2, and at least...... half of the freely running power of the laser was coupled out from the external cavity. The output power can be enhanced further by the feedback from the zeroth-order beam. The possibility of improving the beam quality further is discussed and a new double-external-cavity configuration is suggested....

  5. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  6. Relationship between the quality of life and stress in health area students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Calderani Borine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to comprehend the relationship between quality of life and the stress of healthcare academics from a private college in the interior of Rondônia. Were involved 208 students, with 133 females and 75 males between 17 to 55 years old. To achieve the research proposal the scale used was Whogol-Bref to evaluate the quality of live and the Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos for the respondent the level of stress. The conclusion is that academics as higher level quality of life lower stress levels, the course of Veterinary Medicine presents highest life quality and the Physiotherapy course is the with highest level of stress, there is also a significant difference between genders, where the female presented more levels of stress comparing to male gender.

  7. Groundwater Quality in Jingyuan County, a Semi-Humid Area in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays an important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater in any part of the world. In the study, groundwater qualities in Jingyuan County, in Ningxia, China were assessed with entropy weighted water quality index method. In the assessment, 12 hydrochemical parameters including chloride, sulphate, sodium, iron, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia, nitrogen, fluoride, iodine and nitrite were selected. The assessment results show that the concentrations of iodine, TH, iron and TDS are the most influencing parameters affecting the groundwater quality. The assessment results are rational and are in consistency with the results of filed investigation of which both indicates the groundwater in Jingyuan County is fit for drinking.

  8. 75 FR 42018 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... makes the situation worse. Retroactive relief would likely impose large costs on the States, which would... emission control measures, monitoring, and reporting; include provisions for air quality modeling; and...

  9. 75 FR 22047 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... situation worse. Retroactive relief would likely impose large costs on the States, which would face fines... air quality modeling; and provide for public and local agency participation in planning and emission...

  10. 75 FR 8871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... proposed solution only makes the situation worse. Retroactive relief would likely impose large costs on the... measures, monitoring, and reporting; includes provisions for air quality modeling; and provides for public...

  11. Synthesis of High-Quality Large-Area Homogenous 1T' MoTe2 from Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Zubair, Ahmad; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xu; Ouyang, Fangping; Xu, Kai; Fang, Wenjing; Ueno, Keiji; Li, Ju; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-11-01

    High-quality large-area few-layer 1T' MoTe 2 films with high homogeneity are synthesized by the controlled tellurization of MoO 3 film. The Mo precursor plays a key role in determining the quality and morphology of the 1T' MoTe 2 . Furthermore, the amount of Te strongly influences the phase of the MoTe 2 . The growth method paves the way toward the scalable production of 1T' MoTe 2 -based applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 78 FR 16792 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... (see, e.g., the PM 10 area designations in 40 CFR 81.305 for Coso Junction planning area, Owens Valley..., this action: Is not ``significant regulatory actions'' subject to review by the Office of Management..., 1999); Is not economically significant regulatory actions based on health or safety risks subject to...

  13. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patients in urban and regional areas: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey A; Cockburn, Nicole L; Batstone, Martin D; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-06-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment affects quality of life. There are differences in quality of life outcomes and perceived supportive care needs between cancer patients living in metropolitan and regional-remote areas. This study investigated quality of life over the first 6 months following head and neck cancer diagnosis and observed differences in quality of life by geographical location. Prospective observational study. Tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Newly diagnosed patients who were referred for the diagnosis, and/or treatment of head and neck cancer. Quality of life was measured by the University of Washington Quality of Life Survey, version 4 (UW-QoL). Participants completed the UW-QoL questionnaire prior to starting treatment, 1 month and 6 months post treatment. Metropolitan and regional or remote status was classified according to the Australian Standard Geographic Classification-Remoteness Area system. Ninety-five participants were included at baseline; 49 and 41 participants completed the 1-month and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. Scores in most UW-QoL domains decreased between baseline and 1 month post treatment and increased towards pre-treatment scores at the 6-month follow-up (except for anxiety and saliva). Pain at baseline was significantly worse in the regional-remote participants compared with metropolitan participants. No other statistically significant differences in UW-QoL score by geographical location were observed. The findings generally did not support significant differences in quality of life outcome between metropolitan and regional-remote head and neck cancer patients. The difference in pain experience between metropolitan and regional-remote groups requires further investigation. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  14. Hourly Water Quality Dynamics in Rivers Downstream of Urban Areas: Quantifying Seasonal Variation and Modelling Impacts of Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; McGrane, S. J.; Miller, J. D.; Hitt, O.; Bowes, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of water flows and quality is invaluable in improving understanding of the influence of urban areas on river health. When used to inform predictive modelling, insights can be gained as to how urban growth may affect the chemical and biological quality of rivers as they flow downstream into larger waterbodies. Water flow and quality monitoring in two urbanising sub-catchments (long term flow records are available, but particular focus is given to monitoring of an extended set of sites during prolonged winter rainfall. In the Ray sub-catchment streams were monitored in which urban cover varied across a range of 7-78%. A rural-urban gradient in DO was apparent in the low flow period prior to the storms. Transient low DO (works (STW). In this respect temperature- and respiration-driven DO sags in summer were at least if not more severe than those driven by the winter storms. Likewise, although winter storm NH4 concentrations violated EU legislation downstream of the STW, they were lower than summer concentrations in pollutant flushes following dry spells. In contrast the predominant phenomenon affecting water quality in the Cut during the storms was dilution. Here, a river water quality model was calibrated and applied over the course of a year to capture the importance of periphyton photosynthesis and respiration cycles in determining water quality and to predict the influence of hypothetical urban growth on downstream river health. The periods monitored intensively, dry spells followed by prolonged rainfall, represent: (i) marked changes in conditions likely to become more prevalent in future, (ii) situations under which water quality in urban areas is likely to be particularly vulnerable, being influenced for example by first flush effects followed by capacity exceedance at STW. Despite this, whilst being somewhat long lasting in places, impacts on DO were not severe.

  15. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  16. Impact of water overstock on groundwater quality of the Bassee plain area (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcy, L.; Pettenati, M.; Baran, N.; Durand, P. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The project, inspired by the structural flood plain management measures of the Rhine River, consists in the temporal removal of a maximum amount of water from the Seine River in order to leave priority to the water from the River Yonne. Yonne River and the Seine are presenting their maximum water flow usually at a same time. The space located between Bray-sur-Seine and Montereau-Fault-Yonne corresponding to the La Bassée plain (agricultural area of 23 km2) is well adapted to this project of temporary and artificial flood. The objective of the project financed by the Institution Interdépartementale des barrages Réservoirs du Bassin de la Seine (IIBRBS), the BRGM, the Seine-Normandie Water Agency, the European Communauty through the Interreg IIIB SAND project is the evaluation, at a local scale, of the impact on groundwater quality of the temporal Seine water storage. Indeed, the water over storage i) changes hydraulic conditions and therefore modify water and pollutants transfers through the unsaturated and saturated zones and ii) bring at soil surface a water (Seine River) potentially containing contaminants that may move to groundwater and consequently changed physico-chemicals conditions (redox) of groundwater. The estimation of the vulnerability of groundwater to changes and loads needs hydraulic and geochemical modelling of transfer through the unsaturated zone as well as the study of pollutants fate in static conditions. Retention properties of some metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn) in soils and materials of the unsaturated zone by chemical processes were performed determining adsorption coefficient (Kd) by laboratory experiments. These experiments are showing that nickel mobility is lower in the argillous layers than in the sandy part of the unsaturated zone. Ni mobility is controlled by iron hydroxides and precipitation of other secondary minerals. Its complexation on organic ligands increases its mobility in soils. Copper concentration is influenced by CaCO3

  17. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  18. Drinking water quality in urban areas of pakistan a case study of gujranwala city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Rashid, H.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the drinking water quality of Gujranwala city. Samples were collected from 16 locations including: 4 tube wells, 4 overhead reservoirs (OHR) and 8 house connections. Twelve physicochemical and two bacteriological parameters were tested, before and after monsoon and compared with National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). The results demonstrated that most of the physicochemical parameters, except lead, nickle and chromium were within NSDWQ before and after monsoon. Bacteriological and heavy metal contamination was found before and after the monsoon. Possible reasons of contamination are: no disinfection, old and leaking water pipes, poor drainage during monsoon and possible cross connections between water and sewerage lines. It is recommended to practice disinfection, laying of water and sewerage pipes on opposite sides of streets and periodic water quality monitoring. (author)

  19. Applying Total Quality Management Tools Using QFD at Higher Education Institutions in Gulf Area (Case Study: ALHOSN University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al-Bashir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human power’s quality plays the key role in the growth and development of societies where the quality of human powers can be enriched with the high quality education provided by the higher education institutions. The higher education institutions are hereby an important sector of any society since it defines the overall quality of human lives. This research will investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM tools at the higher education institutions; specifically at ALHOSN University. In this study five tools were implemented at ALHOSN University’s engineering college including: Quality Function Deployment, Affinity Diagrams, Tree Diagrams, Pareto Charts, and Fishbone Diagrams. The research will reveal that the implementation of TQM tools has a great benefit for higher education institutions where they have uncovered many area of potential improvement as well as the main causes of some of the problems the Faculty of Engineering is facing. Also, it will show that the implementation of TQM tools on higher education institution systems will enhance the performance of such institutions.

  20. Data on abiotic (nutrients and biotic (phytoplankton quality elements in Fortuna ecologically reconstructed area (Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Liliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of inorganic nutrient enrichment on reophillic ecosystems has been observed and intensively studied in many rivers. Due to the scarcity of information on ecological conditions in the channel-network of the Danube Delta it is very important to have reliable information on the trend of the abiotic and biotic quality elements in the Danube River and channel system – in order to fulfill the Water Framework Directive objectives and to implement the rehabilitation projects in area affected by nutrient pollution. The purpose of this paper is to present, analyze and discuss the results of evaluation of nutrient variation and phytoplankton quantification obtained in Fortuna area - one of the seven reconstructed areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In order to improve the quality of data on phytoplankton biomass distribution from Fortuna area, in the summer of 2008 there has been used a submersible spectrofluorometer with automatic algae class determination and chlorophyll analysis (bbe Fluoro Probe. According to the results of analyses on relation between phytoplankton communities and water-column, the phytoplankton development in the channel network of the Fortuna reconstructed area seems to be influenced mainly by nitrogen concentration than by phosphorus concentration, as in case of phytoplankton development in Danube Delta’s lakes

  1. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Guo

    Full Text Available Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (P<0.001. In addition, among the seven principal components, four principal component scores were better in urban areas than in suburban areas (P = <0.001, 0.004, 0.036, and 0.022. The urban comprehensive score also exceeded that of the suburbs (P<0.001. In summary, over the 6-year period, there was a rapidly increasing trend in basic medical service utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this

  2. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  3. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  4. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  5. 75 FR 27514 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... detrimental effects on plants and ecosystems. C. What is the background for the BPA area under the 1-hour... 1997 8-hour ozone standard, and will be replaced by prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) SIP...

  6. Air quality and human health among a low income community in the Highveld Priority Area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to poor air quality is linked to adverse health effects. The largest burden of air pollution-related diseases is in developing countries where air pollution levels are also among the highest in the world. In South Africa, two...

  7. Extending results from agricultural fields with intensively monitored data to surrounding areas for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 45% reduction in riverine total nitrogen flux from the 1980-1996 time period is needed to meet water quality goals in the Mississippi Basin and Gulf of Mexico. This paper addresses the goal of reducing nitrogen in the Mississippi River through three objectives. First, the paper outlines an approac...

  8. Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2014-03-01

    For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

  9. Quality control of measurements made on fixed-area sample plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola Lindgren

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes results from a large program for quality control of forest measurements. The performance of 87 surveyors was evaluated. Tree heights were usually measured well, whereas the counting of tree-rings on increment cores was a source of considerable bias for many surveyors. During tree count on sample plots, many surveyors had a tendency to forget trees,...

  10. Evaluation of the superficial water quality in the affected area of a waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Relvas Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Improper disposal of solid waste in dumps can create various environmental problems, including risk of contamination of surface and groundwater by leachate, a fact which may have serious consequences for public health. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the superficial water quality of the Juma River near the Apui/AM dump. Analyses were performed in dry and rainy seasons and at two points, one upstream and one downstream from the dump. The following physical, chemical and biological parameters that comprise the Water Quality Index (Portuguese acronym, IQA were evaluated: thermotolerant coliforms, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5,20, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, total residue, water temperature and turbidity. All of the parameters were within the range permitted by regulation, with the exception of pH, which was out of the minimum permitted value, due to the natural characteristics of the watershed. The IQA showed good quality, varying from 62% to 66% between the collection points, indicating that the dump has no influence on water quality.

  11. Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

  12. The Application and Usefulness of Economic Analyses for Water Quality Management in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic studies are increasingly sought as tools to contribute to water quality management in estuaries and coastal communities, yet little is known about how the results from existing studies have been received and utilized by the organizations who solicited them. We interviewe...

  13. 75 FR 27944 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., Confidential Business Information). To inspect the hard copy materials..., quality-assured and certified data gathered at established state and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS...

  14. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  15. Environment, safety, health, and quality plan for the TRU- Contaminated Arid Soils Project of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. LSFA supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The TRU-Contaminated Arid Soils project is being conducted under the auspices of the LSFA Program. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting LSFA/Arid Soils activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to LSFA/Arid Soils operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and system and performance audits as they apply to the LSFA Program

  16. Usalpharma: A Cloud-Based Architecture to Support Quality Assurance Training Processes in Health Area Using Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Peñalvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds.

  17. Usalpharma: A Cloud-Based Architecture to Support Quality Assurance Training Processes in Health Area Using Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; Pérez-Blanco, Jonás Samuel; Martín-Suárez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds. PMID:24778593

  18. Comparative analysis of the quality of drinking tap water in some areas of the Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bеkreneva O. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the microbiological research of drinkin g tap water quality of some settlements in the Murmansk region. The samples of drinking tap water have been selected and the microbiological indicators of thermotolerant coliform bacteria, common coliform bacteria, and total microbial number have been determined; the compliance of these indicators with the requirements of sanitary norms and rules has been also established. Determination of total microbial number has been carried out by the deep method, and levels of total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria – by the membrane filtration method. It has been shown that the content of microorganisms in drinking water sources depends on the season of the year. The greatest number of microorganisms in water is observed in spring and autumn p eriods of the year and is caused by floodwater and precipitation of water into the water intake system. The greates t number of microorganisms in water samples has been recorded in the town of Sputnik. The repeated inconsistency o f water quality with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been identified. The prev alence of acute intestinal diseases among the population and the influence of water quality on this i ndicator have been estimated. The high incidence of intestinal infections in the town of Pechenga has been revealed, a few more prosperous for this indicator are the towns of Zaozersk and Sputnik. Recommendations for improvi ng the quality of drinking water treatment have been transferred to the services of central water supply and distributed among the population. After the implementation of the recommendations, the repeated tests have been performed, and some improvement of water quality has been stated.

  19. Assessing the quality of digital elevation models obtained from mini unmanned aerial vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P.; Moy de Vitry, Matthew; Scheidegger, Andreas; Rieckermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Precise and detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. Unfortunately, traditional sources of DEM, such as airplane light detection and ranging (lidar) DEMs and point and contour maps, remain a bottleneck for detailed and reliable overland flow models, because the resulting DEMs are too coarse to provide DEMs of sufficient detail to inform urban overland flows. Interestingly, technological developments of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) suggest that they have matured enough to be a competitive alternative to satellites or airplanes. However, this has not been tested so far. In this study we therefore evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, 14 UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs: (i) flight altitude, (ii) image overlapping, (iii) camera pitch, and (iv) weather conditions. In addition, we compared the best-quality UAV DEM to a conventional lidar-based DEM. To evaluate both the quality of the UAV DEMs and the comparison to lidar-based DEMs, we performed regression analysis on several qualitative and quantitative metrics, such as elevation accuracy, quality of object representation (e.g. buildings, walls and trees) in the DEM, which were specifically tailored to assess overland flow modelling performance, using the flight parameters as explanatory variables. Our results suggested that, first, as expected, flight altitude influenced the DEM quality most, where lower flights produce better DEMs; in a similar fashion, overcast weather conditions are preferable, but weather conditions and other factors influence DEM quality much less. Second, we found that for urban overland flow modelling, the UAV DEMs performed competitively in comparison to a traditional lidar-based DEM. An important advantage of using UAVs to generate DEMs in urban areas is

  20. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  1. Analysis of interrelation between water quality and hydrologic conditions on a small karst catchment area of sinking watercourse Trbuhovica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinic, V; Grzetic, A; Ljubotina, M; Rubinic, J; Ruzic, I; Volf, G; Vuckovic, I; Kvas, N

    2008-01-01

    Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.

  2. Analysis of interrelation between water quality and hydrologic conditions on a small karst catchment area of sinking watercourse Trbuhovica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinić, V.; Rubinić, J.; Vučković, I.; Ružić, I.; Gržetić, A.; Volf, G.; Ljubotina, M.; Kvas, N.

    2008-11-01

    Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.

  3. The implications of high-quality staff break areas for nurses' health, performance, job satisfaction and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Adeleh; Rodiek, Susan; Shepley, Mardelle

    2016-05-01

    The main study objective was to explore policy and design factors contributing to nurses' perception of how well-designed staff break areas can play an important beneficial role in relation to their overall job satisfaction, retention, performance and job-related health concerns. Nurses are extremely valuable to the healthcare industry; however, today's nursing profession is challenged by nurses' fatigue and its negative consequences on nurses' health and the quality of patient care they provide. Preliminary interviews were conducted with 10 nurses who worked as consultants in the healthcare design and construction industry. Based on findings, an online survey was developed and distributed to over 10 000 members of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses in the United States. The majority of nurses viewed high-quality break spaces as 'fairly' or 'very' important in terms of their potential to positively influence staff, patient and facility outcomes. Stress, rest breaks and the quality of break areas were some of the significant factors contributing to their perception. The results of this empirical study support the conclusion that improvements in healthcare facility policies regarding staff breaks, as well as the creation of better-designed break areas, can be of significant benefit for nurses and the patients that they serve. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  5. Ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer, southwestern Albany area, Georgia, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    During 1997, the Dougherty County Health Department sampled more than 700 wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Dougherty County, Georgia, and determined that nitrate as nitrogen (hereinafter called nitrate) concentrations were above 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in 12 percent of the wells. Ten mg/L is the Georgia primary drinking-water standard. The ground-water flow system is complex and poorly understood in this predominantly agricultural area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Albany Water, Gas and Light Commission - conducted a study to better define ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Florida aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water levels were measured in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia, during May 1998 and March 1999 (spring), and October 1998 and September 1999 (fall). Groundwater levels measured in 75 wells open only to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for those four time periods. These maps show that ground water generally flows from northwest to southeast at gradients ranging from about 2 to greater than 10 feet per mile. During spring and fall 1998, ground-water levels were high and mounding of the potentiometric surface occurred in the central part of the study area, indicating a local recharge area. Water levels declined from December through February, and by March 1999 the mound in the potentiometric surface had dissipated. Of the 75 wells in the potentiometric network, 24 were selected for a water-quality network. These 24 wells and 1 spring were sampled during fall 1998 and spring 1999. Samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, selected minor constituents, selected nutrients, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). Water-quality field measurements - such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance (SC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) - were taken at each well. During August 2000, a ground-water sample was collected

  6. The quality of air in 1990 in urban industrial and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroebel, R.

    1991-01-01

    A synthesis of the air quality agency results in France is presented for 1990. The main results are: a partial acceleration of the diminution of the airborne sulfur pollution and contrasted trends in traffic pollutants (decrease in the Pb and CO concentrations, leveling or even increase of NO2 in some stations). EEC guide values have been exceeded in some locations. Summer climatic episodes still induced high ozone levels. NO2 minor variations should be analyzed with cautiousness

  7. Broadening the perspective: water quality and land uses in the Wilderness area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schachtschneider, K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available additional industrial and mining develop- ments. These baseline results are of immense significance, because these data will provide a useful benchmark against which possible future dete- rioration in the water quality and ecosystem health...- tions and rules for administering biofuel prices for comment stipulates that all oil refineries will be required to blend 2% of locally produced bioethanol into their petrol from October 2015. The choice of crops has also changed slightly...

  8. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  9. Radioanalytical laboratory quality control: Current status at Tennessee Valley Authority's western area radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority operates a laboratory for radiological analysis of nuclear plant environmental monitoring samples and also for analysis of environmental samples from uranium mining and milling decommissioning activities. The laboratory analyzes some 9,000 samples per year and employs approximately 20 people as analysts, sample collectors, and supervisory staff members. The laboratory is supported by a quality control section of four people involved in computer support, production of radioactive standards, quality control data assessment and reporting, and internal reviews of compliance. The entire laboratory effort is controlled by 60 written procedures or standards. An HP-1000 computer and data base software are used to schedule samples for collection, assign and schedule samples within the laboratory for preparation and analysis, calculate sample activity, review data, and report data outside the laboratory. Gamma spectroscopy systems with nine germanium detectors, an alpha spectroscopy system, five alpha/beta counters, two liquid scintillation counters, four beta-gamma coincidence systems, two sodium iodide single-channel systems, and four photomultipliers for counting Lucas cells are all employed. Each device has various calibration and quality control checks performed on it routinely. Logbooks and control charts are in use for each instrument

  10. Major ion chemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Haripur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Tariq, J.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-07-01

    Study was conducted for investigating chemical composition of groundwater, identifying the compositional types of groundwater, delineating the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and assessing the groundwater quality for drinking / irrigation uses. Groundwater samples collected from shallow (hand pumps, open well, motor pumps) and deep (tube wells) aquifers were analyzed for major cations (Na/sup +/,K/sup +, Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/) and anions (HCO/sub 3/, Cl/sup '/, SO/sub 4/). The data indicated that Ca/sub 2/ is the dominant cation in most of the samples followed by Mg/sup 2+/ whereas HCO/sub 3/ is the most abundant anion in all samples. Hydrochemistry provides a clear indication of active recharge of shallow and deep aquifers by modern meteoric water. Carbonate dissolution was found to be the prevailing process controlling the groundwater chemistry. Chemical quality was assessed for drinking purpose by comparing with WHO, Indian and national standards, and for irrigation purpose using empirical indices such as SAR and RSC. The results show that groundwater meets the norms of good quality drinking water and can be safely used for irrigation. (author)

  11. H-Area Seepage Basin (H-HWMF): Fourth quarterly 1989, groundwater quality assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1989 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF){sup 1} monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, and total radium.

  12. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  13. Quality of Life in the Elderly People Covered by Health Centers in the Urban Areas of Markazi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Agha nouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve quality of life in the elderly through proper plans and active involvement of elderly in their family and community, we should get a lot of information about health-related quality of life because the composition of our population has changed. Infact, the aged population is increasingly growing, that this will, in turn, have an effect on economic progression and well-being in the country. Thus, this study assessed quality of life and its determinants in the people aged 60 years and over living in the urban areas of Central Province. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly peoples in the urban areas of Markazi Province. Data was obtained via a general and a quality of life (using SF-36 questionnaire. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square, Fisher, independent T-test, ANOVA, Regression, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of the subjects was 70.7 years (men 44.8% and women 55.2%. The mean of total SF-36, physical and mental components' scores were 55.66±22, 51.32±21 and 57.30±25 respectively. Additionally, the mean scores of eight health-related dimensions were as follows: physical functions 56.26±45, role limitations due to physical problems 50.60±27, body pain 51.26±38, general health 45.26±53, vitality 53.24±09, social functioning 67.85±27, role limitations due to mental problems 57.14±45 and mental health 62.88±25. Also, the quality of life scores were significantly associated with sex, previous employment, leisure activities, income, current exercising, present disease and drug consumption (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that the elderly's quality of life in the urban areas in Markazi province is in the middle level and the individuals have better mental health compared to physical health. Moreover, various factors are associated with the elderly’s quality of life, which require comprehensive planning for

  14. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 17 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 17. WAG 17 is composed of approximately 23 acres and is located in Bethel Valley about 3,100 ft east of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area. The facilities in WAG 17 constitute the ORNL Services Area and include the shipping and receiving departments, machine shops, carpenter shops, paint shops, lead burning facilities, tritium facility, and the materials storage area. The wells at WAG 17 were drilled and developed between November 1989 and April 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 17. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG 17 characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  15. Quality of underground water and hydro-geological situation caused by oil exploitation in the area of Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašić Milana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous oil fields were discovered in the area of North Banat and its regional centre, the city of Kikinda. These oil fields were explored and exploited in the second half of the XX century. Oil rigs in the area of the city zone can endanger the environment, as well as the quality of life of the citizens. In order to discover the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon we have applied GC/MSD technique, whereas we have applied GC/MSD Purge and trap. technique to discover the presence of aromatic hydrocarbon. Chemical analyses of water samples from the area of Kikinda did nit prove that underground water was polluted with oil. .

  16. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction. PMID:29791470

  17. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Bao, Yong; Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction.

  18. 76 FR 79579 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    .... Louis City and Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles and St. Louis Counties in Missouri. The Illinois... 16, 2011. (EPA will address the Missouri portion of the St. Louis area in a separate rulemaking... received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at www...

  19. 75 FR 64675 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...'s Approval of the El Paso Section 110(a)(1) Maintenance Plan for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard... BPA State Implementation Plan (SIP), a 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance plan that includes a 2021 Motor... the 1997 8-hour ozone standard for the El Paso 1997 8-hour attainment area. DATES: Effective Date...

  20. 77 FR 76883 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... secondary manner through chemical reactions or other processes in the atmosphere. \\6\\ NO X and SO 2 are precursors for fine particulates through chemical reactions and other related processes in the atmosphere... and includes emission reductions associated with CAIR, EPA's modeling indicates that the area would...

  1. 77 FR 65151 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight to form ground-level ozone. NO X and VOCs are.... This area includes 54 cities and towns in Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties. See 40 CFR 81.330, for exact listing of cities and towns. The CAA contains two sets of provisions...

  2. 78 FR 6741 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... of New Hampshire's request to redesignate the Boston-Manchester-Portsmouth (SE), New Hampshire...- Manchester-Portsmouth (SE), New Hampshire 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (hereafter, the ``Southern NH... of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing this action and other required information...

  3. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Proposed Approval of Stationary Sources New Source Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  4. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Determination To Defer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  5. 78 FR 72036 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... maintenance plan to the year 2025 and updating the sub-area motor vehicle emission budgets (MVEBs) for... taking? III. Why is EPA taking these actions? IV. What are the effects of these actions? V. Final Action... design values Location County Monitor ID 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 Lincoln County Replacing Iron Station...

  6. 78 FR 44494 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    .... See Sierra Club v. EPA, 375 F.3d 537 (7th Cir.2004). The remaining applicable Part D requirements for... PM 10 precursor in the secondary formation of atmospheric ammonium nitrates, which are a significant... insignificant contributor to secondary particulate formation in the Sacramento PM 10 nonattainment area...

  7. 75 FR 44734 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... associated with impairment of visual perception, work capacity, manual dexterity and learning ability, and....regulations.gov or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which... classified as a ``moderate'' nonattainment area for CO (based on a design value of 14.4 ppm) but was...

  8. 75 FR 13710 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during... at established state and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS) in the nonattainment area and entered...

  9. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessom, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 x 10 -7 centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover

  10. Structural Quality and Utilization of Outpatient Curative Care Under Family Medicine Scheme in Rural Area of Mazandaran– Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Rouhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & purpose: Since 2005, a reform known as Rural Insurance and Family Medicine Scheme has introduced to primary health care network in Iran in rural areas and small towns. The content of the reform implies a substantial change in those aspects of health centers that mainly could be categorized as structural quality. Although, this is the requirement of all health care providers, they are not identical in those items. In this article, we have tried to report the relation between structural quality of health centers and utilization of curative care in Mazandran province. Materials & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Secondary and routinely collected data was used to answer the research questions. The source of original data was provincial health authority’s data set. A check list containing pre-identified variables was used to extract the data. Using SPSS software package, regression analysis was run to measure the role of different independent variable on dependent variable. Results: There were 215 rural health centers affiliated to 16 cities or small towns that the reform has taken place. The outreach area population of these health centers was 1ˏ330ˏ212 of which 834ˏ189 (62.71% were covered by rural insurance solely. Health centers are not identical in terms of the characteristics of health centers and their utilization. Among the variables with significant impact on the utilization of outpatient care, except for number of physician in each health centre and existence of state owned pharmacy that were found in some health centers, the rest of variables had significant positive impact on the demand for physician visit. Conclusion: Structural quality has significant impact on the utilization of curative care of primary healthcare units at rural area in Iran. The reform seems well targeted the quality improvement and utilization of effective primary health care.

  11. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  12. Reliable Exfoliation of Large-Area High-Quality Flakes of Graphene and Other Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Sutter, Eli; Shi, Norman N; Zheng, Jiabao; Yang, Tianzhong; Englund, Dirk; Gao, Hong-Jun; Sutter, Peter

    2015-11-24

    Mechanical exfoliation has been a key enabler of the exploration of the properties of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, by providing routine access to high-quality material. The original exfoliation method, which remained largely unchanged during the past decade, provides relatively small flakes with moderate yield. Here, we report a modified approach for exfoliating thin monolayer and few-layer flakes from layered crystals. Our method introduces two process steps that enhance and homogenize the adhesion force between the outermost sheet in contact with a substrate: Prior to exfoliation, ambient adsorbates are effectively removed from the substrate by oxygen plasma cleaning, and an additional heat treatment maximizes the uniform contact area at the interface between the source crystal and the substrate. For graphene exfoliation, these simple process steps increased the yield and the area of the transferred flakes by more than 50 times compared to the established exfoliation methods. Raman and AFM characterization shows that the graphene flakes are of similar high quality as those obtained in previous reports. Graphene field-effect devices were fabricated and measured with back-gating and solution top-gating, yielding mobilities of ∼4000 and 12,000 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, and thus demonstrating excellent electrical properties. Experiments with other layered crystals, e.g., a bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor, show enhancements in exfoliation yield and flake area similar to those for graphene, suggesting that our modified exfoliation method provides an effective way for producing large area, high-quality flakes of a wide range of 2D materials.

  13. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of high quality large area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Moeckly, Brian H.; Ruby, Ward S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in-situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials u...

  15. Quality Procedures in the European Higher Education Area and Beyond--Visions for the Future: Third ENQA Survey. ENQA Occasional Papers 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Josep; Hopbach, Achim; Kekalainen, Helka; Lugano, Nathalie; Rozsnyai, Christina; Shopov, Todor

    2012-01-01

    Higher education reforms over the last decade, resulting in the establishment of the European Higher Education Area, with new social demands and expectations, have greatly impacted quality assurance in higher education. As a follow-up activity to two previous surveys on external quality procedures, the European Association for Quality Assurance in…

  16. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  17. Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality Uniform Few-Layer MoTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Kai; Zubair, Ahmad; Liao, Albert D; Fang, Wenjing; Ouyang, Fangping; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ueno, Keiji; Saito, Riichiro; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-09-23

    The controlled synthesis of large-area, atomically thin molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) crystals is crucial for its various applications based on the attractive properties of this emerging material. In this work, we developed a chemical vapor deposition synthesis to produce large-area, uniform, and highly crystalline few-layer 2H and 1T' MoTe2 films. It was found that these two different phases of MoTe2 can be grown depending on the choice of Mo precursor. Because of the highly crystalline structure, the as-grown few-layer 2H MoTe2 films display electronic properties that are comparable to those of mechanically exfoliated MoTe2 flakes. Our growth method paves the way for the large-scale application of MoTe2 in high-performance nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  18. Quality and representativity of the traffic accident data in urban areas: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Chisvert Perales, Mauricio Javier; López-de-Cózar, Elena; Ballestar Tarín, María Luisa

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of the number of road accident fatalities by 50 %, by the year 2010, suggested by the EU, involves the active contribution of all the agents in charge of the road safety in Europe. Even though the accidents that happened in urban areas have a relative smaller severity, it is the place where, for the moment, in absolute terms, the major number of accidents take place in the EU countries, as well as generating serious consequences on the more vulnerable users (pe...

  19. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S.; Higgins, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the pro...

  20. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S.; Higgins, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency (RF) ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems of...

  1. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  2. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  3. Informal Employment and Quality of Life in Rural Areas of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chreneková Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Informal economy is rather difficult to define and demarcate in the methodological context. International Conference of Labour Statisticians in 2003 adopted a set of guidelines regarding definition of statistical categories of informal employment. These include for example employed unregistered own-account workers, contributing family workers, persons who work based on oral agreement, etc. Informal economy is a contentious topic in many developing countries as it brings about many elements that from several aspects adversely affect the development. The most commonly stressed are the fiscal implications (associated with tax revenue loss and some social concerns. However, in some parts of the world informal sector went from being considered as a negative occurrence to be tolerated as a partial solution to some of the challenges that hinder development of rural regions and communities. The aim of the paper is to determine the relationship between informal economy and level of development and quality of life in Ukrainian regions. The paper examines the role of informal economy in regional structure of Ukraine, while confronting the findings with regional divergence in relevant indicators of development and quality of life. There are statistically significant differences in the size of the informal employment among different types of Ukrainian regions (by rural-urban typology. With increasing share of informal employment in the regions, the income level of households decreases significantly even when we take into consideration the level of unemployment.

  4. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszczapińska Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy. The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  5. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczapińska, Katarzyna; Skoczko, Iwona; Szczykowska, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll "a", reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake) and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy). The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  6. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  7. Analysis of SCRM experience in the area of quality assurance for retrospective EPR dosimetry technique with teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S. V.; Chumak, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is commonly accepted as one of most precise and accurate methods for retrospective dosimetry. At the same time, regularly conducted international Intercomparisons and Inter-calibrations of EPR dosimetry techniques demonstrate the significant scatter of results among laboratories operation in this area. This is mainly caused by the lack of commonly adopted unified technique which would be based on clear and efficient scheme of quality assurance. In the present work we will summarize more than ten-year experience of Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine in the area of EPR dosimetry from the point of view of quality assurance. EPR dosimetry technique with teeth, which was developed and being used in SCRM for routine dosimetry of liquidators is characterized by two-level system of quality assurance. In-house level covers all steps of the technique and allows control and minimizing of uncertainties that arise on separate steps. Extramural level provides the control of reliability and accuracy of technique in whole by means of regular participation in bi- and multi-lateral intercomparisons. Cumulative uncertainty of EPR dosimetry technique determined based on the results of 6 different intercomparisons is 21 mGy for dose below 300 and 11% for dose higher that 300 mGy. (authors)

  8. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  9. Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Quality of Apples from the Major Producing Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang Qu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological conditions are important environmental factors affecting apple quality. To understand the possible impact of climate change on the apple quality of the major producing areas in China and assess the quality of major apple species (e.g., Fuji, Ralls, and Golden Delicious, we studied the variation trends and abrupt change characteristics of six major climate factors affecting seven physicochemical indices of apple quality across five apple regions, including the Loess Plateau, Bohai Bay, the Old Course of the Yellow River, Southwest Highlands, and Xinjiang, using statistical methods, meteorological indices, and the ArcGIS analysis tool based on the meteorological observational data from 1961 to 2013. The results show that the spatial and temporal distributions of annual average temperature, annual sunshine duration, average summer temperature, summer diurnal temperature range, and average summer relative humidity all significantly changed (except annual precipitation and that abrupt changes occurred. The annual temperatures and average summer temperatures in the Loess Plateau apple region and the Liaoning producing region of Bohai Bay increased within optimal ranges. In addition, for high-value regions, the hours of sunshine decreased, helping to improve the fruit shape index, sugar-acid ratio, and vitamin C (VC content. Relatively high temperatures continued to increase to high values which remained lower than the optimal upper limit; the diurnal temperature range continued to decrease; and the sunshine hours significantly decreased within the optimal range, which might have worsened fruit hardness, soluble sugar, and peel anthocyanin in the producing regions of Southwest Shandong of Bohai Bay, Southeast Hebei of the Old Course of the Yellow River, Northern Anhui, and Jiangsu. In the production regions of the Yun-Gui plateau in the Southwest highlands, increased summer temperature and the diurnal temperature range were both within

  10. Factors influencing quality of patient interaction at community pharmacy drive-through and walk-in counselling areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A; Pu, Jia

    2014-08-01

    To examine factors influencing the amount of time and information pharmacy personnel provide to patients at drive-through and walk-in counselling areas. On-site observational data collection in 22 community pharmacies by pharmacy students. Information included observable patient characteristics such as gender, age range, English proficiency and mobility impairment; encounter characteristics included type of prescription and whether the patient was acknowledged; and counselling characteristics included types of counselling information conveyed and length of time for each encounter. Patient-pharmacist encounters were documented at the drive-through and walk-in counselling areas 961 and 1098 times respectively. Pharmacists spent less time, and technicians more time, with patients at the drive-through counselling area. The amount of information provided to patients was significantly affected by whether the patient was receiving new versus refill prescriptions. Patients with a new prescription were twice as likely to receive more information from pharmacy personnel. There was a significant difference between the amount of counselling provided to patients at the drive-through and walk-in counselling area (rate ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.00). Patients at the drive-through received a lower amount of information relative to patients using the walk-in. Amount of information provided to patients was affected by the level of pharmacy busyness (RR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Providing patient care at the drive-through counselling area may negatively influence quality of patient care. To improve quality of pharmacy drive-through services, standardization of drive-through services in pharmacies may be needed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 3 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 15 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 3. WAG 3 is located in Melton Valley, approximately 3,000 ft west of the west gate of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and consists of an estimated 22 acres. The subject site contains three solid waste management units: the Contractors' Landfill, the Closed Scrap Metal Area, and Solid Waste Storage Area 3. The wells at WAG 3 were drilled and developed between September 1987 and August 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 3 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending upon the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 3. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  12. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  13. Shallow groundwater quality and associated non-cancer health risk in agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Sun, Zhanxue; Maier, Sofya; Drebot, Valeriia; Gao, Bai

    2018-03-24

    Owing to their accessibility, shallow groundwater is an essential source of drinking water in rural areas while usually being used without control by authorities. At the same time, this type of water resource is one of the most vulnerable to pollution, especially in regions with extensive agricultural activity. These factors increase the probability of adverse health effects in the population as a result of the consumption of shallow groundwater. In the present research, shallow groundwater quality in the agricultural areas of Poyang Lake basin was assessed according to world and national standards for drinking water quality. To evaluate non-cancer health risk from drinking groundwater, the hazard quotient from exposure to individual chemicals and hazard index from exposure to multiple chemicals were applied. It was found that, in shallow groundwater, the concentrations of 11 components (NO 3 - , NH 4 + , Fe, Mn, As, Al, rare NO 2 - , Se, Hg, Tl and Pb) exceed the limits referenced in the standards for drinking water. According to the health risk assessment, only five components (NO 3 - , Fe, As, rare NO 2 - and Mn) likely provoke non-cancer effects. The attempt to evaluate the spatial distribution of human health risk from exposure to multiple chemicals shows that the most vulnerable area is associated with territory characterised by low altitude where reducing or near-neutral conditions are formed (lower reaches of Xiushui and Ganjiang Rivers). The largest health risk is associated with the immune system and adverse dermal effects.

  14. GROUNDWATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS (GUARANI AQUIFER SYSTEM - GAS, RIO PARDO HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of groundwater in areas of permanent preservation (Guarani Aquifer System – GAS in the Rio Pardo Hydrographical Basin, RS, Brazil, using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, based on resolution no. 396/2008 of the National Council on the Environment - CONAMA. Nine sampling points were distributed throughout the basin, where groundwater was classified as the major ions through the Piper diagram. The results indicated that most of the wells evaluated were classified in Class 4, accounting for water uses less restrictive. However, it should be considered that the aquifers are characterize by different geological conditions, having intrinsical physical, chemical and biological variables with hydrogeochemical variations, requiring that their quality levels are often based on these characteristics, as noted in diagram Piper, where the samples P1, P2, P3, P5 and P9 were classified as calcium bicarbonate, the waters of the points P4, P6, P7 as sodium bicarbonate and P8 as sulfated. It was found that the quality of water from wells with depths less than 6 m are becoming more vulnerable due to anthropogenic activities, as showing by the concentration of nitrate, total and thermotolerant coliforms, while the quality of water from deeper wells basically depends on their hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics based on the concentration of sodium and sulfate variables. However, they also showed contamination by human activities, mainly by the nitrate variable.

  15. Co-benefit analysis of an air quality management plan and greenhouse gas reduction strategies in the Seoul metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO 2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NO x , PM 10 and CO 2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NO x and PM 10 emission reduction. For CO 2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NO x and CO 2 , PM 10 and CO 2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO 2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO 2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO 2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of water quality in harbor areas: a new methodology applied to European ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José A

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a standard and unified procedure for assessment of environmental risks at the contaminant source level in port aquatic systems. Using this method, port managers and local authorities will be able to hierarchically classify environmental hazards and proceed with the most suitable management actions. This procedure combines rigorously selected parameters and indicators to estimate the environmental risk of each contaminant source based on its probability, consequences and vulnerability. The spatio-temporal variability of multiple stressors (agents) and receptors (endpoints) is taken into account to provide accurate estimations for application of precisely defined measures. The developed methodology is tested on a wide range of different scenarios via application in six European ports. The validation process confirms its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a management tool for port water quality in Europe and worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  18. Measuring the Quality of Service in the Financial Area of a Public University: Development and Validation of the Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Alcantar Enríquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, consisting of a descriptive study with a non-experimental design, involved an analysis to determine the validity and reliability of an instrument composed of seventeen items aimed at assessing the quality of service in the financial area of a public university by means of four variables: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness and empathy. The methodological strategy included the design of the measuring instrument; verification of the validity of content and construct; and analysis of internal consistency by means of Cronbach’s alpha. The instrument was applied to 152 users of the service, attaining a reliability coefficient of 0.943. The results show that with respect to specific concepts, the questions were clear; nevertheless we found it necessary to relocate items and rename variables, which resulted in a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the quality of service in the context under study.

  19. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Marutzky, Sam [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

  20. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Marutzky, Sam [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is required by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2013. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2013. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, and publishing documents. In addition, integrated UGTA required reading and corrective action tracking was instituted.

  1. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  2. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  3. MM5 simulations for air quality modeling: An application to a coastal area with complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Princevac, Marko; Mitsutomi, Satoru; Cassmassi, Joe

    A series of modifications were implemented in MM5 simulation in order to account for wind along the Santa Clarita valley, a north-south running valley located in the north of Los Angeles. Due to high range mountains in the north and the east of the Los Angeles Air Basin, sea breeze entering Los Angeles exits into two directions. One branch moves toward the eastern part of the basin and the other to the north toward the Santa Clarita valley. However, the northward flow has not been examined thoroughly nor simulated successfully in the previous studies. In the present study, we proposed four modifications to trigger the flow separation. They were (1) increasing drag over the ocean, (2) increasing soil moisture content, (3) selective observational nudging, and (4) one-way nesting for the innermost domain. The Control run overpredicted near-surface wind speed over the ocean and sensible heat flux, in an urbanized area, which justifies the above 1st and 2nd modification. The Modified run provided an improvement in near-surface temperature, sensible heat flux and wind fields including southeasterly flow along the Santa Clarita valley. The improved MM5 wind field triggered a transport to the Santa Clarita valley generating a plume elongated from an urban center to the north, which did not exist in MM5 Control run. In all, the modified MM5 fields yielded better agreement in both CO and O3 simulations especially in the Santa Clarita area.

  4. The analytical quality control programme of the IAEA: Areas of common interest with the ICRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    The IAEA has been distributing calibrated radioisotope solutions, standard reference materials and intercomparison materials since the early 1960's. The purpose of this activity has been to help laboratories in its member states to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work in the field of nuclear technology and of isotope utilisation. The scope and the size of this programme which is co-ordinated by the chemistry section of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf but receives input also from other sections of the Agency, including the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, has been delineated by several panels of experts and consultant's meetings which have made detailed recommendations in their areas of expertise. It is on the basis of these recommendations that the programme has developed, changed its emphasis, and grown over the years since its inception.

  5. Can wood quality justify local preferences for firewood in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Medeiros, Patricia Muniz de; Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos de; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino de [Laboratorio de Etnobotanica Aplicada, Departamento de Biologia, Area de Botanica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmaos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Feliciano, Ana Licia Patriota [Departamento de Ciencia Florestal, Area de Silvicultura, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmaos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    Studies have been undertaken in many parts of the world to evaluate the qualities of fuelwood, but rarely is this information associated with an examination of the preferences of the local populations. As such, the present study sought to address the question of whether local preferences for fuelwoods can be explained by the physical characteristics of the wood itself. To that end, the residents of 102 domiciles in a rural community in NE Brazil were interviewed and a list was compiled of all the plants used and preferred for domestic use. These woods were subsequently analyzed to determine their density, water content, and Fuel Value Index (FVI). Although a total of 67 species were identified by the residents, only 14 were described as being preferred - due to their great number of desirable attributes for cooking. The density, humidity, and FVI of 38 species used and/or preferred were determined. A significant relationship (p<0.05) was noted between plants with the highest FVIs and the most preferred fuelwood plants in the region, indicating that local preference could be explained by the physical properties that were examined. (author)

  6. Strategies for Improving the Quality of Polling Service in Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of service types are defined in IEEE 802.16. In order to provide the Quality of Service (Qos for different services, the system must use a reasonable resource allocation method and scheduling algorithm to efficiently and fairly allocate bandwidth resources. Although in the IEEE 802.16 MAC, for the uplink real-time polling service (rtPS and non-real-time polling service (nrtPS business type of data transmission are used to polling, but do not provide business-based services. In this paper, the distinction between priority service of rtPS and nrtPS is carried out, and the simulation experiment is used to analyze the performance characteristics of the protocol under the distinction of high and low priority. Wherein the theoretical values of the average delay and the information packets are compared with the experimental values. The average query cycle and throughput are also evaluated. Which proves the validity of the improved service strategy and improves the service characteristics of the system.

  7. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  8. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  9. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  10. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened.

  11. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  12. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area. The Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter technique used to separate different scales of motion in a time series, is applied in the current study for maximum daily 8-hr (MDA8) ozone concentrations at an urban site (EPA AQS Site ID: 48-201-0024, Aldine) in the HGB area. This site located within 10 miles of downtown Houston and the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, was selected for developing long-term meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone trends for the years 1990-2016. Results from this study indicate a consistent decrease in meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone between 2000-2016. This pattern could be partially attributed to a reduction in underlying NO X emissions, particularly that of lowering nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels, and a decrease in the release of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC). Results also suggest solar radiation to be most strongly correlated to ozone, with temperature being the secondary meteorological control variable. Relative humidity and wind speed have tertiary influence at this site. This study observed that meteorological variability accounts for a high of 61% variability in baseline ozone (low-frequency component, sum of long-term and seasonal components), while 64% of the change in long-term MDA8 ozone post-2000 could be attributed to NO X emissions reduction. Long-term MDA8 ozone trend component was estimated to be decreasing at a linear rate of 0.412 ± 0.007 ppb/yr for the years 2000-2016, and 0.155

  13. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  14. Will heavy metals in the soils of newly submerged areas threaten the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhixin; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Soil heavy metal contents were measured in newly submerged areas of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. We aimed to determine the heavy metal distribution in this area and the associated ecological risk. Most of these heavy metal contents (except Pb and Mn) suggest enrichment compared with the background values of soils from Henan Province, especially As and Cd with mean geo-accumulation index (I geo ) values of 0.84 and 0.54. The spatial analysis results indicated that the highest heavy metal contents were distributed in the arable soils above 160m elevation, whereas low heavy metal contents were observed under other land-use types above 160m elevation. According to I geo and EF values, Cd was the major heavy metal contaminant in the newly submerged area, Cr, Pb and Mn mainly originated from natural geochemical sources. In contrast, Ni, Cd, As, Cu, and Zn mainly originated from anthropogenic sources. Evaluation using the potential ecological risk (PER) method indicated that PER of individual elements were low in the studied soils, and the comprehensive PER index was at a moderate level, indicating heavy metals in the soils of newly submerged areas may not threaten the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir, especially in winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  16. Modeling of wastewater quality in an urban area during festival and rainy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, H A; Shahid, S; Basim, K N; Chelliapan, S

    2015-01-01

    Water pollution during festival periods is a major problem in all festival cities across the world. Reliable prediction of water pollution is essential in festival cities for sewer and wastewater management in order to ensure public health and a clean environment. This article aims to model the biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), and total suspended solids (TSS) parameters in wastewater in the sewer networks of Karbala city center during festival and rainy days using structural equation modeling and multiple linear regression analysis methods. For this purpose, 34 years (1980-2014) of rainfall, temperature and sewer flow data during festival periods in the study area were collected, processed, and employed. The results show that the TSS concentration increases by 26-46 mg/l while BOD(5) concentration rises by 9-19 mg/l for an increase of rainfall by 1 mm during festival periods. It was also found that BOD(5) concentration rises by 4-17 mg/l for each increase of 10,000 population.

  17. Quality of diabetic care in an urban slum area of Mysore: A community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Chandresh, Swathi; Ashok, N C; Basavanagowdappa, H; Rama, H V

    2016-01-01

    Community based cross sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Mysore. Data was collected between July and August 2011. Known diabetics residing in this area were included in the study. Socio-demographic information of diabetic patients, history, physicians advice and the extent of compliance of patients towards treatment were assessed. Descriptive statistics, like percentages were calculated. Study comprised of 104 patients. Mean fasting and post prandial blood glucose was 163±70mg/dl and 239±89mg/dl respectively. Common co-morbid conditions were hypertension and obesity. Key process indicators of care, indicated that adherence to medication advice was maximum and less than one fourth of them had an annual Hba1c and lipid profile examinations. To prevent long term complications associated with diabetes, doctors must adhere to the guidelines. There is a need to improve the health system, in terms of developing facilities to provide annual eye examination, annual lipid profile, urea, creatinine testing for diabetic patient. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 22 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. WAG 5 is located south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory main plant area in Melton Valley and includes 33 solid waste management units. The wells at WAG 5 were drilled and developed between July 1987 and March 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 5. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  19. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 15 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. WAG 4 is comprised of about 27 acres located in Melton Valley approximately 2700 ft southwest of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory main plant. It contains three inactive solid waste management units: (1) the abandoned intermediate level liquid waste transfer line located along the WAG's northwestern boundary, (2) the experimental pilot pit area, and (3) SWSA 4, the largest unit in the WAG. The wells at WAG 4 were drilled and developed between September 1987 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE), state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 4 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 4. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  20. Monitoring of air and precipitation quality in the boarder areas of Norway and Russia, April 1997 - March 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Leif Otto; Siversen, Bjarne; Arnesen, Kari; Innset, Bodil

    1999-11-01

    Air pollution measurements at Soer-Varanger have been carried out since 1974. In Norway the highest SO 2 concentrations are determined in this area at present. On the Russian side there were even higher concentrations. At the three measuring points in the border areas the recommended air quality criteria and SO 2 limiting values were exceeded in the summer months of 1997 and during the winter 1997/98. Norway is placing necessary measuring equipment at disposal to the Russian stations. Measuring program: The studies are part of a State program for pollution surveillance and the Norwegian and Russian bilateral environment co-operation efforts. The studies included meteorological conditions, air and precipitation quality in the period of April 1997 to March 1998. The air quality determinations on the Norwegian side included SO 2 at Svanvik and meteorological conditions at the Viksjoefjell and Svanvik. In 1995 previous measurements of SO 2 at the Viksjoefjell were finished. The precipitation quality was measured at Svanvik and the Karpdalen. Analysis of heavy metals is carried out only for the tests from Svanvik. In addition the Norwegian Meteorological Institute has made determinations at the Kirkenes airport (Hoeybuktmoen). On the Russian side SO 2 concentrations were measured at Maajavri and Nikel. The hydrometeorological institute in Murmansk has studied the meteorological conditions at Nikel and Jaeniskoski as well. The joint Norwegian-Russian study program in the border areas has lasted since January 1990. The program includes propagation calculations using different types of models for determining pollution concentrations over distances up to 100 km from the emission sources. The parties have access to the necessary emission data and the meteorological data. Meteorology: The meteorological measurements at Soer-Varanger include wind directions, wind force, temperature and stability conditions at Svanvik and at the Viksjoefjell as well as relative humidity at the

  1. Social participation, willingness and quality of life: A population-based study among older adults in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Cui, Yanjie; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Li, Jie; Li, Yuancheng; Lv, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to reflect the current situation of social participation in rural areas of China, willingness to participate in social activities, association between health-related quality of life and social participation, and factors related to social participation. A total of 2644 rural adults aged 60 years and older were randomly selected and surveyed with a self-rating questionnaire. We used the unified definition of social participation in our study. The Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey was used to measure health-related quality of life. The overall engagement of social activities was 26%. Those who participated in social activities were more likely to have high scores of health-related quality of life. Older men with a high educational level (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12), high objective social support (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17) and high support utilization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) were inclined to engage in social participation. Older women with high individual income (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.43), single marital status (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), normal weight (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.34), overweight (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.24-4.19), living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), objective social support (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18) and subjective social support (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) were more willing to engage in social participation. Engagement in social activities is relatively low in rural areas, and associations of willingness and health-related quality of life with social participation were found. Policy-makers and government workers should make appropriate types of encouragement policies around social participation for older adults in rural areas. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1593-1602. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Land use effects on quality and quantity aspects of water resources in headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zuccari, M. L.; Ferracini, V. L.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Green, T. R.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Reis, L. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of the recent drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with two Brazilian universities (USP/CENA and UNIFAL) planned a research project, called BaCaJa, to understand the hydrobiogeochemistry processes that occur in small catchments (management of water resources in this region. Sampling stations were established on rivers and streams ranging from one to five order channels as well as selected small catchments to conduct studies on overland flow, soil solution, soil quality, aquatic biota and pesticide dynamic. The research team is huge and their goals are specific, diverse and complementary, being summed up as: characterize land use, topography and soils; evaluate erosive potential in agriculture areas; measure soil carbon and nitrogen contents; characterize hydrogeochemistry fluxes; apply hydrological modeling and simulate different land use and management scenarios; monitor possible pesticides contamination; and survey macro invertebrates as indicators of water quality. Based on a synthesis of the results, the project team intends to point out the environmental impacts and contribute recommendations of management for the focused region to conserve water resources in terms of quality and quantity.

  3. CVD growth of large-area and high-quality HfS2 nanoforest on diverse substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binjie; Wang, Zegao; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Yuanfu

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted burgeoning attention due to their various properties and wide potential applications. As a new TMD, hafnium disulfide (HfS2) is theoretically predicted to have better electrical performance than widely studied MoS2. The experimental researches also confirmed the extraordinary feature in electronics and optoelectronics. However, the maximal device performance may not be achieved due to its own limitation of planar structure and challenge of transfer without contamination. Here, through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, inch-size HfS2 nanoforest has been directly grown on diverse objective substrates covering insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates. This direct CVD growth without conventional transfer process avoids contamination and degradation in quality, suggesting its promising and wide applications in high-quality and multifarious devices. It is noted that all the HfS2 nanoforests grown on diverse substrates are constructed with vertically aligned few-layered HfS2 nanosheets with high crystalline quality and edge orientation. Moreover, due to its unique structure, the HfS2 nanoforest owns abundant exposed edge sites and large active surface area, which is essential to apply in high-performance catalyst, sensor, and energy storage or field emitter.

  4. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Camilo; Murcia, Diana J.; Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn; Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  5. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Camilo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Murcia, Diana J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Quality and Safety Office, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S. [Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of drinking water quality using ICP-MS and microbiological methods in the Bholakpur area, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Rasheed M; Mutnuri, Lakshmi; Dattatreya, Patil J; Mohan, Dayal A

    2012-03-01

    A total of 16 people died and over 500 people were hospitalized due to diarrhoeal illness in the Bholakpur area of Hyderabad, India on 6th May 2009. A study was conducted with immediate effect to evaluate the quality of municipal tap water of the Bholakpur locality. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 7.14 to 8.72, EC 455 to 769 μS/cm, TDS 303.51 to 515.23 ppm and DO 1.01 to 6.83 mg/L which are within WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analyzed for 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of Fe (0.12 to 1.13 mg/L), Pb (0.01 to 0.07 mg/L), Cu (0.01 to 0.19 mg/L), Ni (0.01 to 0.15 mg/L), Al (0.16 to 0.49 mg/L), and Na (38.36 to 68.69 mg/L) were obtained, which exceed the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water quality guidelines. The remaining elements were within the permissible limits. The microbiological quality of water was tested using standard plate count, membrane filtration technique, thermotolerant coliform (TTC), and most probable number (MPN) methods. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 1.0 × 10(5) to 18 × 10(7 )cfu/ml. Total viable bacteria in all the water samples were found to be too numerable to count and total number of coliform bacteria in all water samples were found to be of order of 1,100 to >2,400 MPN index/100 ml. TTC tested positive for coliform bacteria at 44.2°C. All the water samples of the study area exceeded the permissible counts of WHO and that (zero and minimal counts) of the control site (National Geophysical Research Institute) water samples. Excessively high colony numbers indicate

  7. Water quality assessment in the Bétaré-Oya gold mining area (East-Cameroon): Multivariate Statistical Analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondrabe, Felaniaina; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Mfonka, Zakari; Rasolomanana, Eddy Harilala; Nyangono Abolo, Alexis Jacob; Ako Ako, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The influence of gold mining activities on the water quality in the Mari catchment in Bétaré-Oya (East Cameroon) was assessed in this study. Sampling was performed within the period of one hydrological year (2015 to 2016), with 22 sampling sites consisting of groundwater (06) and surface water (16). In addition to measuring the physicochemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity, suspended solids and CN - , eleven major elements (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - , HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- and F - ) and eight heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, As, Mn and Cr) were also analyzed using conventional hydrochemical methods, Multivariate Statistical Analysis and the Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI). The results showed that the water from Mari catchment and Lom River was acidic to basic (5.40water quality, except for nitrates in some wells, which was found at a concentration >50mg NO 3 - /L. This water was found as two main types: calcium magnesium bicarbonate (CaMg-HCO 3 ), which was the most represented, and sodium bicarbonate potassium (NaK-HCO 3 ). As for trace elements in surface water, the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr and Fe were higher than recommended by the WHO guidelines, and therefore, the surface water was unsuitable for human consumption. Three phenomena were responsible for controlling the quality of the water in the study area: hydrolysis of silicate minerals of plutono-metamorphic rocks, which constitute the geological basement of this area; vegetation and soil leaching; and mining activities. The high concentrations of TSS and trace elements found in this basin were mainly due to gold mining activities (exploration and exploitation) as well as digging of rivers beds, excavation and gold amalgamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  9. Hydrochemical characterization and quality evaluation of groundwater in parts of the basement complex area of ekiti, southwestern nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.A.; Niyi, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Well water (88 samples) were collected across various bedrock units in the basement terrain of Ekiti area, Southwestern Nigeria. They were subjected to in-situ physico-chemical measurement and hydrochemical analyses using lC-OES and ion-chromatography methods for cations and anions, respectively. To understand the water quality and utilisation aspects of groundwater, chemical indices like sodium %, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Wilcox diagram and salinity diagram were constructed based on the analytical results. The results show pH values ranging between 6.0-7.8 and total hardness (TH) 3.2-508.7 mg/L. Major cations concentrations were in the order of Ca2 >K/sup +/>Na >Mg with average values of 28.5, 26.8, 24.2 and 7.9 mg/L, respectively while that of the anions were HCO >Cl >SO/sub 4/sup 2/ >NO/sub 3/ with average values of 118.7, 54.2, 23.8 and 0.92 mg/L. The main hydrochemical facies being Ca-HCO/sub 3/ waters. The ionic orders of abundance varied in different rocks of the study area. These concentration trends show a low total dissolved solids (130-1544 microS/cm) indicating a low water-rock interaction due to low residence time which is an indication of CO/sub 2/ dominated infiltration recharge with limited migratory history typical of the shallow basement terrain in the study area. Quality assessment revealed a potable groundwater system with chemical parameters within the acceptable limits of the WHO and SON drinking water standards with exception of Fe, Mn and Pb in a couple of locations. Also, the estimated SAR alongside TDS revealed a shallow groundwater system suitable for irrigation purpose. (author)

  10. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  11. Evaluation of seasonal variation of water quality using multivariate statistical analysis and irrigation parameter indices in Ajakanga area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiyu, S. A.; Badmus, B. S.; Olurin, O. T.; Ojekunle, Z. O.

    2018-03-01

    The variation of groundwater quality across different regions is of great importance in the study of groundwater so as to ascertain the sources of contaminants to available water sources. Geochemical assessment of groundwater samples from hand-dug wells were done within the vicinity of Ajakanga dumpsite, Ibadan, Southwestern, Nigeria, with the aim of assessing their suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Ten groundwater samples were collected both in dry and wet seasons for analysis of physicochemical parameters such as: pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3^{ - } Cl-, SO4^{2 - }, NO3^{2 - } principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to determine probable sources of groundwater contamination. The results of the analyses showed the groundwater samples to be within permissible limits of WHO/NSDWQ, while elevated values of concentrations of most analyzed chemical constituents in water samples were noticed in S1 and S10 due to their nearness to the dumpsite and agricultural overflow, respectively. Groundwater in the study area is of hard, fresh and alkaline nature. There are very strong associations between EC and TDS, HCO3^{ - } and CO3^{2 - } in both seasons. PCA identified five and three major factors accounting for 95.7 and 88.7% of total variation in water quality for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA also identified factors influencing water quality as those probably related to mineral dissolution, groundwater-rock interaction, weathering process and anthropogenic activities from the dumpsite. Results of CA show groups based on similar water quality characteristics and on the extent of proximity to the dumpsite. Assessment for irrigation purpose showed that most of the water samples were suitable for agricultural purpose except in a few locations.

  12. Effects of land use patterns on stream water quality: a case study of a small-scale watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhilin; Han, Liyang; Zeng, Lixiong; Xiao, Wenfa; Tian, Yaowu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have considered the relationship between the spatial configuration of land use and water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Using land use types, landscape metrics, and long-term water quality data, as well as statistical and spatial analysis, we determined that most water quality parameters were negatively correlated with non-wood forest and urban areas but were strongly positively correlated with the proportion of forest area. Landscape indices such as patch density, contagion, and the Shannon diversity index were able to predict some water quality indicators, but the mean shape index was not significantly related to the proportions of farmland and water in the study area. Regression relationships were stronger in spring and fall than in summer, and relationships with nitrogen were stronger than those of the other water quality parameters (R(2) > 0.80) in all three seasons. Redundancy analysis showed that declining stream water quality was closely associated with configurations of urban, agricultural, and forest areas and with landscape fragmentation (PD) caused by urbanization and agricultural activities. Thus, a rational land use plan of adjusting the land use type, controlling landscape fragmentation, and increasing the proportion of forest area would help to achieve a healthier river ecosystem in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA).

  13. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  14. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  15. Socio-Economic Conditions and Quality of Life in the Tribal Areas of Orissa with Special Reference to Mayurbhanj District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr N.C. Jana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odisha (previously known as Orissa, being socio-economically backward but culturally sound, is one of the important states in Eastern India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal districts (according to Location Quotient value and of the total population (41,947,358 in 2011 a significant share (22.1% goes to tribal people (8,145,081in 2011. This tribal group of Odisha has special significance because they are one of the most backward and geographically isolated communities. That’s why their life style and economy is confined to the direct utilization of natural resources, pre-agricultural level of technology and specific indigenous type of work. But now with the emergence of industry and market economy, the age-old relationship between tribes and nature has disturbed. Keeping this in backdrop, the present study tried to explore the changing scenario of socio-economic condition in the tribal areas of Odisha. In this regard, various socio-economic indicators have been analyzed and compared for representing district-level patterns of quality of life and finding out the variation among the Primitive tribal households in the study area. In addition, Mayurbhanj has also been taken as a case study to represent the socio-economic condition and quality of life at the block level. It may be pointed out in this context that out of 30 districts in Odisha, according to Location Quotient value Mayurbhanj is the highest tribal concentrated district. The overall objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of disparities and variations in socio-economic status in Odisha as well as in Mayurbhanj and also find out some remedial measures to overcome the problems to bring the Primitive tribal community in the main stream of the society. Maps have been prepared on the above-mentioned indicators based on secondary data using Arc-GIS 9.3. From the analysis of the health-related indicators it is clear from the analysis that the quality of life

  16. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  17. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  18. Biological water-quality assessment of selected streams in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area of Wisconsin, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the water quality of stream ecosystems in an urban area may manifest in conspicuous ways, such as in murky or smelly streamwater, or in less conspicuous ways, such as fewer native or pollution-sensitive organisms. In 2004, and again in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled stream organisms—algae, invertebrates, and fish—in 14 Milwaukee area streams to assess water quality as part of the ongoing Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study. In addition, passive-sampling devices (SPMDs, “semipermeable membrane devices”) were deployed at a subset of sites in order to evaluate the potential exposure of stream organisms to certain toxic chemicals. Results of the 2007 sampling effort are the focus of this report. Results of sampling from 2007 are compared with results from 2004. The water quality of sampled streams was assessed by evaluating biological-assemblage data, metrics computed from assemblage data, and an aggregate bioassessment ranking method that combined data for algae, invertebrates, and fish. These data contain information about the abundance (number) of different species in each group of stream organisms and the balance between species that can or cannot tolerate polluted or disturbed conditions. In 2007, the highest numbers of algal, invertebrate, and fish species were found at the Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, the largest sampled site. Algal results indicated water quality concerns at 10 of the 14 sampled sites due to the occurrence of nuisance algae or low percentages of pollution-sensitive algae. When compared to 2004, total algal biovolume was higher in 2007 at 12 of 14 sites, due mostly to more nuisance green algae from unknown causes. Results of several metrics, including the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI-10), suggest that invertebrate assemblages in the Little Menomonee River, Underwood Creek, and Honey Creek were poorer quality in 2007 compared to 2004. Six sites received “very poor” quality ratings for

  19. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality.

  20. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality

  1. Growth of high-quality large-area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckly, B H; Ruby, W S

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB 2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB 2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB 2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials up to 4 inch in diameter. This technique allows growth of double-sided, large-area films in the intermediate temperature range of 400-600 deg. C. These films are clean, well-connected, and consistently display T c values of 38-39 K with low resistivity and residual resistivity values. They are also robust and uncommonly stable upon exposure to atmosphere and water. (rapid communication)

  2. The effect of a disastrous flood on the quality of life in Dongting lake area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H Z; Luo, Y J; Wen, S W; Liu, A Z; Li, S Q; Yang, T B; Sun, Z Q

    2004-01-01

    We carried out an epidemiological study to assess the impact of flood on the quality of life (QOL) of residents in the affected areas in China. We used a natural experiment approach, randomly selected 494 adults from 18 villages, which suffered from flooding as a result of embankments collapsing, 473 adults from 16 villages, which suffered from, soaked flood, and 773 adults from 11 villages without flood (control group). We used the Generic QOL Inventory-74 (GQOLI-74), social support scale, and questionnaires to assess the QOL of all study participants. The QOL was significantly poorer in soaked group (58.4) and (especially) in collapsed group (55.1) than in control group (59.5, pintrovert personality, and residents with adverse life-events, whereas social support and extrovert personalities offset the negative impact of flood on QOL.

  3. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Selected Boreholes in Ohaozara and Ivo Council Areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omaka, O.N.; Offor, I.F.; Igwe, D. O.; Ugochukwu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater quality in study areas was evaluated by measuring the physicochemical parameters including selected ions in water samples collected from 12 boreholes in Akaeze, Okposi and Uburu towns of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in April, 2013 and analysed using standard methods. Results obtained showed that, except for AS/sup 5+/ content, all other parameters investigated fall within WHO standards for potable water. Regression analysis showed that conductivity, SO/sub 4/ /sup 2-/ and As/sup 5+/ levels are important variables in predicting the TDS values of the samples while NO/sub 3/ /sup -/, Cl/sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 3-/ and TDS are important in predicting the As/sup 5+/ content of the water samples. One-way ANOVA at P < 0.05 showed Fcal (1.862) > Ftab (0.619), implying a significant difference between the parameters for all locations. (author)

  4. Soil Extracellular Enzymes from Brazilian Cerrado as Quality Bioindicators in Agricultural Areas in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leciana de Menezes Sousa Zago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of native Cerrado areas for the implementation of crops alters the physicochemical properties and biochemistry of soil. In this study we sought to understand the effect of seasonality and management used for planting sugarcane on the activity of hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Cerrado native soil samples and soil converted to sugarcane crops under different management underwent physical-chemical assessment, biological and biochemistry. The implementation of monocultures in Brazilian Cerrado caused reductions in the amount of organic matter and organic carbon in relation to the native vegetation, which in turn reflected in decreased biological activity in the soil. Thus, it was found that hydrolases and oxidoreductases are sensitive to the caused variations in drought and rain events, and in the vegetation cover and management used for the implementation of sugarcane. Therefore soil hydrolases and oxidoreductases can be used as quality bioindicators in the Cerrado soils of Goiás.

  5. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  6. The impact of a fast track area on quality and effectiveness outcomes: a Middle Eastern emergency department perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devkaran, Subashnie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a ubiquitous problem with serious public health implications. The fast track area is a novel method which aims to reduce waiting time, patient dissatisfaction and morbidity. |The study objective was to determine the impact of a fast track area (FTA) on both effectiveness measures (i.e. waiting times [WT] and length of stay [LOS]) and quality measures (i.e. LWBS rates and mortality rates) in non-urgent patients. The secondary objective was to assess if a FTA negatively impacted on urgent patients entering the ED. METHODS: The study took place in a 500 bed, urban, tertiary care hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This was a quasi-experimental, which examined the impact of a FTA on a pre-intervention control group (January 2005) (n = 4,779) versus a post-intervention study group (January 2006) (n = 5,706). RESULTS: Mean WTs of Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) 4 patients decreased by 22 min (95% CI 21 min to 24 min, P < 0.001). Similarly, mean WTs of CTAS 5 patients decreased by 28 min (95% CI 19 min to 37 min, P < 0.001) post FTA. The mean WTs of urgent patients (CTAS 2\\/3) were also significantly reduced after the FTA was opened (P < 0.001). The LWBS rate was reduced from 4.7% to 0.7% (95% CI 3.37 to 4.64; P < 0.001). Opening a FTA had no significant impact on mortality rates (P = 0.88). CONCLUSION: The FTA improved ED effectiveness (WTs and LOS) and quality measures (LWBS rates) whereas mortality rate remained unchanged.

  7. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Nabarun; Majumdar, Somak; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Das, Sulagna

    2017-01-01

    During menopausal transition, there is a lot of fluctuation in the hormone levels making the peri and postmenopausal women susceptible to various mental and physical disorders. There is considerably lack of awareness about the effects of the menopausal symptoms in women in India. Studies on issues relating to menopause, especially among rural women, are also lacking. With this background, the current study was carried out in a rural area of West Bengal with the objective to assess the quality of life (QOL) of peri-menopausal women. The study was carried out among 100 peri and postmenopausal women (40-60 years) in Dearah village of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health during February-March 2014. The questionnaire used as study tool had two parts - Part 1: Sociodemographic characteristics. Part 2: About QOL due to menopausal symptoms based on four domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual) using the 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Occurrence of vasomotor symptoms was average with 60% of them reporting hot flushes and 47% sweating. Most prevalent psychosocial symptoms reported were feeling of anxiety and nervousness (94%) and overall depression (88%). Physical symptoms were quite varying in occurrence with some symptoms such as feeling tired or worn out, decrease in physical strength and lack of energy occurring in 93% of the women to only 5% suffering from growth of facial hair. Overall sexual changes were reported among 49% who reported of avoiding intimacy with a partner and 26% complained of vaginal dryness. The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  8. Monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River in the mining area of Vetas and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Vladimir Illich

    2004-01-01

    The regional autonomous corporation for the defense of the Bucaramanga plateau, environmental authority in the area of influence of the Mining District of Vetas and California, exercises among other activities, the pursuit and control to the auriferous exploitations. Two of the components of this pursuit are: the monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River, final receiver of the effusions coming from of the mineral benefit and the discharges control of cyanidation sand or cyanidation lines, by means of the monthly programming of daily discharges for mining company; in order to diminish the events of high cyanide concentrations in the hydraulic averages and to reduce the cyanide consumptions for the recovery of gold. The mining exploitations of the municipality pour their residuals to the Vetas River, while those of the Municipality of California, pour them to the gulch La Baja, flowing of the Vetas River who in turn is flowing of the Surata River, that supplies a part of the system of aqueduct of the Bucaramanga Municipality. The water quality of mining effusions is determined in three monitored points on the gulch La Baja, the Vetas River and the Surata River; additionally it is made a sampling and analysis of silts in four points on the same currents. The sampling frequency for the water quality is monthly, while for the silts analysis is biweekly. This monitoring is carried out from the year 1988, although it has suffered some interruptions in the time. The technique of water sampling is punctual, integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, the taking of silts is punctual and integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, these samples are preserved and transported to the laboratory of waters and soils of the CDMB, where the following parameters are analyzed: for the water sample, mercury, free cyanide and total cyanide, suspended solids, turbidity, pH and conductivity; for the sample of silts only mercury is analyzed

  9. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report is required by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities from October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014 (fiscal year [FY] 2014). All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2014. The activities included conducting oversight assessments for QAP compliance, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, and publishing documents. UGTA Activity participants conducted 25 assessments on topics including safe operations, QAP compliance, activity planning, and sampling. These assessments are summarized in Section 2.0. Corrective actions tracked in FY 2014 are presented in Appendix A. Laboratory performance was evaluated based on three approaches: (1) established performance evaluation programs (PEPs), (2) interlaboratory comparisons, or (3) data review. The results of the laboratory performance evaluations, and interlaboratory comparison results are summarized in Section 4.0. The UGTA Activity published three public documents and a variety of other publications in FY 2014. The titles, dates, and main authors are identified in Section 5.0. The Contract Managers, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Leads, Preemptive Review (PER) Committee members, and Topical Committee members are listed by name and organization in Section 6.0. Other activities that affected UGTA quality are discussed in Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides the FY 2014 UGTA QA program conclusions, and Section 9.0 lists the references not identified in Section 5.0.

  10. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  11. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  12. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell tank waste management Area U at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (WMA U) includes the U Tank Farm, is currently regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations, and is scheduled for closure probably post-2030. Groundwater monitoring has been under an evaluation program that compared general contaminant indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from upgradient wells. One of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in one downgradient well triggering a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The objective of the first phase of this assessment program is to determine whether the increased concentrations of nitrate and chromium in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Based on the results of the first determination, if WMA U is not the source of contamination, then the site will revert to detection monitoring. If WMA U is the source, then a second part of the groundwater quality assessment plan will be prepared to define the rate and extent of migration of contaminants in the groundwater and their concentrations

  13. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Upper Waste Areas Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of seven groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Upper Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2. Upper WAG 2 is composed of portions of White Oak Creek (WOC), Melton Branch, two of Melton Branch's tributaries, and the floodplains surrounding these water bodies. The WOC section of the subject site begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends 0.62 mile upstream to the 7,500 bridge. The Melton Branch portion of the site also begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends eastward 0.88 mile upstream. The wells at Upper WAG 2 were drilled and developed between December 1989 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at Upper WAG-2. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  14. Listening to the Patient: Women Veterans' Insights About Health Care Needs, Access, and Quality in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Dailey, Nancy K; Bair, Byron D; Shore, Jay H

    2016-09-01

    Many work to ensure that women veterans receive appropriate and timely health care, yet the needs of those living in rural areas are often ignored. This is a critical oversight given the multitude of reports documenting rural access problems and health disparities. Lacking this, we are unable to plan for and evaluate appropriate care for this specific group. In this project, we spoke with rural women veterans to document service needs and quality of care from their perspective. Rural women veterans' views about health care access and quality were ascertained in a series of five, semistructured focus groups (n = 35) and completion of a demographic questionnaire. Content analysis documented focus-group themes. Participants said that local dental, mental health, and gender-specific care options were needed, as well as alternative healing options. Community-based support for women veterans and interaction with female peers were absent. Participants' support for telehealth was mixed, as were requests for gender-specific care. Personal experiences in the military impacted participants' current service utilization. Action by both Veterans Affairs and the local community is vital to improving the health of women veterans. Service planning should consider additional Veterans Affairs contracts, mobile health vans, peer support, and enhanced outreach. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. What makes a city? Planning for "quality of place" : The case of high-speed train station area redevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban quality is generally considered increasingly important for urban competitiveness. Nevertheless, large urban redevelopment schemes often fail to provide sufficient quality from a user's perspective. This study therefore investigates the role of urban quality in large-scale urban redevelopment,

  16. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  17. Quality Assurance Plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This quality assurance plan summarizes requirements for conducting work on the Upper East 9 Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA). The reader is referred to the Expanded Task Work Agreement for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for details regarding the activities, roles, and responsibilities summarized here. UEFPC is designated a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site and thus requires a remedial investigation (RI) and a feasibility study (FS). The RI objectives are to evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminates, to provide data to perform baseline ecological and human health risk assessments, and to support development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the FS,. Existing data will be used as much as possible. Additional sampling may be required to fill data gaps. The goal of the RI is to prioritize the major sources of contaminants to exit pathways and to understand their characteristics for risk characterization and development of remedial alternatives. The FS objectives are to investigate technologies and develop and evaluate alternatives based on 2031 CERCLA guidance

  18. MULTIPLE BIOMARKER RESPONSE IN THE MUSSEL, PERNA PERNA TO ASSESS THE MARINE QUALITY IN THE BIG CASABLANCA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the marine environment quality in the Big Casablanca area. A number of biochemical markers were measured in the brown mussel, Perna perna, sampled from four sampling sites characterized by a different degree of contamination and human impacts. As biochemical indices; Catalase (CAT, Glutathione S-transferase (GST, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, as well as Malondialdehyde (MDA and Metallothioneine (MT were evaluated in whole soft tissues of mussels collected from the selected sites. The biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. Our data indicated that CAT and GST activity, MDA and MT concentration in whole mussel bodies, are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted sites when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In contrary the response of AChE activity was significantly (p<0.05 inhibited in mussels from polluted sites when compared to control values. The multiple biomarker responses obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site1 and Site2 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  19. ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Konieczny

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.

  20. Water quality decline in coastal aquifers under anthropic pressure: the case of a suburban area of Dakar (Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Viviana; Cissé Faye, Seynabou; Faye, Abdoulaye; Faye, Serigne; Gaye, Cheikh Becaye; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the unregulated increase of the population in coastal areas of developing countries has become source of concern for both water supply and quality control. In the region of Dakar (Senegal), approximately 80% of water resources come from groundwater reservoirs, which are increasingly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The identification of the main sources of pollution, and thus the aquifer vulnerability, is essential to provide a sound basis for the implementation of long-term geochemically based water management plans in this sub-Saharan area. With this aim, a hydrochemical and isotopic survey on 26 wells was performed in the so-called Peninsula of Cap-Vert. Results show that seawater intrusion represents the main process affecting groundwater chemical characteristics. Nitrates often exceed the World Health Organization drinking water limits: stable isotopes of dissolved nitrate (δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O) indicate urban sewage and fertilizers as a major source of contamination. Results depict a complex situation in which groundwater is affected by direct and indirect infiltration of effluents, mixing with seawater and freshening processes from below. Besides the relevance of the investigation at a regional level, it represents a basis for decision-making processes in an integrated water resources management and in the planning of similar monitoring strategies for other urban coastal regions.

  1. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  4. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  5. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  6. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  7. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  8. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  9. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  10. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  11. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were

  12. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 36 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2015 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2015.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 25 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2015. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.38 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,400,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2015; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,000 to 54,000 kilograms per square mile and from 12,000 to 91

  13. Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

    2014-05-01

    Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own

  14. Improvement of Hydraulic and Water Quality Renovation Functions by Intermittent Aeration of Soil Treatment Areas in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Kalen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS at three state-owned medical group homes in Washington County, RI, USA. Testing was conducted in two phases, with Phase I (before intermittent soil aeration (ISA comprising the first 6 months of the study, and Phase II (during ISA the remaining 7 months. Intermittent soil aeration restored STA hydraulic function in all three systems despite a marked reduction in the STA total infiltrative surface. Soil pore water was collected from 30 and 90 cm below the STA during both phases and analyzed for standard wastewater parameters. Although the STA infiltrative surface was reduced—and the contaminant load per unit of area increased—after installation of the ISA system, no differences were observed between phases in concentration of total N, NO3, total P, or dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Apparent removal rates—which do not account for dilution or differences in infiltrative area—for total N, total P, and DOC remained the same or improved during Phase II relative to the pre-operation phase. Furthermore, intermittent soil aeration enhanced actual removal rates —which do account for dilution and differences in infiltrative area. The effects of ISA on actual removal of contaminants from STE increased with increasing hydraulic load—a counterintuitive phenomenon, but one that has been previously observed in laboratory studies. The results of our study suggest that intermittent soil aeration can restore and maintain hydraulic flow in the STA and enhance carbon and nutrient removal in conventional OWTS.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO 3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO 3 ) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO 3 +SO 4 ) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO 3 ) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  16. Study of Water Quality Value in Sub of the Stream Area of Cisadane Rivers Upstream as Reference Area Based on Macro invertebrate Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Unon-Purwati

    2001-01-01

    Specific structure of biota community condition can used as indicator for the ecosystem stability value or the waters pollution level where the aquatic biota exist. the macro invertebrates as bio indicator organism can used to assess the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin water quality. The grouping and calculation result from family number, Ept presences (sensitive macro invertebrate), Diversity index (H ' ), DO value and TOC value showed 5 criteria of water quality as reference site. This criteria is used to determine water quality level from ten branches of rivers in the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin, Cijeruk districts. The biotic index calculation for ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) and T and T (index Trihadiningrum and Tjindronegoro) is used to asses water quality based on macro invertebrate composition indicator. Both biotic index system support and give the similar evaluation to water quality level from ten branches of river on the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin. The water quality level is described as fellows: station number 4 is assumed as the true reference site, station number 3, 5, 8 are the first alternative reference site, station number 2, 7, 9 are the second alternative reference site and station 1, 6, 10 are the sites which relatively good water quality, but it is not recommended as reference site. The grouping result bases on the cluster system with macro invertebrate similarity composition are described as fellows: 9=10>3=7>1=6>2=8>>5>>4. (author)

  17. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The assessment of sediment screening risk in Venice Lagoon and other coastal areas using international sediment quality guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitz, S.A.; Barbanti, A.; Bocci, M.; Delaney, E.; Bernstein, A.G.; Montobbio, L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments, in order to: i) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e. in situ assessment and management); and ii) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments which are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). Materials and Methods: To examine how various regional and international SQGs 'classed' screening risk in Venice Lagoon sediments, data on median contaminant levels in surface sediments in Venice Lagoon resulting from a literature review were compared to a range of local and international sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Then data on sediment contaminant levels in various areas and sub-basins of Venice Lagoon (main Lagoon, Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals) and in other regional and international transitional and coastal ecosystems with various levels of human impact (urbanization and industrialization) were evaluated based upon a selected consensus-based SQG. Finally, screening sediment quality for all of Venice Lagoon was mapped and contoured, relative to this consensus-based SQG and briefly compared with direct toxicity measurement through a battery of bioassays. Results: SQGs allow the sediment areas to be put in terms of potential, or screening, risk. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, the Venice SQGs and other international SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon despite geographic differences. Venice Lagoon South has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon Central/North has the highest (and is nearest to the Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals sites). Discussion: The Venice

  19. Investigation of Prescribed Fires Impacts on Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, V.; Chung, S. H.; Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from wildland and prescribed fires cause significant aerosol loading in the atmospheric environment. Using 2011 NEI-Fire emission inventory, we investigate the impacts of prescribed fire emissions on the air quality of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for a month long period in October-November 2011. This study utilizes the AIRAPCT-4 regional air quality forecasting system, which is based on the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ framework. We simulate three different emission scenarios - 1) emissions with prescribed fires, 2) emissions without prescribed fires and 3) a scenario where prescribed fire emissions are reduced by 60%. AIRPACT-4 results are examined for impacts of prescribed fire emissions on ambient levels of PM2.5 and Ozone for entire PNW. We also look at the contribution of prescribed fire emissions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations for selected non-attainment areas in the PNW. This work supports the analysis of using woody residue as a feedstock for an aviation biofuel supply chain through the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

  20. Quality of public water supply of Ribeirão Preto in the Guarani aquifer area: metals and nitrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Leão Prado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, is fully supplied by groundwater from the Guarani aquifer. The city has a total of 102 public supply wells registered in the Ribeirão Preto Water and Sewage Department, approximately 13,400 m³/h of water are uptaken from them. Some wells are located in the recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer, a region susceptible to anthropogenic pollution. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of water of public supply wells in Ribeirão Preto considering specific chemical parameters including pH, metals and nitrate. Three sampling collections were performed in 33 wells for water supply in Ribeirão Preto, in May and November 2008, and in July 2009, as well. Analyses of the metals Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Cd were performed using the Induced Plasma Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES. The analyses of nitrate concentration were performed using spectrophotometric method. Regarding the metals and nitrate parameters, all samples were within the values established by the ordinance of the Ministry of Health No. 518 of 2004. Regarding pH, a small number of wells had pH below the limit of drinkable water, but values were very close to the lower limit established by the ordinance. Water of public supply wells in Ribeirão Preto are, in general, of good quality, showing no restrictions for use. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring of all public supply wells is necessary, especially regarding the presence of nitrate and chromium, second report of Company of Technology and Environmental Sanitation – Cetesb.

  1. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Groupings 8 and 9 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of nine groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 8 and two GQM wells on the perimeter of WAG 9. WAG 8 encompasses approximately 34 acres, most of which are located in Melton Valley. Irregular in shape, the site has two sinuous extensions from its northern end that contain the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) transfer lines. WAG 8 contains 22 solid waste management units (SWMUs) that can be divided into 4 groups. These groups include the High Flux Isotope Reactor/Transuranium Processing Facility waste collection basins, the LLW line leak sites, and the active LLW tanks. WAG 9 encompasses about 3 acres and is located west of the main portion of WAG 8 and south of Melton Valley Drive. WAG 9 contains four SWMUs. The wells in WAGs 8 and 9 were drilled and developed from June 1989 to March 1990. Monitoring wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAGs in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAGs 8 and 9. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  2. Potentialities of line planting technique in rehabilitation of logged over area referred to species diversity, growth and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIJANTO PAMOENGKAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pamoengkas P (2010 Potentialities of line planting technique in rehabilitation of logged over area referred to species diversity, growth and soil quality. Biodiversitas 11: 34-39. Human interventions in the utilization of tropical forest resources are experiencing unanticipated consequences. The selective logging practices generally cause considerable damage to vegetation and the soil surface. It is supposed that soil condition and vegetation growth rate are deteriorated and reduced. Therefore, scientist strongly argue that the only way to achieve sustainability of Indonesian natural forest will require that the production natural forest is managed through methods that are acceptable from the perspective of environment as well as timber production. This means that there will be a strong need and incentive for methods and innovative technology. For more than two decades, tropical rainforest in Indonesia have been managed intensively under the Indonesian selective cutting (TPI and later on by the Indonesian selective cutting and replanting (TPTI and then, selective cutting and line planting (TPTJ system. TPTJ, as one example of selective cutting, recently become a proper alternative should be taken into consideration in the management of production natural forest in Indonesia by planting dipterocarp species in line. In this system, planting line (width 3 m and intermediate line (width 17 m are made alternately. The initial width of line is 3 m and to be expanded until 10 m within 5 years to introduce more light. The objective of this research was to assess growth and soil quality of TPTJ system. The object of research was TPTJ plot of various ages from 1 year to 7 years. For achieving the objective, 14 sample plots measuring 200 m x 200 m each, were laid out at research plots. The result showed that growth respond of Shorea leprosula toward the width of planting line was better comparing to Shorea parvifolia, but generally from this growth

  3. Monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality in wadi Al-Arish downstream area, North Sinai (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa A.; Meswara, Ebtesam A.; El Bouraie, Mohamed M.; Kamh, Samir Z.

    2018-04-01

    . Four factors were found to explain 60.48% of the total variance of the quality variables and in particular, a significant load of TDS, Cl-, EC, SO42-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, K+, Pb2+ and Total Alkalinity in decreasing order of influence were identified. Variation in quality parameters originated from anthropogenic sources due to improper well head protection in the urban centers or from the agricultural wastes and the flash floodwater stagnation and intense evaporation in low relief areas.

  4. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water-quality

  5. Feasibility and difficulties on China new air quality standard compliance: PRD case of PM2.5 and ozone from 2010 to 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, X. M.; Pang, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2013-08-01

    Improving the air quality in China is a long and arduous task. Although China has made very aggressive plan on pollutants control, the difficulties to achieve the new air quality goals are still significant. In north, PM2.5 and PM10 are still far beyond the standards. In south, O3 goal is much challenged. A lot of cities are making their city implementation plan (CIP) for new air quality goals. In this study, a southern city, Guangzhou, is selected to analyze the feasibility and difficulties on new air quality standard compliance, as well as the CIP evaluation. A comprehensive study of air quality status in Guangzhou and surrounding area is conducted based on 22 sites monitoring data of O3, PM2.5 and PM10. The monthly non-attainment rates for O3 vary in 7-25% from May to November. The city average PM2.5 concentration is 41 μg m-3 in Guangzhou in 2010, which needs to be reduced by at least 15% to achieve the target of 35 μg m-3. The PM2.5 high violate months are from November to March. Guangzhou CIP was then evaluated with PM2.5 and O3 placed in a core position. The emission amount of NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and VOC in 2025 would be controlled to 600, 420, 200 and 860 thousand tons respectively. Analysis of air quality using the MM5-STEM model suggests that the long-term control measures would achieve the PM2.5 and PM10 goals successfully by 2025. The PM2.5 annual average concentration would be reduced to 20.8 μg m-3 in 2025. The O3 non-attainment rate would increase from 7.1% in 2010 to 12.9% in 2025 and become the most primary atmospheric environmental problem. Guangzhou needs very strong control on VOCs to reduce its ozone. The VOC / NOx reduction ratio should reach at least 2 : 1 (in California, it is about 3 : 1), instead of the current plan of 0.7 : 1. The evaporative emissions control from vehicle non-tailpipe emission and solvent usage should be enhanced and regional ozone transport must be taken into account.

  6. The impact of air quality conditioned by emission of pollutants to the development of rural tourism and potentials of rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Drago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant potentials for tourism development in Serbia are related to rural areas. Rural development, on its basis, includes the agrarian, but also the non-agrarian sector in rural areas, thus encompassing every vital component of the development of rural areas. This paper is, following the relevant theoretical positions, focused on key issues in the field of air quality impacts caused by the emission of pollutants to the development of rural tourism and the potentials of rural areas. These are primarily the following issues: which are the criteria for assessing air quality, or what are the limit values of the parameters for the protection of human health, and what is the trend of air quality by zones and agglomerations and what is the percentage of the population potentially exposed to concentrations of pollutants above the reference level. The mentioned topic is analyzed for the period 2012-2015. Analysis of the results of the degree of emission of suspended particles by zones and agglomerations in Serbia is presented correlatively in conclusion with concluding reviews on the existing ecological potential for the development of the basic rural areas in Serbia - Vojvodina, which makes up 28% of the total area of Serbia, Central Serbia, which consists of 29% of the total area of Serbia and South Serbia, which accounts for 44% of the total area of Serbia.

  7. 78 FR 22425 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area. EPA is taking this action under the Clean Air Act... Reese Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area III. Final Action and Request for Comment IV... Reese Valley (HA 59), Gabbs Valley (HA 122), Fernley Area (HA 76), Truckee Meadows (HA 87), Mason Valley...

  8. 75 FR 60680 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Arizona; Pinal County; PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Apache Junction area within Pinal County; and the Hayden/Miami planning area, which includes the... the Hayden/ Miami PM 10 nonattainment area into two separate PM 10 nonattainment areas. See 72 FR... Apache Reservation lies in the existing Hayden PM 10 nonattainment area. The rest of the Pinal County...

  9. Influence of transport from urban sources and domestic biomass combustion on the air quality of a mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Francesco; Romagnoli, Paola; Paciucci, Lucia; Vichi, Francesca; Imperiali, Andrea; Paolini, Valerio; Liotta, Flavia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental influence of biomass burning for civil uses was investigated through the determination of several air toxicants in the town of Leonessa and its surroundings, in the mountain region of central Italy. Attention was focussed on PM 10 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and regulated gaseous pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone and benzene). Two in-field campaigns were carried out during the summer 2012 and the winter 2013. Contemporarily, air quality was monitored in Rome and other localities of Lazio region. In the summer, all pollutants, with the exception of ozone, were more abundant in Rome. On the other hand, in the winter, PAH concentration was higher in Leonessa (15.8 vs. 7.0 ng/m 3 ), while PM 10 was less concentrated (22 vs. 34 μg/m 3 ). Due to lack of other important sources and to limited impact of vehicle traffic, biomass burning was identified as the major PAH source in Leonessa during the winter. This hypothesis was confirmed by PAH molecular signature of PM 10 (i.e. concentration diagnostic ratios and 206 ion mass trace in the chromatograms). A similar phenomenon (i.e. airborne particulate levels similar to those of the capital city but higher PAH loads) was observed in other locations of the province, suggesting that uncontrolled biomass burning contributed to pollution across the Rome metropolitan area.

  10. Energy Quality Management for a Micro Energy Network Integrated with Renewables in a Tourist Area: A Chinese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For a tourist area (TA, energy utilization is mostly concentrated in certain period of time. Therefore, the peak load is several times more than the average load. A Micro Energy Network Integrated with Renewables (MENR system is considered as a potential solution to mitigate this problem. To design an appropriate MENR system, a multi-objective energy quality management (EQM method based on the Genetic Algorithm is proposed. Here, EQM aims at reducing the primary energy consumption and optimizing the energy shares of various renewables in a MENR system. In addition to minimizing life-cycle costs and maximizing the exergy efficiency of a MENR system, the issue of system reliability is addressed. Then, a case study is presented, where the EQM method is applied to a TA located in Dali, China. Three possible reference MENR scenarios are analyzed. After confirming the reference scenarios, advanced MENR scenarios with improved system reliability are discussed. The rest of the work is dedicated to investigating the effects of various energy storage systems (ESSs parameters and the number of electric vehicles (EVs on MENR scenarios. The results suggest that there are significant differences between various MENR scenarios depending on the number of EVs and the investment reduction of ESSs.

  11. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  12. Ground-water quality in three urban areas in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Galeone, D.R.; Spruill, T.B.; Crandall, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality is generally good in three urban areas studied in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States?Ocala and Tampa, Florida, and Virginia Beach, Virginia. The hydrology of these areas differs in that Ocala has many karst depressions but virtually no surface-water features, and Tampa and Virginia Beach have numerous surface-water features, including small lakes, streams, and swamps. Samples were collected in early 1995 from 15 wells in Ocala (8 in the surficial aquifer and 7 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), 17 wells in Tamps (8 in the surficial aquifer and 9 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), and in the summer of 1995 from 15 wells in Virginia Beach (all in the surficial aquifer). In the surficial aquifer in Ocala, the major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate in five samples and mixed (no dominant ions) in three samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 78 to 463 milligrams per liter. In Tampa, the water type was calcium bicarbonate in one sample and mixed in seven samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 38 to 397 milligrams per liter. In Virginia Beach, water types were primarily calcium and sodium bicarbonate water, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 89 to 740 milligrams per liter. The water types and dissolved-solids concentrations reflect the presence of carbonates in the surficial aquifer materials in the Ocala and Virginia Beach areas. The major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate for all 16 samples from the upper Floridan aquifer in both Florida cities. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 210 to 551 milligrams per liter in Ocala, with a median of 287 milligrams per liter, and from 187 to 362 milligrams per liter in Tampa, with a median of 244 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen were highest in the surficial aquifer in Ocala, and one sample exceeded 10 milligrams per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking

  13. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  14. Air quality evaluation in the area around the Jorge Lacerda Thermoelectric Complex in Santa Catarina State, Brazil: 1987 to 1991 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magri, Jose Lourival; Silva, Ligia Bittencourt da

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Air Quality Monitoring Program carried out by ELETROSUL in the period of 1987 to 1991, in the influence area of the Jorge Lacerda Thermoelectric Complex, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The results show that for sulfur dioxide the air quality was good for 95% of the measurements, while for the total suspended particulates the corresponding value was 80%. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Surface water quality and isotopic study at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gampson, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The water quality examination at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to the Sogakope area), Ghana, was conducted by determining the physicochemical parameters at 38 sampling sites in September (2011) during the wet season and February (2012) during the dry season. Isotope analysis was also conducted during the same period. The ranges of physicochemical parameters analysed in the surface water were 6.45 to 7.26 for pH, -053 to -010 mV for Eh, 23.6 to 27 degrees celsius for temperature, 61.7 to 83.6 μS/cm for EC, 0% 0 for salinity, 29.7-39.4 mg/L for TDS, 0.63 to 2.28 mg/L for DO, 0 to 4 NTU for turbidity, 0 to 8mg/L for TSS, 36 to 108mg/L for total hardness, 0.8 to 5mg/L for BOD 5 , 23.16 to 46.33mg/L for HCO 3 - , 2.92 to 23.33mg/L for Mg 2+ , 7.8 to 11.0mg/L for Na + , 4.0 to 5.9mg/L for K + , 1.99 to 13.99mg/L for CI - , 3.2 to 14.4MG/L for Ca 2+ , 1.0 to 24.889mg/L for NO 3 - , 6.556 to 28.111mg/L for SO 4 2- and 1.333 to 11.667mg/L for PO 4 3- . While the results for dissolved metals (μg/L) were 32 to 348 for Fe, 12 to 278 for Mn, 16 to 84 for Cu, 4 to 38 for Pb, 20 to 162 for Ni, 12 to 32 for Cd and 12μg/L to 98 for Cd, Hg, Se, V and Zn were below detection limit. The river water will support agricultural activities. Except Cu which was low, about 37%, 89%, 29%, 33%, 8% and 29% of the sampled sites had Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn values respectively above the WHO (2004) standard for drinking water. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of untreated anthropogenic wastes into the river is strongly needed. Stable isotope data of water (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) obtained showed stream waters are depleted and possibly recharge by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. (au)

  16. The effect of environmental health and water supply quality on children's health in Karary locality - Omdurman Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, N.S.M.

    2007-07-01

    There are many joint factors that have negative effects on children's health, such as environmental health and water supply quality. Therefore, the importance of this study was emerged to contribute in finding suitable solutions for this problem. The study was done in Khartoum State, Omdurman area mainly Karary locality. Three methodologies were used; field work to collect data about the most common diseases that affect children, water sampling from the drinking wells, questionnaire to collect data about public awareness. Data collected from Omdurman hospital- children emergency unit dealing with the most common diseases that affect children. The data were divided into three categories: category (1) for infants < one year old, category (2) children from 1-4 years old and category (3) from 5-14 years old. This study consists of five chapters: chapter one explains the problem, importance, objectives, limitations, terms and methods of the research. Chapter two is a literature review of environmental health and water pollution. Chapter three explains samples, methodology, and procedures of the research. Chapter four discusses data analysis, discussions and results. Chapter five concentrates on conclusions and recommendations. The results revealed that most of the diseases that attack children were caused due to drinking water quality. Some of the diseases seemed to be very serious regarding the number of incidence and number of children admitted to hospitals especially during February to April 2005. It was also found that pneumonia, tuberculosis, malaria, food poisoning, hepatitis, dysentery, gardiasis, gastro enteritis and diarrhoea, are the most common diseases that attack children, through out the year. The results revealed that there was an environmental problem of housing condition that cause some of the diseases, some of the drinking water wells found to be contaminated and not suitable for human consumption. The study recommendations include income improvement

  17. Application of water quality index for the assessment of suitability of natural sources of water for drinking in rural areas of east Sikkim, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubra Poonia; T Shantikumar Singh; Dechen C Tsering

    2015-01-01

    In Sikkim, especially in the rural areas where there is no supply of treated water for drinking and other domestic uses, natural surface water is the only source. The objective was to assess the water quality of natural sources of water in the rural areas of East Sikkim using a water quality index (WQI) for different seasons. A total of 225 samples, that is, 75 in winter, 75 in summer, and 75 in monsoon were collected from different sources for physicochemical analysis, and a WQI was calculat...

  18. Psoriasis area severity index (pasi) and the dermatology life quality index (dlqi): the correlation between disease severity and quality of life in patients of psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Shaikh, Z.I.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the correlation between Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients of psoriasis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Both outdoor and indoor patients of Dermatology Department, Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi for duration of 6 months i.e. from 6th Oct 2014 to 5th Apr 2014 were selected. Material and Methods: A total of 155 patients of chronic plaque psoriasis diagnosed clinically, ranging from 20 to 80 years of age and of either gender were included in the study. A careful history and clinical examination was done and for each case PASI and DLQI were calculated and registered in the designed proforma. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version-17.0. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for quantitative variables like age, PASI and DLQI. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like gender. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) (+1,-1) was calculated between mean PASI and mean DLQI. A p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Stratification was done for age and gender and post stratification correlation was calculated. Results: Out of 155 patients studied, 110 (70.97%) were males and 45 (29.03%) were females. Ages of the patients ranged from 20-80 years (mean age 49.5 +- 15.6 years). Mean PASI score was 27.92 +- 5.83 and DLQ1 was 11.46 +- 4.22. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.1324 which showed weak correlation between PASI and DLQ1 with p-value of 0.100. Weak correlation (r=-0.3394) in age 51-80 years while very weak correlation (r=-0.0651) in age 20-50 years was noted. PASI and DLQ1 showed weak correlation in males (r=0.132) and in females (r=0.461). Conclusion: This study concluded that there is a weak correlation between PASI and DLQI.

  19. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  20. Relationship between soybean yield/quality and soil quality in a major soybean-producing area based on a 2D-QSAR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Li, Shiwei

    2017-05-01

    Based on experimental data of the soybean yield and quality from 30 sampling points, a quantitative structure-activity relationship model (2D-QSAR) was established using the soil quality (elements, pH, organic matter content and cation exchange capacity) as independent variables and soybean yield or quality as the dependent variable, with SPSS software. During the modeling, the full data set (30 and 14 compounds) was divided into a training set (24 and 11 compounds) for model generation and a test set (6 and 3 compounds) for model validation. The R2 values of the resulting models and data were 0.826 and 0.808 for soybean yield and quality, respectively, and all regression coefficients were significant (P test set were 0.961 and 0.956, respectively, indicating that the models had a good predictive ability. Moreover, the Mo, Se, K, N and organic matter contents and the cation exchange capacity of soil had a positive effect on soybean production, and the B, Mo, Se, K and N contents and cation exchange coefficient had a positive effect on soybean quality. The results are instructive for enhancing soils to improve the yield and quality of soybean, and this method can also be used to study other crops or regions, providing a theoretical basis to improving the yield and quality of crops.

  1. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Husain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur, centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2 were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012 and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  2. Investigation of electronic quality of electrodeposited cadmium sulphide layers from thiourea precursor for use in large area electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.A., E-mail: chartell2006@yahoo.com; Dharmadasa, I.M.

    2016-09-01

    CdS layers used in thin film solar cells and other electronic devices are usually grown by wet chemical methods using CdCl{sub 2} as the Cadmium source and either Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} or NH{sub 2}CSNH{sub 2} as Sulphur sources. Obviously, one of the sulphur precursors should produce more suitable CdS layers required to give the highest performing devices. This can only be achieved by comprehensive experimental work on growth and characterisation of CdS layers from the above mentioned sulphur sources. This paper presents the results observed on CdS layers grown by electrodepositing using two electrode configuration and thiourea as the sulphur precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell methods have been used to characterise the material properties. In order to test and study the electronic device quality of the layers, ohmic and rectifying contacts were fabricated on the electroplated layers. Schottky barriers, formed on the layers were also compared with previously reported work on Chemical Bath Deposited CBD-CdS layers and bulk single crystals of CdS. Comparatively, Schottky diodes fabricated on electroplated CdS layers using two-electrode system and thiourea precursor exhibit excellent electronic properties suitable for electronic devices such as thin film solar panels and large area display devices. - Highlights: • Precipitate-free electrodeposition of CdS is achievable using Thiourea precursor. • Electrodeposition of CdS using 2-electrode configuration. • The electrodeposited CdS shows excellent electronic properties. • Exploration of the effect of heat treatment temperature and heat treatment duration.

  3. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in three different land-use areas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sand and gravel aquifer is susceptible to effects from land-use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of this report is to describe the ground-water quality and the assessment of how different land-uses affect the shallow ground-water quality in the surficial sand and gravel aquifer. Ground-water quality was compared in three different land-use areas; an urban residential/commercial area on the edge of the Anoka Sand Plain in a portion of the Twin Cities metropolitan area (urban study), an intensive agricultural area in the Anoka Sand Plain (agricultural study), and a forested area in the Bemidji-Bagley Sand Plain (forested study). Ground water was sampled and analyzed for about 200 constituents, including physical parameters, major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, selected pesticides, selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and tritium. The urban study wells were sampled during June and July 1996. The agricultural study wells were sampled during May and September 1998. The forested study wells were sampled during June 1998.

  4. The vadose zone as a geoindicator of environmental change and groundwater quality in water-scarce areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, W. M.; Baba Goni, I.; Gaye, C. B.; Jin, L.

    2013-12-01

    Inert and reactive tracers in moisture profiles provide considerable potential for the vadose zone to be used as an indicator of rapid environmental change. This indicator is particularly applicable in areas of water stress where long term (decade to century) scale records may be found in deep unsaturated zones in low rainfall areas and provide insights into recent recharge, climate variation and water-rock interactions which generate groundwater quality. Unsaturated zone Cl records obtained by elutriation of moisture are used widely for estimating recharge and water balance studies; isotope profiles (3H, δ2H, δ18O) from total water extraction procedures are used for investigation of residence times and hydrological processes. Apart from water taken using lysimeters, little work has been conducted directly on the geochemistry of pore fluids. This is mainly due to the difficulties of extraction of moisture from unsaturated material with low water contents (typically 2-6 wt%) and since dilution methods can create artifacts. Using immiscible liquid displacement techniques it is now possible to directly investigate the geochemistry of moisture from unsaturated zone materials. Profiles up to 35m from Quaternary sediments from dryland areas of the African Sahel (Nigeria, Senegal) as well as Inner Mongolia, China are used to illustrate the breadth of information obtainable from vadose zone profiles. Using pH, major and trace elements and comparing with isotopic data, a better understanding is gained of timescales of water movement, aquifer recharge, environmental records and climate history as well as water-rock interaction and contaminant behaviour. The usefulness of tritium as residence time indicator has now expired following cessation of atmospheric thermonuclear testing and through radioactive decay. Providing the rainfall Cl, moisture contents and bulk densities of the sediments are known, then Cl accumulation can be substituted to estimate timescales. Profiles

  5. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  6. Sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to wind fields in the New York metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W.; Rao, S.T. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States); Thunis, P. [ISPRA Establishment (Italy); Bornstein, R.; Freedman, F. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The New York airshed modeling domain, extending from northern Philadelphia, PA to the southern Massachusetts, is part of the large urban corridor stretching from Virginia to Maine alone the eastern sea-board of United States. Due to the continued non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, the area has been designated to be in the {open_quotes}severe{close_quotes} classification under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This requires demonstration of compliance with the ozone NAAQS with grid-based photochemical models such as the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of a one-way model nesting scheme, with the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) providing initial and boundary conditions and other ancillary data for the UAM. Meteorological data and emissions data can also be developed by alternative methods for use with UAM, if considered more appropriate than those derived from the ROM-UAM system.

  7. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of Bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? Objective: To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Study Subjects: Children aged 12 months to 23 months. Sample Size: 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. Results: (1 Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2 Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  8. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Punith; K, Lalitha; G, Suman; Bs, Pradeep; Kumar K, Jayanth

    2008-07-01

    Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Population-based cross-sectional study. Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Children aged 12 months to 23 months. 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. (1) Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2) Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  9. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  10. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  11. 78 FR 51 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; Morongo Band of Mission Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... residential or agricultural. The Morongo Reservation also hosts a hotel and casino, among other enterprises... to the range line common to Range 2 East and Range 3 East (San Bernardino Base and [[Page 53... the basis of air quality data, planning and control considerations, or any other air quality-related...

  12. Quality control of calibration system for area monitors at National Laboratory of Metrology from Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.M.O.; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The quality control of equipment used in calibration from the National Laboratory of Metrology on Ionizing Radiations is presented, with results of standard measure systems and irradiation system. Tables and graphics with the quality of systems are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  13. Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, North Carolina—Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October 2013–September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2017-09-27

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2013 through September 2014 (water year 2014) and October 2014 through September 2015 (water year 2015). Major findings for this period include:More than 5,500 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 15 sites—4 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Thirty water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality thresholds exist for 11 of these.All observations met State water-quality thresholds for temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite.North Carolina water-quality thresholds were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a.

  14. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  15. Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

  16. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  17. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais

    2014-05-01

    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon.

  18. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  19. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  20. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  1. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.

  2. Lead State Implementation Plan (SIP) Checklist Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance documents and examples to assist air quality agencies of non-attainment areas in developing plans to implement national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), including the lead air emissions standard.

  3. Large Area Silicon Sheet by EFG. [quality control and productivity of edge-defined film-fed growth of ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Influences on ribbon quality which might be caused by various materials of construction which are used in the growth furnace were assessed. At the present level of ribbon quality, which has produced 8.5% to 9.5% efficient solar cells, no particular influence of any furnace part was detected. The experiments led to the suspicion that the general environment and the somewhat unoptimized materials handling procedures might be responsible for the current variations in ribbon quality and that, therefore, continuous work with this furnace under rather more stringent environmental conditions and operating procedures could perhaps improve materials quality to some extent. The work on the multiple furnace was continued with two multiple growth runs being performed. In these runs, the melt replenishment system performed poorly and extensive modifications to it were designed to make reliable melt feeding for five ribbon growth possible. Additional characterization techniques for wide ribbons, stress measurements, and growth dynamics experiments are reported.

  4. Effects of tourism and globalization on land cover and the influence on the quality of life of Paphos area in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italos, Chrysostomos; Akylas, Evangelos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    Since 1960 most of the coastal area cites across the Mediterranean Sea concentrates people due mass immigration of people from the rural to urban areas. The extensive tourism development especially across the coastal areas, create demand of infrastructures and new work positions and intensive pressure to the environment. The new spirit of the globalization creates movability of people and goods around the word. The free transfer of people from countries with big population and low economical wealth, which are moved to areas where they can work. All the above generate demands of labor and Paphos is one of these areas where during the last decades was transformed from a small agriculture village in one excellent tourist destination. Across the coastal areas big tourist infrastructure was built and lot of different people travel from all areas around the word especially during the summer months. All these generate continuous changes to the environment, to the people and the society. The globalization of the universe commerce and the free transfer of goods and people modify the community stratification. The inflow of agricultures products from third countries reduces the local production and generates degradation and desertification of the rural areas. The periodical variation of the population of the area during the summer and winter periods affect to the environment. The increment demand of sources (water, energy and food) during the summer months pressurize the coastal strip area. By estimating a ratio of inflows by the outflows of goods, people and services of the study area and a ratio of the tourists by the local population, a general index can by arise which will clarify the effects on the environment on the study area. This paper presents the results obtained by this study by examining the effects of tourism on land cover and effects on quality of life for the Paphos area in Cyprus. The authors explores the potential of blending in the sustainability study the

  5. Effects of two stormwater management methods on the quality of water in the upper Biscayne aquifer at two commercial areas in Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study is part of a continued effort to assess the effects of urban stormwater recharge on the water quality of the Biscayne aquifer in southeast Florida. In this report, the water-quality effects on shallow ground water resulting from stormwater disposal by exfiltration trench and grassy swale were investigated at two small commercial areas in Dade County, Florida. One study area (airport ) was located near the Miami International Airport and had a drainage area of about 10 acres overlying a sandy soil; the other study area ( free zone ) was located at the Miami International Free Trade Zone and had a drainage area of about 20 acres overlying limestone. The monitoring design for each study area consisted of seven sites and included water-quality sampling of the stormwater in the catch basin of the exfiltration trench, ground water from two wells 1 foot from the trench (trench wells), two wells 20 feet from the trench, and ground water from two wells at the swale from April 1985 through May 1986. Eleven water-quality variables (target variables) commonly found in high levels in urban stormwater runoff were used as tracers to estimate possible changes in ground-water quality that may have been caused by stormwater recharge. Comparison of the distribution of target variables indicated that the concentrations tended to be greater in the stormwater in the exfiltration trench than in water from the two wells 1 foot from the trench at both study areas. The concentration difference for several target variables was statistically significant at the 5-percent level. Lead, for example, had median concentrations of 23 and 4 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and water from the two trench wells at the airport study area, and 38 and 2 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and groundwater at the free zone. Similar reductions in concentrations between stormwater and water from the two trench wells were indicated for zinc at both study areas and also

  6. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  7. Exploring the Spatial-Seasonal Dynamics of Water Quality, Submerged Aquatic Plants and Their Influencing Factors in Different Areas of a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality in lakes and its negative effects on freshwater ecosystems have become a serious problem worldwide. Exploring the dynamics in the associated factors is essential for water pollution management and control. GIS interpolation, principal component analysis (PCA and multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the main pollution sources in different areas of Honghu Lake. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphate (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+–N, and permanganate index (CODMn have similar characteristics and that their values gradually increased from south to north during the three seasons in Honghu Lake. The major influencing factors of water quality varied across the different areas and seasons. The relatively high concentrations of TN and TP, which might limit the growth of submerged aquatic plants, were mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. Our work suggests that spatial analyses combined with PCA are useful for investigating the factors that influence water quality and submerged aquatic plant biomass in different areas of a lake. These findings provide sound information for the future water quality management of the lake or even the entire lake basin.

  8. Data on assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation in rural area Sarpol-e Zahab city, Kermanshah province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hamed; Abbasnia, Abbas; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Khorasgani, Fazlollah Changani

    2018-04-01

    In present study 30 groundwater samples were collected from Sarpol-e Zahab area, Kermanshah province of Iran in order to assess the quality of groundwater in subjected area and determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Also the variations in the quality levels of groundwater were compared over the years of 2015 and 2016. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - and [Formula: see text] ionic constituents. Also in order to assess water quality for irrigation we used the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classification which is based on SAR for irrigation suitability assessment. In addition, the residual sodium carbonate (RSC), %Na, PI, KR, SSP, MH, EC characteristics were calculated for all samples and used for assessment of irrigation suitability. Based on these indicators, for every two years, the quality of water for agriculture is in good and excellent category. The Piper classification for hydro geochemical facies indicates that the water in the study area is of Ca-HCO 3 - type. However, the study of water hardness shows that more than 80% of samples are in hard and very hard water class. Therefore, there is a need for decisions to refine and soften the water.

  9. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  10. Assessment and prediction of land ecological environment quality change based on remote sensing-a case study of the Dongting lake area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenmin; Wang, Zhongcheng; Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Multi-source remote sensing data is rarely used for the comprehensive assessment of land ecologic environment quality. In this study, a digital environmental model was proposed with the inversion algorithm of land and environmental factors based on the multi-source remote sensing data, and a comprehensive index (Ecoindex) was applied to reconstruct and predict the land environment quality of the Dongting Lake Area to assess the effect of human activities on the environment. The main finding was that with the decrease of Grade I and Grade II quality had a decreasing tendency in the lake area, mostly in suburbs and wetlands. Atmospheric water vapour, land use intensity, surface temperature, vegetation coverage, and soil water content were the main driving factors. The cause of degradation was the interference of multi-factor combinations, which led to positive and negative environmental agglomeration effects. Positive agglomeration, such as increased rainfall and vegetation coverage and reduced land use intensity, could increase environmental quality, while negative agglomeration resulted in the opposite. Therefore, reasonable ecological restoration measures should be beneficial to limit the negative effects and decreasing tendency, improve the land ecological environment quality and provide references for macroscopic planning by the government.

  11. Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Trung Hieu; Dinh, Tuan Anh Diep

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an evaluation of temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques, comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eleven water quality parameters were monitored at 38 different sites in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area of Vietnam from 2008 to 2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 38 sampling sites into three clusters, representing mixed urban-rural areas, agricultural areas and industrial zone. FA/PCA resulted in three latent factors for the entire research location, three for cluster 1, four for cluster 2, and four for cluster 3 explaining 60, 60.2, 80.9, and 70% of the total variance in the respective water quality. The varifactors from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are related to erosion from disturbed land or inflow of effluent from sewage plants and industry, discharges from wastewater treatment plants and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities and industrial effluents, and contamination by sewage waste with faecal coliform bacteria through sewer and septic systems. Discriminant analysis (DA) revealed that nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH₃ are the discriminating parameters in space, affording 67% correct assignation in spatial analysis; pH and NO₂ are the discriminating parameters according to season, assigning approximately 60% of cases correctly. The findings suggest a possible revised sampling strategy that can reduce the number of sampling sites and the indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in water quality assessment and management.

  12. Assessment of life quality in patients with bronchial asthma residing in Krakow in the areas of varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease, from which more and more people in the world suffer. It is connected with many bothersome symptoms and limitations, which result in decreased quality of life for the patient. Environmental and individual aspects do not necessarily affect individuals in the same way, so it is necessary to determine which factors have predominantly impacted on an individual, in order to minimize their impact and to take better control over treatment of asthma. The aim of this research was to compare the quality of life among patients with bronchial asthma living in Krakow in the areas where they get exposed to varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10. Material and methods. The study included 98 adults diagnosed with bronchial asthma. The research was conducted using the AQLQ poll. PM10 concentration was measured in several Malopolska Air Pollution Monitoring Stations located throughout the city. Results. Analyzing the quality of life in the view of symptoms, activity limitations and emotional well being, there was a substantial statistical difference observed in people occupying the areas with different PM10 concentrations. No significant statistical difference was observed in the frequency of asthma symptoms caused by the environmental stimuli between the 2 discussed groups. One group of patients who came to the allergy clinic for control of asthma symptoms and the second group who live in the vicinity of the monitoring stations measuring PM10 concentrations. Conclusions. For many of the cases, the quality of life was not worse for patients with asthma living in an area with slightly elevated concentrations of PM10, and sometimes paradoxically the quality of life was improved. These results show that PM10 concentrations do not correlate with quality of life of asthma patients.

  13. [Coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Li, Jing-yi

    2015-05-01

    It is one of the important strategies in the new period of national poverty alleviation and development to maintain the basic balance between the ecological environment and economic development, and to promote the coordinated sustainable development of economy and ecological environment. Taking six contiguous special poverty-stricken areas as the study areas, a coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. The region' s ecological poverty index system was proposed based on the natural attribute of ecological environment, and the ecological environment quality evaluation method was built up by using AHP weighting method, followed by the design of the coupling coordination evaluation method between the ecological environment indices and the county economic poverty comprehensive indices. The coupling coordination degrees were calculated and their spatial representation differentiations were analyzed respectively at district, province, city, and county scales. Results showed that approximately half of the counties in the study areas achieved the harmoniously coordinated development. However, the ecological environmental quality and the economic development in most counties could not be synchronized, where mountains, rivers and other geographic features existed roughly as a dividing line of the coordinated development types. The phenomena of dislocation between the ecological environment and economic development in state-level poor counties were more serious than those of local poor counties.

  14. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  15. Characteristics of public concern on haze in China and its relationship with air quality in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaling; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hongqiang; Huang, Dacang; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-10-01

    Severe air pollution associated with the rapid urbanization is a pressing issue in China. Moreover, the public awareness of environmental protection in China is awakening, which poses enormous pressure on governments to enforce environmental regulations. The study of environmental problems from the public perspective plays a crucial role in effective environmental governance. The Baidu search engine is the China's largest search engine. The search index of haze based on Baidu search engine reflects the public concern on air quality in China. The aim of this study is to uncover important relationships between public concern and air quality monitoring data based on the case study of haze pollution crisis in China. The results indicate that: (1) the year 2013 is the turning point of the public concern on air quality in China; (2) according to daily data analysis, the search index of haze has increased progressively with increased PM 2.5 concentration with a time lag of 0-4 days and the lag time has a declining tendency from 2013 to 2017; (3) according to annual data analysis, the public concern showed a weak correlation with air quality and they showed an opposite temporal trend. However, when the long-term annual trend was removed, the strong positive correlation emerges between the fluctuation parts of the search index of haze and monitoring data of air quality. This indicates the public is more sensitive to the short-term fluctuation of air quality. The results of this paper provide statistical evidence on the evolution of public concern on air quality from 2013 to 2017. This study will help policy makers to better understand the patterns of the public's perception of environmental problems and consequently improve the government's capability to deal with these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  18. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part II: Evaluation of air quality predictions and air quality benefits assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Following the meteorological evaluation in Part I, this Part II paper presents the statistical evaluation of air quality predictions by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) model for the four simulated months in the base year 2005. The surface predictions were evaluated using the Air Pollution Index (API) data published by the China Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) for 31 capital cities and daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5, particles with aerodiameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) observations of an individual site in Tsinghua University (THU). To overcome the shortage in surface observations, satellite data are used to assess the column predictions including tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) column abundance and aerosol optical depth (AOD). The result shows that CMAQ gives reasonably good predictions for the air quality. The air quality improvement that would result from the targeted sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission controls in China were assessed for the objective year 2010. The results show that the emission controls can lead to significant air quality benefits. SO 2 concentrations in highly polluted areas of East China in 2010 are estimated to be decreased by 30-60% compared to the levels in the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) case. The annual PM 2.5 can also decline by 3-15 μg m -3 (4-25%) due to the lower SO 2 and sulfate concentrations. If similar controls are implemented for NO x emissions, NO x concentrations are estimated to decrease by 30-60% as compared with the 2010 BAU scenario. The annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations will also decline by 2-14 μg m -3 (3-12%). In addition, the number of ozone (O 3) non-attainment areas in the northern China is projected to be much lower, with the maximum 1-h average O 3 concentrations in the summer reduced by 8-30 ppb.

  19. Quality comparisons between privately and publicly managed health care centres in a suburban area of Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansagi, H; Calltorp, J; Andréasson, S

    1993-03-01

    As in many other countries, the health care system in Sweden is currently undergoing rapid changes. Within a framework of public financing, the delivery of health care is to an increasing extent being transferred to various entrepreneurs; private, public or cooperatives. A privately run, but publicly financed, health care centre was evaluated with regard to quality and costs. Quality was defined in terms of the central guidelines for Swedish primary health care: first level responsibility, accessibility, a holistic view of the patient, and continuity of care and safety. The services offered by the private health care centre were evaluated by different methods--questionnaires, health care utilization data and economic analyses--and found to be of similar quality but produced at a lower cost than by three publicly managed health care centres.

  20. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  1. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  2. Study on Pollen Quality and Quantity as Protein Source of Honeybee Apis mellifera In Rubber Plantation Area (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Minarti

    2009-08-01

    The conclusion of this research is during migratory beekeeping in the area of rubber plantation, bees get pollen low amounts of protein and amino acid levels below the requirement. Keywords : Pollen, Protein, Amino Acids, Honey Bee, Rubber

  3. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  4. Quality of drinking water from rural water supply after the may flood 2014 in the area of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The May floods in 2014 affected a large number of rural households in the vicinity of the town of Kraljevo. The flood affected a large number of villages that are located along the river West Morava and villages along the river Godačica. It was necessary to analyze the microbiological and physical chemical quality of drinking water, in order to see the impact of the May floods on the quality of drinking water rural water flooded the city, for the protection of human health, water supply and the ecosystem in general. This paper presents the results of a project which was implemented by the city of Kraljevo and funded humanitarian organization ADRA (Adventist Development and humanitarian organizations. The results of microbiological and physical chemical analysis of drinking water are shown, whose maximum allowable values are given in Regulation on hygienic quality of drinking water Fig. FRY, No.42 / 98 and 44/99 [1]. Upon the approval of funds for drinking water samples, which were tested in the laboratories of the Institute of Public Health of Kraljevo, were sampled in September and October 2014 in eight flooded villages around the town of Kraljevo. The tests were based on the analysis of microbial load of the water system and the physical and chemical parameters and the preservation of water quality.

  5. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  6. Efficient etching-free transfer of high quality, large-area CVD grown graphene onto polyvinyl alcohol films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, Bogdan; Leordean, Cosmin; Istvan, Todor; Botiz, Ioan; Astilean, Simion

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One-step dry transfer method of CVD grown graphene onto PVA films. • Investigation of graphene quality and number of layers of the synthesized and transferred graphene. • Promising scalability and good quality of transferred graphene onto flexible transparent polymers. - Abstract: Graphene transfer is a procedure of paramount importance for the production of graphene-based electronic devices. The transfer procedure can affect the electronic properties of the transferred graphene and can be detrimental for possible applications both due to procedure induced defects which can appear and due to scalability of the method. Hence, it is important to investigate new transfer methods for graphene that are less time consuming and show great promise. In the present study we propose an efficient, etching-free transfer method that consists in applying a thin polyvinyl alcohol layer on top of the CVD grown graphene on Cu and then peeling-off the graphene onto the polyvinyl alcohol film. We investigate the quality of the transferred graphene before and after the transfer, using Raman spectroscopy and imaging as well as optical and atomic force microscopy techniques. This simple transfer method is scalable and can lead to complete transfer of graphene onto flexible and transparent polymer support films without affecting the quality of the graphene during the transfer procedure.

  7. Quality of nursing doctoral education and scholarly performance in U.S. schools of nursing: strategic areas for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Park, So Hyun; Khan, Shaheen; Ketefian, Shaké

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of quality of nursing doctoral education (QNDE) in research-intensive universities has not been reported since 1980s. This study aimed to examine the QNDE from the perspectives of faculty and students/graduates and their relations to school characteristics, identify factors of the four domains of the QNDE that influence the QNDE, and analyze the relationship of QNDE to scholarly performance of nursing schools in the Unites States. Seventy-two nursing schools offering research-focused nursing doctoral programs with National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding during 2004-2007 participated, and they responded to the questionnaire (see http://gknf.or.kr/research/). Twenty-nine deans/schools, 179 faculties, and 461 students/graduates responded. Both faculty and students/graduates groups rated quality positively. Schools in the top quartile group per NIH funding amounts showed significant differences in QNDE from the bottom quartile group. Program and faculty domains were identified as most important by the top quartile group, and items that were significantly associated with the quality were supportive environment for students' learning, faculty mentorship, and assistance to students in understanding the value of programs of research and scholarship. Percentage of faculty member with research grants was significant predictors for all domains of QNDE, and time to degree was significant in explaining overall quality. © 2014.

  8. Efficient etching-free transfer of high quality, large-area CVD grown graphene onto polyvinyl alcohol films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Bogdan; Leordean, Cosmin [Babes-Bolyai University, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Treboniu Laurian Str. 42, Cluj-Napoca 400271 (Romania); Istvan, Todor [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Biomolecular Physics Department, M Kogalniceanu Str. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania); Botiz, Ioan [Babes-Bolyai University, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Treboniu Laurian Str. 42, Cluj-Napoca 400271 (Romania); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Treboniu Laurian Str. 42, Cluj-Napoca 400271 (Romania); Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Biomolecular Physics Department, M Kogalniceanu Str. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One-step dry transfer method of CVD grown graphene onto PVA films. • Investigation of graphene quality and number of layers of the synthesized and transferred graphene. • Promising scalability and good quality of transferred graphene onto flexible transparent polymers. - Abstract: Graphene transfer is a procedure of paramount importance for the production of graphene-based electronic devices. The transfer procedure can affect the electronic properties of the transferred graphene and can be detrimental for possible applications both due to procedure induced defects which can appear and due to scalability of the method. Hence, it is important to investigate new transfer methods for graphene that are less time consuming and show great promise. In the present study we propose an efficient, etching-free transfer method that consists in applying a thin polyvinyl alcohol layer on top of the CVD grown graphene on Cu and then peeling-off the graphene onto the polyvinyl alcohol film. We investigate the quality of the transferred graphene before and after the transfer, using Raman spectroscopy and imaging as well as optical and atomic force microscopy techniques. This simple transfer method is scalable and can lead to complete transfer of graphene onto flexible and transparent polymer support films without affecting the quality of the graphene during the transfer procedure.

  9. Final report on the waste area grouping perimeter groundwater quality monitoring well installation program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    A groundwater quality monitoring well installation program was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the requirements of environmental regulations, including the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). A total of 173 wells were installed and developed at 11 different waste area groupings (WAGs) between June 1986 and November 1990. A location map of the wells is included

  10. Outcomes by area of residence deprivation in a cohort of oral cancer patients: Survival, health-related quality of life, and place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Joseph; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer patients from lower socio-economic backgrounds have worse outcomes of survival and health related quality of life. The mechanism of cause is not fully understood. The purpose of the paper is to report treatment selection, survival, health related quality of life, cause and place of death in relation to deprivation status. 553 patients treated for oral cancer between 2008 and 2012 were identified from records at University hospital. Mortality was tracked via the Office of National Statistics (ONS) and health-related quality of life was measured using the University Washington quality of life questionnaire (UW-QoLv4). Postcodes of residence at diagnosis were used to obtain index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2010 scores. Nearly half of the sample (47%) lived in the 'most deprived' IMD 2010 quartile of residential areas in England and such patients when treated with curative intent using surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy had worse survival than patients living elsewhere, p=0.01 after adjusting for pathological staging and age group. There were no notable differences by IMD group in cancer being mentioned anywhere in part 1 or part 2 of the death certificate or in place of death. After adjustment for patient and clinical factors patients residing in more deprived areas had worse quality of life outcomes in regard to social-emotional functioning and overall quality of life but not in regard to physical oral function. Addressing inequalities in health care related to deprivation is a priority for patients with oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland. The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011 from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012 were obtained (gained from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m.

  12. Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikker Annemieke P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1 the GPs' competence, and (2 the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b valued as an individual by the doctor (c that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship, and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors

  13. Establishing female-only areas in psychiatry wards to improve safety and quality of care for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Gavrilidis, Emmy; Lee, Stuart; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Grigg, Jasmin; Hayes, Emily; Lee, Adeline; Ong, Roy; Seeary, Amy; Andersen, Shelley; Worsley, Rosie; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Stafrace, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of creating a female-only area within a mixed-gender inpatient psychiatry service, on female patient safety and experience of care. The Alfred hospital reconfigured one of its two psychiatry wards to include a female-only area. Documented incidents compromising the safety of women on each ward in the 6 months following the refurbishment were compared. Further, a questionnaire assessing perceived safety and experience of care was administered to female inpatients on both wards, and staff feedback was also obtained. The occurrence of documented incidents compromising females' safety was found to be significantly lower on the ward containing a female-only area. Women staying on this ward rated their perceived safety and experience of care significantly more positively than women staying where no such gender segregation was available. Further, the female-only area was identified by the majority of surveyed staff to provide a safer environment for female patients. Establishing female-only areas in psychiatry wards is an effective way to improve the safety and experience of care for female patients. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  14. Air quality of the industrial area of Padova. SO2 and micropollutants concentration measurements around the incenerator of domestic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracco, L [Amministrazione Provinciale di Padova; Boschi, G

    1986-04-01

    Some data related to one year measurements of SO2 concentrations and of suspended solid particles taken by Environmental Monitoring Station of the Provincial Network of Padua, located near the Industrial Area, are reported. In addition is reported a series of analytical determinations of heavy metals and organic micropollutants carried out in the same area by the Municipal Refuse Collection and public Health Services. The obtained results indicate that the concentration of SO2 in the area is well within the law limits while, as far as the suspended solid particles are concerned, it points out that the respect of the imposed limits, must be carefully evaluated in regards to new urbans developments and air cleaning plants which are going to be arranged by the Veneto.

  15. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FARISSI; Cherki GHOULAM; Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata) originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver). The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an...

  16. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  17. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  18. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  19. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  20. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  1. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  2. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water sou