WorldWideScience

Sample records for quality effects caused

  1. Causes, Effects and Solutions of Poor Quality Problems in the Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Anand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term electric power quality broadly refers to maintaining a nearly sinusoidal power distribution bus voltage at rated magnitude and frequency. In addition, the energy supplied to a consumer must be uninterrupted from reliability point of view. Though power quality is mainly a distribution system problem, power transmission system may also have impact on quality of power. With the ever-increasing use of sophisticated controls and equipment in industrial, commercial, institutional, and governmental facilities, the continuity, reliability, and quality of electrical service has become extremely crucial to many power users. Electrical systems are subject to a wide variety of power quality problems which can interrupt production processes, affect sensitive equipment, and cause downtime, scrap, and capacity losses. Momentary voltage fluctuations can disastrously impact production. . . extended outages have a greater impact.

  2. Root-cause analysis and health failure mode and effect analysis: two leading techniques in health care quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqdan, Khalid; Aran, Shima; Daftari Besheli, Laleh; Abujudeh, Hani

    2014-06-01

    In this review article, the authors provide a detailed series of guidelines for effectively performing root-cause analysis (RCA) and health failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA). RCA is a retrospective approach used to ascertain the "root cause" of a problem that has already occurred, whereas HFMEA is a prospective risk assessment tool whose aim is to recognize risks to patient safety. RCA and HFMEA are used for the prevention of errors or recurring errors to create a safer workplace, maintain high standards in health care quality, and incorporate time-saving and cost-saving modifications to favorably affect the patient care environment. The principles and techniques provided here should allow reviewers to better understand the features of RCA and HFMEA and how to apply these processes appropriately. These principles include how to organize a team, identify root causes, seed out proximate causes, graphically describe the process, conduct a hazard analysis, and develop and implement potential action plans.

  3. Quality effects caused by torrefaction of pellets made from Scots pine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Dahl, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of torrefaction on the quality of Scots pine pellets. Pellet samples were torrefied at 230, 250 and 270°C for 1h in nitrogen atmosphere. Higher heating value (HHV) was increased from 18.37MJkg−1 to 24.34MJkg−1. The energy to crush a pellet...... the pellet samples in a bench scale disc mill. Particle size distribution measurements after grinding indicated a significant increase of small particles (diameterca. 2mm). To further analyze the effect on strength, the mechanical durability of pellets was tested according to wood pellet standards, EN 15210......-1. The results have shown a good correlation between pellet durability and compression strength, and indicated that the pellet durability can be estimated based on compression strength data of about 25 pellets....

  4. Causes, Effects and Solutions of Poor Quality Problems in the Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vikash Anand; Srivastava, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The term electric power quality broadly refers to maintaining a nearly sinusoidal power distribution bus voltage at rated magnitude and frequency. In addition, the energy supplied to a consumer must be uninterrupted from reliability point of view. Though power quality is mainly a distribution system problem, power transmission system may also have impact on quality of power. With the ever-increasing use of sophisticated controls and equipment in industrial, commercial, institu...

  5. Effects of medical causes, role concepts and treatment stages on quality of life in involuntary childless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, M; Rösner, S; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Jank, A; Kentenich, H; Thöne, C; Wischmann, T

    2016-11-01

    Goal of this study was to investigate differences in quality of life in men contingent upon various fertility treatment stages, infertility causes and adoption of roles. A quantitative study with n = 115 men in three German fertility centres was devised. Participants completed a standardised, fertility-specific questionnaire devised for men (TLMK), sociodemographic and role items. Men having experienced severe medical conditions, for example cancer, reported significant higher quality of life compared to men with other infertility reasons [F(1,56) = 12.77, P = 0.001]. Furthermore, allocating participants into distinctive groups by means of kind and duration of treatment revealed significant group differences [F(2,111) = 4.94, P = 0.009], with quality of life decreasing with the use of more invasive fertility methods. A higher satisfaction with life was also stated by men adopting many tasks in the treatment process. The high quality of life displayed by men having experienced severe medical conditions contains valuable and far-reaching information about possible resilience factors that need to be researched more in detail. The finding of decreasing quality of life in men with the use of more invasive methods in treatment applies for increased psychosocial services in fertility clinics.

  6. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  7. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; José Carlos de Deus Jr; Mario Tomazello Filho; Franciane Andrade de Pádua; Francine Neves Calil; Jean Paul Laclau

    2014-01-01

    The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing) fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month). Fifteen (15) 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment), cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m) were taken for ...

  8. On Q: Causing Quality in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel T.

    This book presents college and university education as a quality-oriented service with students, parents, and legislators as customers demanding quality. It attempts to blend the concept of strategic management of quality in industry with the latest thinking on the administration of higher education. The first chapter discusses the importance of…

  9. Causes for variation in pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der P.; Engel, B.; Hulsegge, B.

    1997-01-01

    Research was carried out on 260 pigs that were slaughtered in 12 batches in the slaughter facilities of ID-DLO at Zeist. The practical circumstances were highly standardized. The 'animals' meat quality was good with only little variation; 46 animals showed a 'slightly' aberrant quality and 6 'slight

  10. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  11. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  12. The Effectiveness of Group Mindfulness Training on the Quality of Life among Patients with PTSD Caused by the War in the East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimeh Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: since the quality of family life is critical in multiple dimensions and stress of life both mentally and physically have major effect on humans. Having a partner with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD affects the quality of life and increases the stress among couples. A major problem in this research is that if group mindfulness training can enhance the quality of life among spouses with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD or not. Methodology: In this study, 15 participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 15 participants were in the control group and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to gather the related data. Findings: After 8 sessions the results showed that group mindfulness training techniques increased the quality of life in all its dimensions except social function.

  13. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: CONCEPTS CAUSES AND EFFECT

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    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Some people made a wrong concept about Business Process Reengineering (BPR. Some were misunderstanding about the BPR term. In other way, so many researches were introduced to describe a better definition about BPR. The thinking about concepts, causes, and effect of BPR will make a new perception about the term of BPR itself as a better methodology instead of the other Quality Management Methodology such as Total Quality Management (TQM, Just In Time (JIT, etc. This paper will mention the context of BPR in some of case study's journal.

  14. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  15. Measuring Effectiveness of Food Quality Management in the Bakery Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Boer, de W.J.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriate management of food production operations cause several quality performance problems. Therefore, the actual contribution of food quality management to quality performance has to be revealed. This article investigates the effectiveness of food quality management in the bakery sector.

  16. Measuring Effectiveness of Food Quality Management in the Bakery Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Boer, de W.J.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriate management of food production operations cause several quality performance problems. Therefore, the actual contribution of food quality management to quality performance has to be revealed. This article investigates the effectiveness of food quality management in the bakery sector. Rel

  17. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient’s sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among...

  18. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  19. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  20. More on the Cause-Effect Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Jerzy A.

    2007-06-01

    Does every event have a cause? An answer is not simple. The notion of cause contains a particular being y acting on being x plus everything that may be called the boundary conditions. These may form necessary and suffcient conditions giving rise to a strong cause, or only necessary conditions, giving rise to a weak cause. These matters are discussed in this article with particular attention being paid to the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas known as prima via. Prima via is the analysis of a cause-effect sequence which leads (according to Thomas) to a First Cause (First Mover). It seems that the extrapolation of the cause-effect sequence to infinity is permissible from the logical point of view. But the possibility of weak causes seems to destroy the cause-effect "line". Here it is perhaps useful to "escape" to the metaphysical abstraction which looks at things sub ratione entitatis. If we ignore space and time (which is characteristic of this abstraction) we are led to believe that the IS of cause is finally unavoidable, which means that from the vantage point of this abstraction, i.e. from the point of view of IS, all causes are strong.

  1. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent conditionaffecting about 347 million people worldwide. Inaddition to its numerous clinical implications, DM alsoexerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality.Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemiccontrol regarded as corner stone in DM managementand also lead to many deleterious effects causing aprofound impact on health related quality of life. Thisarticle outlines various factors leading to impaired sleepquality among diabetics and delineates how individualfactor influences sleep. The article also discussespotential interventions and lifestyle changes to promotehealthy sleep among diabetics.

  2. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF PRODUCT DEFECTS USING QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS

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    Katarzyna MIDOR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To stay or strengthen its position on the market, a modern business needs to follow the principles of quality control in its actions. Especially important is the Zero Defects concept developed by Philip Crosby, which means flawless production. The concept consists in preventing the occurrence of defects and flaws in all production stages. To achieve that, we must, among other things, make use of quality management tools. This article presents an analysis of the reasons for the return of damaged or faulty goods in the automotive industry by means of quality management tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto analysis, which allow us to identify the causes of product defectiveness. Based on the results, preventive measures have been proposed. The actions presented in this article and the results of the analysis prove the effectiveness of the aforementioned quality management tools.

  4. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, Nathan R; Aronsky, Dominik

    2008-08-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding represents an international crisis that may affect the quality and access of health care. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search to identify articles that (1) studied causes, effects, or solutions of ED crowding; (2) described data collection and analysis methodology; (3) occurred in a general ED setting; and (4) focused on everyday crowding. Two independent reviewers identified the relevant articles by consensus. We applied a 5-level quality assessment tool to grade the methodology of each study. From 4,271 abstracts and 188 full-text articles, the reviewers identified 93 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles studied causes, 27 articles studied effects, and 40 articles studied solutions of ED crowding. Commonly studied causes of crowding included nonurgent visits, "frequent-flyer" patients, influenza season, inadequate staffing, inpatient boarding, and hospital bed shortages. Commonly studied effects of crowding included patient mortality, transport delays, treatment delays, ambulance diversion, patient elopement, and financial effect. Commonly studied solutions of crowding included additional personnel, observation units, hospital bed access, nonurgent referrals, ambulance diversion, destination control, crowding measures, and queuing theory. The results illustrated the complex, multifaceted characteristics of the ED crowding problem. Additional high-quality studies may provide valuable contributions toward better understanding and alleviating the daily crisis. This structured overview of the literature may help to identify future directions for the crowding research agenda.

  5. Space storms and radiation causes and effects

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. The Sun is a magnetically variable star and for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences. This 2010 volume, the second in this series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them - from causes on the Sun to effects in planetary environments. It reviews t

  6. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  7. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

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    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  9. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery

  10. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservativ

  11. Effect of Power Ultrasound on Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungill; Feng, Hao

    Recent food processing technology innovations have been centered around producing foods with fresh-like attributes through minimal processing or nonthermal processing technologies. Instead of using thermal energy to secure food safety that is often accompanied by quality degradation in processed foods, the newly developed processing modalities utilize other types of physical energy such as high pressure, pulsed electric field or magnetic field, ultraviolet light, or acoustic energy to process foods. An improvement in food quality by the new processing methods has been widely reported. In comparison with its low-energy (high-frequency) counterpart which finds applications in food quality inspection, the use of high-intensity ultrasound, also called power ultrasound, in food processing is a relatively new endeavor. To understand the effect of high-intensity ultrasound treatment on food quality, it is important to understand the interactions between acoustic energy and food ingredients, which is covered in Chapter 10. In this chapter, the focus will be on changes in overall food quality attributes that are caused by ultrasound, such as texture, color, flavor, and nutrients.

  12. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  13. Commodity Price Volatility: Causes, Effects and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mugera, Harriet Kasidi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural commodities experienced substantial increases in prices over the most recent decade with major surges in both 2007-08 and again in 2010-11. These price movements coincided with sharp rises in energy prices, in particular crude oil. Sharp increases in agricultural prices were not uncommon, but it is the short period between the recent two price surges that has drawn concerns and raised questions. What were the causes of the increase in world agricultural prices and what are the pr...

  14. Weaknesses of the Quality Evaluation Process in the Spanish University: Causes, Consequences and Proposals for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Rodríguez Sabiote

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of quality assessment going on in the Spanish university since the early nineties has generated undeniable advances. However, there have been detected a series of weaknesses which have affected the process with consequences unpredictable a priori. This article reviews some of the weaknesses, together with their possible causes and consequences. Suggestions are provided for improving the process of evaluating the quality of university institutions.

  15. Causes of death in Tonga: quality of certification and implications for statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen; Hufanga, Sione; Rao, Chalapati; Akauola, Sione; Lopez, Alan D; Rampatige, Rasika; Taylor, Richard

    2012-03-05

    Detailed cause of death data by age group and sex are critical to identify key public health issues and target interventions appropriately. In this study the quality of local routinely collected cause of death data from medical certification is reviewed, and a cause of death profile for Tonga based on amended data is presented. Medical certificates of death for all deaths in Tonga for 2001 to 2008 and medical records for all deaths in the main island Tongatapu for 2008 were sought from the national hospital. Cause of death data for 2008 were reviewed for quality through (a) a review of current tabulation procedures and (b) a medical record review. Data from each medical record were extracted and provided to an independent medical doctor to assign cause of death, with underlying cause from the medical record tabulated against underlying cause from the medical certificate. Significant associations in reporting patterns were evaluated and final cause of death for each case in 2008 was assigned based on the best quality information from the medical certificate or medical record. Cause of death data from 2001 to 2007 were revised based on findings from the evaluation of certification of the 2008 data and added to the dataset. Proportional mortality was calculated and applied to age- and sex-specific mortality for all causes from 2001 to 2008. Cause of death was tabulated by age group and sex, and age-standardized (all ages) mortality rates for each sex by cause were calculated. Reported tabulations of cause of death in Tonga are of immediate cause, with ischemic heart disease and diabetes underrepresented. In the majority of cases the reported (immediate) cause fell within the same broad category as the underlying cause of death from the medical certificate. Underlying cause of death from the medical certificate, attributed to neoplasms, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were assigned to other underlying causes by the medical record review in 70% to 77% of deaths. Of

  16. Causes of death in Tonga: quality of certification and implications for statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed cause of death data by age group and sex are critical to identify key public health issues and target interventions appropriately. In this study the quality of local routinely collected cause of death data from medical certification is reviewed, and a cause of death profile for Tonga based on amended data is presented. Methods Medical certificates of death for all deaths in Tonga for 2001 to 2008 and medical records for all deaths in the main island Tongatapu for 2008 were sought from the national hospital. Cause of death data for 2008 were reviewed for quality through (a a review of current tabulation procedures and (b a medical record review. Data from each medical record were extracted and provided to an independent medical doctor to assign cause of death, with underlying cause from the medical record tabulated against underlying cause from the medical certificate. Significant associations in reporting patterns were evaluated and final cause of death for each case in 2008 was assigned based on the best quality information from the medical certificate or medical record. Cause of death data from 2001 to 2007 were revised based on findings from the evaluation of certification of the 2008 data and added to the dataset. Proportional mortality was calculated and applied to age- and sex-specific mortality for all causes from 2001 to 2008. Cause of death was tabulated by age group and sex, and age-standardized (all ages mortality rates for each sex by cause were calculated. Results Reported tabulations of cause of death in Tonga are of immediate cause, with ischemic heart disease and diabetes underrepresented. In the majority of cases the reported (immediate cause fell within the same broad category as the underlying cause of death from the medical certificate. Underlying cause of death from the medical certificate, attributed to neoplasms, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were assigned to other underlying causes by

  17. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned.

  18. Classification of Underlying Causes of Power Quality Disturbances: Deterministic versus Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Styvaktakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two main types of classification methods for power quality disturbances based on underlying causes: deterministic classification, giving an expert system as an example, and statistical classification, with support vector machines (a novel method as an example. An expert system is suitable when one has limited amount of data and sufficient power system expert knowledge; however, its application requires a set of threshold values. Statistical methods are suitable when large amount of data is available for training. Two important issues to guarantee the effectiveness of a classifier, data segmentation, and feature extraction are discussed. Segmentation of a sequence of data recording is preprocessing to partition the data into segments each representing a duration containing either an event or a transition between two events. Extraction of features is applied to each segment individually. Some useful features and their effectiveness are then discussed. Some experimental results are included for demonstrating the effectiveness of both systems. Finally, conclusions are given together with the discussion of some future research directions.

  19. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O' Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura [Florida Hospital, Imaging Administration, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA{sup 2} by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  20. Technostress in Libraries: Causes, Effects and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichteler, Julie

    1987-01-01

    Examines some of the fears, frustrations, and misconceptions of library staff and patrons that hamper the effective use of computers in libraries. Strategies that library administrators could use to alleviate stress are outlined, including staff participation in the automation process, well-designed workstations, and adequate training for staff…

  1. Contextual dissonance effects: nature and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M

    1977-08-01

    Contextual consonance or dissonance refers to the concordance of, or the discrepancy between, the individual's social characteristics and those of the population by which he is surrounded. Although a number of advantageous consequences have been shown to issue from contextual dissonance, self-esteem is not one of them. This article seeks to account for the deleterious effect of contextual dissonance on self-esteem by examining the nature of dissonant communications environments, dissonant cultural environments, and dissonant comparison reference groups.

  2. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  3. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  4. An analysis of the causes of complaintsabout steel sheets in metallurgical product quality management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the causes of complaints about metallurgical products, illustrated with an example of steel sheets, with a particular focus on the reasons having their source in the human factor. The publication has been based on direct research and analysis of complaints made available by a metallurgical plant. The obtained results have been enriched with theoretical considerations on quality management systems for metallurgical products.

  5. Chronic tattoo reactions cause reduced quality of life equaling cumbersome skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are often associated with mild complaints, but some people develop complications that may require medical treatment, and the burden of these events has hitherto been neglected. To understand the dimensions and the psychological symptomatology of adverse events both the sensory and affective impacts, including the effect on quality of life, should be studied. Itch severity and influence on quality of life can be measured objectively. The Itch Severity Scale and Dermatology Life Quality Index scoring systems have been applied to different dermatological diseases. When ISS and DLQI scores were applied to patients with chronic tattoo reactions, tattoo complaints and impact on quality of life that were comparable to patients presenting cumbersome dermatological disease such as psoriasis, eczema and pruritus, which often show widespread effects to the skin, were uncovered. In conclusion, chronic tattoo reactions should be ranked as a cumbersome dermatological disease and, accordingly, given priority attention and qualified treatment by the public health care system. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Identifying cause in sediment assessments : bioavailability and the sediment quality triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W.P.; Reynoldson, T.B.; Rosa, F. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    2001-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the biological impacts of metals in sediments found in the Sudbury area lakes. This study included the analysis of the standard Sediment Quality Triad components from a 1996 study. Metal bioavailability or bioaccumulation in Hyalella azteca was also measured under laboratory conditions with fresh sediments collected in 1998 to determine the adequacy of the Sediment Quality Triad. The objective of the study was to determine first of all if contaminants are getting into the system, and if so, whether they are bioavailable. The second objective was to see if there is a measurable response and to determine what is causing the response. The application of the Sediment Quality Triad approach to non-pH-stressed area lakes showed increased levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper and nickel, with decreased amounts of benthic invertebrates and significant sediment toxicity to amphipods and mayflies. The cause of sediment toxicity was determined by comparing metal bioaccumulation with critical body concentrations previously shown to cause toxicity. Nickel was the only metal that was clearly identified as contributing to toxicity in chronic tests with Hyalella exposed to Sudbury area sediments. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  8. Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a tool ... The water management sector has been one of the first sectors in South Africa to ... Reviewed against 'direct output' indicators it achieved a 'poor' effectiveness ...

  9. 73. Surgical site infection after CABG: Root cause analysis and quality measures recommendation SSI quality improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arifi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI, is a preventable and devastating complication with significant morbidity after cardiac surgery. The reported SSI rate at our center, ranging from 3.4% to 11.2% (2007–2013. This rate is considered to be above the standardized rate recommended by the NHSN. Quality improvement project team to address the issue of SSI, (SCIP, where formed by the medical administration late 2014. The aim of the study was to identify SSI risk factors at our cardiac surgical unit, using evidence based practices while taking a local approach to problem solving. We performed Root Cause Analysis (RCA, and we applied other quality improvement tools to identify the area for potential improvement. Data include a Process Map of the pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative factors that might contribute to SSI risk. We prospectively used the RCA form to investigate all the stages of the patient process map (pre, intra op, and post operatively. The data included the Patient related factors, the sterilization and the hygiene practice in the operating room, and the operating room traffic, and the compliance to the bundle of care. Figure represent the “Fishbone” diagram of the possible causes of SSI after cardiac surgery in our unit. Demographic features of patients with SSI were as follows: mean age-65 years; female 83%; time to infection (mean 101 days; range 1–36 days;. The root cause analysis identified a significant weakness in the compliance to the bundle of care to prevent SSI. Furthermore, the patient flow, the operating theatre cleaning and traffic was also identified as a contributing factor to SSI. Surgical site infection after cardiac surgery is a preventable complication. The application of the evidence based practice and structured way of thinking in problem solving, will help identify the potential risk factors. Focusing on solving the right patient process and visually represents the problem will help identifying the

  10. Effect of Data Processing on Data Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Samih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Great attention had been paid on spatial data quality by the scientific community. This was due to the negative impact that a poor spatial data quality had on the competitiveness of an organization. On other hand, we can never obtain good quality data from a poor quality data. In this study, we demonstrate the effects of the different processing and preprocessing on the quality of spatial data. As we know each type of processing introduces errors and deformations at the original spatial data. Approach: Field applications and real samples were presented to prove the effect of data processing on data quality. We used spectrally and spatially processed satellite images which present the following areas: (i Greater Amman area, (ii Walla and Habisse basins. Different types of processing using different scales and resolutions were applied to field applications to evaluate the effect of scale, resolution and electronic transfer from vector to raster. Results: The vector layers extracted from these spatial data at different scales and resolutions were compared to each other. The comparison showed a great deformation in shape and value. This research demonstrates the influence of the scale, the resolution and transformation from vector to raster of spatial data base on the accuracy. Conclusion: We concluded that scale, resolution and electronic transfer have great effects on data quality. This effect should be considered in building any data base and all data base must have history file for evaluating its accuracy quality.

  11. Climate change: Causes, effects and mitigation measures- A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change: Causes, effects and mitigation measures- A review. ... far more than at any time in the last 650,000 years resulting in climate change or global warming. ... loss of biodiversity, food insecurity, decreased animal health et cetera.

  12. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    -income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health......-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through...... the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks...

  13. Random safety auditing, root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Robert; Gray, James

    2010-03-01

    Improving quality and safety in health care is a major concern for health care providers, the general public, and policy makers. Errors and quality issues are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the health care industry. There is evidence that patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk for serious medical errors. To facilitate compliance with safe practices, many institutions have established quality-assurance monitoring procedures. Three techniques that have been found useful in the health care setting are failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and random safety auditing. When used together, these techniques are effective tools for system analysis and redesign focused on providing safe delivery of care in the complex NICU system.

  14. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  15. Coriolis effects are principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isu, N; Yanagihara, M; Mikuni, T; Koo, J

    1994-07-01

    A cause of nausea evoked by cross-coupled rotation (termed Coriolis stimulus) was determined. Subjects were provided with two types of cross-coupled rotations: neck-forward flexion (Neck Flx) and upper body-forward flexion (Body Flx) during horizontal whole body rotation at a constant angular velocity. These Coriolis stimuli were given alternatively in an experimental sequence, and the severity of the nausea they evoked was compared by the subjects. The results indicated that the same quality of nausea was evoked by a slightly higher angular velocity during Body Flx (100.5 degrees/s) than during Neck Flx (90 degrees/s). While Body Flx generated Coriolis linear acceleration several times larger than Neck Flx, both the stimuli generated a similar magnitude of gyroscopic angular acceleration in this condition. Therefore, it was inferred that the nausea evoked by a Coriolis stimulus is principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

  16. Analysis on Causes and Countermeasures of Bullwhip Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Jianhua; Li Shibiao; Peng Shengbo

    2017-01-01

    Bullwhip effect is an inevitable phenomenon in supply chain management, because of its objective existence. This phenomenon is very common and harmful to make the operating costs of enterprises double and become one of the main concerns of many enterprises. In this paper, the causes of the bullwhip effect are explored through the methods of literature research and investigated consultation to weaken the bullwhip effect. This paper analyzes the key countermeasures with Wal-Mart successful logi...

  17. Effect of Climate Change on Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrel A.

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due ...

  18. Effect of captopril on semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, S A

    2017-05-01

    Various studies (direct and indirect) have presented the effect of captopril, a universally used antihypertensive medication, on semen quality; yet, this effect is still collectively unreviewed. This review systematically discusses and summarises the effect of captopril on semen quality. We searched all published articles in the MEDLINE electronic database since June 1985 until January 2016 using the keywords "captopril" and "sperm," and certain supporting articles were reviewed and considered, if relevant. In conclusion, up to the present time, captopril does not appear to induce a striking change in semen quality, and hence on male infertility, while it may affect the rate of spermatozoa-egg fusion as it inhibits the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme that is released during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Further research, mainly clinical, is still desired to prove these effects. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. POOR QUALITY OF PRODUCT DESIGN AS A CAUSE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko D. Jovanović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of product design, which is expected from manufacturers on world market these days, could be provided exclusively by integral approach to product design. Such approach aims to achievement of optimal design solution of product, which is in line with a number of requirements, conditions and limitations of functionality, technology, market and usage. Only those manufacturers who are able to provide such approach to product design have prospective on market. This paper deals with a case study of neglect of integral approach to product design and its consequencies, in order to spread awareness of necessity of its adoption. Scope of this case study is focused on bridge crane whose working vibrations are meant to be potential cause of occupational desease of spinal column of crane operator.

  20. Fluency and positivity as possible causes of the truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Bayer, Myriam; Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Stahl, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Statements' rated truth increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this truth effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the truth effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the truth effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated truth. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based truth effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and truth in a learning phase. We again replicated the truth effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated truth, but not on the repetition-based truth effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard truth effect, but the role of positive experiences for truth judgments deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...

  2. Quality assurance and organizational effectiveness in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, R W

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some aspects of a general theoretical model within which research on the organizational impacts of quality assurance programs in hospitals may be examined. Quality assurance is conceptualized as an organizational control mechanism, operating primarily through increased formalization of structures and specification of procedures. Organizational effectiveness is discussed from the perspective of the problem-solving theory of organizations, wherein effective organizations are those which maintain at least average performance in all four system problem areas simultaneously (goal-attainment, integration, adaptation and pattern-maintenance). It is proposed that through the realization of mutual benefits for both professionals and the bureaucracy, quality assurance programs can maximize such effective performance in hospitals.

  3. Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to indirect ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that indirect ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for testing for nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of indirect ecological effects for evolution in a community context.

  4. Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect in a Nigerian City. ... where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajm.v28i5.55009.

  5. Chronic tattoo reactions cause reduced quality of life equaling cumbersome skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are often associated with mild complaints, but some people develop complications that may require medical treatment, and the burden of these events has hitherto been neglected. To understand the dimensions and the psychological symptomatology of adverse events both the sensory and affective...... applied to patients with chronic tattoo reactions, tattoo complaints and impact on quality of life that were comparable to patients presenting cumbersome dermatological disease such as psoriasis, eczema and pruritus, which often show widespread effects to the skin, were uncovered. In conclusion, chronic...... tattoo reactions should be ranked as a cumbersome dermatological disease and, accordingly, given priority attention and qualified treatment by the public health care system....

  6. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  7. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE GLOBAL DECREASE IN DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Krajisnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has been lasting too long, and particular examples of economic growth and unemployment reduction in some countries have not been the accelerator sufficient for the global recovery. The general level of demand is low, hence so are the investments, although the most powerful economic factors, i.e. the highly developed countries and transnational companies, have the capacities for new investment cycles. This work analyses the causes and effects of decrease in demand, as well as the options available for removal of those causes and revitalization of the effects. One of the main causes of decrease in demand in a long run is the asymmetrical distribution of income which has led to a reduction in purchasing power of a large number of consumers, high debt level and change in demand structure. An additional problem, which can be regarded also as a cause of decline in demand in the short run, is the austerity policy which is being implemented both where necessary and conditioned and where voluntary albeit not necessary. In order to overcome the problem, it is necessary to increase and maintain demand, first initially and then permanently, which is where the state plays an important role.

  8. Metabolic effects as a cause of myotoxic effects of fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Hager, Martin; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if fluoroquinolones (FQs) influence skeletal muscle metabolism of healthy and malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) pigs. After approval from of the Animal Care Committee, 10 MHS pigs, and 6 MHS pigs were anesthetized with hemodynamic and systemic metabolic monitoring. Microdialysis catheters were placed intramuscularly. After equilibration, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were injected as a rapid bolus and continuous infusions. Lactate was measured in the dialysate and statistically analyzed was done (Wilcoxon-test; U-test; P < 0.05). There were no differences in age, weight, and baseline lactate levels between the groups. Both applications of levofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-induced an increase of local lactate levels in healthy and MHS pigs. No difference between the two groups was observed. FQs influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Myotoxic effects of FQs can, therefore, be explained by an influence on the cellular energy balance.

  9. [Effectiveness of incorporating a quality management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Akira; Hankins, Raleigh W; Miya, Tetsumasa

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the ISO 15189 international standardization program on the quality and competence of the clinical reference laboratory was introduced. To date, 46 facilities have committed themselves to providing a higher level of medical service by incorporating a quality management system (QMS) and acquiring accreditation. QMS is defined as "setting up a policy and goals pertaining to quality, and adopting an appropriate system," and is a scheme that includes all managerial and technical factors that can affect test results. Regarding the Health Sciences Research Institute Group, 4 facilities have previously received the accreditation described above, but in the process of implementing the QMS, a number of problems have been identified. Here, we report on the effectiveness of adopting such a QMS based on the results of employee questionnaires, internal audits, customer complaint analyses, and external audits by the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (JAB), the official inspection body for accreditation.

  10. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Williams

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret. Experiment 1 (N = 294 compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150 and 3 (N = 196 represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical

  11. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa A; Masser, Barbara; Sun, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret). Experiment 1 (N = 294) compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150) and 3 (N = 196) represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical utility of

  12. A Framework on Causes and Effects of Design Iterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Purva; Matsagar, Vasant

    2017-06-01

    Design is an evolutionary process that involves several teams collaborating with each other to achieve the final design solution. Due to an intrinsic association of teams participating during design stages, frequent exchanges of information take place among them to execute various design activities. These information exchanges occur in cycles/loops where the design is improved/refined at each information exchange. This process is referred as design iteration. Iteration is one of the most complex and unavoidable phenomenon of a design process and they last until the specifications and design requirements are met. Hence, design teams need to acquire a thorough understanding of the factors that cause iterations. As the causes of iterations have not been identified in a classified manner, a causes and effects framework of design iteration is presented in this paper. The methodology adopted to develop this framework was detailed literature review and interactions done with industry experts. This framework guides project planners to identify the possible causes of iterations and enables them to plan their design projects efficiently.

  13. Effect of quantum therapy on pork quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin BODNAR; Jozef NAGY; Peter POPELKA; Beáta KOR(E)NEKOV(A); Ján MACANGA; Alena NAGYOVA

    2011-01-01

    In this study the impact of quantum therapy on meat quality of slaughtered pigs was investigated.For this purpose the pigs were treated with different doses of magnet-infrared-laser (MIL) radiation.Animals were divided into four groups according to radiation doses (4096,512,and 64 Hz,and control without application),which were applied in the lumbar area of musculus /ongissimus dorsi (loin) at various time intervals prior to the slaughter (14 d,24 h,and 1 h).Animals were slaughtered and the meat quality was evaluated by determining of pH value (1,3,and 24 h post slaughter),drip loss,colour,and lactic acid and phosphoric acid amounts.MIL therapy can be used in various fields of veterinary medicine as are surgery and orthopaedics,internal medicine,dentistry,pulmonology,gastroenterology,gynaecology,urology,nephrology,and dermatology.The results achieved showed that MIL radiation used in a short period before slaughter (1 h) can cause a change in the meat quality,as reflected by the non-standard development of pH values,increases in drip loss,and changes of meat colour.

  14. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  15. Causes, Effects and Way Forward to Food Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Ilaboya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some important causes and challenges of the global food crisis on human and economic development. The main focus is on analysis of the causes and impact of food insecurity coupled with the measures to achieve adequate food security. Attempt was made to give an overview of the fundamental threat pose by insecurity of food on the people; these include: a moral and humanitarian threat, developmental threat and strategic threat. Issues on the role of biofuels on food insecurity were also discussed. Data on grain production and consumption were collated, in which the surplus/deficit values were computed. The data werethen subjected to statistical testing using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of utilization of grains in biofuels production on the overall security of food. Result of the model shows significant effects of biofuels on food security. A mathematical model was also used to analyse the impact of foodinsecurity on the terms of trade of nations, data generated were also subjected to statistical analysis using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of food insecurity on the terms of trade. Results also show a very high significant effect. Finally, the way forward in ensuring adequate security of food were critically analysed to include among others: Increasing agricultural production, enhancement of science and technology, facilitating market access, rural off farm opportunities and capacity building

  16. Effects of Diet on Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Mikic, Anja; Pietrolungo, Cara E

    2016-09-01

    There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep. Such studies highlight a potential effect of macronutrient intakes on sleep variables, particularly alterations in slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep with changes in carbohydrate and fat intakes. Other studies instead examined the intake of specific foods, consumed at a fixed time relative to sleep, on sleep architecture and quality. Those foods, specifically milk, fatty fish, tart cherry juice, and kiwifruit, are reviewed here. Studies provide some evidence for a role of certain dietary patterns and foods in the promotion of high-quality sleep, but more studies are necessary to confirm those preliminary findings.

  17. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  18. Early dioxin exposure causes toxic effects in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tracie R; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The acute effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure have been well documented in many vertebrate species. However, less is known about the consequences in adulthood from sublethal exposure during development. To address this, we exposed zebrafish to sublethal levels of TCDD (1h; 50 pg/ml), either in early embryogenesis (day 0) or during sexual determination (3 and 7 weeks), and assessed the effects later in adulthood. We found that exposure during embryogenesis produced few effects on the adults themselves but did affect the offspring of these fish: Malformations and increased mortality were observed in the subsequent generation. Zebrafish exposed during sexual development showed defects in the cranial and axial skeleton as adults. This was most clearly manifested as scoliosis caused by malformation of individual vertebrae. These fish also showed defects in reproduction, producing fewer eggs with lower fertilization success. Both males and females were affected, with males contributing to the decrease in egg release from the females and exposed females contributing to fertilization failure. TCDD exposure at 3 and 7 weeks produced feminization of the population. Surprisingly, part of this was due to the appearance of fish with clearly female bodies, yet carrying testes in place of ovaries. Our results show that exposures that produce little if any impact during development can cause severe consequences during adulthood and present a model for studying this process.

  19. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Model for Distortion Caused by Packet Loss in the Real-Time Mobile Video Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.

  20. I and C functional test facility malfunction cause and effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon

    1997-06-01

    The objective of I and C function test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. To realize transient and accident situation in the FTF, the result of the activation of malfunction should be similar to the situation of real nuclear power plants. In this technical report, describe the Group, Malfunction No., Description, Option, Recommendations, Considered in Subroutine, Limitations, Cause, and Effect of the malfunctions implemented in FTF. (author).

  1. Effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria. METHODS:Twenty-one cases(42 eyeswith muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria were included. After examination of refraction, phoria and fusion function, all cases were given operative treatment to correct esophoria. RESULTS:At 1wk after surgery, clinical symptoms were improved evidently in all cases, such as headache, diplopia and eye swelling. After followed up for 1a, no recrudescence was found. Before surgery, at 1wk and 1a after surgery, esophoria in the distance were 20.3△±6.3△,-3.1△±1.4△,0.7△±1.6△ respectively and esophoria in the near distance were 10.5△±3.1△,-1.3△±0.6△,1.5△±0.8△ respectively. By comparison of esophoria before and after surgery in different stages separately, the differences were statistically(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Esophoria operation may relieve obviously muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria without changing fusion function.

  2. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation\\/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.

  3. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Kent1,2, Patrick D Mitchell1, Walter T McNicholas1,21Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin; 2Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.Keywords: COPD, hypoxia, sleep, inflammation, pulmonary hypertension

  4. Impacts on Groundwater Quality Following the Application of ISCO: Understanding the Cause of and Designing Mitigation for Metals Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    FINAL REPORT Impacts on Groundwater Quality Following the Application of ISCO: Understanding the Cause of and Designing Mitigation for Metals... groundwater concentrations before and after 2 ISCO treatment applications...Preliminary Evaluation: Groundwater characterization methods ............................. 13  Table 3.2.1 Initial Screening: ISCO Treatment Details

  5. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  6. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  7. The Relationship Quality Effect on Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilte Auruskeviciene

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo la identificación de los elementos constitutivos de la calidad de relación que permite a las empresas oferentes de servicios profesionales establecer relaciones a largo plazo con sus clientes y fortalecer la lealtad de los mismos.El marco teórico sobre el que se ha formulado la identificación de dichos elementos y de la interrelación inherente a la lealtad del cliente ha sido contrastado empíricamente sobre una muestra de 74 directivos de empresas lituanas compradoras de servicios relacionados con las tecnologías de la información. Los resultados sugieren que las variables "calidad funcional", "confianza" y "compromiso" tienen un efecto significativo sobre la lealtad del cliente de servicios de tecnologías de la información. La calidad funcional es el elemento más importante a la hora de construir relaciones a largo plazo con clientes en el mercado de servicios profesionales.This study aims to identify the dimensions of relationship quality that enables professional services companies to establish long-term relations with their clients and fosters the loyalty of the client. The theoretical framework of relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty interrelationship in a sample of 74 Lithuanian companies' managers buying IT service has been empirically tested. The findings suggest that the three variables (functional quality, trust, and commitment have a significant effect on IT services customer loyalty. Functional quality construct is the most important in building long-term relationship with customers in a professional services market.

  8. Cause and effect analysis by fuzzy relational equations and a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotshtein, Alexander P. [Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Jerusalem College of Technology-Machon Lev, Havaad Haleumi St., 21, 91160, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: rot@jct.ac.il; Posner, Morton [Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Jerusalem College of Technology-Machon Lev, Havaad Haleumi St., 21, 91160, Jerusalem (Israel); Rakytyanska, Hanna B. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Vinnitsa State Technical University, Khmelnitske Sh., 95, 21021, Vinnitsa (Ukraine)]. E-mail: h_rakit@hotmail.com

    2006-09-15

    This paper proposes using a genetic algorithm as a tool to solve the fault diagnosis problem. The fault diagnosis problem is based on a cause and effect analysis which is formally described by fuzzy relations. Fuzzy relations are formed on the basis of expert assessments. Application of expert fuzzy relations to restore and identify the causes through the observed effects requires the solution to a system of fuzzy relational equations. In this study this search for a solution amounts to solving a corresponding optimization problem. An optimization algorithm is based on the application of genetic operations of crossover, mutation and selection. The genetic algorithm suggested here represents an application in expert systems of fault diagnosis and quality control.

  9. Vascular pathology: Cause or effect in Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Pérez, S; Tormos, A M; Pérez, S; Taléns-Visconti, R

    2015-09-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cortical neurodegenerative disease. The incidence of this disease increases with age, causing significant medical, social and economic problems, especially in countries with ageing populations. This review aims to highlight existing evidence of how vascular dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that might arise from this evidence. The vascular hypothesis emerged as an alternative to the amyloid cascade hypothesis as an explanation for the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis locates blood vessels as the origin for a variety of pathogenic pathways that lead to neuronal damage and dementia. Destruction of the organisation of the blood brain barrier, decreased cerebral blood flow, and the establishment of an inflammatory context would thus be responsible for any subsequent neuronal damage since these factors promote aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in the brain. The link between neurodegeneration and vascular dysfunction pathways has provided new drug targets and therapeutic approaches that will add to the treatments for AD. It is difficult to determine whether the vascular component in AD is the cause or the effect of the disease, but there is no doubt that vascular pathology has an important relationship with AD. Vascular dysfunction is likely to act synergistically with neurodegenerative changes in a cycle that exacerbates the cognitive impairment found in AD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  11. The Irish famine of 1740–1741: causes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mauelshagen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the current debate on causes and effects of famines. Since Sen's food entitlement decline theory emerged in the 1980's, climate and environmental factors are widely excluded in famine analysis. Studying the causation and the processes of famines as well as the adaptations to it before the 20th century will enhance modern famine theories and lead to a rethinking of the role of climate/environmental aspects in current research. In our case study, the "Famine Vulnerability Analysis Model" (FVAM serves as an explanatory model and will open up new perspectives on famines. Special emphasis will be put on the Europe-wide crises of 1740–1741, with a focus on the famine of the "great frost" in Ireland. The interaction of demographic, political, economic and environmental aspects is characteristic in this famine.

  12. Residual-limb quality and functional mobility 1 year after transtibial amputation caused by vascular insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Arwert (Henk); M.H. van Doorn-Loogman (Mirjam); J. Koning (Jan); M. Terburg (Martinus); M. Rol (Mathilde); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis study identified which residual-limb quality factors are related to functional mobility 1 year after transtibial (TT) amputation. A group of 28 TT amputees were evaluated with respect to their functional mobility (Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire [PEQ], Locomotor Index, Timed Up

  13. The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

  14. Wet heat exposure: a potentially reversible cause of low semen quality in infertile men

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recovery of semen quality in a cohort of infertile men after known hyperthermic exposure to hot tubs, hot baths or whirlpool baths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive cohort of infertile men had a history remarkable for wet heat exposure in the forms of hot tubs, Jacuzzi or hot baths. Clinical characteristics and exposure parameters were assessed before exposure was discontinued, and semen parameters analyzed before and after discontinuation of hyperthermic exposu...

  15. The effects of aircraft design on STOL ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of aircraft dynamic characteristics on passenger ride quality are investigated to determine ride-quality isocontours similar to aircraft handling-qualities contours. Measurements are made on a moving-base simulator while varying the aircraft short-period and Dutch Roll frequencies and dampings. Both pilot ratings and subjective ride-quality ratings are obtained during flight. Ride and handling qualities were found to be complementary for the Dutch Roll mode, but not for the short-period mode. Regions of optimal ride and handling qualities are defined for the short-period mode, and the effects of turbulence levels studied.

  16. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  17. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  18. Man-made mineral fibre boards in buildings--health risks caused by quality deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B; Sobottka, A; Willer, H; Weidhase, J

    1996-11-01

    The Institute of Hygiene was requested to determine causes and scope of health complaints made by the employees of Haldensleben district administration after sound absorbing mineral fibre boards had been installed as suspended ceilings. The boards were coated with a lean water-carried paint; however, the edges, which were partially frayed, were not coated. The air inside the rooms was measured on all four storeys of the building, followed by scanning electron microscopy in compliance with VDI Code 3492. In addition, measurements showed fibres with diameters of > 3 microns which are not subject to the regulations for carcinogenic substances, but, in contrast to the thinner fibres, they may cause irritations of skin and mucosa. The employees were questioned about their health problems. At the beginning of 1994, a total of 79 of the 133 employees complained about itching, reddening and burning of their eyes as well as irritations of the upper respiratory tract. More than 50% had consulted a doctor. Late in 1994, another questionnaire survey was completed. The fibre content of the office air was determined to vary from 1000 to 3500 fibres/m3 and, in addition, 100-200 fibres with diameters of > 3 microns. Our investigations showed that there is an interrelationship between the degree of dust accumulation in the offices and health complaints. Independently of the current discussion of the cancer causing potential of thin man-made mineral fibres, the very long and thick mineral fibres (> 3 microns in diameter) are of topical importance to health.

  19. WINEMAKING WASTE EFFECTIVE AGAINST CARIES-CAUSING BACTERIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amy E Lund

    2008-01-01

    A study published in the December 12, 2007 issue of Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry shows that a class of chemicals in red wine grapes may reduce the ability of bacteria to cause cavities...

  20. Effect of corticosteroid therapy in acute pain edema caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and skin lesions caused by herpes zoster, and to develop some pertinent therapeutic guidelines. Methods: A total of ... neuralgia continues after skin lesions subside. (usually 4 weeks ..... nursing progress of cancer patients. Med Innov Chin,.

  1. Warm Dry Weather Conditions Cause of 2016 Fort McMurray Wild Forest Fire and Associated Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Singh, R. P.; da Silva, E. A., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change is evident from the increasing temperature around the world, day to day life and increasing frequency of natural hazards. The warm and dry conditions are the cause of frequent forest fires around the globe. Forest fires severely affect the air quality and human health. Multi sensor satellites and dense network of ground stations provide information about vegetation health, meteorological, air quality and atmospheric parameters. We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data of wild forest fire that occurred in May 2016 in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. This wild forest fire destroyed 10 per cent of Fort McMurray's housing and forced more than 90,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas. Our results show that the warm and dry conditions with low rainfall were the cause of Fort McMurray wild fire. The air quality parameters (particulate matter, CO, ozone, NO2, methane) and greenhouse gases measured from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite show enhanced levels soon after the forest fire. The emissions from the forest fire affected health of population living in surrounding areas up to 300 km radius.

  2. Power quality problems caused by termites on 138-kV underground cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Fuscaldi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems found in the operation of underground cables in the transmission system of CEMIG, with emphasis on insulation failures caused by termites. This problem has been the source of many scheduled and nonscheduled interruptions in later years, leading to significant maintenance costs. Experience with current practices designed to detect and prevent this failure mode is described. It is argued that new procedures are needed for improved on-line, pre-failure detection. Test improvement will hopefully contribute to increase the lifetime of underground cables currently in use, as well as to reduce maintenance costs.

  3. Effect of the patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia caused by total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L; An, R; Zhang, J; Sun, Y; Zhao, R; Liu, M

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia in laryngeal cancer patients after total laryngectomy. Sixty-five patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were randomly divided into three groups: a routine communication group, a patient communication group (that received the patient-to-patient communication model) and a physician communication group. Questionnaires were used to compare quality of life and swallowing problems among all patient groups. The main factors causing dysphagia in total laryngectomy patients were related to fear and mental health. The patient communication group had improved visual analogue scale scores at one week after starting to eat. Quality of life in swallowing disorders questionnaire scores were significantly higher in the patient communication and physician communication groups than in the routine communication group. In addition, swallowing problems were much more severe in patients educated to high school level and above than in others. The patient-to-patient communication model can be used to resolve swallowing problems caused by psychological factors in total laryngectomy patients.

  4. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not r

  5. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not

  6. QUALITY CONTROL FOR EFFECTIVE BASIC EDUCATION IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana 's educational system yet the system of monitoring schools is governed by an “evolving” policy. ... that schools are well supervised and that the quality of what ... quality comes from having the best equipment, the best .... performance in the classroom and their career ... the number of teachers employed and the size of.

  7. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  8. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  9. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  10. Comparison of quality of life and causes of hospitalization between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ling-Hua

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD are important renal replacement treatment in end stage renal disease (ESRD, but the comparison of quality of life (QOL and causes of hospitalisation between the two modalities in China is lacking. In the present study, we compared the two modalities in a multi-center study. Subjects and methods Six hundred and fifty four HD and 408 PD patients were investigated from 10 hospitals in China from Sept, 2004 to Jan, 2005. Among the HD patients, there were 360 males and 294 females with a mean age of 57.22 ± 12.49 years (18–88 y. Among PD patients, there were 165 males and 243 females, with a mean age of 61.59 ± 12.65 years (22–89 y. Health related 36 items short form questionnaires (SF-36 were used to assess the quality of life. Hospitalisation data were collected and analyzed. Results SF-36 domains of Body Pain (BP, General Health (GH, Role-Emotional (RE, Social Functioning (SF, Vitality (VT and Mental Health (MH were all significantly higher in the PD patients as compared to the HD patients although there was no significant difference in Physical Functioning (PF and Role-Physical (RP between the two groups. The two most common causes of hospitalisation in HD patients were cardiovascular disease (39.8% and pulmonary infection (21.3%, while they were infectious peritonitis (47.6% and cardiovascular disease (31.9% in PD patients. The ever hospitalised patients had lower SF-36 scores in the domains of PF, BP, GH, RE, SF, VT and MH as compared to those of non-hospitalised patients. Conclusion Our study indicated that with the current practice in China, PD patients may enjoy better quality of life than their HD counterparts. Our results also showed that the most common cause of hospitalisation was cardiovascular disease in HD patients and peritonitis in PD patients.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, A. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, A. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: berale@usp.br; Almeida-Muradian, L.B. [Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580-Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, A. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

    2009-07-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  13. Effective Fingerprint Quality Estimation for Diverse Capture Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sun Park; Sook Yoon; Shan Juan Xie; Jinwook Shin

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality an...

  14. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Software Quality Characteristics on Health Care Quality Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Aghazadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various types of software are used in health care organizations to manage information and care processes. The quality of software has been an important concern for both health authorities and designers of Health Information Technology. Thus, assessing the effect of software quality on the performance quality of healthcare institutions is essential. Method: The most important health care quality indicators in relation to software quality characteristics are provided via an already performed literature review. ISO 9126 standard model is used for definition and integration of various characteristics of software quality. The effects of software quality characteristics and sub-characteristics on the healthcare indicators are evaluated through expert opinion analyses. A questionnaire comprising of 126 questions of 10-point Likert scale was used to gather opinions of experts in the field of Medical/Health Informatics. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Results: Our findings showed that software Maintainability was rated as the most effective factor on user satisfaction (R2 =0.89 and Functionality as the most important and independent variable affecting patient care quality (R2 =0.98. Efficiency was considered as the most effective factor on workflow (R2 =0.97, and Maintainability as the most important factor that affects healthcare communication (R2 =0.95. Usability and Efficiency were rated as the most effectual factor affecting patient satisfaction (R2 =0.80, 0.81. Reliability, Maintainability, and Efficiency were considered as the main factors affecting care costs (R2 =0.87, 0.74, 0.87. Conclusion: We presented a new model based on ISO standards. The model demonstrates and weighs the relations between software quality characteristics and healthcare quality indicators. The clear relationships between variables and the type of the metrics and measurement methods used in the model make it a reliable method to assess

  16. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, N. E.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a reinterpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of th...

  17. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  18. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...

  19. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  20. Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Optimize Water Quality Monitoring Network with Emphasis on the Pollution Caused by Fish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mitra; Arjmandi, Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    One of the key issues in determining the quality of water in rivers is to create a water quality control network with a suitable performance. The measured qualitative variables at stations should be representative of all the changes in water quality in water systems. Since the increase in water quality monitoring stations increases annual monitoring costs, recognition of the stations with higher importance as well as main parameters can be effective in future decisions to improve the existing monitoring network. Sampling was carried out on 12 physical and chemical parameters measured at 15 stations during 2013-2014 in Haraz River, northern Iran. The results of the measurements were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis methods including cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminant analysis (DA). According to the CA, PCA, and FA, the stations were divided into three groups of high pollution, medium pollution, and low pollution. The research findings confirm applicability of multivariate statistical techniques in the interpretation of large data sets, water quality assessment, and source apportionment of different pollution sources.

  1. Causes of toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a stormwater management facility receiving highway runoff and snowmelt. Part II: salts, nutrients, and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, A J; Rochfort, Q; Brown, L R; Marsalek, J

    2012-01-01

    The Terraview-Willowfield Stormwater Management Facility (TWSMF) features a tandem of stormwater management ponds, which receive inputs of multiple contaminants from highway and residential runoff. Previous research determined that benthic communities in the ponds were impacted by poor habitat quality, due to elevated sediment concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), and salinity in the overlying water, but did not address seasonal changes, including those caused by the influx of contaminants with the snowmelt. In order to address this issue, water and sediment samples were collected from the TWSMF during the fall and spring, and four-week sediment toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca. The effects of metals and PAHs are discussed in a companion paper; the effects of road salt, nutrients, and water quality are discussed here. After exposure to fall samples, survival of Hyalella was reduced (64-74% of controls) at three out of four sites, but growth was not negatively affected. After exposure to spring samples, survival was 0-75% of controls at the two sites furthest downstream, and growth was significantly lower in four out of five sites when comparing Hyalella exposed to site water overlying site sediment versus control water overlying site sediment. Toxicity appeared to be related to chloride concentrations: little or no toxicity occurred in fall samples (200 mg Cl(-)/L), and significant effects on survival and growth occurred in spring samples above 1550 mg Cl(-)/L and 380 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Sodium chloride toxicity tests showed similar results: four-week LC50s and EC25s (growth) were 1200 and 420 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Although water quality and nutrients were associated with effects observed in the TWSMF, chloride from road salt was the primary cause of toxicity in this study. Chloride persists during much of the year at concentrations representing a significant threat to benthic communities in the TWSMF.

  2. Effect of processing plant on pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrecht, E; Eissen, J J; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-06-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, C). Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO(2) stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not related to the processing plants (e.g. genetic background of animals, transport, lairage) were standardized. In total, nine batches of about 150 pigs each were processed. Each batch was purchased at a commercial farm and randomly divided into three groups for delivery to the three processing plants. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring early post-mortem muscle pH and temperature as well as ultimate pH, meat colour (Minolta Chroma Meter and Japanese colour scale), filter paper score (FPS), electrical conductivity (EC) and drip loss. Plant C produced an inferior quality compared to plants A and B: meat was paler (C: 2.8 vs. A: 2.9 and B: 3.0 on the Japanese colour scale) and had higher drip losses (C: 5.2 vs. A: 4.8 and B: 4.9%). Meat colour hardly differed between plants A and B but waterholding properties were best at plant A as indicated by FPS (A: 2.4 vs. B: 2.8 vs. C: 3.3) and EC (A: 5.4 vs. B: 6.4 vs. C: 7.4 mS). It is concluded that processing plant may influence meat quality. Correlations between early post-mortem measurements and meat quality traits were low. Nevertheless, high carcass temperatures and low pH values early post-mortem were shown to lead to inferior meat quality.

  3. Outcomes research. Clues to quality and organizational effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B A; Salyer, J; Geddes, N

    1997-09-01

    Outcomes research has often been touted as the best response to concerns about quality in today's health care organizations. Yet, outcomes research is accompanied by its own set of problems. These problems must be addressed if outcomes research is, in fact, to guide assessments of quality and of organizational effectiveness. One question is how quality and organizational effectiveness should be defined. In addition, measurement issues are particularly problematic in outcomes research, as is the availability of appropriate data. This article discusses each of these areas, and concludes by presenting an integrated model to guide the assessment of outcomes, quality, and organizational effectiveness.

  4. Circadian clock disruption in neurodegenerative diseases: Cause and effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Steven Musiek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of the circadian system, manifested as disrupted daily rhythms of physiologic parameters such as sleep, activity, and hormone secretion, has long been observed as a symptom of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer Disease. Circadian abnormalities have generally been considered consequences of the neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests, however, that circadian disruption might actually contribute to the neurodegenerative process, and thus might be a modifiable cause of neural injury. Herein we will review the evidence implicating circadian rhythms disturbances and clock gene dysfunction in neurodegeneration, with an emphasis on future research directions and potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The Effect of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture on Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Eryavuz Sarıdoğan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vertebral fracture on life quality by two different measures. Methods: This clinical study was performed in the Osteoporosis Clinic of our PTR Departmant and comprised of 25 female patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture on x-ray and 12 control patients. Inclusion Criteria: 55-80 year age group , at least five years of menopause, one or several vertebral fractures. Exclusion Criteria: New vertebral fracture (less than one month, new femoral fracture, secondary osteoporosis . Control group consisted of persons in the same age group, without osteoporosis or cronic back and low back pain. Results: Assessment by QUALEFFO-41 revealed no significant difference between patient and control group concerning pain, activites of daily living and free time activities. Significant difference for pain caused by walking, climbing stairs and raising from a chair, general health and mental function were found (p=0.05. Assessment by SF-36 showed significant difference between the two groups for climbing stairs, bending and kneeling as well as general mental health and awareness of general health status (p=0.05. Conclusion: QUALEFFO-41 and SF-36 both are tools which can be used for assessment of quality of life in women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  6. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  7. Causes and effects of a hole. [in Antarctic ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitan, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results from the U.S. National Ozone Expedition (NOZE) to Antarctica are reviewed. The NOZE ozonesonde measurements showed significant vertical structure in the hole, with 80 percent depletion in some of the 1 km layers but only 20 percent in adjacent layers. The depletion was confined to the 12-20 km region, beginning first at higher altitude and progressing downward. This is strong evidence against the theory that the ozone hole is due to solar activity producing odd nitrogen at high altitudes which is transported downwards, leading to enhanced odd-nitrogen catalytic cycles that destroy ozone. Nitrous oxide data show unusually low concentrations within the polar vortex, which is evidence against the theory that the hole is caused by a purely dynamical mechanism in which rising air motions within the polar vortex lead to reduced column densities of ozone. It is tentatively concluded that a chemical mechanism involving man-made chlorofluorocarbons is the likely cause of ozone depletion in the hole.

  8. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  9. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  10. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  11. Mitigation Effect of Proanthocyanidin on Secondary Heart Injury in Rats Caused by Mechanical Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuo; Chen, Chong; Cao, Tingting; Bi, Yue; Zhou, Jicheng; Li, Xintao; Yu, Deqin; Li, Shuzhuang

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunctional syndrome secondary to mechanical trauma (MT) has attracted considerable research attention. The heart is one of the most important organs of the body, and secondary cardiac insufficiency caused by MT seriously affects the quality of life. This study aims to investigate whether proanthocyanidin can alleviate myocardial injury and improve heart function in the process of MT leading to secondary cardiac insufficiency. Noble-Collip drum wasused to prepare MT model in rats. And myocardial apoptosis index was calculated after TUNEL staining. Ventricular intubation was employed to detect heart function. Changes in myocardial ultrastructure were observed using an electron microscope. ELISA was used to detect the content of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species generated from monocytes and cardiomyocytes. The changes in Ca2+ concentration in cardiomyocyte were observed by confocal microscope. Compared with trauma group, the administration group had a decreased apoptosis index of cardiomyocytes, and increased ±dp/dtmax. Meanwhile, proanthocyanidin can inhibit monocytes’ TNF-α production, and reduce plasma TNF-α concentration. Moreover, proanthocyanidin can attenuate the excessive oxidative stress reaction of cardiomyocyte, and inhibit calcium overload in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, proanthocyanidin can effectively ease myocardial damage and improve cardiac function, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in secondary cardiac insufficiency caused by MT. PMID:28294148

  12. Religiosity and Parochial School Choice: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William; Cohen-Zada, Danny

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effect of religiosity as measured by attendance at religious services on religious school choice. Particular attention is given to the possibly endogenous relationship between school choice and religiosity. We find that religiosity has an important causal effect on the demand for parochial schools. It is also shown…

  13. Effects of Vitamin D Levels on Quality of Life in Osteoporosis - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    İlker Coşkun Benlidayı; Füsun Güler Uysal; Sibel Başaran; Rengin Güzel

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, impairs bone formation and neuromuscular coordination, thus increases fracture risk. It is well known that pain and functional disability caused by fractures impairs quality of life (QOL). However, studies investigating the association between vitamin D deficiency and QOL are insufficient. This study investigates the effects of vitamin D level on QOL in osteoporotic patients. 286 patients (mean age 60.51±9.1 years) with postmenapousal, senile or...

  14. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of cucumber ... to determine the effects of spent mushroom compost (SMC), which is a waste product ... processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic

  15. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable

  16. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable o

  17. High diet quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Janice L; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-05-01

    Although diet quality is implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, few studies have investigated the relation between diet quality and the risks of CVD and mortality in older adults. This study examined the prospective associations between dietary scores and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in older British men. A total of 3328 men (aged 60-79 y) from the British Regional Heart Study, free from CVD at baseline, were followed up for 11.3 y for CVD and mortality. Baseline food-frequency questionnaire data were used to generate 2 dietary scores: the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), based on WHO dietary guidelines, and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), based on a Mediterranean-style dietary intake, with higher scores indicating greater compliance with dietary recommendations. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses assessed associations between quartiles of HDI and EDI and risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CVD events, and coronary heart disease (CHD) events. During follow-up, 933 deaths, 327 CVD deaths, 582 CVD events, and 307 CHD events occurred. Men in the highest compared with the lowest EDI quartile had significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), CVD mortality (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), and CHD events (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97; P-trend = 0.05) but not CVD events (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.05; P-trend = 0.16) after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular risk factors. The HDI was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. The EDI appears to be more useful than the HDI for assessing diet quality in relation to CVD and morality risk in older men. Encouraging older adults to adhere to the guidelines inherent in the EDI criteria may have public health benefits.

  18. Transrectal microwave thermotherapy causing a short-time influence on sperm quality in Chinese chronic nonbacterial prostatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Xin; Wang, Han-Zhang; Zhai, Zheng-Xing; Ma, Bao-Liang; Li, Qin-Fang; Xiao, Nan; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2016-08-19

    Chronic prostatitis can affect the sperm's quality. Previous studies have shown that transrectal microwave thermotherapy (TRMT) results in symptomatic relief in patients with chronic prostatitis, but the effects on sperm have not been carefully investigated. This study evaluates the impact of TRMT on the relief or decrease of symptoms and quality of sperm when used to treat patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. TRMT treatment was administered over 5 days, 1 h per day. Semen examination was carried out pretreatment and immediately at the conclusion of the 5-day treatment. Also, it was repeated 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. The treatment's symptom relief efficacy was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). After the treatment, the overall NIH-CPSI scores were lower compared to those of pretreatment. In addition, the white blood cells and lecithin in expressed prostatic secretion were normal after the treatment. The sperm count was decreased by 23.8% 3 months after the treatment, sperm motility was reduced by 10.3% immediately after treatment, and sperm deformity was increased by 17.2%. The sperm volume and PH were not affected. However, the sperm quality recovered after treatment and the malformation rate was also lower at 6 months after treatment. TRMT is a favorable and safe treatment option for patients with nonbacterial chronic prostatitis. It could relieve the patient's symptoms and impact on sperm quality in the short-term.

  19. Communication Moderates Effects of Residential Mobility on Relationship Quality Among Ethnically Diverse Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Teresa P; Williamson, Hannah C; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-04-13

    Although interpersonal communication is a defining feature of committed relationships, the quality of couple communication has not proven to be a straightforward cause of relationship quality. At the same time, emerging models argue that external circumstances likely combine with communication to generate changes in relationship quality. We integrate these 2 ideas by proposing that communication does exert effects on changes in relationship quality, but primarily when couples encounter challenging situations that require an adaptive response. In the present study we examine residential moves to different neighborhoods as one such adaptive challenge. We conducted a longitudinal study of 414 newlywed couples to examine whether observed communication moderates the effect of moving to higher- or lower-income neighborhoods on changes in relationship quality. Results indicate that communication exerts no main effects on relationship quality. Consistent with the proposed model, however, wives who displayed less positive, less effective, and more negative behaviors experienced greater decreases in relationship quality, but only when couples moved to substantially higher-income neighborhoods. Because communication may not affect relationship quality until couples encounter qualitatively new demands, strengthening relationships may pivot less on improving communication skills and more on ensuring that couples' circumstances do not overwhelm the skills that they already possess. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. SCALE EFFECT OF IMPINGING PRESSURE CAUSED BY SUBMERGED JET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhong; XU Wei-lin; WANG Wei; LIU Shan-jun; DONG Jian-wei

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of the impinging pressure at the jet equipment where the maximum jet velocity can reach 50m/s were studied. By comparing the impinging pressure with the one measured at the low velocity conditions, two conclusions of the scale effect are drawn: firstly, the velocity attenuation degree is smaller than that of low-velocity jet, and secondly, the relative impinging width is narrower than that of low-velocity jet. The reasons of the scale effect of the impinging pressure were elucidated through numerical simulation.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further.

  2. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON MUSHROOM QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KULSHRESHTHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed drying of mushroom was undertaken to study the drying characteristics and quality of the dried mushrooms. Drying was done at drying air temperatures of 50, 70, and 90oC and air velocities of 1.71 and 2.13 m/s. Two batch sizes, namely, 0.5 kg and 1 kg of sliced milky mushrooms were dried. Drying characteristics and the quality of dried mushrooms were analyzed. The results indicated that the drying time decreased only marginally with increase in air velocity. Drying air temperature of 50oC was better as it resulted in a dried product having better rehydration characteristics, lesser shrinkage and lighter color. Highest energy efficiency (79.74% was observed while drying a batch size of 1 kg at a drying air temperature of 50oC, using an air velocity of 1.7 m/s.

  3. Evaluation of water quality management problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering Modoc national wildlife refuge and the Ash Creek wildlife management area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation was to determine water quality problems or potential problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering the Modoc National...

  4. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  5. Effects of pumice mining on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruíz, A.; Cruz-Ruíz, E.; Vaca, R.; Del Aguila, P.; Lugo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Mexico is the world's fourth most important maize producer; hence, there is a need to maintain soil quality for sustainable production in the upcoming years. Pumice mining is a superficial operation that modifies large areas in central Mexico. The main aim was to assess the present state of agricultural soils differing in elapsed time since pumice mining (0-15 years) in a representative area of the Calimaya region in the State of Mexico. The study sites in 0, 1, 4, 10, and 15 year old reclaimed soils were compared with an adjacent undisturbed site. Our results indicate that gravimetric moisture content, water hold capacity, bulk density, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and phosphatase and urease activity were greatly impacted by disturbance. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance, the recovery of soil total N being faster than soil organic C. The soil quality indicators were selected using principal component analysis (PCA), correlations and multiple linear regressions. The first three components gathered explain 76.4 % of the total variability. The obtained results revealed that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were urease, available phosphorus and bulk density and minor total nitrogen. According to linear score analysis and the additive index, the soils showed a recuperation starting from 4 years of pumice extraction.

  6. Similar compositional biases are caused by very different mutational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo P.C.; Touchon, Marie; Feil, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Compositional replication strand bias, commonly referred to as GC skew, is present in many genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. Although cytosine deamination in ssDNA (resulting in C→T changes on the leading strand) is often invoked as its major cause, the precise contributions of this and other substitution types are currently unknown. It is also unclear if the underlying mutational asymmetries are the same among taxa, are stable over time, or how closely the observed biases are to mutational equilibrium. We analyzed nearly neutral sites of seven taxa each with between three and six complete bacterial genomes, and inferred the substitution spectra of fourfold degenerate positions in nonhighly expressed genes. Using a bootstrap procedure, we extracted compositional biases associated with replication and identified the significant asymmetries. Although all taxa showed an overrepresentation of G relative to C on the leading strand (and imbalances between A and T), widely variable substitution asymmetries are noted. Surprisingly, all substitution types show significant asymmetry in at least one taxon, but none were universally biased in all taxa. Notably, in the two most biased genomes, A→G, rather than C→T, shapes the compositional bias. Given the variability in these biases, we propose that the process is multifactorial. Finally, we also find that most genomes are not at compositional equilibrium, and suggest that mutational-based heterotachy is deeply imprinted in the history of biological macromolecules. This shows that similar compositional biases associated with the same essential well-conserved process, replication, do not reflect similar mutational processes in different genomes, and that caution is required in inferring the roles of specific mutational biases on the basis of contemporary patterns of sequence composition. PMID:17068325

  7. Combined effects of sleep quality and depression on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pan; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality and depression negatively impact the health-related quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes, but the combined effect of the two factors is unknown. This study aimed to assess the interactive effects of poor sleep quality and depression on the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 944) completed the Diabetes Specificity Quality of Life scale (DSQL) and questionnaires on sleep quality and depression. T...

  8. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  9. The Groupon Effect on Yelp Ratings: A Root Cause Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, John W.; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Zervas, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Daily deals sites such as Groupon offer deeply discounted goods and services to tens of millions of customers through geographically targeted daily e-mail marketing campaigns. In our prior work we observed that a negative side effect for merchants using Groupons is that, on average, their Yelp ratings decline significantly. However, this previous work was essentially observational, rather than explanatory. In this work, we rigorously consider and evaluate various hypotheses about underlying c...

  10. The Effect of Hospital Service Quality on Patient's Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan; Daneshkohan, Abbas; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The trust is meant the belief of the patient to the practitioner or the hospital based on the concept that the care provider seeks the best for the patient and will provide the suitable care and treatment for him/her. One of the main determinants of patient's trust is the service quality. This study aimed to examine the effect of quality of services provided in private hospitals on the patient's trust. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 969 patients were selected using the consecutive method from eight private general hospitals of Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing 20 items (14 items for quality, 6 items for trust) and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression. The mean score of patients' perception of trust was 3.80 and 4.01 for service quality. Approximately 38% of the variance in patient trust was explained by service quality dimensions. Quality of interaction and process (P quality of the environment had no significant effect on the patients' degree of trust. The interaction quality and process quality were the key determinants of patient's trust in the private hospitals of Tehran. To enhance the patients' trust, quality improvement efforts should focus on service delivery aspects such as scheduling, timely and accurate doing of the service, and strengthening the interpersonal aspects of care and communication skills of doctors, nurses and staff.

  11. Reduced effectiveness of selection caused by a lack of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Andrea J; Welch, John J; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-04-28

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction is expected to have important consequences for the effectiveness of natural selection. These effects may be evident within genomes, in the form of contrasting patterns of molecular variation and evolution in regions with different levels of recombination. Previous work reveals patterns that are consistent with a benefit of recombination for adaptation at the level of protein sequence: both positive selection for adaptive variants and purifying selection against deleterious ones appear to be compromised in regions of low recombination [1-11]. Here, we re-examine these patterns by using polymorphism and divergence data from the Drosophila dot chromosome, which has a long history of reduced recombination. To avoid confounding selection and demographic effects, we collected these data from a species with an apparently stable demographic history, Drosophila americana. We find that D. americana dot loci show several signatures of ineffective purifying and positive selection, including an increase in the rate of protein evolution, an increase in protein polymorphism, and a reduction in the proportion of amino acid substitutions attributable to positive selection.

  12. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  13. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  14. Effects of Sleep Quality on Quality of Life in Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate sleep quality in osteoporotic individuals, and to determine the associated factors with sleep quality and to investigate the relationship between quality of life and sleep quality Material and Methods: 154 patients with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients age, sex, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity level, milk consumption and previous fragility fracture was completed. DXA was used to determine bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Thoracal and lumbar compression fractures were evaulated with thoracal and lumbar radiography.Visual analog scale was used to evaluate back pain. Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used to determine sleep quality and QUALEFFO was used to evaluate quality of life in the individuals. Results: A total of 154 individuals included in the study. 65 patients (42.2% had a sleep disorder and 89 patients (57.8% hadn’t a sleep disorder. Mean age, female gender, not being married, not working actively, illiteracy rates were higher; the mean of weekly consumption of milk were lower in patients with sleep disorders than without sleep disorders. Vertebral compression fracture was more in patients with sleep disorders than without sleep disorders. Both lumbar and femoral T and Z values, VAS values were significantly higher in patients with sleep disorders than without sleep disorders (p<0.05. The value of all sub-parameters of quality of life scale QUALEFFO and total value were significantly higher in patients with sleep disorders than without sleep disorders (p<0.05. Conclusion: Sleep disorders in patients with osteoporosis are releated to factors such as age, sex, marital status, education level and diet. Sleep disorders cause a further decrease in the quality of life of patients with osteoporosis. (Turkish Journal of

  15. The effect of soil on cork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Miguel N; Gomes, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm(2) and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm(2) and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm(2).

  16. The effect of soil on cork quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nugent Pestana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers.Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro located in different Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal and Carbonic shistes from paleozoic periods in Saw Grândola, both in southern Tagus River regionThe samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands located in Península de Setúbal, south of the River Tagus, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistoceneIn each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius. Five trees with same stripping conditions determined by the dendrometric features: HD (height stipping, PBH (perimeter at breaster height, and percentage canopy cover, trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree stand features (density, and site conditions (soil type and orientation. In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil of each plot sampling.Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm 2 and thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound and soil horizons and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro and micronutrients availability.Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1 high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, caption exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2 the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium; (3 the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity and the number of pores per cm2.

  17. The effect of soil on cork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Miguel; Gomes, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in different Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal and Carbonic shistes from paleozoic periods in Saw Grândola, both in southern Tagus River region The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands located in “Península de Setúbal”, south of the River Tagus, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius. Five trees with same stripping conditions determined by the dendrometric features: HD (height stipping, PBH (perimeter at breaster height), and percentage canopy cover, trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree) stand features (density), and site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil of each plot sampling. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm 2 and thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, caption exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity and the number of pores per cm2.

  18. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  19. Effects of magnetic fields on dissolution of arthritis causing crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2015-05-01

    The number of gout patients has rapidly increased because of excess alcohol and salt intake. The agent responsible for gout is the monosodium urate (MSU) crystal. MSU crystals are found in blood and consist of uric acid and sodium. As a substitute for drug dosing or excessive water intake, physical stimulation by magnetic fields represents a new medical treatment for gout. In this study, we investigated the effects of a magnetic field on the dissolution of a MSU crystal suspension. The white MSU crystal suspension was dissolved in an alkaline solution. We measured the light transmission of the MSU crystal suspension by a transmitted light measuring system. The magnetic field was generated by a horizontal electromagnet (maximum field strength was 500 mT). The MSU crystal suspension that dissolved during the application of a magnetic field of 500 mT clearly had a higher dissolution rate when compared with the control sample. We postulate that the alkali solution promoted penetration upon diamagnetic rotation and this magnetic field orienting is because of the pronounced diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy of the MSU crystal. The results indicate that magnetic fields represent an effective gout treatment approach.

  20. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy.

  1. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015 : a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, Ryan M.; Fullman, Nancy; Sorensen, Reed JD; Bollyky, Thomas; McKee, Martin; Nolte, Ellen; van Boven, Job; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-01-01

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on

  2. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015 : a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, Ryan M.; Fullman, Nancy; Sorensen, Reed JD; Bollyky, Thomas; McKee, Martin; Nolte, Ellen; van Boven, Job; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-01-01

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-

  3. Effects of Prairie Restoration on Soil Quality Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of soil ecosystem functioning based on soil quality assessments of native prairie may provide a reference for evaluating improvement in soil quality of cultivated agroecosystems converted to perennial vegetation during prairie restoration. Our objective was to determine the effect o...

  4. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  5. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  6. Quality Physical Education: A Commentary on Effective Physical Education Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In my commentary in response to the 3 articles (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013; Rink, 2013; Ward, 2013), I focus on 3 areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) a holistic approach to physical education, and (c) policy impact. I use the term "quality teaching" rather than "teacher effectiveness." Quality teaching is a term with the…

  7. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  8. Effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, A.H.; Wit, G.A. de; Grooteman, M.P.C.; Penne, E.L.; Weerd, N.C. van der; Hoedt, C.H. den; Levesque, R.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Nube, M.J.; Wee, P.M. ter; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear if hemodiafiltration leads to a better quality of life compared with hemodialysis. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to assess the effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life compared with hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICI

  9. Effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.A. Mazairac (Albert); G.A. de Wit (Ardine); M.P.C. Grooteman (Muriel); E.L. Penne (Lars); N.C. van der Weerd (Neelke); C.H. den Hoedt (Claire); R. Lévesque (Renée); M.A. van den Dorpel (Marinus); M.J. Nubé (Menso); P.M. ter Wee (Piet); M.L. Bots (Michiel); P.J. Blankestijn (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives It is unclear if hemodiafiltration leads to a better quality of life compared with hemodialysis. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to assess the effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life compared with hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. Design, setti

  10. Effects of pumice mining on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruíz, A.; Cruz-Ruíz, E.; Vaca, R.; Del Aguila, P.; Lugo, J.

    2015-04-01

    México is the worl's fourth most important maize producer; hence, there is a need to maintain soil quality for a sustainable production in the upcoming years. Pumice mining, a superficial operation, modifies large areas in Central Mexico. The main aim was to assess the present state of agricultural soils differing in elapsed-time since pumice mining (0-15 years), in a representative area of the Calimaya region in the State of Mexico. The study sites in 0, 1, 4, 10 and 15 year-old reclaimed soils were compared with adjacent undisturbed site. Our results indicate that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotients were greatly impacted by disturbance. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance. Recovery of soil total nitrogen was faster than soil organic carbon. Principal components analysis was applied. The first three components together explain 71.72 % of the total variability. First factor reveals strong associations between total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and pH. The second factor reveals high loading of urease and catalase. The obtained results revealed that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were: total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and soil organic carbon.

  11. Effects of pumice mining on soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cruz-Ruíz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available México is the worl's fourth most important maize producer; hence, there is a need to maintain soil quality for a sustainable production in the upcoming years. Pumice mining, a superficial operation, modifies large areas in Central Mexico. The main aim was to assess the present state of agricultural soils differing in elapsed-time since pumice mining (0–15 years, in a representative area of the Calimaya region in the State of Mexico. The study sites in 0, 1, 4, 10 and 15 year-old reclaimed soils were compared with adjacent undisturbed site. Our results indicate that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotients were greatly impacted by disturbance. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance. Recovery of soil total nitrogen was faster than soil organic carbon. Principal components analysis was applied. The first three components together explain 71.72 % of the total variability. First factor reveals strong associations between total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and pH. The second factor reveals high loading of urease and catalase. The obtained results revealed that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were: total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and soil organic carbon.

  12. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  13. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  14. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  15. Effective multidisciplinary working: the key to high-quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoro, Samuel

    This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients.

  16. Effect of processing on the quality, composition and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on the quality, composition and antioxidant properties of Terminalia ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... were analysed for their fatty acid, phytosterols, and fat soluble vitamins composition.

  17. Price and quality transparency: how effective for health care reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, John A; Li, Chia-Hsuan W

    2009-07-01

    Many in Minnesota and the United States are promoting price and quality transparency as a means for reforming health care. The assumption is that with such information, consumers and providers would be motivated to change their behavior and this would lead to lower costs and higher-quality care.This article attempts to determine the extent to which publicizing information about the cost and quality of medical care does, in fact, improve quality and lower costs, and thus should be included in any reform strategy. The authors reviewed a number of studies and concluded that there is a general lack of empirical evidence on the effect of price transparency on health care costs and that the evidence on the effectiveness of quality transparency is mixed.

  18. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  19. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate on Some Quality Characteristics of Turkish Pastırma

    OpenAIRE

    GÜR-YAĞLI, Hatice; Ertaş, A. Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    Different amounts of sodium ascorbate (0, 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg) were used in curing stage of Turkish pastırma production and the effect of sodium ascorbate was investigated on some quality characteristics of pastırma. It was observed that there was no effect of sodium ascorbate on pH and penetrometler value of pastirma. Sodium ascorbate caused to decrease of TBA-value and residual nitrite content (P

  20. Influence of Machine Exploitation Effectiveness on Furniture Production Quality Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak-Betlejewska Renata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the company‘s capacity to produce high quality products is the level of machinery operation effectiveness. Companies having modern machinery are characterized by high productivity. To obtain a high quality product, the equipment should be properly used, without any failure, which contributes significantly to the exploitation level increase. The modernity level and the exploitation effectiveness level for chosen machine producing furniture components in relation to the product quality level were analysed in the paper. As a result of the research findings analysis, proposals for corrective actions with regard to machinery maintenance and production processes were presented.

  1. Noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effects on sleep quality and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Eva; Vrijsen, Bart; Belge, Catharina; Testelmans, Dries; Buyse, Bertien

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep quality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aim to evaluate the long-term effects of NIV on sleep quality and quality of life in patients with ALS. In this prospective observational study, 13 ALS patients were followed for one year after initiating NIV. We evaluated sleep quality, quality of life and functional status with several questionnaires: Epworth sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI), Short Form 36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36), McGill Quality of Life questionnaire (McGillQoL) and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale scores (ALSFRS-R). Median and interquartile range (IQR) at the start of NIV was 59 (53-65) years. The ALSFRS-R at start was 30 (24-37) (median, IQR), with three patients having severe bulbar impairment (ALSFRS-R-bulbar ≤ 9). The PaCO2 at start of NIV treatment was 48 (43-52) mmHg (median, IQR). During the one-year follow-up period, a significant decrease in the ALSFRS-R was observed. The impact of NIV in a short term (1 month) revealed a statistically significant decrease in ESS, decrease in total PSQI and of four PSQI subscales and improvement of almost all subscales of the McGill questionnaire. Long-term analyses (9 months to 1 year) revealed that amelioration in ESS and total PSQI was sustained. We conclude that accurately titrated NIV in ALS patients can stabilize sleep quality and quality of life for at least one year, despite significant disease progression.

  2. Effect of probiotics on broiler meat quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. There is currently a world trend to reduce the use of anti- ... this study was undertaken to know the effect of probiotics .... tics fed broilers. ..... International Organization for Standardization, on meat and meat.

  3. The effect of women's employment on children's quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Ghanbari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life in adolescence period determines individual's future. The effect of maternal employment on children's quality of life is important and undeniable issue. This study aimed to investigate and compare the quality of life among children of employed and housewife women. In this study, the participants included selected school children's employed and housewife mothers. The tools for data collection consisted of a questionnaire which was distributed among 671 middle-high school and high school students (304 have employed mothers and 367 have housewives mothers. In this study, the level of significance was considered. Results showed that the life quality of children of employed mothers and housewife mothers in the two groups is statistically significant. Quality of life in employed mothers in the mental, physical, social relations, emotional, religious, achieve life goals, leisure time and economic dimension were higher than housewife mothers but there was not any significant different among employed mothers' children and housewife mothers' children in dimensions of relationships with parents. Girls' quality of Life was more than boys, in the teacher mothers was higher than other occupations and in the exceptional talents school was more than other schools. This study found that maternal employment has effect on children's quality of life, so employed mothers' children have high quality of life.

  4. Cause-Effect Analysis: Improvement of a First Year Engineering Students' Calculus Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoff, Quay; Harding, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mathematics department at a South African university and in particular on teaching of calculus to first year engineering students. The paper reports on a cause-effect analysis, often used for business improvement. The cause-effect analysis indicates that there are many factors that impact on secondary school teaching of…

  5. Cause-Effect Analysis: Improvement of a First Year Engineering Students' Calculus Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoff, Quay; Harding, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mathematics department at a South African university and in particular on teaching of calculus to first year engineering students. The paper reports on a cause-effect analysis, often used for business improvement. The cause-effect analysis indicates that there are many factors that impact on secondary school teaching of…

  6. Effect of Grouping of Evidence Types on Learning about Interactions between Observed and Unobserved Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2011-01-01

    When a cause interacts with unobserved factors to produce an effect, the contingency between the observed cause and effect cannot be taken at face value to infer causality. Yet it would be computationally intractable to consider all possible unobserved, interacting factors. Nonetheless, 6 experiments found that people can learn about an unobserved…

  7. Effects of light quality on somatic embryogenesis in Araujia sericifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné, Josep M.; Moysset, Luisa; Santos, Mireya; Simón, Esther

    2001-03-01

    The effects of photoperiod, light quality and end-of-day (EOD) phytochrome photoconversion on somatic embryogenesis (SE) of Araujia sericifera petals have been studied. Petals from immature flowers were cultured under 8- and 16-h photoperiods using Gro-lux fluorescent lamps. The photon fluence rate was 90-100 µmol m-2 s-1 and the red (R):far-red (FR) ratio was 98. R, FR, R followed by FR (R-FR) and FR followed by R (FR-R) light treatments were applied for 3 weeks at the end of the photoperiods. In a set of experiments, DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), both inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, were added to the culture medium in order to study the involvement of polyamine metabolism. The level of SE was the same in long (LD) and short (SD) days. Thus, the light effect was accomplished after 8 h. All EOD treatments that decreased the Pfr level inhibited SE when applied after SD, but not after LD. The FR-R treatment after LD caused an additional stimulatory effect on SE, even in the presence of polyamine inhibitors. DFMA inhibited SE in both SD and LD, but MGBG did not modify SE in either SD or LD. The R, FR and R-FR treatments did not alter the level of SE when applied after LD in the presence of DFMA or MGBG. However, these treatments decreased SE after SD when the medium contained polyamine inhibitors. Our results suggest that Gro-lux lamps, which produce an extremely high R:FR ratio, promote SE in A. sericifera and a timing response to phytochrome photoconversion during photoperiodic induction. Thus, our data corroborate the involvement of phytochromes and polyamines in SE in A. sericifera, which responded as a light-dominant long-day plant.

  8. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  9. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  10. Effect of Sleep Quality on Psychiatric Symptoms and Life Quality in Newspaper Couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nalan

    2016-06-01

    Working at unusual hours has been found to be related to sleep problems, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep quality on psychiatric symptoms and the quality of life in newspaper couriers who permanently wake up at early morning hours. Thirty-five newspaper couriers who worked for a media company in Ankara and 35 healthy individuals who worked at usual hours and who were matched according to age, gender, and work duration were included in the study. All individuals were evaluated using the demographic forms, Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). The somatization subscale of SCL-90-R and the sleep duration sub-component scores of PSQI were significantly higher and the physical role functioning domain score of SF-36 was significantly lower in newspaper couriers compared with the scores in healthy individuals. There were significantly positive correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SCL-90-R subscale and global symptom index scores. There were significantly negative correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SF-36 domain scores. This study demonstrates that waking up permanently at early morning hours may be related to sleep disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. Measures to increase sleep quality in individuals working at unusual hours may improve their mental health and quality of life. Future studies should investigate the effects of interventions toward sleep disturbances on mental health and quality of life in different occupational groups.

  11. Effective Quality-of-Service Renegotiating Schemes for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hwangjun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  12. Does Competition Have an Effect on Price and Quality in Physiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekola, Piia; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Mikkola, Hennamari

    2016-09-13

    We estimate the effect of competition on quality and prices in physiotherapy organised and financed by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland for disabled individuals. Within the physiotherapy market, firms participate in competitive bidding, prices are determined by the market, services are free at the point of use and firms are allowed to react to patient choice only by enhancing quality. Firm-level data (n = 854) regarding quality and price were analysed. Using 2SLS estimation techniques, we analysed the relationship between quality and competition, and price and competition. Our study found that competition has a negative (yet weak) effect on quality. Prices on the other hand are not affected by competition. The result is likely caused by imperfect information, because it seems that the Social Insurance Institution of Finland has provided too little information for patients to make adequate choices about proper service providers. We argue that by publishing quality information, it is possible to ease the decision-making of patients and influence the quality strategies of firms active in the physiotherapy market. Moreover, we found that competition appeared as an exogenous variable in this study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The effects of chiropractic treatment on patients' quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. The purpose of this study is to determine whether chiropractic care has an effect on a patient's quality of life using the endpoints of: "the ability to perform general activities of daily living" (patient's level of disability, and restored function) and their "general emotional state" (energy level, depression, interference from emotional problems and feeling of wellness), also how these endpoints affect quality of life. Two hundred and fifty-three subjects participated in this s...

  14. Effect of Total Quality Management on the Quality and Productivity of Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Sari, R. M.

    2017-03-01

    Human resources is the main factor in improving company performance not only in industrial products but also services. Therefore, all of the organization performers involved must work together to achieve product quality services expected by consumers. Educational institutions are the service industries which are educators and instructor involved in it. Quality of product and services produced depends on the education organization performers. This study did a survey of instructors in public and private universities in North Sumatra to obtain the factors that affect quality of human resources and productivity of human resources. Human resources quality is viewed by the elements of TQM. TQM elements that are discussed in this study are leadership, communication, training and education, support structure, measurement and reward and recognition. The results of this study showed a correlation numbers across the exogenous variables on endogenous variables relationships tend to be strong and be positive. In addition, elements of TQM are discussed except the support structure which has a direct influence on the quality of human resources. Variable leadership, reward and recognition and quality of human resources have a significant effect on productivity.

  15. The effects of noise vocoding on speech quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2014-03-01

    Speech perception depends on access to spectral and temporal acoustic cues. Temporal cues include slowly varying amplitude changes (i.e. temporal envelope, TE) and quickly varying amplitude changes associated with the center frequency of the auditory filter (i.e. temporal fine structure, TFS). This study quantifies the effects of TFS randomization through noise vocoding on the perception of speech quality by parametrically varying the amount of original TFS available above 1500Hz. The two research aims were: 1) to establish the role of TFS in quality perception, and 2) to determine if the role of TFS in quality perception differs between subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. Ratings were obtained from 20 subjects (10 with normal hearing and 10 with hearing loss) using an 11-point quality scale. Stimuli were processed in three different ways: 1) A 32-channel noise-excited vocoder with random envelope fluctuations in the noise carrier, 2) a 32-channel noise-excited vocoder with the noise-carrier envelope smoothed, and 3) removal of high-frequency bands. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in babble noise at 18dB and 12dB signal-to-noise ratios. TFS randomization had a measurable detrimental effect on quality ratings for speech in quiet and a smaller effect for speech in background babble. Subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss provided similar quality ratings for noise-vocoded speech.

  16. [Effects of aerosol optical thickness on the optical remote sensing imaging quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Li; Gu, Xing-Fa; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Juan; Luan, Hai-Jun

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, due to changes in atmospheric environment, atmospheric aerosol affection on optical sensor imaging quality is increasingly considered by the load developed departments. Space-based remote sensing system imaging process, atmospheric aerosol makes optical sensor imaging quality deterioration. Atmospheric medium causing image degradation is mainly forward light scattering effect caused by the aerosol turbid medium. Based on the turbid medium radiation transfer equation, the point spread function models were derived contained aerosol optical properties of atmosphere in order to analyze and evaluate the atmospheric blurring effect on optical sensor imaging system. It was found that atmospheric aerosol medium have effect on not only energy decay of atmospheric transmittance, but also the degradation of image quality due to the scattering effect. Increase of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness makes aerosol scattering intensity enhanced, variation of aerosol optical thickness is also strongly influences the point spread function of the spatial distribution. it is because the degradation of aerosol in spatial domain, which reduces the quality of remote sensing image, in particularly reduction of the sharpness of image. Meanwhile, it would provide a method to optimize and improve simulation of atmospheric chain.

  17. Effects of electric vehicles on air quality in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Schöllnhammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government.

  18. Causes and effects of the corrosion of a plumbing galvanised steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandre Sánchez, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanising life as a corrosion protective coatings on steel depends basically on three factors: coatings quality (thickness, correct installation of the galvanised article, and weathering effects. The aim of this research it is to study the decaying causes and effects of a plumbing installation made with hot dip galvanised steel tubes. The mentioned installation was of use during 30 years in the water supply system of the Parque Alcosa market (Sevilla, Spain. The research was divided in three parts: in the first one, shape analysis and XDR of internal decayed products was carried out: in the second one, physical properties were determined according to UNE 37- 505-89, corrosion morphology was conducted by metalographic microscopy, and it was evaluated also water quality: and finally, in the third one, diameter, section, and internal volume decrease was calculated in order to evaluate friction increase and pressure decrease in the installation. The results obtained show the correct plumbing installation according to quality requirements (UNE 37-509-89, so corrosion causes are mainly attributed to an aggressive environment for the hot dip galvanising.

    La durabilidad de los galvanizados en caliente como recubrimientos protectores de la corrosión del acero dependen básicamente de tres factores: la calidad del recubrimiento (espesor, la correcta instalación del elemento galvanizado, y la agresividad del medio al que se encuentren expuestos. En este trabajo se estudian las causas y consecuencias del deterioro sufrido por una tubería de acero galvanizado, destinada durante unos 30 años a la conducción de agua potable de la red en el mercado del Parque Al cosa (Sevilla. La investigación se ha dividido en tres etapas: en la primera, se ha realizado el análisis formal y la caracterización mediante DRX de los productos de alteración generados en el interior del tubo: en la segunda, se han determinado las características f

  19. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-02

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  20. EFFECTIVE INDEPENDENT QUALITY ASSESSMENT USING IV&V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswara Rao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Software is critical to the effectiveness, competitiveness, and survival of any organization. Unexpected behavior or critical problems that bring operations to an idle are just not an option. Effective oversight is critical to good project management and as it is important for the project manager to ensure that the project is on track and to be completed within the estimated schedule and cost by maintaining the quality of the deliverables. This paper describes the role of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V integrated into the software development life cycle in bringing down company’s cost to develop software products, improve the quality of developed systems and save money throughout the system life cycle by detecting and identifying risk elements throughout the entire software development process thus allowing project and quality assurance managers to respond quickly in order to mitigate risks earlier in the product development life cycle, with more effectiveness, and with less impact on cost and schedule.

  1. The Anthropogenic "Greenhouse Effect": Greek Prospective Primary Teachers' Ideas about Causes, Consequences and Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Simos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitris; Avgoloupis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the ideas of Greek prospective primary teachers about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, particularly about its causes, consequences and cures. For this purpose, a survey was conducted: 265 prospective teachers completed a closed-form questionnaire. The results showed serious misconceptions in all areas (causes, consequences…

  2. The effect of massage therapy on the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Fahimeh; Kashani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Annually, about 6000 new cases are diagnosed with breast cancer in Iran. In Iran, more women are affected with breast cancer than a decade earlier in comparison with other countries, and 70% of them are diagnosed at an advanced phase. Insomnia is the most common disorder following breast cancer, and interference in sleep quality and rest causes changes in physiological functions and reduces the body's daily performance. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ma...

  3. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( Pphosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at phosphine fumigation for white ginseng.

  4. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  5. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  6. Analysis of effects of radiotherapy on pain caused by metastic tumor of bone%骨转移癌放疗止痛疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪祥; 陈法爱; 张友平

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background:Metastic tumor of bone is a kind of complications common in clinic,which severely injured patients'quality of life and health.Local therapy was emphasized for pain caused by metastic tumor of bone.Radiotherapy quickly alleviated pain and the effects was lonstanding.

  7. Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress.

  8. The Effect of Yoga Education on Balance and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şansın Tüzün

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebra and hip fractures are major cause of dysfunction, disability, mortality and loss of life quality in our growing and ageing population. In the premenopausal period exercises prevent rapid bone loss due to estrogen deficiency and increase muscle strength, mobility and flexibility thereby decreasing risk of falls and fractures. Yoga exercises, which have been an inseperable part of the Eastern culture for hundreds of years, are now being used in the field of osteoporosis rehabilitation.Yoga has a positive effect on balance, posture, flexibility, and life quality by its effects on balance, stretching, relaxation and strengthening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoga exercises in postmenopausal osteoporotic women on balance and life quality and to compare the result with a classic osteoporosis exercise program. Twenty-six postmenopausal osteoporotic women over 55 years of age were included in the study. A neuromusculer test battery and the QUALEFFO as life quality index were used for assessment of balance and life quality. The results showed that yoga education has a positive effect on pain, physical functions, social functions, general health perception and balance. As a conclucion yoga appers to be an alternative modality for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic subjects.

  9. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  10. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness

  11. Teaching cause-effect text structure through social studies content to at-risk second graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M; Pollini, Simonne; Stafford, K Brooke; Garcia, Amaya; Snyder, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehension program integrated with social studies instruction designed for at-risk second graders. The program included instruction in cause-effect text structure, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of specially constructed cause-effect target paragraphs. This program was compared (a) to a content-only program that focused only on social studies and did not include text structure instruction and (b) to a no-instruction control. Fifteen classroom teachers, randomly assigned to treatment, provided the instruction. The program improved the comprehension of instructional cause-effect texts, and there were transfer effects on some comprehension measures. The performance of the 2 instructed groups did not differ on any of the content measures, indicating that such integrated instruction can be accomplished without a loss in the amount of content acquired. This study supports our previous findings on the effectiveness of explicit instruction at the primary-grade level.

  12. Effectiveness of energy healing on Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Johannessen, Helle; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    for colorectal cancer (response rate: 31.5%) were either (a) randomized to healing (RH) or control (RC) or (b) had self selected the healing (SH) or control condition (SC), and completed questionnaires assessing well-being (QoL, depressive symptoms, mood, and sleep quality), attitude toward complementary...... and alternative medicine (CAM), and faith/spirituality at baseline, 1 week, and 2 months post-intervention. They also indicated, at baseline, whether they considered QoL, depressive symptoms, mood, and sleep quality as important outcomes to them. Results: Multilevel linear models revealed no overall effect...... of healing on QoL (p = 0.156), depressive symptoms (p = 0.063), mood (p = 0.079), or sleep quality (p = 0.346) in the intervention groups (RH, SH) compared with control (SC). Effects of healing on mood were only found for patients who had a positive attitude toward CAM and considered the outcome in question...

  13. Identification of mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs related to egg quality deterioration caused by post-ovulatory aging in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, post-ovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. Frequent examination of the stock is therefore required in order to reduce...

  14. Weekly variations of discharge and groundwater quality caused by intermittent water supply in an urbanized karst catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmeisen, Felix; Zemann, Moritz; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Leaky sewerage and water distribution networks are an enormous problem throughout the world, specifically in developing countries and regions with water scarcity. Especially in many arid and semi-arid regions, intermittent water supply (IWS) is common practice to cope with water shortage. This study investigates the combined influence of urban activities, IWS and water losses on groundwater quality and discusses the implications for water management. In the city of As-Salt (Jordan), local water supply is mostly based on groundwater from the karst aquifer that underlies the city. Water is delivered to different supply zones for 24, 48 or 60 h each week with drinking water losses of around 50-60%. Fecal contamination in groundwater, mostly originating from the likewise leaky sewer system is a severe challenge for the local water supplier. In order to improve understanding of the local water cycle and contamination dynamics in the aquifer beneath the city, a down gradient spring and an observation well were chosen to identify contaminant occurrence and loads. Nitrate, Escherichia coli, spring discharge and the well water level were monitored for 2 years. Autocorrelation analyses of time series recorded during the dry season revealed weekly periodicity of spring discharge (45 ± 3.9 L s-1) and NO3-N concentrations (11.4 ± 0.8 mg L-1) along with weekly varying E. coli levels partly exceeding 2.420 MPN 100 mL-1. Cross-correlation analyses demonstrate a significant and inverse correlation of nitrate and discharge variations which points to a periodic dilution of contaminated groundwater by freshwater from the leaking IWS being the principal cause of the observed fluctuations. Contaminant inputs from leaking sewers appear to be rather constant. The results reveal the distinct impact of leaking clean IWS on the local groundwater and subsequently on the local water supply and therefore demonstrate the need for action regarding the mitigation of groundwater contamination and

  15. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  16. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  17. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  18. Drainage water management effects on tile dicharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainage water management (DWM) has received considerable attention as a potential best management practice for improving water quality in tile drained landscapes. However, only a limited number of studies have documented the effectiveness of DWM in mitigating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. ...

  19. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  20. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  1. Quality Teaching and Values Education: Coalescing for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of the potential of quality teaching (or teacher excellence in content, knowledge and pedagogy) to impact upon student achievement is an outcome of recent school-effectiveness research. This research has extended the understanding of the conception of "teacher" beyond surface factual learning to that of induction into learning…

  2. Feedback Effects of Teaching Quality Assessment: Macro and Micro Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feedback effects of teaching quality assessment. Previous literature looked separately at the evolution of individual and aggregate scores to understand whether instructors and university performance depends on its past evaluation. I propose a new quantitative-based methodology, combining statistical distributions and…

  3. Quantity or quality? Knowledge alliances and their effects on patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hottenrott, H.; Lopes-Bento, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a sample of R&D-active manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2009 and shows that knowledge alliances have a positive effect on patenting in terms of both quantity and quality. More interestingly, we distinguish between alliances that aim at joint creation of new knowledge and

  4. Effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-LiLu; Jun-QingWu; Qiu-YingYang; Wei-JinZhou; Er-ShengGao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality. Methods: The data came from the healthy male volunteers, aged 22 to 30 years, who went to centers for maternity and children health for premarital physical examination in Shanghai,Henan, Zbejiang and Hebei from December 1998 to February 2000.

  5. Nitrogen fertilization effects on sorghum forage yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn. This study was a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 8 factorial...

  6. Demonstrating a lack of brand/cause effects on point of sale donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Joshua T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Point of sale cause-related marketing has raised over $2 billion for charities over the past 30 years, yet the subject remains largely unexplored in academic literature. The subject of brand/cause fit, however, is prolific throughout extant research, with many studies showing that high congruence between a company and a charity is necessary to achieve philanthropic success. This paper challenges current marketing thinking both conceptually and empirically. Employing tests of no-effect hypotheses following the guidelines set out by Cortina and Folger (1998, it is established that, in the point of sale cause-related marketing context, the traditional effects of brand/cause fits do not apply. Across three studies involving experimental designs and over 500 respondents, the results of one-way ANOVA analyses consistently demonstrate that a low brand/cause fit can be just as effective as a high/brand cause fit. These findings contribute to a profound understanding of social efforts such as cause-related marketing may not be as simple or easily understood as was once thought.

  7. The Success Paradigm Creating Organizational Effectiveness Through Quality and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, Michael E

    1995-01-01

    Organizations can accelerate the pace of quality improvements by ensuring that Total Quality efforts are driven from organizational strategy. In the process of doing this, a success paradigm can be created that allows different units of an organization to work more effectively toward a shared purpose. The significant examples presented here are the result of almost a decade of direct research and application in a very diverse set of organizations, including Fortune 500 manufacturing and services firms, non-profit organizations, health care organizations, and public education. The result is a s

  8. Effect of stress on semen quality in semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, M L; Giblin, P T; Ager, J W; Moghissi, K S

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-three donors with good semen quality were studied monthly for sperm count and motility over 9 to 22 months. Medical students (n = 31) in freshman and sophomore years subjected to the stress of twice-yearly examinations were compared with nonstudents (n = 22) not exposed to common stressful periods. Sperm count and quality (count X motility) for the student group were significantly elevated during examination months versus nonexamination months. Controls demonstrated no differences over these months. Differences between individuals, donor selection factors, and the effects of variable degrees of stress on sperm transport may have contributed to this finding.

  9. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept....... Fish performed similarly in all treatments. Preliminary screening of trout gills did not reveal any pathological changes related to microscreen filtration and the resulting water quality. Biofilter performance was also unaffected, with 0′-order nitrification rates (k0a) being equivalent for all twelve...

  10. Pre-mortem handling effect on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgue Hernandez-Bautista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics that define meat quality are the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. These characteristics are influenced by like production system, racial group, feed, transport, ante-mortem animals handling and post-mortem meat handling. The ante-mortem handling is very important, where stress physiology and the factors that provoke it (fasting, transportation, stunning, specie and their effect in each step of the ante-mortem handling is reflected in final meat quality (pH, conductivity, color, water holding capacity and shelf life.

  11. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality.

  12. Effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River, Chachoengsao Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paibulkichakul, C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River were investigated. Water from three different areas, Huasai temple, Thayai market and Sothorn temple, were sampled for quality monitoring for its physical, chemical and biological properties during July-September 2004. Analysis of variance was used for data analysis, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was applied for means comparison at 95% confidence level.The results showed that ranges of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphatephosphorus in all stations were 4.10-6.35, 0.022-0.156, 0.012-0.050, 0.084-0.299 and 0.004-0.047 mg/L, res the large food market, had the lowest water quality. Sothorn temple, the well-known tourist temple, had water quality in the middle of the three stations. Huasai temple, the agricultural site, had the best water qualities. The differences of water quality may be caused by the differences of community activities. The other parameters of this study could not clearly indicate the resons for the difference on water qualities.However, water quality from three areas met the Surface Water Quality Standard, class 3. Bangpakong River, the main river of Chachoengsao Province, is not only the source of water supply for households consumption as well as agricultural and industrial activities, but also receives untreated waste water from households, markets and industrial estates. Consequently, unless wastewater has been treated properly before discharging into the Bangpakong River, there will be water pollution in the near future.

  13. Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Storage Quality of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjian WANG; Shuaiping GAO; Guangrui TIAN; Lina LIU

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of vacuum packaging on storage quality of peanut. The acid value,peroxide value,relative conductivity,mildew rate and germination rate of peanut were examined in both vacuum-packed bags and control packaging bags.The results showed that the acid value,peroxide value,relative conductivity and mildew rate of peanut were maintained at a lower level and germination rate was maintained at a higher level in vacuum-packed bags than in control packaging bags. The storage quality of peanut in vacuum-packed bags was better than in control packaging bags. The order of different vacuum degree of vacuum-packed bags from good to bad according to storage quality of peanut was- 0. 06 MPa >- 0. 09 MPa >- 0. 03 MPa,and- 0. 06 MPa was the most beneficial vacuum degree for the peanut storage.

  14. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion......Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210...

  15. Effects of Ripening Conditions on the 'Lomo embuchado' Sausage Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Ho Sung; Shim, Kwanseob; Jung, Jong Hyun; Chung, Yi Hyung; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two different ripening durations, with, or without adding rosemary powder, on Lomo embuchado (LEO) sausage quality. All LEOs were ripened for two different durations, 45 or 60 d, with, or without the addition of rosemary powder, as follows: 1) LEO ripened for 45 d (LER45), 2) LEO ripened for 60 d (LER60), 3) rosemary LEO ripened for 45 d (RLE45), and 4) rosemary LEO ripened for 60 d (RLE60). Significant differences were observed in both moisture and ash content, with higher moisture and less ash content in LER45 (p0.05). The LER45 generated significantly improved chewiness, gumminess, and hardness, as compared to both LER60 and RLE60 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that ripening for 45 d seems to enhance LEO quality, but that rosemary powder addition may not be required to develop good LEO quality.

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed...... production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...... seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High...

  17. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses' Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Fereidouni, Zhila; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2017-01-01

    Job stress is a part of nurses' professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses' job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses' quality of work life. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson's questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups (p work life quality, home life (p work design (p work context (p work world (p = 0.003). This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses' quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  18. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses’ Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Job stress is a part of nurses’ professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses’ job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses’ quality of work life. Methods. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional (n=50 and control (n=50 groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson’s questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. Results. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups (p<0.001 and in dimensions of work life quality, home life (p<0.001, work design (p<0.001, work context (p<0.001, and work world (p=0.003. Conclusion. This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses’ quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  19. Effect of oil and shortening in rice bread quality: Relationship between dough rheology and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Martínez, Mario M; Merino, Cristina; de la Hera, Esther; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-04-27

    One of the main problems with gluten-free breads is their texture and their rapid staling. Fats are widely used for the improvement of texture and other quality parameters in gluten-free breads. The effect of oil and shortening in rice-breads quality and its correlation with dough rheology has been analyzed. The inclusion of oil increased the specific volume of the breads and reduced their hardness, particularly with lower levels of hydration, whereas shortening did not modify specific volume or reduced it when hydration levels were higher. Oil, at levels of up to 30%, reduced the cohesiveness, springiness and resilience of breads, as well as the brightness of the crust, and increased the a* and b* values. Breads with oil also exhibited a greater number of pores per cm(2) , especially in doughs with higher levels of hydration. An inverse correlation between G' and G'' and bread specific volume has been observed, being the reciprocal-Y model a better predictor than the linear model to relate the bread specific volume. This study showed that the type and quantity of fat added in rice based breads affect the bread quality in a different way. In general, it can be said that the incorporation of up to 20% oil improved rice based breads. Oil increased the specific volume, the a* and b* parameters of the crust and the cell density. It also decreases hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience, and the L* parameter. Converse to breads made with oil, the addition of shortening can negatively affect the quality of the breads. Moreover, the correlation analysis has demonstrated that the study of dough rheology could be a good predictor of gluten-free bread quality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of Buspirone on symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed masood Tabib

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a heterogeneous disorder of yet unknown etiology which causes a significant reduction in the quality of life. In this study, we compared the effect of buspirone as an agonist of serotonin 5HT1A receptor with amitriptyline and placebo on improving the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia. Methods: This study was a double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. Using a sequential sampling, patients with the diagnostic criteria of Rome 2 and normal gastrointestinal findings were selected. The subjects were randomly divided into three therapeutic groups receiving amitriptyline, buspirone, and placebo. We used Nepean Dyspepsia Inde (NDI to evaluate the quality of life before and after the treatment. Results: The mean age of subjects was 35.38±12.94 years. Symptom and quality of life scores of the three groups were equal at the beginning but at the end of treatment, these scores were different. Buspirone was more effective than both amitriptyline and placebo in reducing the symptom of early satiety. Buspirone showed a better improvement in quality of life compared to placebo. Both Buspirone and amitriptyline were more effective than placebo in decreasing the symptom of epigastric pain. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the positive effect of buspirone on the quality of life and symptoms (like early satiety and abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Since the mechanism of action of buspirone and also the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia are still unknown, further studies are necessary to clarify every aspect of the disease and therapeutic effects of various treatments on it.

  1. A Study of Air Quality and its Effect on Health: A Geographical Perspective of Lucknow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erudite groups of people, scientists, planners, and policy-makers of different countries have come to realise that quality of environment is not necessarily a simple function of nature as in primitive earth. Today nature’s self-regulatory functions are inoperative. All the developed and developing countries are deeply concerned to make balance between their environmental anxiety and their economic development. Dreadful environmental conditions are affecting the biological segment of the ecosystem of these areas. Human being, ‘one of the most precious component in biosphere’, have regular predicament situation with accretion of sullied air, water, and soil degradation. Though water and land pollution is extremely dangerous, air pollution has its own peculiarities, due to its trans-boundary dispersion of pollutants over the entire world. The effect of air pollution on health is very complex as there are many different sources and their individual effect varying from one to other. It is not only the ambient air quality in the cities but also the indoor air quality in the rural and urban areas that are causing concern. The study is confined with the health impact of deteriorating air quality in Lucknow city. The aim of the present study is also to determine the consequences of ambient air quality on health of the people in the study area.

  2. Effect of cause-of-death training on agreement between hospital discharge diagnoses and cause of death reported, inpatient hospital deaths, New York City, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio; Madsen, Ann

    2015-01-15

    Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality.

  3. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality. PMID:25590598

  4. Investigation of photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT on breast cancer Investigation of photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Y.; Hu, X. Y.; Leung, W. N.; Yuan, H. Q.; Zhang, L. Y.; Cui, F. A.; Tian, X.

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer is the common malignant tumor, the incidence increases with age. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new technique applied in tumors, which involves the administration of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and it is followed by the activation of a specific wavelength. Pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a derivative of chlorophyll, is a novel potent photosensitizer. We are exploring the photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT on breast cancer. The in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that MPPa is a comparatively ideal photosensitizer which can induce apoptosis in breast cancer.

  5. Effect of HMM Glutenin Subunits on Wheat Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutenin is a group of polymeric gluten proteins. Glutenin molecules consist of glutenin subunits linked together with disulphide bonds and having higher (HMM-GS and lower (LMM-GS molecular mass. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the influence of HMM-GS on flour processing properties. Seven bread wheat genotypes with contrasting quality attributes and different HMM-GS composition were analyzed during three years. The composition and quantity of HMM-GS were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. The quality diversity among genotypes was estimated by the analysis of wheat grain, and flour and bread quality parameters. The presence of HMM glutenin subunits 1 and 2* at Glu-A1 and the subunits 5+10 at Glu-D1 loci, as well as a higher proportion of total HMM-GS, had a positive effect on wheat quality. Cluster analysis of the three groups of data (genotype and HMM-GS, flour and bread quality, and dough rheology yielded the same hierarchical structure for the first top three levels, and similarity of the corresponding dendrograms was proved by the principal eigenvalues of the corresponding Euclidian distance matrices. The obtained similarity in classification based on essentially different types of measurements reflects strong natural association between genetic data, product quality and physical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to effectively reduce large data set into lower dimensions of latent variables amenable for the analysis. PCA analysis of the total set of data (15 variables revealed a very strong interrelationship between the variables. The first three PCA components accounted for 96 % of the total variance, which was significant to the level of 0.05 and was considered as the level of experimental error. These data imply that the quality of wheat cultivars can be contributed to HMM-GS data and should be taken into account in breeding programs assisted by computer models with the aim to

  6. Cost effectiveness of adopted quality requirements in hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alneil; Ahmed-Abakur, Eltayib; Abugroun, Elsir; Bakhit, Siham; Holi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed in quasi-experiment to assess adoption of the essential clauses of particular clinical laboratory quality management requirements based on international organization for standardization (ISO 15189) in hospital laboratories and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of compliance to ISO 15189. The quality management intervention based on ISO 15189 was conceded through three phases; pre - intervention phase, Intervention phase and Post-intervention phase. In pre-intervention phase the compliance to ISO 15189 was 49% for study group vs. 47% for control group with P value 0.48, while the post intervention results displayed 54% vs. 79% for study group and control group respectively in compliance to ISO 15189 and statistically significant difference (P value 0.00) with effect size (Cohen's d) of (0.00) in pre-intervention phase and (0.99) in post - intervention phase. The annual average cost per-test for the study group and control group was 1.80 ± 0.25 vs. 1.97 ± 0.39, respectively with P value 0.39 whereas the post-intervention results showed that the annual average total costs per-test for study group and control group was 1.57 ± 0.23 vs 2.08 ± 0.38, P value 0.019 respectively, with cost-effectiveness ratio of (0.88) in pre -intervention phase and (0.52) in post-intervention phase. The planned adoption of quality management requirements (QMS) in clinical laboratories had great effect to increase the compliance percent with quality management system requirement, raise the average total cost effectiveness, and improve the analytical process capability of the testing procedure.

  7. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Henline; Weatherspoon, Deborah; Hussey, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants (n = 11) included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role.

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Frazer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants (n=11 included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role.

  9. A global conformance quality model. A new strategic tool for minimizing defects caused by variation, error, and complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C. Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The performance of Japanese products in the marketplace points to the dominant role of quality in product competition. Our focus is motivated by the tremendous pressure to improve conformance quality by reducing defects to previously unimaginable limits in the range of 1 to 10 parts per million. Toward this end, we have developed a new model of conformance quality that addresses each of the three principle defect sources: (1) Variation, (2) Human Error, and (3) Complexity. Although the role of variation in conformance quality is well documented, errors occur so infrequently that their significance is not well known. We have shown that statistical methods are not useful in characterizing and controlling errors, the most common source of defects. Excessive complexity is also a root source of defects, since it increases errors and variation defects. A missing link in the defining a global model has been the lack of a sound correlation between complexity and defects. We have used Design for Assembly (DFA) methods to quantify assembly complexity and have shown that assembly times can be described in terms of the Pareto distribution in a clear exception to the Central Limit Theorem. Within individual companies we have found defects to be highly correlated with DFA measures of complexity in broad studies covering tens of millions of assembly operations. Applying the global concepts, we predicted that Motorola`s Six Sigma method would only reduce defects by roughly a factor of two rather than orders of magnitude, a prediction confirmed by Motorola`s data. We have also shown that the potential defects rates of product concepts can be compared in the earliest stages of development. The global Conformance Quality Model has demonstrated that the best strategy for improvement depends upon the quality control strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Effect of Vertebral Fracture on Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Yılmaz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vertebral fractures on quality of life in postmenopausal women. Method: 41 postmenopausal women were classified into two groups as those having osteopenia (Group I t score>-2.5 or osteoporosis (Group II t score£-2.5. Patients were further investigated by lateral spine radiographs with respect to vertebral fracture defined as 20 percent height loss compared to the neighbouring vertebra. Short Form-36 (SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO and Notthingam Health Profile (NHP were the questionnaires used to evaluate life quality. Results: The mean age of the 11 patients in Group I was significantly (p£0.05 greater than those in Group II. Age at menopause, height and weight were not significantly different between the groups. 16 patients had vertebral fractures and the number of fractures was 25. Energy subgroup of SF-36 was significantly lower in Group II than in Group I (37.3±16 vs 48.2±11, p£0.05. Only physical activity subgoup of the NHP was significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, there was not any significant difference between the two groups and between the patients with and without vertebral fractures with respect to life quality. Number of fractures was significantly correlated (r= 0.31 with the home activities subgoup of QUALEFFO 41 and physical activity subgroup of NHP (r= 0.32. Conclusion: Life quality indicis of osteoporotic patients were almost identical to osteopenic patients which suggested that osteoporosis is not a life quality diminishing disease in patients in the 6th decade. The indicis could not also disemminate patients with and without vertebral fractures either.

  11. 5 CFR 531.506 - Effective date of a quality step increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of a quality step increase... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.506 Effective date of a quality step increase. The quality step increase should be made effective as soon as practicable after it is approved. ...

  12. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedoma, J. [EKOPOL Environmental Engineering Studies and Design Office, Co. Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  13. The effect of floating houses on water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Foka, E.; Rutten, M.; Boogaard, F. van de; de Graaf, R; Lima, R.; N. van de Giesen

    2015-01-01

    The need of an adaptive sustainable solution for the increased land scarcity, growing urbanization, climate change and flood risks resulted in the concept of the floating urbanization. In The Netherlands this new type of housing attracted the interest of local authorities, municipalities and water boards. Moreover, plans to incorporate floating houses in the urban planning have already been developed. However, the knowledge gap regarding the potential effect on the water quality halts the fur...

  14. The Compositional Effect of Rigorous Teacher Evaluation on Workforce Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Julie Berry; Koedel, Cory; Parsons, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Improving public sector workforce quality is challenging in sectors such as education where worker productivity is difficult to assess and manager incentives are muted by political and bureaucratic constraints. In this paper, we study how providing information to principals about teacher effectiveness and encouraging them to use the information in personnel decisions affects the composition of teacher turnovers. Our setting is the Houston Independent School District, which recently implemente...

  15. The effects of professional ethics and commitment on audit quality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effects of professional ethics and commitments on audit quality. The population of this survey includes all audit managers who were active in auditing official statements of different firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange in 2014. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 152 randomly selected managers. In our survey, professional ethics consists of four items including confidentiality and impartiality, professional competenc...

  16. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Kevin El; Mrad, Roberto; Morel, Florent; Pillonnet, Gael; Vollaire, Christian; Nagari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  17. Effect of Store and Forward Teledermatology on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, John D.; Warshaw, Erin M.; Edison, Karen E.; Kapur, Kush; Thottapurathu, Lizy; Raju, Srihari; Cook, Bethany; Engasser, Holly; Pullen, Samantha; Parks, Patricia; Sindowski, Tom; Motyka, Danuta; Brown, Rodney; Moritz, Thomas E.; Datta, Santanu K.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Marty, Lucinda; Reda, Domenic J.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Although research on quality of life and dermatologic conditions is well represented in the literature, information on teledermatology’s effect on quality of life is virtually absent. Objective To determine the effect of store and forward teledermatology on quality of life. Design Two-site, parallel-group, superiority randomized controlled trial. Setting Dermatology clinics and affiliated sites of primary care at 2 US Department of Veterans Affairs medical facilities. Participants Patients being referred to a dermatology clinic were randomly assigned, stratified by site, to teledermatology or the conventional consultation process. Among the 392 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were randomized, 326 completed the allocated intervention and were included in the analysis. Interventions Store and forward teledermatology (digital images and a standardized history) or conventional text-based consultation processes were used to manage the dermatology consultations. Patients were followed up for 9 months. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was change in Skindex-16 scores, a skin-specific quality-of-life instrument, between baseline and 9 months. A secondary end point was change in Skindex-16 scores between baseline and 3 months. Results Patients in both randomization groups demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in Skindex-16 scores between baseline and 9 months with no significant difference by randomization group (P=.66, composite score). No significant difference in Skindex-16 scores by randomization group between baseline and 3 months was found (P=.39, composite score). Conclusions Compared with the conventional consultation process, store and forward teledermatology did not result in a statistically significant difference in skin-related quality of life at 3 or 9 months after referral. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00488293 PMID:23426111

  18. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between hydrology, water quality, and taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds in Lake Houston, Texas, April 2006-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beussink, Amy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Houston is a surface-water-supply reservoir and an important recreational resource for the city of Houston, Texas. Growing concerns over water quality in Lake Houston prompted a detailed assessment of water quality in the reservoir. The assessment focused on water-quality constituents that affect the aesthetic quality of drinking water. The hydrologic and water-quality conditions influencing the occurrence of taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds in Lake Houston were assessed using discrete and continuously monitored water-quality data collected during April 2006– September 2008. The hydrology of Lake Houston is characterized by rapidly changing conditions. During inflow events, water residence time can change by orders of magnitude within a matter of hours. Likewise, the reservoir can stratify and destratify over a period of several hours, even during non-summer and at relatively short water residence times, given extended periods with warm temperatures and little wind. The rapidly changing hydrology likely influences all other aspects of water quality in Lake Houston, including the occurrence of taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds. Water quality in Lake Houston varied with respect to season and water residence time but typically was indicative of turbid, eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. In general, turbidity and nutrient concentrations were largest during non-summer (October–May) and when water residence times were relatively short (less than 100 days), which reflects the influence of inflow events on water-quality conditions. Large inflow events can cause substantial changes in water-quality conditions over relatively short periods of time (hours). The taste-and-odor causing organisms cyanobacteria and actinomycetes bacteria were always present in Lake Houston. Cyanobacterial biovolume was largest during summer (June– September) and when water residence time was greater than 100 days. Annual maxima in cyanobacterial

  20. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Daneshmandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by pur-poseful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88 from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09 (p < 0.000. In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88 was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97 (p < 0.005. Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in pa-tients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alter-native method of treatment instead of drug therapy.

  1. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  2. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H.Joong-Ho; Byun, M.-W.Myung-Woo; Kim, K.-S.Kang-Soo; Kang, I.-J.Il-Jun

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40 deg. C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor (P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng. (author)

  3. The Effect of Solution Parameters on Lysozyme Nucleation Rates and Crystal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, R. A.; Snell, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the pursuit of strongly diffracting high quality macromolecule crystals of suitable volume, this study investigates how the formation of macromolecules in solution and their growth characteristics effect crystal volume and diffracting quality. We systematically investigated the effect of solution conditions on lysozyme nucleation rates and the volume of crystals produced. Batch crystallization plates were used in combination with a video microscope system to measure nucleation rates and crystal volume. As expected from classical nucleation theory, crystal numbers were found to increase with increases in temperature and supersaturation. Small changes in solution pH, at constant supersaturation values were found, however, to dramatically effect the number of crystals nucleated in the wells varying from 1000s to 10s in the pH range 4.0 to 5.2. Having optimized the conditions required to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable volume for X-ray analysis, a large number of uniform crystals were produced under exactly the same conditions. In the X-ray analysis of more than 50 such crystals there was found a wide variation in crystal lattice parameters and data quality. The variation in X-ray quality crystal samples is thought to be related to the growth rate variation caused by growth rate dispersion seen in lysozyme crystal growth experiments.

  4. The vitamin D status and its effects on life quality among the elderly in Jinan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoyu; Guo, Tao; Wang, Yan; Kang, Donghong; Che, Xuanqiang; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Wei; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for researchers is that vitamin D has many functions in the body, and vitamin D status across the world is not optimistic. There was little data regarding insufficient vitamin D status and its adverse effect on health of elderly Chinese people. So we selected 686 subjects (310 men and 376 women) aged 60-89 years to explore the correlation between vitamin D status and their life quality in a community-based osteoporosis prevention study at Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University from 2009 to 2010. All subjects were divided into three groups: vitamin D adequacy [serum 25(OH)D ≧ 75 nmol/L], hypovitaminosis D (50-74.9 nmol/L), and vitamin D insufficiency (elderly with hypovitaminosis D got lower scores than that with vitamin D adequacy (almost Pelderly was severely inadequate, which decreased their life quality and cause adverse effect on their health.

  5. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of chassis frame compliance on heavy truck ride quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, R.H. [Meritor Automotive, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the prediction of ride quality for a heavy truck through the use of time-domain (transient and steady-state) analysis within a multibody dynamics formulation. Two models of the heavy truck are developed. In the first model, the chassis is assumed to be infinitely rigid so that the multibody system consists only of rigid bodies that are interconnected through mechanical constraints or user-defined force elements. In the second model, the compliance of the chassis frame is considered in the formulation. This is done through the assumed modes method wherein the selected modes of chassis frame deformation are coupled with the nonlinear equations of motion associated with the large rigid body displacements of the spring and unsprung masses. The two vehicle models are validated by simulating a heavy truck traveling along a highway with vertical force inputs. Ride quality is then quantified through the root mean square (RMS) vertical acceleration of a specified critical location in the heavy truck. Comparison of the simulation results with test results indicate that chassis frame compliance plays an important role in predicting ride quality, especially when the natural frequency of the chassis frame is within the frequency range of the suspension modes. Design sensitivity studies are then conducted in order to determine which suspension design parameter has the most significant effect on the ride quality of the subject vehicle.

  7. Effective fingerprint quality estimation for diverse capture sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Shin, Jinwook; Park, Dong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  8. Effective Fingerprint Quality Estimation for Diverse Capture Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  9. The effects of buffer strips and bioretention facilities on agricultural productivity and environmental quality in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin L.; McCuen, Richard H.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryLand degradation is a growing concern in Central Africa as poor management practices continue to cause erosion and increase water runoff in agricultural fields. The implementation of best management practices (BMPs) is needed; however, productivity is often indirectly related to the environmental benefits of such practices and resource constraints often exist. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bioretention facilities and buffer strips on environmental quality with productivity and resources as constraints. A water quantity and quality model for an agricultural field in Central Africa was developed. Analyses were conducted to assess the marginal benefits of each BMP, the effect of different BMP combinations on environmental quality and productivity, and the effect of data uncertainty and location uncertainty on model predictions. The results showed that bioretention pits were more effective than buffer strips in increasing environmental quality. Productivity was shown to be directly related to bioretention pits, thus environmental quality can be attained without sacrificing productivity. Data uncertainties resulted in changes in the environmental quality values, but trends remained the same. Guidelines were provided to assist design engineers in developing BMP scenarios that provide the greatest productivity and environmental quality for the constraints involved. The results of this study will bring awareness to the ability of attaining environmental quality without sacrificing productivity as well as the need for accurate data in Central Africa.

  10. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification

  11. Causes and Effects of Change Orders on Construction Projects in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Alaryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the change orders in public and private construction projects in Kuwait. The study in this research presents the results of a questionnaire surveying the owners, contractors and consultants on a sample comprising 385 engineers representing the construction industry. The responses to the questionnaire help in identifying the general characteristics of the construction industry in Kuwait as well as ranking the most common causes of changes, their effects on the projects and the control measures to address the changes. The results of the questionnaire indicate that the owner is the most responsible party causing changes. The study identifies that the first cause is change of plans by owner, otherwise increase in cost of the project is the first effect. All changes to design documents are checked and reviewed is the first control.

  12. The effect of singing training on voice quality for people with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Buttifant, Mary; Berlowitz, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of voice impairment in quadriplegia, the exact nature of these impairments is not well described in the literature. This article details objective and subjective voice assessments for people with quadriplegia at baseline and after a respiratory-targeted singing intervention. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants with quadriplegia were randomly assigned to a 12-week program of either a singing intervention or active music therapy control. Recordings of singing and speech were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postintervention. These deidentified recordings were used to measure sound pressure levels and assess voice quality using the Multidimensional Voice Profile and the Perceptual Voice Profile. Baseline voice quality data indicated deviation from normality in the areas of breathiness, strain, and roughness. A greater percentage of intervention participants moved toward more normal voice quality in terms of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; however, the improvements failed to achieve statistical significance. Subjective and objective assessments of voice quality indicate that quadriplegia may have a detrimental effect on voice quality; in particular, causing a perception of roughness and breathiness in the voice. The results of this study suggest that singing training may have a role in ameliorating these voice impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Light quality and temperature effects on antirrhinum growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHATTAK Abdul Mateen; PEARSON Simon

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of light quality on the growth and development of antirrhinum under three different temperatures 19℃, 24℃ and 27℃ in glasshouses. Five different colour filters (i.e. 'Red absorbing', 'Blue absorbing', 'Blue and Red absorbing' and two 'partially Blue absorbing' materials) were tested, with one clear polythene as a control. Plant height, internode length and leaf area were significantly affected by the spectral filters as well as the temperature.Analysis of color filter's effect on presumed photoreceptors to exist indicated that antirrhinum plant height was regulated by the action of a blue acting photoreceptor (BAP) and not the phytochrome. There was no evidence for an effect ofphytochrome or BAP on time to flowering, however, increasing temperature levels effectively decreased the time to flowering. To predict the effects of different spectral qualities and temperature, simple models were created from data on plant height, internode length and time to flowering. These models were then applied to simulate the potential benefits of spectral filters and temperature in manipulation of growth control and flowering in antirrhinum.

  14. Quality of inpatient pediatric case management for four leading causes of child mortality at six government-run Ugandan hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sears

    Full Text Available A better understanding of case management practices is required to improve inpatient pediatric care in resource-limited settings. Here we utilize data from a unique health facility-based surveillance system at six Ugandan hospitals to evaluate the quality of pediatric case management and the factors associated with appropriate care.All children up to the age of 14 years admitted to six district or regional hospitals over 15 months were included in the study. Four case management categories were defined for analysis: suspected malaria, selected illnesses requiring antibiotics, suspected anemia, and diarrhea. The quality of case management for each category was determined by comparing recorded treatments with evidence-based best practices as defined in national guidelines. Associations between variables of interest and the receipt of appropriate case management were estimated using multivariable logistic regression.A total of 30,351 admissions were screened for inclusion in the analysis. Ninety-two percent of children met criteria for suspected malaria and 81% received appropriate case management. Thirty-two percent of children had selected illnesses requiring antibiotics and 89% received appropriate antibiotics. Thirty percent of children met criteria for suspected anemia and 38% received appropriate case management. Twelve percent of children had diarrhea and 18% received appropriate case management. Multivariable logistic regression revealed large differences in the quality of care between health facilities. There was also a strong association between a positive malaria diagnostic test result and the odds of receiving appropriate case management for comorbid non-malarial illnesses - children with a positive malaria test were more likely to receive appropriate care for anemia and less likely for illnesses requiring antibiotics and diarrhea.Appropriate management of suspected anemia and diarrhea occurred infrequently. Pediatric quality

  15. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Kortman, M.; Velde, E.R. te; Macklon, N.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Leerentveld, R.A.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schats, R.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Helmerhorst, F.M.; Bots, R.S.G.M.; Simons, A.H.M.; Hogerzeil, H.V.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dop, P.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  16. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  17. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  18. Expanded DEMATEL for Determining Cause and Effect Group in Bidirectional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  19. Fire in Ghana's dry forest: Causes, frequency, effects and management interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Opoku Agyemang; Michael Muller; Victor Rex Barnes

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the number of fires, area burned, causes and seasonality of fires over a ten year period from 2002-2012 and investigates different fire management strategies and their effectiveness in the Afram headwaters forest reserve in Ghana. Data were collected from interviews of stakeholders in two communities adjacent to the reserve, and from 2002-2012 fire...

  20. Expanded DEMATEL for determining cause and effect group in bidirectional relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatoonitoosi, Elham; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2014-01-01

    Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  1. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Kortman, M.; Velde, E.R. te; Macklon, N.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Leerentveld, R.A.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schats, R.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Helmerhorst, F.M.; Bots, R.S.G.M.; Simons, A.H.M.; Hogerzeil, H.V.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dop, P.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  2. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.

    2003-01-01

    the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  3. [Renoprotective effects of statins under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G

    2014-01-01

    The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.

  4. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. METHODS: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  5. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air...

  6. Mechanical vibrations in the transport of hatching eggs and the losses caused in the hatch and quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donofre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many factors present in eggs’ transportation from incubator to growing confinements can damage their integrity and, consequently, the results of the incubation. This study aimed to evaluate whether the intensity and duration of exposures of hatching eggs to mechanical vibrations were capable of affecting the hatch and the quality of broiler chicks. Four treatments, determined by two intensities of vibrations and two durations of exposures were evaluated and compared with a control group in a randomised design in blocks with four repetitions. The vibrations were applied by a mechanical shaker before incubation. Then the eggs were incubated and as the following responses were evaluated: hatchability, the type of embryonic mortality, the quality of the birds and the total of losses. The analyses were carried out by a binomial regression model, with application of the Wald test at 5% significance level. The results showed that the exposure of eggs to mechanical vibrations harmfully affects the hatchability and reduces the ratio (percentage of high quality chicks. Highest vibration level together with longer duration of exposure resulted in worst hatchability and losses. It is argued that the mechanical vibrations are potentially damaging and should be regarded as an important factor in the management of hatching eggs.

  7. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Li, Zhi; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  8. Study on Enhancement Effect of Cavitation Caused by HIFU Piezoelectricity Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinnan Fan; Changping Zhu; Shichuan He; Minglei Shan; Jiacai Chen

    2006-01-01

    An orthogonal ultrasonic irradiation system consisting of HIFU with frequency at 1.05 MHz combined with ultrasound with frequency at 28 kHz was applied in this paper. Effect of cavitation was detected by pH-value measurement and conductance measurement. The result shows that the effect of cavitation caused by ultrasound with frequency at 28 kHz is greatly enhanced by HIFU piezoelectricity transducer with frequency at 1.05 MHz.

  9. [Analysis on the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiatai; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yongming; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Based on traditional acupuncture theory and modern researches, the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect are summarized and analyzed. It is found that the factors include the specificity of acupoint, the interaction of acupoints, the pathway of acupuncture signal, the body condition level, acupuncture manipulation, etc. It is believed that the specificity of acupoint is the key factor to determine the difference of acupoints synergy effect. Interaction of acupoints may be related to the pathway of selected acupuncture signal, which is an important factor in difference of acupoints synergy effect. The body condition level and acupuncture manipulation are internal and external factor to influence acupoints synergy effect, respectively.

  10. The effects of professional ethics and commitment on audit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Nasrabadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effects of professional ethics and commitments on audit quality. The population of this survey includes all audit managers who were active in auditing official statements of different firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange in 2014. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 152 randomly selected managers. In our survey, professional ethics consists of four items including confidentiality and impartiality, professional competence, accountability and individual values while organizational commitment consists of three items including emotional commitment, continues commitment and fundamental commitment. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression models, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between professional ethics as well as commitment and audit quality.

  11. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Water Quality in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N. E.

    2009-05-01

    A long-term stream water-quality monitoring network was established in the City of Atlanta (COA) during 2003 to assess baseline water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically-based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted approximately 12 times per year at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) water-quality stations having continuous measures of stream stage/discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water-quality and sediment-related constituents. This paper summarizes an evaluation of field parameters and concentrations of major ions, minor and trace metals, nutrient species (nitrogen and phosphorus), and coliform bacteria among stations and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. The concentrations of most constituents in the COA streams are statistically higher than those of two nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. The combination of routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows, and real-time water-quality monitoring provided sufficient information about the variability of urban stream water quality to develop hypotheses for causes of water-quality differences among COA streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most individual samples at each station exceeded Georgia's water-quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s), and

  12. Premenstrual Syndrome in Turkish college students and its effects on life quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Gul; Colak, Meric; Oksuz, Ergun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the frequency of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) in college students, the factors affecting Premenstrual Syndrome and the effect of Premenstrual Syndrome on life quality. The research was performed on 316 students who study at Medical Sciences Faculty of Başkent University and accepted to take part in the research. The data of the research was compiled by using "Questionnaire Form", "PMS Rating Scale" and "Life Quality Scale" developed by the researchers. In the analysis of the data; Percentage distribution, Chi-square test, One Way Anova test, Logistic regression, Multi nominal regression analysis were used. PMS was detected in 72.1% of the students. The most frequent symptoms are mainly low back pain, stress-discomfort, nervous-anger, distention and breast tenderness. PMS was found significantly high in those students who have menstrual irregularity, who have dysmenorrhea, who consume 2 cups of coffee or above per day and who smoke and drink alcohol (pstudents and this adversely affects the life quality. It was revealed that the preventive, instructive and consultancy roles of the medical staff became more of an issue in reducing the effect of the factors causing and/or aggravating these symptoms in order to decrease PMS incidence and to improve the life quality of the students. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2014-11-30

    Bacteriospermia in boar ejaculates is a frequent finding that compromises the sperm quality and, consequently, causes economic losses in swine industry. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality over a storing period of 11 days at 15-17 ° C. Ten commercial seminal doses coming from post-pubertal and healthy boars were artificially inoculated with different infective concentrations of P. aeruginosa, ranging from 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(4)cfu/mL. Negative controls were non-inoculated doses. Sperm quality, assessed as sperm motility (CASA), sperm viability, acrosome integrity and pH, as well as the bacterial growth, were checked after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days of storage at 15-17 ° C. Results obtained showed significant decreases in the percentages of total and progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity in the greatest infective concentrations (2 × 10(7) and 2 × 10(8)cfu/mL), when compared to the negative control. In contrast, there was no effect on seminal pH throughout the experiment. Results indicate the presence of P. aeruginosa in boar semen, apart from being a potential source for the spread of infectious diseases and harmful impact on sows, negatively affects the longevity and fertilizing ability of boar sperm when present in high concentrations. Thus, P. aeruginosa causes deleterious effects on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 15-17 ° C, thus strict hygienic measures must be implemented in boar studs to minimize bacterial concentration of semen doses.

  14. Regional and local effects of electric vehicles on air quality and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wurzler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. The air pollution burden due to road traffic in a street canyon consists of shares from local traffic and contributions of vehicles driving elsewhere in the city as well as elsewhere on a larger scale. Are electric vehicles a solution for air quality problems in cities? Do they reduce noise levels in street canyons significantly? The aim of this sensitivity study is to investigate the regional and local effects of electric vehicles on noise and air quality taking possible effects of additional electricity production into account. Focus of the present study lies for air quality on the regional scale in North Rhine-Westphalia and the overall effect in some selected street canyons, to be more precise the annual average PM10 and NO2 concentrations. A sensitivity study using the chemistry transport model EURAD and a screening model for street canyons was carried out. The influence on noise levels was analysed based on measurements of vehicles at different speeds. It turns out that road traffic has a significant impact on the regional air pollution levels. Furthermore it is shown that the reduction potential is bigger for NO2 than for PM10. With regard to EC limit value compliance a major share of electric vehicles could be a solution for the NO2 problems in moderately polluted street canyons. One of our findings is that if the additional electricity need causes additional emissions these counteract the possible reduction, especially for PM10. The noise reduction potential of electric vehicles is only significant for vehicles moving at low speeds.

  15. Causes and effects of Romania deepening financial crisis. Short term means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Florin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepening and expanding financial crisis triggered in October 2008 in the U.S. and other countries is the event that has caused the utmost concern of the policy makers in the economy and society. Forecasts for Romania show a slowdown in economy. As the current global status indicates the likelihood of a major global economic crisis, we attempt through this study to identify the real causes of this deepening crisis in Romania. As well as public policy priorities to counteract the effects of the crisis and restore confidence of financial institutions and investors to Romania.

  16. Quantifying the effect of air quality control measures during the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Gufran; Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin. D.; Mahajan, A. S.; Srinivas, R.; Ali, K.; Sahu, S. K.; Parkhi, N.; Surendran, D.; Trimbake, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the XIX Commonwealth Games (CWG-2010) were held in India for the first time at Delhi and involved 71 commonwealth nations and dependencies with more than 6000 athletes participating in 272 events. This was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in India and strict emission controls were imposed during the games in order to ensure improved air quality for the participating athletes as a significant portion of the population in Delhi is regularly exposed to elevated levels of pollution. The air quality control measures ranged from vehicular and traffic controls to relocation of factories and reduction of power plant emissions. In order to understand the effects of these policy induced control measures, a network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across different areas in Delhi under the Government of India's System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. Simultaneous measurements of aerosols, reactive trace gases (e.g. NOx, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters were made before, during and after CWG-2010. Contrary to expectations, the emission controls implemented were not sufficient to reduce the pollutants, instead in some cases, causing an increase. The measured pollutants regularly exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality limits over the games period. The reasons for this increase are attributed to an underestimation of the required control measures, which resulted in inadequate planning. The results indicate that any future air quality control measures need to be well planned and strictly imposed in order to improve the air quality in Delhi, which affects a large population and is deteriorating rapidly. Thus, the presence of systematic high resolution data and realistic emission inventories through networks such as SAFAR will be directly useful for the future.

  17. Qualidade das estatísticas de óbitos por causas desconhecidas dos Estados brasileiros Quality of death statistics by unknown causes in Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neir Antunes Paes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a qualidade dos registros de óbitos por causas desconhecidas da população adulta e explorar suas relações com outros indicadores. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de óbitos por causas desconhecidas da população adulta de todas as Unidades da Federação do Brasil, de 1990 a 2000. Os dados percentuais das mortes por essas causas foram classificados em quatro categorias quanto à qualidade. Os padrões etários das causas mal definidas foram representados por Estados-típicos e calculados coeficientes de correlação entre essas causas e alguns indicadores, como causas externas e grau de urbanização. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se "boa" qualidade dos registros de óbitos por causas desconhecidas para as regiões Sul-Sudeste e no máximo como "regular" para o Norte-Nordeste. Avanços nas declarações ocorreram para a metade dos estados do País, particularmente para as mulheres. As proporções de mal definidas aumentaram com as idades, associando-se à cobertura dos óbitos, o grau de urbanização e as mortes por causas externas. CONCLUSÕES: Embora tenha havido diminuição na qualidade das declarações das causas básicas de óbitos para vários estados do País, pode-se considerar a qualidade, no mínimo, como satisfatória. Isso significa que é possível resgatar o poder explicativo das estatísticas dos óbitos por causas definidas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of reported adult deaths by unknown causes and to explore their relationships with some indicators. METHOD: There were evaluated adult deaths by unknown causes for all Brazilian federal units from 1990 to 2000. Criteria were established to categorize the overall proportion of deaths by quality into four groups. The age patterns of ill-defined causes were represented by typical states and correlation coefficients between these causes and other indicators were estimated, such as external causes and urbanization level. RESULTS: "Good" quality data was found

  18. Causes and Effects of Stress Among Faculty Members in a State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydee Colacion-Quiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the level of stress among the faculty members of West Visayas State University Janiuay Campus when they were taken as a whole and when they were grouped as to sex, age, civil status, academic rank, and workload. It likewise determined the causes and effects of stress among the respondents and if there were significant differences in their level of stress when classified as to sex, age, civil status, academic rank, and workload. This study utilized the descriptive method in determining the levels, causes and effects of stress among the fifty-five (55 randomly selected faculty respondents. Results revealed that there was a low level of stress among the respondents as a whole and when classified as to the defined variables except those faculty aged 58 and above, whose stress level was moderate. The leading cause of stress was paperwork, the leading physical effect was high blood pressure, emotional effect was irritability and spiritual effect was anxiety. There were no significant differences in the level of stress when the respondents were grouped as to age, sex, civil status and workload while a significant difference existed when the respondents were grouped as to academic rank.

  19. Assessment of the Vibrations Effects Caused by Technical Seismicity Due to the Railway traffic on High-sensitivity Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína

    2016-10-01

    The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.

  20. Antimisting kerosene: Base fuel effects, blending and quality control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Ernest, J.; Sarohia, V.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with blending of the AMK additive with Jet A, and the base fuel effects on AMK properties are addressed. The results from the evaluation of some of the quality control techniques for AMK are presented. The principal conclusions of this investigation are: significant compositional differences for base fuel (Jet A) within the ASTM specification DI655; higher aromatic content of the base fuel was found to be beneficial for the polymer dissolution at ambient (20 C) temperature; using static mixer technology, the antimisting additive (FM-9) is in-line blended with Jet A, producing AMK which has adequate fire-protection properties 15 to 20 minutes after blending; degradability of freshly blended and equilibrated AMK indicated that maximum degradability is reached after adequate fire protection is obtained; the results of AMK degradability as measured by filter ratio, confirmed previous RAE data that power requirements to decade freshly blended AMK are significantly higher than equilibrated AMK; blending of the additive by using FM-9 concentrate in Jet A produces equilibrated AMK almost instantly; nephelometry offers a simple continuous monitoring capability and is used as a real time quality control device for AMK; and trajectory (jet thurst) and pressure drop tests are useful laboratory techniques for evaluating AMK quality.

  1. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN SEED SIZE ON SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Yulyatin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seed is a seed that is rapidly deteriorate or decrease in viability and vigor, especially if stored in conditions that are less optimum savings. Soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seed. Seed quality is characterized by germination of seeds. Grain size effect on soybean utilization. Large seed size tends to be used as an industrial raw material utilization while small seed size as a seed planted back. Purpose of this study was to determine whether soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seeds while in storage. The experimental design used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD using soybean seed size is a large size (Grobogan, medium (Kaba, and small (Willis is repeated four times. Parameter observations are normal seeds, dirt seed, weight of 100 grains, moisture content, germination. Data were tabulated and analyzed using the F test, if significantly different then tested further by DMRT level of 5 percent. Large size seed has the normal number of seeds, seed dirt, moisture content higher than medium and small seed size. But has a lower germination than seeds of medium and small size. To maintain the water content of <11 percent should be larger seed size is more frequent than the dried seed medium and small sizes.

  2. Effect of Packaging materials on Quality Parameters of Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh Grewal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of storage period and different packaging material on the quality of garlic flakes dried by convective-cum-microwave (CCM and fluidized-cum-microwave (FCM hybrid drying. Garlic flakes were packaged and stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE, low density polyethylene (LDPE and laminated aluminium foil for 3 months under ambient conditions. Samples were investigated to observe for change in rehydration ratio, colour, physiological loss in weight % and overall acceptability. Among the hybrid drying techniques adopted, the garlic flakes developed under optimized condition of fluidized bedcum-microwave was found better in terms of shelf life and quality attributes. The aluminium packaging was adjudged to be the best in retaining the quality of dried garlic flakes up to 3 months of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that the fluidized bed cum microwave dried garlic flakes packed in Aluminium package were the best, and can be stored safely up to 3 months.

  3. Effective hospital leadership for quality: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, A P; Saunders, I W; O'Sullivan, D; Garrigan, E; Rice, J

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals need excellent leadership to be efficient in the use of scarce stakeholder resources and to be effective in the competitive provision of services to multiple customers. This study was conducted with the cooperation of the executive team at a large government-funded hospital in Brisbane. It focused on understanding the conceptual models of leadership held by members of the executive and comparing this model with an externally derived model of leadership. Performance on the local model was estimated by cross-linking performance assessment on the external model. Members of the executive espoused, and were also rated by others in the hospital as practising, to a moderate degree, a transformational style of leadership. An overall evaluation of quality practice in the hospital revealed the use of data, the understanding of processes and the formation of supplier partnerships as the areas of hospital activity most limiting the ability to improve. The implications of the conceptual model and performance levels are discussed in relation to the introduction of quality management practice in the hospital, and in terms of management development. A complementary paper focusing on quality implementation as perceived at different staff levels in the hospital is in preparation.

  4. PECVD Environmental Effects on Silicon Nanoparticle Size and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafehn, Grant; Kendrick, Chito; Guan, Tianyuan; Theingi, San; Riskey, Kory; Vitti, Lauren; Bagolini, Luigi; Lusk, Mark; Gorman, Brian; Taylor, Craig; Collins, Reuben; Fields, Jeremy; Stradins, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Silicon based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have recently been of great interest to the PV community because of their unique properties compared to their bulk constituents. By decreasing a nanoparticle's (NP) size below its exciton Bohr radius, its band gap can be increased relative to the bulk. This talk will discuss fundamental variables involved in defining and controlling plasma-grown SiNP size and quality. A quartz tube with a RF electrode ring is used to create a plasma in an argon-silane mixture to grow the SiNPs. Their quality and size can be changed by varying the reactor pressure, gas flow, and thus the resulting residence time. They are then characterized by Raman, PL, ESR, XRD, and TEM, and then mapped to a phase diagram with respect to pressure and flow. Higher residence times of 10 ms resulted in highly crystalline, 7 nm SiNPs. Residence times of 2 ms create 4 nm particles, while below 2 ms will result in highly defective material, even though the PL exhibits peaks at 1.6 eV. These parameters will be discussed, including how each variable affects the resultant SiNP size, quality. Also included will be a discussion about additive gasses and their additional effects on SiNP characteristics. We acknowledge support given by the DOE (DE-EE0005326) and NSF REMRSEC (DMR 0820518).

  5. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  6. A Quasar Spectrum with a Multiplet-Like Structure Caused by the Raman Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永镇

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that if a photon is scattered by a relativistic electron in a strong magnetic field, this may cause the Raman effect due to a transition between Landau levels. We study the possibility that this quantum effect occurs in some compact objects. We find that there is a multiplet-like structure in the quasi-stellar object (QSO) 1303 + 308 spectrum, which is consistent with that expected by the Raman effect. It indicates that there might be a magnetic field strength about 5 × 106 G in the environment of this QSO at redshift 1.7175.

  7. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.         No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  8. The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to O3 and PM2.5 were evaluated for the 90–day period before sampling. We used multivariable linear regression, which included different levels of adjustment (i.e., without and with season and temperature) to assess the relationship between exposure to air pollutants during key periods of sperm development and adverse sperm outcomes. Results Sperm concentration and count were not associated with exposure to PM2.5, but there was evidence of an association (but not statistically significant) with O3 concentration and decreased sperm concentration and count. Additionally, a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic drop [β = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–5.06] and abnormal head (β = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03–0.92) was associated with PM2.5 concentration in the base model. However, these associations, along with all other sperm outcomes, were not significantly associated with either pollutant after controlling for season and temperature. Overall, although we found both protective and adverse effects, there was generally no consistent pattern of increased abnormal sperm quality with elevated exposure to O3 or PM2.5. Conclusions Exposures to O3 or PM2.5 at levels below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards were not associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm outcomes in this cohort of fertile men. However, some results suggested effects on sperm concentration, count, and morphology. PMID:20123611

  9. A review of decellurization methods caused by an urgent need for quality control of cell-free extracellular matrix' scaffolds and their role in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Marek; Łabuś, Wojciech; Klama-Baryla, Agnieszka; Kitala, Diana; Kraut, Malgorzata; Glik, Justyna; Misiuga, Marcelina; Nowak, Mariusz; Bielecki, Tomasz; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra

    2017-02-14

    The natural extracellular matrix (ECM),thanks to its specific properties (e.g., collagenous lattice, a reservoir of growth factors, ECM-cell anchoring areas, an optimal pH and CO2 ),ensures an optimal microenvironment for homeostatic and regenerative cell development. In the context of regenerative medicine, ECM is a lair for residual and infiltrative cells. The aim of the clinical usage of cell-free ECM scaffolds is the enhancement of tissue regeneration with possible minimization of an adverse host reaction on allogeneic or xenogeneic biomaterial. Thus, the objective of decellularization is to obtain acellular grafts characterized by optimal biological properties, such as a lack of remaining cellular elements (e.g., cell membrane phospholipids and proteins, nucleic acids, mitochondria), lack of immunogenicity, lack of calcification promotion and lack of cytotoxicity (e.g., in unrinsed detergents). Furthermore, cell-free ECM scaffolds should present the optimal mechanical and structural properties that may ensure the biocompatibility of the graft. The maintenance of the ultrastructure composition of the ECM is one of the most important goals of decellularization. All physical, chemical, and biological methods proposed (used separately or in combination to extract cells from tissues/organs) are not 100% effective in cell removal and always cause a disruption of the ECM texture, as well as a probable loss of important structure components. Although cell-free ECM scaffolds are generally classified as medical devices, there are no widely accepted or legally defined criteria for quality control/evaluation methods of obtained matrices. Such criteria must be provided. Some of them have been proposed in this manuscript. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of electron-cyclotron instabilities on gyrotron beam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries. It has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D. First results show an electromagnetic backward instability periodically growing and decaying to energy levels close to those obtained from the electrostatic Bernstein wave instability. On the average, the resulting beam degradation is 3 to 4 times larger than that predicted by electrostatic models. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.

  11. PRUNING SYSTEM EFFECT ON GREENHOUSE GRAFTED TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Isabel; Teixeira, Joana; Brito, L Miguel; Ferreira, Maria Elvira; Moura, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects on tomato yield and quality of three pruning systems (2, 3 and 4 stems) of grafted plants (cv. Vinicio and Multifort) used to prevent the incidence of soil diseases. It was also investigated if the two stems from nodes of the cotyledon leaves improved crop performance compared to the two stems from the first true leaves nodes. The experiment was conducted in the spring/summer season, under greenhouse conditions at NW Portugal, with a randomized block d...

  12. Evidence for the adverse effect of starvation on bone quality: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Beyth, Shaul; Liebergall, Meir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation's possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200-800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  13. [Effect of different diets on quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roĭtberg, G E; Budko, E A; Dorosh, Zh V; Ushakova, T I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study influence of diets with a various ratio of carbohydrates and fatty components on modification of metabolic risk factors due to decrease of weight and abdominal adiposity, and also on quality of life of the patient. 49 males were included in the study the age 30-65 years with metabolic syndrome X. All patients had increased body mass or obesity. Hypertension of I and II stages was observed in 49.0% of cases. The estimation of results was carried out in three months after assignment of one of investigated diets. Effective reduction of body mass parameters was achieved at use of all diets within three months. Nutritional counseling was based on dietary preferences and habits of the patient to improve quality of life at observance of a diet. Common negative feature of investigated diets was occurrence of feeling of hunger that caused infringement of accuracy of observance of recommendations.

  14. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  15. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  16. Oxidative effects in human erythrocytes caused by some oximes and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, N G; Evelo, C T

    1998-04-01

    Both oximes and hydroxylamine (HYAM) are compounds with known oxidative capacity. We tested in vitro whether acetaldoxime (AAO), cyclohexanone oxime (CHO), methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) or HYAM affect haemoglobin oxidation (into HbFe3+), formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and glutathione (GT) depletion in human haemolysate, erythrocytes or blood. All these parameters are known to be related to oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was measured as it may be affected by oxygen radicals. All three oximes caused a low degree of HbFe3+ accumulation in erythrocytes. This was higher in haemolysates indicating that membrane transport may be limiting or that protective mechanisms within erythrocytes are more effective. HbFe3+ accumulation was lower for the oximes than for HYAM. AAO and HYAM caused TBARS formation in blood. For HYAM this was expected as free radicals are known to be generated during HbFe3+ formation. Free radical generation by AAO and HYAM in erythrocytes was confirmed by the inhibition of GST. For the other two oximes (CHO and MEKO) some special effects were found. CHO did inhibit erythrocyte GST while it did not cause TBARS formation. MEKO was the least potent oxime as it caused no TBARS formation, little HbFe3+ accumulation and little GST inhibition in erythrocytes. However, GT depletion was more pronounced for MEKO than for the other oximes, indicating that glutathione conjugation occurs. TBARS formation, GT depletion and GST modulation caused by the oximes and HYAM were also tested in rat hepatocytes. However, no effects were found in hepatocytes. This suggests that a factor present in erythrocytes is necessary for free radical formation. Studies with proposed metabolites of the oximes (i.e. cyclohexanone, acetaldehyde or methylethyl ketone) and addition of rat liver preparations to the erythrocyte incubations with oximes, suggest that metabolism is not a limiting factor in erythrocyte toxicity.

  17. Quality of underground water and hydro-geological situation caused by oil exploitation in the area of Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašić Milana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous oil fields were discovered in the area of North Banat and its regional centre, the city of Kikinda. These oil fields were explored and exploited in the second half of the XX century. Oil rigs in the area of the city zone can endanger the environment, as well as the quality of life of the citizens. In order to discover the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon we have applied GC/MSD technique, whereas we have applied GC/MSD Purge and trap. technique to discover the presence of aromatic hydrocarbon. Chemical analyses of water samples from the area of Kikinda did nit prove that underground water was polluted with oil. .

  18. EFFECT OF NOT THE APPLICATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF THE WATER IN THE NOURISHING INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina Roloff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers the factors relationship with the quality water control, wishing a better development of food process, showing that investment be possible reduce by organization, when it has systematic water analysis that use in its process. The water, universal solvent, beyond its composition, may introduce undesirable particles, as like as microorganisms type fermenting of lactose, that liberate gas and acid after the fermentation, deteriorating the foods, further much others pathogenic bacterium, causing high danger of contamination or sedimentary solids yet, that can cause incrustation on machinery. In spite of an unsatisfied level of salts like calcium and magnesium, may favor the corrosive process in engine, and to reduce the detergents effect, needing the use in most of concentration, lifting the maintenance cost. With the objective to contribute for the quality food industry increasing and also an production income greater and better foods life time on the shelf, will be approaches subjects relating simple method and low cost, that may being adopted for the enterprise, as like as factors been causing damage to the machines and utensils.

  19. Effects of Rainfall on Water Quality of Aquaculture along the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to decrease the effects of rainfall on water quality of aquaculture along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province and improve the yield and quality of aquatic products.[Method] We firstly designed the methods to calculate average pH of different rainfalls,total precipitation,as well as the changes of pH and salinity in the studied pond and coastal culture zone,then analyzed the dynamic variation of precipitation,pH and salinity caused by rainfall to discuss the effects of rainfall ...

  20. USAGE OF INTERVAL CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP COEFFICIENTS IN THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Yershov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the method to obtain values of the coefficients of cause-effect relationships between strategic objectives in the form of intervals and use them in solving the problem of the optimal allocation of organization’s resources. We suggest taking advantage of the interval analytical hierarchy process for obtaining the ntervals. The quantitative model of strategic performance developed by M. Hell, S. Vidučić and Ž. Garača is employed for finding the optimal resource allocation. The uncertainty originated in the optimization problem as a result of interval character of the cause-effect relationship coefficients is eliminated through the application of maximax and maximin criteria. It is shown that the problem of finding the optimal maximin, maximax, and compromise resource allocation can be represented as a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem. Finally, numerical example and directions for further research are given.

  1. A Method to Estimate the Horizontal Handover Decision Effect on Indoor Wireless Conversational Video Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Alonso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting and valuable services considered in fixed mobile convergence is video telephony. The success of this conversational video service will depend on the conversational video quality achieved in the multicell wireless indoor scenarios. One of the essential elements in the quality is the effect of the horizontal handovers in the conversational video. This paper analyzes the handover decision based on the probability calculation of handover events in the case of relative signal strength with hysteresis threshold (RSSHT approach, and it proposes a new handover decision mechanism, variable hysteresis, to avoid unnecessary handovers. The paper presents the impact of the number of handovers and their duration time on the video's effective frame rate. Moreover, the effect of video stream modification during a short handover is also analyzed. Probability and handover duration approaches are combined and a new simple method for video quality evaluation is caused by the handovers in multicell indoor WLAN scenarios. Finally, the model proposed has been applied to a real office scenario.

  2. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal heart rate variability and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymäki, Tero; Rusko, Heikki; Syväoja, Heidi; Juuti, Tanja; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal HR, HRV, HR, and HRV-based relaxation, as well as on actigraphic and subjective sleep quality. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 36 ± 4 years, maximal oxygen uptake 49 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed five different running exercises on separate occasions starting at 6 p.m. with HR guidance at home. The effect of intensity was studied with 30 min of exercises at intensities corresponding to HR level at 45% (easy), 60% (moderate) and 75% (vigorous) of their maximal oxygen uptake. The effect of duration was studied with 30, 60, and 90 min of moderate exercises. Increased exercise intensity elevated nocturnal HR compared to control day (p exercises (p exercise day compared to control day (p exercise intensity nor duration had any impact on actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. The results suggest that increased exercise intensity and/or duration cause delayed recovery of nocturnal cardiac autonomic modulation, although long exercise duration was needed to induce changes in nocturnal HRV. Increased exercise intensity or duration does not seem to disrupt sleep quality.

  3. Effectiveness of a quality improvement curriculum for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Tartaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.

  4. Causes, effects and management of conflict among educators in the Mafikeng District / Simon Kelepile Manyedi

    OpenAIRE

    Manyedi, Simon Kelepile

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the causes, effects and management of conflict among school based educators. The dissertation acknowledge the existence of conflict in every human interaction. Conflict in organizations should be managed systematically. An appropriate approach in conflict management should aim at enhancing the benefits of conflict. The study aimed at determining whether site-managers possess the essential skill of managing healthy conflict while de...

  5. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2.5, including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM2.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhani, Fatemah

    2010-06-01

    Pain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures and one of the most frequently performed ones, and children and adolescents on hemodialysis are anxious about repeated venipunctures. Distraction is one of the most effective ways to relieve pain, and nurses are responsible for pain control. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to test the effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis. All of the pediatric hemodialysis centers in Tehran (three centers) were assigned to case group (one center with 21 patients) and control groups (two centers with a total of 21 patients) randomly. The Wong-Baker face pain scale was used to assess pain caused by venipuncture. Assessing of pain was done in 12 sessions in both case and control groups. Three first sessions were held without intervention (pretest) and the next nine sessions were held with distraction intervention (posttest). To cause distraction, the adolescents were asked to look at two similar pictures and tell the number of differences between them during venipuncture. Results showed that case and control groups matched in demographic variables and pain intensity. After distraction, pain intensity during venipuncture significantly decreased (p=.003); but this decrease began from the sixth session; at the five first sessions, pain intensity had not changed. This study shows the effect of distraction with a simple, inexpensive, and quick way for decreasing the pain caused by venipuncture. We recommend that the reasons of the intervention's delay in effect be assessed in future studies.

  7. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dominant effects on the vertical phase difference between the upper and lower margins of the medial surface, closed quotient, H1-H2, and higher-order harmonics excitation. The main effects of vocal fold approximation or decreasing resting glottal opening are to lower the phonation threshold pressure, reduce noise production, and increase the fundamental frequency. Increasing subglottal pressure is primarily responsible for vocal intensity increase but also leads to significant increase in noise production and an increased fundamental frequency. Increasing AP stiffness significantly increases the fundamental frequency and slightly reduces noise production. The interaction among vocal fold thickness, stiffness, approximation, and subglottal pressure in the control of F0, vocal intensity, and voice quality is discussed.

  8. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  9. The cause exploration of common problems of engineering quality%工程质量常见问题的原因探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    From the construction units, design units, censorship, construction units, supervision industry and other aspects, this paper analyzed the cause of common problems of our construction industry project quality, and combining with the actual situation, proposed corresponding solu-tion measures, to reduce the emergence of engineering quality problems.%从建设单位、设计单位、审查机构、施工单位、监理行业等方面入手,分析了国内建筑行业出现工程质量问题的原因,并结合实际情况,提出了相应的解决措施,以减少工程质量问题的出现。

  10. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    , palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat...... quantity on postprandial responses of plasma triglycerides, FVII, and free fatty acids. The high-fat meals caused, in contrast to the low-fat meals, considerable increases in plasma triglycerides. Plasma levels of FVIIc and FVIIa peaks were 7% and 60% higher after consumption of high-fat meals than after...... consumption of low-fat meals. The five different fat qualities caused similar postprandial increases in plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, and FVIIa. These findings indicate that high-fat meals may be prothrombotic, irrespective of their fatty acid composition. The postprandial FVII activation was not associated...

  11. [Quality of interior air: biological contaminants and their effects on health; bioaerosols and gathering techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality: biological contaminants and health effects; airborne organisms and sampling instruments. Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fevers. Children, elderly people with breathing problems, allergies and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air. It is convenient to consider microbiological samplers for collecting organisms in air as falling into several broad categories. Many popular microbiological air samplers use the principle of impaction to trap the organisms by impacting them directly on to agar. Further distinct groups are the impingers, which operate by impinging organisms into liquid.

  12. Quality physical education: a commentary on effective physical education teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ben

    2014-06-01

    In my commentary in response to the 3 articles (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013; Rink, 2013; Ward, 2013), I focus on 3 areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) a holistic approach to physical education, and (c) policy impact. I use the term quality teaching rather than "teacher effectiveness." Quality teaching is a term with the potential to move our attention beyond a focus merely on issues of effectiveness relating to the achievement of prespecified objectives. I agree with Ward that teacher content knowledge is limited in physical education, and I argue that if the student does not have a connection to or relationship with the content, this will diminish their learning gains. I also argue for a more holistic approach to physical education coming from a broader conception. Physical educators who teach the whole child advocate for a plethora of physical activity, skills, knowledge, and positive attitudes that foster healthy and active playful lifestyles. Play is a valuable educational experience. I also endorse viewing assessment from different perspectives and discuss assessment through a social-critical political lens. The 3 articles also have implications for policy. Physical education is much broader than just physical activity, and we harm the future potential of our field if we adopt a narrow agenda. Looking to the future, I propose that we broaden the kinds of research that we value, support, and appreciate in our field.

  13. Effects of gentling on behavior and meat quality of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within few hours after parturition lambs develop a strong and selective relationship with their mothers (Poindron and Le Neindre, 1980. In order to increase the amount of milk available for transformation, lambs often are prematurely separated from the ewes, thus inducing an early disruption of the mother-young relationship. A number of authors demonstrated that the lack of the maternal bond can inhibit the welfare state of the lambs (Sevi et al., 2001 and reduced animal welfare can have detrimental effects on meat quality in many animals species (Gregory, 1998 as well as in sheep (Napolitano et al., 2002a. A possible recover from conditions of poor animal welfare may be attained through the administration of gentle contacts by humans (Boivin et al., 2000 which may supply an additional social bond with members of a different animal species. The present study aims to verify the effect of artificial rearing on lamb welfare and meat quality, and assess the possibility to increase both by means of gentling.

  14. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Deoxynivalenol and Wheat Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shao, Huili; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Ren; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yanan; Luo, Yingpeng; Chen, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, which is found in a wide range of agricultural products, especially in wheat, barley, oat and corn. In this study, the distribution of DON in the wheat kernel and the effect of exposure time to ozone on DON detoxification were investigated. A high concentration of toxin was found in the outer part of the kernel, and DON was injected from the outside to the inside. The degradation rates of DON were 26.40%, 39.16%, and 53.48% after the samples were exposed to 75 mg/L ozone for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. The effect of ozonation on wheat flour quality and nutrition was also evaluated. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in protein content, fatty acid value, amino acid content, starch content, carbonyl and carboxyl content, and swelling power of ozone-treated samples. Moreover, the ozone-treated samples exhibited higher tenacity and whiteness, as well as lower extensibility and yellowness. This finding indicated that ozone treatment can simultaneously reduce DON levels and improve flour quality.

  15. The Effect of Background Music on Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Sadeghzadeh Lari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the effect of background classical music of Mozart on the students’ English-into-Persian translation quality. To achieve this purpose, atfirst 90 B. A. junior and senior students majoring in Translation were selected randomly from Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran. These 90 students participated in a translation pretest. The pretests were assessed and the researchers chose 58 ones whose scores in thepretest were in the same range. These 58 students were then divided into an experimentaland a control group, each of which having 29 students. They were asked to participate inthe post-test. The experimental group involved the students who translated the text with exposure to music and the control group consisted of those who translated without exposure to music. The post-tests were also assessed and the mean scores of the experimental and the control groups were then calculated. An independent sample t-test was employed in order to find whether the difference between the means of the experimental and control group was significant or not. Finally, it was demonstrated that background music had no effect on the students’ translation quality.

  16. Effects of Zeolite on Seed Quality of Organic Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high quality seeds is an important strategy for organic seed producers. In particular, organic farming is a production system which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, insecticides and plant growth regulators. Alternative management organic farming system is reducing nutrient loss and improving soil quality. Zeolite is organic matter and alternative for organic upland rice production. Our objective was to determine the effects of zeolite on seed quality of organic upland rice varieties: Dokkam and Nangchuan. The study involved using Randomized Complete Block design (RCB with four replications and four treatments: 1 Chemicals method by using fertilizer (15N-15P-15K rated 4.80 kg/ha for control (T1 2 Cattle manure rated 160 kg/ha (T2 3 Zeolite rated 16 kg/ha (T3 4 Zeolite rated 32 kg/ha (T4. The fertilizer was applied at the rate of 160 kg/ha of cow manure (T1 to T4 and were applied at the rated of 16 and 32 kg/ha of zeolite (T3 and T4, respectively, (mixing into the soil before growing. The experiment was done at the experimental plots of King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2012. The results showed that both varieties of organic upland rice seed quality, all four treatments had high quality, which were not significantly different among the treatments. The 1,000-seed weight ranged from of 22.30 to 25.24 mg, standard germination of 91.50 to 95. 50%, soil emergence of 90.00 to 94.00%, speed of germination index of 6.79 to 11.30, seedling dry weight of 4.38 to 5.88 mg/seeding, conductivity of 5.49 to 9.07 µmo/cm/gm and age acceleration of 92.00 to 99.00%. These results confirm that a zeolite could replace the application of chemical fertilizers which could be used to produce agricultural products to satisfy the needs of the consumers who want to consume safe food, besides minimizing pollution of agricultural environment and economic costs.

  17. THE EFFECT OF STOCKING FISH PRODUCTION ON THE QUALITY OF WATER DISCHARGED FROM THE HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bonisławska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fish hatchery (Stocking-Breeding Centre in Goleniów -OHZ, focused on the production and on-growing of stocking material, on the quality of post-production water. The following parameters were determined: dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, buffering capacity, the concentration of some forms of nitrogen and phosphorus ((N-NH4+, N-NO2–, N-NO3-, total nitrogen, P-PO43-, total phosphorus and the concentration of chloride ions. The study also included the measurements of water temperature, electrolytic conductivity and pH. It was shown that the water supplied to the hatchery had good quality, providing optimum conditions for growth and living of fry and juvenile forms of various fish species (most indices were within the range of the first water quality class. Production activities at the hatchery caused a reduction in the quality of discharged post-production water with respect to indicators such as total suspended solids, organic matter and phosphorus.

  18. Health-related quality of life and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østhus Tone Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests the hypotheses that health-related quality of life (HRQOL in prevalent dialysis patients with diabetes is lower than in dialysis patients without diabetes, and is at least as poor as diabetic patients with another severe complication, i.e. foot ulcers. This study also explores the mortality risk associated with diabetes in dialysis patients. Methods HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, in a cross-sectional study of 301 prevalent dialysis patients (26% with diabetes, and compared with diabetic patients not on dialysis (n = 221, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (n = 127, and a sample of the general population (n = 5903. Mortality risk was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results Self-assessed vitality, general and mental health, and physical function were significantly lower in dialysis patients with diabetes than in those without. Vitality (p = 0.011 and general health (p Conclusions Physical aspects of HRQOL were perceived very low in dialysis patients with diabetes, and lower than in other dialysis patients and diabetic patients without dialysis. Mental aspects predicted mortality in dialysis patients with diabetes. Increased awareness and measures to assist physical function impairment may be particularly important in diabetes patients on dialysis.

  19. QUANTITATIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF TESTIS AND SEMEN QUALITY PARAMETERS CHANGES CAUSED BY PERORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DIAZINON IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the quantitative and structural changes in the rat testis and changes of semen quality after a diazinon administration. METHODS: Rats received diazinon (99% purity in thier drinking water (40 mg.l-1 with free access. Age of rats at the beginning of the experiment was 30 days and experiment lasted for next 90 days. The histological samples were evaluated by histological and morphometric methods in light microscopy and the samples of semen were evaluated with CASA method. RESULTS: Disintergation of cellular associations in the seminiferous epithelium, germ cells evacuation into the tubule lumen and thier necrosis were mostly observed. Rarely vacuolisation and cracks of epithelium and fibrotisation of interstitial tissue were noted. Morphometric methods have shown extension of epithelium (P subcellular structures and their functions may be damaged which can lead to subfertility. Further investigation of diazinon is needed for verification of our hypothesis.doi:10.5219/188

  20. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  1. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect under low magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qian Liu; Xiao-Bing Bian; Jian-Ping Zhou; Peng Liu

    2011-04-01

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the amplitude and resonance frequency change with the external magnetic field. The colossal magnetodielectric coefficient of 5 × 104%at low magnetic field of 20 Oe is achieved near the electromechanical resonance frequency.

  2. In silico investigation of molecular effects caused by missense mutations in creatine transporter protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Schwatz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2011-03-01

    Creatine transporter (CT) protein, which is encoded by SLC6A8 gene, is essential for taking up the creatine in the cell, which in turn plays a key role in the spatial and temporal maintenance of energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. It was shown that some missense mutations in CT cause mental retardation, while others are harmless non-synonymous single nucleoside polymorphism (nsSNP). Currently fifteen missense mutations in CT are known, among which twelve are disease-causing. Sequence analysis reveals that there is no clear trend distinguishing disease-causing from harmless missense mutations. Because of that, we built 3D model of the CT using highly homologous template and use the model to investigate the effects of mutations of CT stability and hydrogen bond network. It is demonstrated that disease-causing mutations affect the folding free energy and ionization states of titratable group in much greater extend as compared with harmless mutations. Supported by grants from NLM, NIH, grant numbers 1R03LM009748 and 1R03LM009748-S1.

  3. Effect of Irrigation Water Quality on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOZHEN-HUA; B.PRENDERGAST; 等

    1992-01-01

    The effect of irrigation water quality on unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) of undisturbed soil in field was studied.Results show that within the operating soil suction range (0-1.6 KPa) of disc permeameters,the higher the electric conductivity (EC) of irrigation water,the higher the soil HC became.The soil HC doubled when EC increased from 0.1 to 6.0ds m-1.High sodium-adsorption ratio(SAR) of irrigation water would have an unfavorable effect on soil HC.Soil HC decreased with the increasing of SAR,especially in the case of higher soil suction.An interaction existed between the effects of EC and SAR of irrigation water on soil HC.The HC of unsaturated soil dependent upon the macropores in surface soil decreased by one order of magnitude with 1 KPa increase of soil suction.In the study on the effect of very low soluble salt concentration (EC=0.1 ds m-1 of irrigation water on soil HC,soil HC was found to be lowered by 30% as a consequence of blocking up of some continuous pores by the dispersed and migrated clay particles.Nonlinear successive regression analysis and significance test show that the effects of EC and SAR of irrigation water on soil HC reached the extremely significant level.

  4. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Burman, Lars; Forsberg, Bertil

    The "Stockholm Trial" involved a road pricing system to improve the air quality and reduce traffic congestion. The test period of the trial was January 3-July 31, 2006. Vehicles travelling into and out of the charge cordon were charged for every passage during weekdays. The amount due varied during the day and was highest during rush hours (20 SEK = 2.2 EUR, maximum 60 SEK per day). Based on measured and modelled changes in road traffic it was estimated that this system resulted in a 15% reduction in total road use within the charged cordon. Total traffic emissions in this area of NO x and PM10 fell by 8.5% and 13%, respectively. Air quality dispersion modelling was applied to assess the effect of the emission reductions on ambient concentrations and population exposure. For the situations with and without the trial, meteorological conditions and other emissions than from road traffic were kept the same. The calculations show that, with a permanent congestion tax system like the Stockholm Trial, the annual average NO x concentrations would be lower by up to 12% along the most densely trafficked streets. PM10 concentrations would be up to 7% lower. The limit values for both PM10 and NO 2 would still be exceeded along the most densely trafficked streets. The total population exposure of NO x in Greater Stockholm (35 × 35 km with 1.44 million people) is estimated to decrease with a rather modest 0.23 μg m -3. However, based on a long-term epidemiological study, that found an increased mortality risk of 8% per 10 μg m -3 NO x, it is estimated that 27 premature deaths would be avoided every year. According to life-table analysis this would correspond to 206 years of life gained over 10 years per 100 000 people following the trial if the effects on exposures would persist. The effect on mortality is attributed to road traffic emissions (likely vehicle exhaust particles); NO x is merely regarded as an indicator of traffic exposure. This is only the tip of the ice

  5. The Effect of Back Pain on Quality of Life, Sleep Quality and Depression in Patients with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Haliloğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of back pain on the quality of sleep, quality of life and depression in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We also evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and these parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred and five patients diagnosed with postmenopausal osteoporosis were included in this study. The patients were evaluated on the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. The intensity of back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Patients ranged in age from 46 to 75, with a mean age of 61.16±7.59. As pain scores increased, depression scores increased and sleep quality and quality of life were impaired (p<0.01. There were strong positive correlations among depression, sleep quality and quality of life (p<0.01, but we did not find significant correlations among lumbar spine (L1-L4 T-scores, L1-L4 BMD values, VAS, PSQI total scores, QUALEFFO-41 total scores and BDI scores. Conclusion: High pain scores in postmenopausal patients may be related to low quality of sleep and of life, and depression. Depression, sleep disorder and low quality of life may affect each other. Treating back pain, a frequent symptom in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients, may produce favorable effects on quality of sleep and life and on depression, as well as basic management. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 6-9

  6. The effect of quality circles on job satisfaction and quality of work-life of staff in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Karampourian, Arezou; Beiranvand, Shoorangiz; Pournia, Yadollah

    2013-10-01

    Quality circles, as a participatory management technique, offer one alternative for dealing with frustration and discontent of today's workers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of implementation of quality circles on nurses' quality of work-life and job satisfaction. In this study, two emergency medical services (EMS) of Hamedan province were selected and randomly assigned as the experimental and control groups. After the experimental group was trained and quality circles were established in this group, the levels of quality of work-life and job satisfaction were measured in the two groups. Then, the statistical analyses were performed using t-test. After the intervention, the results showed significant differences between the scores of motivational factors (p=0.001), the total scores of job satisfaction (p=0.003), and the scores of some quality of work life (QWL) conceptual categories including the use and development of capacities (p=0.008), the total space of life (p=0.003), and the total scores of QWL (p=0.031) in the experimental group compared to those in the control group. This study confirms the effectiveness of quality circles in improving quality of work-life and job satisfaction of nurses working in EMS, and offers their application as a management method that can be used by EMS managers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding spatial distributions : Negative density-dependence in prey causes predators to trade-off prey quantity with quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Allert I; MacCurdy, Robert B; Chan, Ying-Chi; Penning, Emma; Gabrielson, Rich M; Cluderay, John; Spaulding, Eric L; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; Brugge, Maarten; van Gils, Jan A; Winkler, David W; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The 'functional response' couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases asymptotic

  8. Understanding spatial distributions: negative density-dependence in prey causes predators to trade-off prey quantity with quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, A.I.; MacCurdy, R.B.; Chan, Y.-C; Penning, E.; Gabrielson, R.M.; Cluderay, J.; Spaulding, E.L.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; Brugge, M.; van Gils, J.A.; Winkler, D.W.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The ‘functional response’ couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases asymptotic

  9. Understanding spatial distributions: negative density-dependence in prey causes predators to trade-off prey quantity with quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, A.I.; MacCurdy, R.B.; Chan, Y.-C; Penning, E.; Gabrielson, R.M.; Cluderay, J.; Spaulding, E.L.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; Brugge, M.; van Gils, J.A.; Winkler, D.W.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The ‘functional response’ couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases

  10. The need for investigations to elucidate causes and effects of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Malcolm G; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Tank, Jaydeep D; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    This article describes a modern perspective on the basic investigations for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in low-resource settings compared with a much more detailed approach for high-resource settings, bearing in mind issues of effectiveness and cost effectiveness. AUB includes any one or more of several symptoms, and it should be evaluated for the characteristics of the woman's specific bleeding pattern, her "complaint" and the presence of other symptoms (especially pain), the impact on several aspects of body functioning and lifestyle, and the underlying cause(s), especially cancer. Ideally, the evaluation is comprehensive, considering each of the potential etiological domains defined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics PALM-COEIN system for the classification of causes. However, the detail of the questions and the extent of investigations will be significantly influenced by the technologies available and the time allotted for a consultation. In general, investigations should be performed only if they will make a material difference to the management approaches that can be offered. This should be an important consideration when a range of costly high-technology tests is accessible or when certain tests only have limited availability.

  11. Colonic hydrogen absorption: quantification of its effect on hydrogen accumulation caused by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess (quantitatively) colonic hydrogen absorption. Hydrogen volumes in flatus and breath were measured over periods of six hours in normal subjects during fasting and after ingestion of the non-absorbable carbohydrate lactulose to simulate the effect of fermentable dietary fibres. If less than 76 ml/6 h of hydrogen accumulated in the colon then all of it was absorbed, as suggested by the intercept of the regression line of the correlation between hydrogen volumes in flatus and breath after ingestion of lactulose. As total flatus volume increased, efficiency of colonic hydrogen absorption decreased from 90% to 20%. The positive correlation between hydrogen volumes of flatus and breath showed that the eightfold interindividual differences in flatus volume after ingestion of 12.5 g of lactulose were caused by differences in bacterial net gas production, not gas absorption. Differences in colonic gas emptying rate are the consequence rather than the cause of interindividual differences in flatus volume. In conclusion: (1) colonic hydrogen absorption is highly effective at low colonic hydrogen accumulation rates, but not at higher accumulation rates; (2) ineffective colonic gas absorption is the consequence and not the cause of high colonic gas accumulation rate after ingestion of non-absorbable carbohydrates; and (3) future therapeutic approaches to the large interindividual variability in colonic gas accumulation after ingestion of poorly absorbable fermentable carbohydrates, such as some kinds of dietary fibres, should be directed towards altering colonic bacterial metabolism. PMID:8314516

  12. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO PUBLIC EDUCATION QUALITY: EFFECTIVENESS ACCORDING TO THE PARAMETERS OF STUDENT COST INITIAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The right to education, despite being present in the Brazilian legislation, still suffers on being applied. This article deals with the dimensions of the education quality, which are at the same time understandable to the population and judicially enforceable.  It analyzes the relevant legislation, and based on different authors, discusses the fundamental right to education and the pattern of the quality in Student Cost Initial Quality (CAQi) in Portuguese acronym). It also discusses the righ...

  13. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM2.5 and surface O3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Review of Wildfire Effects on Chemical Water Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Bitner; Bruce Gallaher; Ken Mullen

    2001-05-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire of May 2000 burned almost 43,000 acres of forested land within the Pajarito Plateau watershed in northern New Mexico. Runoff events after the fire were monitored and sampled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Changes in the composition of runoff water were noted when compared to runoff water composition of the previous 20 years. In order to understand the chemical water quality changes noted in runoff water after the Cerro Grande Fire, a summary of the reported effects of fire on runoff water chemistry and on soils that contribute to runoff water chemistry was compiled. The focus of this report is chemical water quality, so it does not address changes in sediment transport or water quantity associated with fires. Within the general inorganic parameters, increases of dissolved calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and pH in runoff water have been observed as a result of fire. However, the dissolved sodium, carbon, and sulfate have been observed to increase and decrease as a result of fire. Metals have been much less studied, but manganese, copper, zinc, and cesium-137 have been observed to increase as a result of fire.

  15. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover.

  16. Corn plant arrangement and its effect on silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the row spacing between corn plants on silage quality. Different spacing between corn rows (40, 60, and 80 cm was used, but the population of plants was maintained around 65,000/ha in all treatments. Analysis of variance was carried out and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% of probability. A reduction in row spacing provided better spatial distribution of plants, but did not alter morphological composition or dry matter production. The corn with most equidistant spatial distribution (lowest row spacing showed an increase in lignin concentration, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates, and showed a decrease in total digestible nutrients when compared with 80 cm row spacing. However, the organic digestibility matter was not affected by the treatments. The content and quality of protein were higher for 80 cm row spacing compared with the other levels; also, protein content was reduced as the spacing between rows became smaller. The only mineral affected was calcium, which had the lowest value at higher levels of spacing. Although differences were detected for many variables, the most appropriate spacing between rows should also take into account economic and practical aspects when choosing the best plant arrangement.

  17. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  18. Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bădărău Carmen Liliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars with purple flesh represent an efficient and natural source of antioxidants, this vegetable having high content in polyphenols (especially anthocyanin pigments. The research goal of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin and polyphenols content of several Romanian potato varieties (Albastru-Violet de Gălănești and Christian and the effects of these potatoes (add to dough in different proportions on several bread quality indicators. The bread quality depends on physical and chemical properties and on several signs like: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, bread’s volume. In this research experiment, beside the total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, the analysis performed on bread (prepared using different potatoes addition 5%, 15% and 30% were sensorial and physic chemical analysis (product volume, crumb porosity, height/diameter ratio, moist and acidity. Experimental results indicated that 15% purple potato cultivar added on the dough was the most indicate proportion to be used in bread processing.

  19. Effect of defatting on quality of meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Ruijie; Lu, Liangzhong; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-03-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM), a type of protein feed source, with high nutritional value, has been widely used as feed in China. In order to study the effect of defatting on the quality of MBM, MBM were defatted by hexane, and their basic nutritional components, color, flavor, protein characteristics, freshness indexes before and after defatting, were investigated. The crude protein content of the defatted MBM was increased from 54.5% to 61.2%, lysine content increased from 1.83 to 1.96%, pure protein content and in vitro digestibility of MBM were increased to 50.7% and 90.45%, respectively. Acid value decreased from 9.0 to 2.6 mg potassium hydroxide/g, and the color and flavor were also improved after defatting. Furthermore, volatile basic nitrogen content decreased from 60 to 40 mg/100 g and histamine content did not change significantly (decreasing from 20.1 to 19.6 mg/kg). Therefore, defatting treatment was good for the quality improvement of MBM.

  20. Effect Of The Board Of Commissioners Of Its Value Through Quality Of Financial Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sukmono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on a statement of the value of the company determined the quality of financial reporting and financial reporting quality monitoring board determined Commissioner in implementing corporate governance. This study was to examine the effect of the commissioners on firm value. Hypothesis no significant effect on the value of the company board of directors through quality financial pelporan. The results showed a significant positive effect commissioners through the quality of financial reporting.

  1. The Effect of Mangiferin Against Brain Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Siswanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is an anthracycline antibiotic used for anticancer therapy. However, this agent can cause various systemic side effects including cognitive impairments in chronic use. Brain damage due to DOX is caused by an increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in the brain. Increased TNF-α can further lead to chronic inflammation which can lead to neuronal deaths or neurodegenerative diseases. Mangiferin (MAG, a compound extracted from Mangifera indica, has been found neuroprotective activities, but its effect on DOX-induced brain damage is unknown. This study aims to determine the effect of MAG on brain damage induced by DOX. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by DOX intraperitoneally. MAG was given orally at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg bw for 7 consecutive weeks. The parameters measured were inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in brain tissue. Coadministration of MAG with DOX reduced inflammation which was marked by the reduction of TNF-α mRNA expression, decreased TNF-α level and reduction of oxidative stress marked by increase of superoxide dismutase level and decrease of malondialdehyde level. In conclusion, MAG was shown to have a neuroprotective effect on brain damage induced by DOX, partly due to inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. The Effect of Job Performance Aids on Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Surety Engineering

    2014-06-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) have been studied for many decades in a variety of disciplines and for many different types of tasks, yet this is the first known research experiment using JPAs in a quality assurance (QA) context. The objective of this thesis was to assess whether a JPA has an effect on the performance of a QA observer performing the concurrent dual verification technique for a basic assembly task. The JPA used in this study was a simple checklist, and the design borrows heavily from prior research on task analysis and other human factors principles. The assembly task and QA construct of concurrent dual verification are consistent with those of a high consequence manufacturing environment. Results showed that the JPA had only a limited effect on QA performance in the context of this experiment. However, there were three important and unexpected findings that may draw interest from a variety of practitioners. First, a novel testing methodology sensitive enough to measure the effects of a JPA on performance was created. Second, the discovery that there are different probabilities of detection for different types of error in a QA context may be the most far-reaching results. Third, these results highlight the limitations of concurrent dual verification as a control against defects. It is hoped that both the methodology and results of this study are an effective baseline from which to launch future research activities.

  3. The effect of job performance aids on quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) have been studied for many decades in a variety of disciplines and for many different types of tasks, yet this is the first known research experiment using JPAs in a quality assurance (QA) context. The objective of this thesis was to assess whether a JPA has an effect on the performance of a QA observer performing the concurrent dual verification technique for a basic assembly task. The JPA used in this study was a simple checklist, and the design borrows heavily from prior research on task analysis and other human factors principles. The assembly task and QA construct of concurrent dual verification are consistent with those of a high consequence manufacturing environment. Results showed that the JPA had only a limited effect on QA performance in the context of this experiment. However, there were three important and unexpected findings that may draw interest from a variety of practitioners. First, a novel testing methodology sensitive enough to measure the effects of a JPA on performance was created. Second, the discovery that there are different probabilities of detection for different types of error in a QA context may be the most far-reaching results. Third, these results highlight the limitations of concurrent dual verification as a control against defects. It is hoped that both the methodology and results of this study are an effective baseline from which to launch future research activities.

  4. Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize A Rizzetti

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mercury increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress and alters vascular reactivity. This metal elicits endothelial dysfunction causing decreased NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress and contractile prostanoid production. NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a intramuscular injections (i.m. of saline; b HgCl(2 (i.m. 1(st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses: 0.07 µg/kg/day; c Apocynin (1.5 mM in drinking water plus saline i.m.; and d Apocynin plus HgCl(2. The mercury treatment resulted in 1 an increased aortic vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine; 2 the increased involvement of ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids in response to phenylephrine, whereas the endothelial NO modulation of such responses was reduced; and 3 the reduced activity of aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Treatment with apocynin partially prevented the increased phenylephrine responses and reduced the endothelial dysfunction elicited by mercury treatment. In addition, apocynin treatment increased the NO modulation of vasoconstrictor responses and aortic SOD activity and reduced plasma MDA levels without affecting the increased participation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids observed in aortic segments from mercury-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury increases the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing the involvement of ROS and constrictor prostanoids. Apocynin protects the vessel from the deleterious effects caused by NADPH oxidase, but not from those

  5. THE EFFECTS OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON WATER QUALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir ... Aluminium (Al) Cyanide (Cn), Boron (B), and Nickel (Ni)., as well as some physical and chemical ... Key words: Abattoir; Wastes; Water quality, Pollution.

  6. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  7. Metrics and the effective computational scientist: process, quality and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Eric T

    2012-09-01

    Recent treatments of computational knowledge worker productivity have focused upon the value the discipline brings to drug discovery using positive anecdotes. While this big picture approach provides important validation of the contributions of these knowledge workers, the impact accounts do not provide the granular detail that can help individuals and teams perform better. I suggest balancing the impact-focus with quantitative measures that can inform the development of scientists. Measuring the quality of work, analyzing and improving processes, and the critical evaluation of communication can provide immediate performance feedback. The introduction of quantitative measures can complement the longer term reporting of impacts on drug discovery. These metric data can document effectiveness trends and can provide a stronger foundation for the impact dialogue.

  8. Effect of Blanching on Structural Quality of Dried Potato Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté; Quartaert; Meerdink; van't Riet K

    1998-02-16

    Mechanical properties of potato slices were monitored during blanching, as indicators of structural changes. As expected, blanching resulted in weakening of potato structure. Gelatinization, which occurred during the first 2 min, did not promote an immediate weakening of the potato tissue. More than 80% of the changes in mechanical properties occurred during the first 30 min of blanching. Potato slices blanched for 2 and 30 min as well as unblanched ones were dried in a convective air drier at 48 degrees C. Bulk and true density, porosity, and shrinkage were monitored with time. Blanched potatoes resulted in a significantly more compact, less porous product with lower effective water diffusivity than unblanched potatoes. The results indicated that changes that occurred during the first 2 min of blanching had a much greater influence on structural quality of dried potatoes than changes that occurred from 2 to 30 min of blanching.

  9. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H......), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...

  10. Irradiation Effects on the Chemical Quality of Guavas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment on the chemical changes of main components of guavas (Psidium guajava, var. media china. The quality of guavas irradiated by Co-60 gamma rays at 150, 200, and 300 Gray as Gy/min were evaluated during storage at room and low temperature. Results indicated that the differences observed are principally associated with maturity stages, temperature, and changes attributed to physiological and metabolic processes. Radiation treatment produced reductions in ascorbic acid and &beta-carotene. The results suggest that fruit in storage can recover from stress produced by treatment. No other significant changes were observed in any other parameters including sugars, pectin, and citric acid.

  11. Effectiveness of local air quality measures; Effectiviteit van likale luchtkwaliteitsmaatregelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bommel, R.; Van de Poll, T. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This article examines the effects of local air quality measures which are calculated by order of the city of Utrecht. The conclusions are that environmental zones and other local measures contribute to meet the targets and improve public health. It is also explained why this is the case, and the question is raised whether or not national measures would be better [Dutch] Dit artikel gaat in op de effecten van lokale maatregelen die zijn berekend in opdracht van de gemeente Utrecht. De conclusie: milieuzones en andere lokale maatregelen dragen bij aan het halen van normen en leveren gezondheidswinst op. Er wordt uitgelegd waarom dat zo is en de vraag wordt gesteld of landelijke maatregelen niet beter zijn.

  12. Angular momentum fluxes caused by Λ -effect and meridional circulation structure of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipin, Valery V.; Kosovichev, Alexander G.

    2016-10-01

    Using mean-field hydrodynamic models of the solar angular momentum balance we show that the non-monotonic latitudinal dependence of the radial angular momentum fluxes caused by Λ -effect can affect the number of the meridional circulation cells stacking in the radial direction in the solar convection zone. In particular, our results show the possibility of a complicated triple-cell meridional circulation structure. This pattern consists of two large counterclockwise circulation cells (the N-hemisphere) and a smaller clockwise cell located at low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone. Similar triple-cell circulation patterns were previously earlier found in a number of 3D global simulations models. The effect is demonstrated for the first time using the mean-field parametrization of the Λ -effect.

  13. Antioxidant effect of simvastatin throught oxidative imbalance caused by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Eger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to directly investigate the behavioral and antioxidant effects of simvastatin in a model of bipolar mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with simvastatin. On the 24th day after the start of treatment, each rat was administered lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for 7 days. The results suggest that simvastatin combined with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate induced a significant increased locomotion and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate administration causes an oxidative imbalance determined by an increment in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain areas; moreover, in the presence of simvastatin, most of these effects were prevented. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, associated with increased oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymatic defense. In view of the central role played by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the established antioxidant effect of simvastatin therapy is of major interest.

  14. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Samir K; Barton, Franca B; Waclawiw, Myron A; Swerdlow, Paul; Eckman, James R; Pegelow, Charles H; Koshy, Mabel; Barton, Bruce A; Bonds, Duane R

    2006-01-01

    Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU) in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH) previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS) crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL) of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL) measures were assessed in the MSH as a secondary endpoint to determine if the clinical benefit of HU could translate into a measurable benefit perceptible to the patients. HQOL was assessed with the Profile of Mood States, the Health Status Short Form 36 (SF-36), including 4-week pain recall, and the Ladder of Life, self-administered twice 2-weeks apart pre-treatment and every 6 months during the two-year, randomized, double-blind, treatment phase. The effects of factors including randomized treatment, age, gender, pre-treatment crises frequency, Hb-F level mean, daily pain from 4-week pre-treatment diaries, and 2-year Hb-F response level (low or high) were investigated. Results Over two years of treatment, the benefit of HU treatment on QOL, other than pain scales, was limited to those patients taking HU who maintained a high HbF response, compared to those with low HbF response or on placebo. These restricted benefits occurred in social function, pain recall and general health perception. Stratification according to average daily pain prior to treatment showed that responders to HU whose average daily pain score was 5–9 (substantial pain) achieved significant reduction in the tension scale compared to the placebo group and to non-responders. HU had no apparent effect on other QOL measures. Conclusion Treatment of SS with HU improves some aspects of QOL in adult patients who already suffer from moderate-to-severe SS. PMID:16942629

  15. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegelow Charles H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL measures were assessed in the MSH as a secondary endpoint to determine if the clinical benefit of HU could translate into a measurable benefit perceptible to the patients. HQOL was assessed with the Profile of Mood States, the Health Status Short Form 36 (SF-36, including 4-week pain recall, and the Ladder of Life, self-administered twice 2-weeks apart pre-treatment and every 6 months during the two-year, randomized, double-blind, treatment phase. The effects of factors including randomized treatment, age, gender, pre-treatment crises frequency, Hb-F level mean, daily pain from 4-week pre-treatment diaries, and 2-year Hb-F response level (low or high were investigated. Results Over two years of treatment, the benefit of HU treatment on QOL, other than pain scales, was limited to those patients taking HU who maintained a high HbF response, compared to those with low HbF response or on placebo. These restricted benefits occurred in social function, pain recall and general health perception. Stratification according to average daily pain prior to treatment showed that responders to HU whose average daily pain score was 5–9 (substantial pain achieved significant reduction in the tension scale compared to the placebo group and to non-responders. HU had no apparent effect on other QOL measures. Conclusion Treatment of SS with HU improves some aspects of QOL in adult patients who already suffer from moderate-to-severe SS.

  16. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Morten

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent critique for being too error-prone and yielding unreliable results. This critique coincides with an increasing awareness of the potentials and limitations of the qPCR technique in general and the proposal of a general set of guidelines (MIQE for standardization of experimental, analytical, and reporting steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. Results Performance differed substantially among assays and only one assay was found useful for telomere length estimation in humpback whales. The most notable factors causing these inter-assay differences were primer design and choice of using singleplex or multiplex assays. Inferred amplification efficiencies differed by up to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. Conclusion Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control. Moreover, we show that the qPCR method for telomere length estimation can be highly precise and accurate, and thus suitable for telomere measurement in non-model species, if effort is devoted to optimization at all experimental and analytical steps. We conclude by highlighting a set of quality controls which may serve for further standardization of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation, and discuss some of the factors that may cause

  17. Effect of pooled comparative information on judgments of quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Leigh A.; Bass, Ellen J.; Voss, John D.; Lyman, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Quality assessment is the focus of many health care initiatives. Yet it is not well understood how the type of information used in decision support tools to enable judgments of quality based on data impacts the accuracy, consistency and reliability of judgments made by physicians. Comparative pooled information could allow physicians to judge the quality of their practice by making comparisons to other practices or other specific populations of patients. In this study, resident physicians were provided with varying types of information derived from pooled patient data sets: quality component measures at the individual and group level, a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures using percentile rank, and an aggregate composite quality score. 32 participants viewed thirty quality profiles consisting of information applicable to the practice of thirty de-identified resident physicians. Those provided with quality component measures and a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures (rankings) judged quality of care more similarly to experts and were more internally consistent compared to participants who were provided with quality component measures alone. Reliability between participants was significantly less for those who were provided with a composite quality score compared to those who were not. PMID:26949581

  18. Effect of uncertainty components such as recalibration on the performance of quality control charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, P; Zhang, Nevin

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty components (recalibration, new reagent lots, etc.) may be the source of random changes in the level of quality control (QC) values, thus causing false alarms. We propose a method for reducing false alarms....

  19. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  20. Development of dispersed-type sonophotocatalytic process using piezoelectric effect caused by ultrasonic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Naohito; Yasutomi, Ryosuke; Kasai, Eiki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, degradation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with low biodegradability in the environment and in industrial and municipal wastewaters has gained importance. In this study, a dispersed-type sonophotocatalysis (SP) process, which is a combination of sonolysis and photocatalysis with dispersed light sources, has been proposed for the effective and energy-efficient degradation of POPs. In this method, the piezoelectric effect caused by ultrasonic resonance in a piezoelectric element is used for producing luminescence in a LED. A luminescent device composed of eight UV-LEDs and a piezoelectric element was designed for dispersion of UV light in water; this device was confirmed to show luminescence under ultrasonic irradiation. Sonophotocatalytic degradation experiments were carried out using several such devices, and the results were compared with those obtained in sonolysis, photocatalysis, and fixed-type SP. The comparison showed that the degradation rate constants in fixed-type and dispersed-type SP were larger than the sum of the rate constants obtained for sonolysis and photocatalysis; further, the synergetic effect caused by the combination of sonolysis and photocatalysis was 7.5% and 18% in fixed-type and dispersed-type SP, respectively.

  1. Rutin has therapeutic effect on septic arthritis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongmoon

    2009-02-01

    As of late, numerous reports have demonstrated the multiple biological activities of polyphenolic flavonoids. Amongst these reports, some indicate that the flavonoids play an important role in inflammation therapy. In this present study, we investigated the effect of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, on septic arthritis due to Candida albicans, a major etiological agent that causes fungal arthritis. To induce septic arthritis, an emulsified mixture of C. albicans cell wall and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CACW/CFA) was injected into BALB/c mice via hind footpad route once a day, everyday, for three days. In order to determine the effect of rutin, twenty-four hours after the final injection, mice having the swollen footpad were given the flavonoid (1 mg/dose/mouse) intraperitoneally every other day for three times. The footpad-edema was measured for a period of 17 days. Results showed that the rutin treatment reduced app. 45% of the edema at the peak day (day 11) of septic arthritis (Parthritis caused by C. albicans. Ultimately, it can be suggested that the dual effects of rutin, anti-arthritic and anti-candidal may be helpful as an all-in-one treatment for septic arthritis.

  2. An extract of neem leaves reduces anxiety without causing motor side effects in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxter, K A; Young, L E; Young, R E; Parshad, O; Addae, J

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety modulation often requires pharmaceutical intervention, and though effective in the short-term, benzodiazepines may cause impaired motor function. As a potential alternative, anxiety-modulating effects of a neem leaf (Azadirachta indica, A Juss) extract were investigated using ethological analysis of rat behaviour on an elevated X maze and compared with diazepam treatment. Sexually immature female Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.07 or 7 mg/kg neem leaf steroidal extract, a sham injection, a 1% DMSO/saline vehicle, 2 mg/kg diazepam or no treatment one hour prior to a recorded five-minute exploration of the elevated X maze. Neem matched diazepam in anxiety reduction as both treatments caused a decrease in per cent protected stretched-attend postures (PPSAP). Neem treatment had no effect on closed arm entries or total rears, distinguishing it pharmacologically from diazepam which resulted in a predictable decrease in those locomotor measures. Whereas both neem and diazepam reduced anxiety in complex ethological behavioural indices, only neem produced anxiolysis without motor deficiency.

  3. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  5. Preventing physician quality of life from impinging on patient quality of care:Weakening the weekend effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc D Basson

    2007-01-01

    Imprecise or delayed care can reflect many factors,including straightforward difficulties in physician judgment and false negative tests. However, the movement toward decreasing physician work hours also leads to delays in care caused by inadequate staffing or inadequate communication between staffing, which must be addressed if quality of care is to remain high.The demonstration of delays in the management of anastomotic leaks over weekends or in association with false positive radiologic studies exemplifies this challenge.

  6. Quantification of the effects of quality investment on the Cost of Poor Quality: A quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Abdallah Ibrahim

    Quality management is a fundamental challenge facing businesses. This research attempted to quantify the effect of quality investment on the Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) in an aerospace company utilizing 3 years of quality data at United Launch Alliance, a Boeing -- Lockheed Martin Joint Venture Company. Statistical analysis tools, like multiple regressions, were used to quantify the relationship between quality investments and COPQ. Strong correlations were evident by the high correlation coefficient R2 and very small p-values in multiple regression analysis. The models in the study helped produce an Excel macro that based on preset constraints, optimized the level of quality spending to minimize COPQ. The study confirmed that as quality investments were increased, the COPQ decreased steadily until a point of diminishing return was reached. The findings may be used to develop an approach to reduce the COPQ and enhance product performance. Achieving superior quality in rocket launching enhances the accuracy, reliability, and mission success of delivering satellites to their precise orbits in pursuit of knowledge, peace, and freedom while assuring safety for the end user.

  7. The effects of teaching stress management skills on the quality of life in ICU nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIBA GHODSBIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress is one of the main factors in decreasing productivity in organizations and the leading cause of psychosomatic disorders in personnel. Since job stress of nurses working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs is considered as an important segment in health and medical systems, it significantly affects the quality of care and the nurse’s quality of life. To this end, the purpose of this research is to examine the effects of teaching stress management skills on the quality of life of the nurses working at ICU of the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The subjects of the study consisted of 60 ICU nurses with the average stress score in Osipow job stress exam working at the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (30 in the case and 30 in the control group. The intervention was performed as a teaching stress management workshop for eight hours throughout two-days (four hours per day, and the nurses were followed up for two months. The data were collected through a two part questionnaire including demographic characteristics and WHO Quality of life BREF and were analyzed in SPSS software using paired t test, and t-test. Results: The findings showed that the nurses of both the case and control groups were homogeneous considering the demographic data such as age, sex, marital status, number of children, shift position, job satisfaction, number of working hours per week, work experience and the amount of income. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean score of the life quality before the intervention in both groups. But after the intervention, a significant increase was revealed in the mean score of the life quality of the case group as compared to that of the control group (P<0.0001. Conclusion: The findings revealed the efficacy of the stress management workshop in improving the life quality of ICU

  8. Effect of decreasing electrical resistance in Characeae cell membranes caused by the flow of alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Śpiewla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of the techniques of external electrodes and microelectrodes, it was found that evanescent flow of an alternating current through plasmalemma of Characeae cells neutralises oscillatory change in their electrical resistance and reversibly diminishes its value. This effect is particularly significant in the case of "high resistance cells", but it weakens with increasing temperature. The value of the estimated activation energy indicates that, after flow of the alternating current through the membrane, a rapid increase in the conductivity may be caused by an increase in conductivity of potassium channels. This result seems to support the hypothesis of electroconformational feedback.

  9. The Universal Causes and Effects of Women's Empowerment for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vildö, Lovisa

    2017-01-01

    Women’s empowerment has been thoroughly discussed during the last two decades, yet the research on the components of empowerment on the national level is still lacking. This paper aims to fill that gap by investigating which national causes and effects of women’s empowerment that are generally visible across developing countries. Previous studies on meso- and micro level have shown that an increase in women’s education, an increase in women’s economic independence as well as a strong legal fr...

  10. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  11. Effects on the upstream flood inundation caused from the operation of Chao Phraya Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Sutham Visutimeteegorn; Kanchit Likitdecharote; Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2007-01-01

    During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its trib...

  12. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Wada, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  13. Angular momentum fluxes caused by Lambda-effect and meridional circulation structure of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Pipin, V V

    2016-01-01

    Using mean-field hydrodynamic models of the solar angular momentum balance we show that the non-monotonic latitudinal dependence of the radial angular momentum fluxes caused by Lambda-effect can affect the number of the meridional circulation cells stacking in radial direction in the solar convection zone. In particular, our results show the possibility of a complicated triple-cell meridional circulation structure. This pattern consists of two large counterclockwise circulation cells (the N-hemisphere) and a smaller clockwise cell located at low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone.

  14. Natural Disasters under the Form of Severe Storms in Europe: the Cause-Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For more than 100 years, from 1900 to 2008, there were almost 400 storms natural disasters in Europe, 40% of which occurred in the 1990s. The international prognoses for the world weather suggest a tendency toward increasing in frequency and intensity of the severe storms as the climate warms. In these circumstances, for a researcher in the field of Environmental Economics, a natural question occurs, on whether people can contribute to reducing the frequency and the magnitude of severe storms that produce disastreous social and economic effects, by acting on their causes. In researching an answer to support the public policies in the field, a cause-effect analysis applied to Europe might make a contribution to the literature in the field. This especially considering the fact that international literature regarding the factors influencing global warming contains certainties in regard to the natural factors of influence, but declared incertitudes or skepticism in regard to anthropogenic ones. Skepticism, and even tension arised during the international negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009 in regard to the agreement for limiting global warming, with doubts being raised about the methods used by experts of the International Climate Experts Group (GIEC, and thus the results obtained, which served as a basis for the negotiations. The object of critics was in regard to the form, and at times in regard to the content. It was not about contesting the phenomenon of Global warming during the negotiations, but the methods of calculation. The methodology relies on qualitative (type top down and quantitative (type correlations bottom up cause-effect analysis of the storm disasters in Europe. Based on the instruments used, we proposed a dynamic model of association of the evolution of storm disasters in Europe with anthropogenic factors, with 3 variants. Results: The diagram cause-effect (Ishikawa or fishbone diagram and quantitative correlation of sub

  15. Local warming of groundwaters caused by the urban heat island effect in Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Tolga; Yetemen, Omer

    2009-07-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a result of urbanization, causing local microclimatologic changes such as increase in ambient temperature. Factors causing the UHI effect are anthropogenic energy release, energy absorption by concrete, tarmac structures and traffic, although the main factor is the replacement of vegetation with man-made structures. These factors cause heating of not only local air but also subsurface and groundwater. Observations of groundwater temperatures from the urban, southern part of Istanbul (Turkey) and the rural, northern part of Istanbul revealed that the urban groundwater temperatures were 3.5°C higher than the rural. Urbanization is a direct consequence of improvements in technology and modern life. However, this comes at the cost of an ever-increasing demand for energy. Exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal energy is an attractive alternative to fossil fuel based energies. From the environmental point of view, clean and cheap energy is the most preferable, with heat pumps being the best choice for recovery purposes. Usage of elevated groundwater temperature in the heat pumps in urban areas increases the efficiency of the heat pump system and yields more thermal energy than that of rural groundwater. This system may be applicable to Istanbul.

  16. Effects of perimortem stress on farmed Atlantic cod product quality: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Ulf; Digre, Hanne; Misimi, Ekrem

    2011-05-01

    The potential effects of handling stress on the product quality of farmed Atlantic cod were studied in a controlled experiment (fish anesthetized with metomidate or isoeugenol, or subjected to stress by chasing for 30 min). For comparison, stress and fillet quality was also studied for commercially slaughtered farmed cod (fish sampled from waiting cage, after pumping and stunning with carbon dioxide, and after bleeding and chilling). Baseline values for stress-related parameters (blood chemistry, muscle high-energy phosphates and inosine monophospate, initial pH, muscle twitches, and rigor mortis) of rested Atlantic cod have been established. Since our stress bout showed that this species was not easily excitable, we were less convinced that we actually did study the other extreme, namely, exhausted fish. Nevertheless, the present data from the commercial slaughter of cod suggested that our stress bout was of adequate magnitude to represent potential poor handling routines. Our results consistently showed largely no differences between treatments, and that perimortem handling stress did not cause inferior flesh quality. This suggested that farmed cod can be processed with little risk of reducing product quality (quality index, fillet water content, water-holding capacity, ultimate pH, adenosine triphosphate-related degradation products and K-value, skin and fillet color, water and salt-soluble proteins, hardness, and gaping). For better maintenance of skin appearance after storage, the importance of storing the gutted cod on the belly, avoiding direct contact between skin and crushed ice, is demonstrated. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  18. Effects of the Post-Olympics Driving Restrictions on Air Quality in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To reduce congestion and air pollution, 20% driving restriction, a license plate-based traffic control measure, has been implemented in Beijing since October 2008. While the long-term impacts of this policy remain controversial, it is important to understand how and why the policy effects of driving restrictions change over time. In this paper, the short- and long-run effects of the 20% driving restrictions in Beijing and the key factors shaping the effects are analyzed using daily PM10 pollution data. The results showed that in the short run, 20% driving restriction could effectively reduce ambient PM10 levels. However, this positive effect rapidly faded away within a year due to long-term behavioral responses of residents. A modified 20% restriction, designed to replace the original 20% restriction system since April 2009, which is less stringent and provides more possibility for intertemporal driving substitution, has shown some positive influence on air quality over the long run comparing with that under the original policy design. Temporarily, the more stringent the driving restriction was, the better effects it would have on air quality. In the long-run, however, the policy was likely to cause a vicious circle, and more stringent policy might induce stronger negative incentives which would result in even worse policy effects. Lessons learned from study of the effects of driving restrictions in Beijing will help other major cities in China and abroad to use driving restrictions more prudently and effectively in the future. Decision-makers should carefully consider the pros and cons of a transport policy and conduct the ex-ante and ex-post evaluations on it.

  19. An Examination of the Causes and Effects of Building Collapse in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke Ayodeji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the causes and consequence of building collapse in Nigeria using historical data from 1974 to 2006 and also proffers appropriate solutions. Relevant books, seminar papers, workshop papers, articles, etc. were reviewed so as to examine the general view of individuals that have worked on similar study. Data for the study were obtained through historical data of past building collapse in Nigeria. The data were presented and analysed using tables, bar graphs, Pearson moment correlation coefficient (r and linear regression analysis to generate a model. Sixty (60 buildings that collapsed in the country were gathered, upon which the analysis was carried out. The study revealed that poor maintenance culture, design error, poor quality of materials and workmanship, natural phenomenon and excessive loading contributed to about 7%, 15%, 52%, 7% and 20% respectively of building collapse in Nigeria with most of them being private residential buildings executed by indigenous contractors. The study finally recommended that Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON should increase their effort in sanitizing building materials in the market. More so, construction professionals should ensure proper supervision of workmen and efficient checking of materials before incorporation into building works.

  20. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hu, Ping [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); Zhang, Hongchang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang, E-mail: yindq@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Qingshun, E-mail: qingshun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  1. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ascensão

    Full Text Available Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species' responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals.

  2. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning, E-mail: phwang@ust.hk [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  3. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are

  4. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch Extracts. ... However, the quality of the starch obtained from these alternative drying methods needs to be investigated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Nonlinear Frequency Compression: Effects on Sound Quality Ratings of Speech and Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    ...) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing...

  6. The effect of improved nowcasting of precipitation on air quality modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, G.T.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The predictive potential of air quality models and thus their value in emergency management and public health support are critically dependent on the quality of their meteorological inputs. The atmospheric flow is the primary cause of the dispersion of airborne substances. The scavenging of

  7. Short-term effects of air temperature on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Susanne; Wolf, Kathrin; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    This time series study aimed to examine the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. We obtained data from the cities Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg and two adjacent administrative districts (Augsburg and Aichach-Friedberg), for the period 1990-2006. Data included daily cause-specific cardiovascular death counts, mean daily meteorological variables and air pollution concentrations. In the first stage, data were analysed for Munich, Nuremberg and the Augsburg region separately using Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models adjusting for long-term trend, calendar effects and meteorological factors. In a second stage, we combined city-specific exposure-response relationships through a multivariate meta-analysis framework. An increase in the 2-day average temperature from the 90th (20.0°C) to the 99th centiles (24.8°C) resulted in an increase of cardiovascular mortality by 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) in the pooled analysis, while for a decrease from the 10th (-1.0°C) to the 1st centiles (-7.5°C) in the 15-day average temperature cardiovascular mortality increased by 8% (95% CI 2% to 14%). Strongest consistent risk estimates were seen for high 2-day average temperatures and mortality due to other heart diseases (including arrhythmias and heart failure) and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in the elderly. Results indicate that, in addition to low temperatures, high temperatures increase cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in temperature climates. These findings may guide planning public health interventions to control and prevent the health effects of exposure to air temperature, especially for individuals at risk for mortality due to heart failure, arrhythmias or cerebrovascular diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Effect of fireworks on ambient air quality in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Renato; Vella, Alfred J.

    2010-11-01

    Religious festivals ( festas) in the densely populated Maltese archipelago (Central Mediterranean) are ubiquitous during summer when 86 of them are celebrated between June and October, each involving the burning of fireworks both in ground and aerial displays over a period of 3 days or longer per festival. We assessed the effect of fireworks on the air quality by comparing PM 10 and its content of Al, Ba, Cu, Sr and Sb which materials are used in pyrotechnic compositions. PM 10 was collected mainly from two sites, one in Malta (an urban background site) and the other in Gozo (a rural site) during July-August 2005 when 59 feasts were celebrated and September-October 2005 when only 11 feasts occurred. For both Malta and Gozo, PM 10 and metal concentration levels measured as weekly means were significantly higher during July-August compared to September-October and there exist strong correlations between PM 10 and total metal content. Additionally, for Malta dust, Al, Ba, Cu and Sr correlated strongly with each other and also with total concentration of all five metals. The same parameters measured in April 2006 in Malta were at levels similar to those found in the previous October. Ba and Sb in dust from the urban background site in Malta during July-August were at comparable or higher concentration than recently reported values in PM 10 from a heavily-trafficked London road and this suggests that these metals are locally not dominated by sources from roadside materials such as break liner wear but more likely by particulate waste from fireworks. Our findings point to the fact that festa firework displays contribute significantly and for a prolonged period every year to airborne dust in Malta where PM 10 is an intractable air quality concern. The presence in this dust of elevated levels of Ba and especially Sb, a possible carcinogen, is of concern to health.

  9. Monoaminergic agents modulate antidepressant-like effect caused by diphenyl diselenide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savegnago, Lucielli; Jesse, Cristiano R; Pinto, Larissa G; Rocha, Joao B T; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effect caused by diphenyl diselenide on rat forced swimming test (FST) was investigated. The involvement of the monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like effect was also evaluated. Diphenyl diselenide (0.1-30 mg/kg), given by oral route (p.o.), 30 min earlier, reduced the immobility time in the FST, without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in an open field. The anti-immobility effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) on the FST was prevented by pretreatment of rats with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, given once a day, for 3 consecutive days), WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A)/(2C) receptor antagonist), ondasentron (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist), haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p., a D(1), D(2) and D(3) receptor antagonist), SCH233390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a D(1) receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a D(2) receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist). However, the anti-immobility effect caused by diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) on the FST was not affected by pretreatment with propanolol (2 mg/kg, i.p., a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist). Furthermore, monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was inhibited (39%) in the animals treated with diphenyl diselenide (30 mg/kg, p.o.) when compared to the control group. Taken together these data demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect caused by diphenyl diselenide seems to be mediated by involvement of the central monoaminergic system.

  10. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Behnaz; Bidgoli, Soroor Rabbani; Moattar, Fariborz; Hassani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background: High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage) was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. Results: There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml) and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent) after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively), but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10). Three patients (12%) underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8%) underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8%) patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Conclusion: Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility. PMID:23930112

  11. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. Results: There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively, but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10. Three patients (12% underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8% underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8% patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Conclusion: Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility.

  12. A mobile application to manage and minimise the risk of late effects caused by childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ann-Kristin; Kaya, Rafiye; Müller, Christian; Andersen, Björn; Langer, Thorsten; Ingenerf, Josef

    2015-01-01

    In their first 15 years of life, about 1 800 children are diagnosed with cancer each year in Germany. Their chances of survival, however, have improved significantly over the last 40 years. In Germany alone, over 30 000 survivors of childhood cancer are presently living. Therefore, the late effects caused by the therapy occur ever more frequently as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may leave traces even years later. In order to recognize and treat these late effects in survivors, structured and regular follow-up examinations are necessary from an early stage on. However, the compliance of former patients to participate in the recommended check-ups is not satisfying for multiple reasons. To enhance this compliance, an application for smartphones and tablets has been developed. The Aftercare App supplies a wide range of information regarding the aftercare and supports a reminder functionality to attend medical visits.

  13. Minimal Model of Spin-Transfer Torque and Spin Pumping Caused by the Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, Dirk

    2015-11-20

    In the normal-metal-ferromagnetic-insulator bilayer (such as Pt/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12}) and the normal-metal-ferromagnetic-metal-oxide trilayer (such as Pt/Co/AlO_{x}) where spin injection and ejection are achieved by the spin Hall effect in the normal metal, we propose a minimal model based on quantum tunneling of spins to explain the spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall effect. The ratio of their dampinglike to fieldlike component depends on the tunneling wave function that is strongly influenced by generic material properties such as interface s-d coupling, insulating gap, and layer thickness, yet the spin relaxation plays a minor role. The quantified result renders our minimal model an inexpensive tool for searching for appropriate materials.

  14. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  15. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  16. Variable turbulent convection as the cause of the Blazhko effect - testing the Stothers model

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R; Kolenberg, K; Bryson, S; Cote, M T; Morris, R L

    2011-01-01

    The amplitude and phase modulation observed in a significant fraction of the RR Lyrae variables - the Blazhko effect - represents a long-standing enigma in stellar pulsation theory. No satisfactory explanation for the Blazhko effect has been proposed so far. In this paper we focus on the Stothers (2006) idea, in which modulation is caused by changes in the structure of the outer convective zone, caused by a quasi-periodically changing magnetic field. However, up to this date no quantitative estimates were made to investigate whether such a mechanism can be operational and whether it is capable of reproducing the light variation we observe in Blazhko variables. We address the latter problem. We use a simplified model, in which the variation of turbulent convection is introduced into the non-linear hydrodynamic models in an ad hoc way, neglecting interaction with the magnetic field. We study the light curve variation through the modulation cycle and properties of the resulting frequency spectra. Our results are...

  17. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, V A; Potapovich, A I; Speransky, S D; Maslova, G T

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of macrophages to asbestos fibers resulted in enhancement of the production of oxygen radicals, determined by a lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence (LEC) assay, a formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a LDH release into the incubation mixture, and a rapid lysis of the cells. Rutin (Rut) and quercetin (Qr) were effective in inhibiting LEC, TBARS formation, and reducing peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos. The concentrations pre-treatment of antioxidants that were required to prevent the injury of peritoneal macrophages caused by asbestos by 50% (IC50) were 90 microM and 290 microM for Qr and Rut, respectively. Both flavonoids were found to be oxidized during exposure of peritoneal macrophages to asbestos and the oxidation was SOD sensitive. The efficacy of flavonoids as antioxidant agents as well as superoxide ion scavengers was also evaluated using appropriate model systems, and both quercetin and rutin were found to be effective in scavenging O2.-. These findings indicate that flavonoids are able to prevent the respiratory burst in rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to asbestos at the stage of activated oxygen species generation, mainly as superoxide scavengers. On the basis of this study it was concluded that natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin would be promising drug candidates for a prophylactic asbestos-induced disease.

  18. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.

  19. The senescent bystander effect is caused by ROS-activated NF-κB signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Glyn; Kucheryavenko, Olena; Wordsworth, James; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2017-08-25

    Cell senescence is an important driver of the ageing process. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues is accelerated by stress signals from senescent cells that induce DNA damage and ultimately senescence in bystander cells. We examine here the interplay of senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction (SAMD)-driven production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in causing the bystander effect. We show that in various modes of fibroblast senescence ROS are necessary and sufficient to activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), which facilitates a large part of the SASP. This ROS-NF-κB axis causes the DNA damage response in bystander cells. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are major components of the pro-inflammatory SASP in senescent fibroblasts. However, their activation in senescence is only partially controlled by NF-κB, and they are thus not strong candidates as intercellular mediators of the bystander effect as mediated by the ROS-NF-κB axis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Apoptosis Caused by HSV-1 in Human Glioma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yuan Liang; Bin Wang; Dong-Meng Qian; Ling Li; Zhi-Hao Wang; Ming Hu; Xu-Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on apoptosis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) in Human Glioma Cells (U251),U251 cells were infected by HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection of 5 and GRb1,GRb1+HSV-1,HSV-1 and control groups.MTT and cell apoptosis assays were used to detect the inhibitory effects of GRbl on the apoptosis of U251 cells that caused by HSV-1 infection for various concentrations of drug and virus treatments by MTT assay.We found that in the 400 μg/mL GRbl and 400 μg/mL GRbl+HSV-1 groups,MTT values were higher than control group at all times (P<0.05).Moreover,the apoptosis rate in the 400 μg/mL GRb1+HSV-1 group was lower than the HSV-1 group (P<0.05).These results confirmed that,at appropriate concentrations,GRb 1 could inhibit nerve cell apoptosis in HSV-1 infections.

  1. Effect of Ti interlayer on the bonding quality of W and steel HIP joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Wang, Wanjing; Wei, Ran; Wang, Xingli; Sun, Zhaoxuan; Xie, Chunyi; Li, Qiang; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2017-03-01

    Tungsten (W) and steel bonding is one of the key technologies for blanket First Wall (FW) manufacture in thermal fusion reactor. The W/Steel joints are prone to fail without interlayer for the different thermo physical properties. To study the effect of titanium (Ti) interlayer on the bonding quality of W and steel joints, W/Steel Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) experiments with Ti interlayer were conducted under 930 °C, 100 MPa for 2 h. Intermetallics caused by atom interdiffusion would affect the bonding quality of W/Ti/Steel HIP joints, the bonding quality was evaluated by microstructure analysis and mechanical tests. All the HIP joints were well bonded and results showed no intermetallics occurred between W/Ti interfaces, meanwhile multiply phases were found between Ti/Steel interfaces. Shear tests indicated when Ti thickness was 100-500 μm, the maximum shear strength of W/Ti/Steel HIP joints would be up to around 151 MPa. Charpy impact tests showed the W/Ti/Steel HIP joints all broke in a brittle manner and the maximum Charpy impact energy was ∼0.192 J. Nano-indentation tests demonstrated W/Ti interfaces could be enhanced by solid solution hardening and formation of brittle phases has conducted high hardness across the Ti/Steel interfaces.

  2. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil; 5C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 L L–1 respectively (5C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

  3. Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Quality of Rice Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; CHEN; Hui; FANG; Ying; ZHANG; Yuanyuan; FAN

    2013-01-01

    Germination and hydroponic experiments are performed on rice seeds growing in soils treated with Cd stress,with rice seeds of the same variety that is not treated with Cd stress as a control,to study the effects of Cd stress on quality of rice seeds.The results have shown that:(1)Cd stress reduces the thousand grain weight of rice seeds,and higher Cd content means lower thousand grain weight;(2)The germination vigor and germination percentage of rice seeds under Cd stress as well as theirα-amylase activity andβ-amylase activity are all lower than those of the control.They decreases as the Cd stress increases;(3)For rice seeds under Cd stress,the height,fresh and dry weight of seedlings,as well as the chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate and content of soluble protein of their leaves are all lower than those of the control.This indicates that Cd stress has certain effects on the germination and growth of the rice seeds.

  4. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  5. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  6. Effectiveness of Different Classes of Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC₅₀ < 0.1 μg/ml, and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC₅₀ = 50 μg/ml, at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides.

  7. Paternal age effect mutations and selfish spermatogonial selection: causes and consequences for human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, Anne; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2012-02-10

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with an increased risk for spontaneous congenital disorders and common complex diseases (such as some cancers, schizophrenia, and autism), but the mechanisms that mediate this effect have been poorly understood. A small group of disorders, including Apert syndrome (caused by FGFR2 mutations), achondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia (FGFR3), and Costello syndrome (HRAS), which we collectively term "paternal age effect" (PAE) disorders, provides a good model to study the biological and molecular basis of this phenomenon. Recent evidence from direct quantification of PAE mutations in sperm and testes suggests that the common factor in the paternal age effect lies in the dysregulation of spermatogonial cell behavior, an effect mediated molecularly through the growth factor receptor-RAS signal transduction pathway. The data show that PAE mutations, although arising rarely, are positively selected and expand clonally in normal testes through a process akin to oncogenesis. This clonal expansion, which is likely to take place in the testes of all men, leads to the relative enrichment of mutant sperm over time-explaining the observed paternal age effect associated with these disorders-and in rare cases to the formation of testicular tumors. As regulation of RAS and other mediators of cellular proliferation and survival is important in many different biological contexts, for example during tumorigenesis, organ homeostasis and neurogenesis, the consequences of selfish mutations that hijack this process within the testis are likely to extend far beyond congenital skeletal disorders to include complex diseases, such as neurocognitive disorders and cancer predisposition.

  8. Effects of voltage errors caused by gap-voltage and automatic-frequency tuning in an alternating-phase-focused linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2008-05-01

    A compact injector for a heavy-ion medical-accelerator complex was developed. It consists of an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source (ECRIS) and two linacs, which are a radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac and an Interdigital H-mode drift-tube-linac (IH-DTL). Beam acceleration tests of the compact injector were performed, and the designed beam quality was verified by the measured results, as reported earlier. Because the method of alternating-phase-focusing (APF) was used for beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the motion of beam ions would be sensitive to gap-voltage errors, caused during tuning of the gap-voltage distribution and by automatic-frequency tuning in actual operation. To study the effects of voltage errors to beam quality, further measurements were performed during acceleration tests. In this report, the effects of voltage errors for the APF IH-DTL are discussed.

  9. Odorant synergy effects as the cause of fishy malodors in algal marine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Raymond T; Laskonis, Charles R

    2014-10-08

    As unsaturated lipids oxidize, they form hydroperoxides, which are susceptible to further oxidation or decomposition to secondary reaction products including aldehydes, ketones, acids, and alcohols. While oxidation reactions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are responsible for fishy off-flavors in marine oils, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and other types of analytical studies have failed to reveal which specific oxidation products are involved. Previous research (Marsili, R.T.; Laskonis, C. The importance of odourant synergy effects in understanding malodour problems in DHA and EPA products. Lipid Technol. 2014, 26 (2), 31-34) has indicated that fishy malodor may be caused by the presence of two lipid oxidation products, heptanal and (E,Z)-3,5-octadien-2-one. The aims of the present study are to provide experimental method details and offer further evidence that these two oxidation products are indeed the cause of fishy malodors. Initial GC-MS-O studies of marine oils with fishy malodors revealed numerous oxidation products, but none were characterized as fishy. However, when all sample volatiles were captured together and then desorbed simultaneously in GC-O experiments, the fishy malodor was evident, indicating odorant synergy effects were responsible. A simple, novel method was developed using an olfactometry detector as a fraction collector to trap various peaks in marine oil chromatograms. The nose cone of the olfactometry detector was replaced with a PDMS foam absorption tube at various times during GC analysis. Combinations of GC peaks were trapped on PDMS tubes, desorbed in a Gerstel thermal extractor (off-line), and sniffed. The combination of two analytes was found to cause fishy malodors: heptanal and (E,Z)-3,5-octadien-2-one. Purge-and-trap, solid phase microextraction (SPME), and headspace stir bar sorptive extraction (HSSE) sample preparation methods prior to GC-MS were investigated. All methods confirmed the

  10. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  11. Neuroticism and quality of life: Multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Zhao; Mei, Songli

    2017-08-31

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression on neuroticism and quality of life. Self-reported measures of neuroticism, smart-phone addiction, depression, and quality of life were administered to 722 Chinese university students. Results showed smartphone addiction and depression were both significantly affected neuroticism and quality of life. The direct effect of neuroticism on quality of life was significant, and the chain-mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression was also significant. In conclusion, neuroticism, smartphone addiction, and depression are important variables that worsen quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intertidal foraminifera (Protista) and carbon-nitrogen cycling: combined effects of temperature and diet quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Oberrauch, Max; Watzka, Margarete; Wanek, Wolfgang; Heinz, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera (eukaryotic protists) are to a large extent acting as detrivores, feeding on microalgal detritus. Phytodetritus constitutes a main component of the intertidal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool, thus making foraminifera important players in intertidal nutrient fluxes. These fluxes are strongly dependent on interactions between biotic and abiotic environmental factors, as e.g. the energetic value or the quality of phytodetritus that depends on environmental nutrient availability. Increased inorganic C concentrations in coastal water bodies (e.g. due to increased atmospheric CO2) can have a negative effect on the phytodetrital quality by increasing microalgal C:N ratios. Simultanous warming of the environment can cause increased metabolic rates of exposed heterotrophic organisms, like foraminifera. The combination of lower food quality and increased metabolic rates is supposed to cause cascading effects on organismic C cycling, potentially diminishing the role of detrivorous food as a C sink in marine food webs by increased discharge of excess C. In this study, the above described scenario was tested in laboratory feeding experiments on a common and abundant intertidal foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, collected in the German Wadden Sea). Two batches of artificially produced and dual isotope labeled (13C and 15N) chlorophyte detritus (1.5 gDW m-2) with different C:N ratios (5.5 and 7.6) and one batch of isotopically labelled diatom detritus (C:N 5.6) were fed under controlled conditions at three different temperatures. Results were extrapolated to the in situ abundance of live H. germanica individuals in the sampling area (sediment core data), to estimate the magnitude of the effect on an areal basis within the natural habitat. The study revealed significant, temperature induced variations in the carbon and nitrogen processing of H. germanica. The food source with an increased C:N ratio doubled the release of carbon from the H. germanica

  13. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. The Effect of Ambient Water Quality on Lakefront Property Values: Evidence from Coeur d'Alene, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is causing water temperatures to increase and subsequent changes in water quality. To develop innovative approaches for mitigating the possible negative social consequences of such changes, more research efforts are needed to investigate how people perceive and respond to ambient water quality. This research examines the amenity value of water quality in the areas centered on Lake Coeur d'Alene of Northern Idaho. Through a hedonic analysis, we find that two important water-quality variables have had significant effects on lakefront property values, including Secchi disc reading, a technical measure of water clarity, and the presence of Eurasian watermilfoil, an aquatic invasive species. We further explore the spatial heterogeneity of water-quality benefits along the urban-rural gradient and find that access to urban amenities has strengthened the water-quality benefits in the lakefront housing market. Our findings could be used to incentivize private property owners and stakeholders to commit time and funding to cope with the potential degradation of water quality under climate change.

  15. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to effects of fine regolith simulant whose primary particle size is 5.10 μm. These regolith simulants were applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and immune response were examined after 24 h exposure. Cell membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. The cellular effects of the regolith simulant at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml were small, as compared with crystalline silica as a positive control. Secretion of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, but induction of gene expression was not observed at 24 h after exposure. Induction of cellular oxidative stress was small. Although the cellular effects tended to be stronger in the effects of lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  16. Inhaled Lavender Effect on Anxiety and Pain Caused From Intrauterine Device Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intrauterine device (IUD is the most common reliable, effective and reversible contraceptive method used worldwide and in areas with high growth rate is of particular importance. IUD insertion is associated with high anxiety in most people that causes pain and discomfort. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aromatherapy on anxiety and pain caused by IUD insertion. Methods: This study was conducted on 106 women in a health care center located in Ardebil, Iran. Participants were divided into two groups by randomized blocks of 4 and 6. In the experimental group lavender scent was inhaled and in the control group the placebo was inhaled 30 minutes before IUD insertion. The anxiety of the participants was measured by Spielberger questionnaire, and the pain of IUD insertion was measured immediately after the insertion using visual analog scale (range 0-10. Results: The mean score (standard deviation of anxiety before intervention was 43.2 (9.2 in the experimental group that decreased after intervention to 39.0 (10.5 (p < 0.001, while this score was 42.2 (9.0 and 41.5 (8.4 before and after the intervention in the control group (p = 0.21. Mean differences of anxiety in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The pain score after intervention did not show significant difference between two groups (p = 0.51. Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender inhalation was effective in decreasing anxiety in IUD procedure, and this method can be used in health care centers as complementary treatments.

  17. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: report of AAPM Task Group 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olch, Arthur J; Gerig, Lee; Li, Heng; Mihaylov, Ivaylo; Morgan, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the "tennis racket" style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  18. Observation on the effect of carbetocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li Zhang; Rui Bai

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of carbetocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia.Methods: A total of 256 puerpera with single full-term delivery who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into the vaginal delivery group and cesarean section group with 128 cases in each group according to the delivery ways. According to the medication, each group was divided into the carbetocin group and oxytocin group with 64 cases in each group. After fetus delivery, the puerpera in the carbetocin group were given intravenous injection of carbetocin (100μg), while the puerpera in the oxytocin group were given intravenous injection of oxytocin (10 U)+0.9% NaCl (500 mL) for 2 h. The amount of bleeding at delivery, 2 h and 24 h after delivery in each group was observed. A volume of 5 mL elbow venous blood before delivery and 24 h after delivery was extracted. The automatic blood cell analyzer was used to detect the decreased value of 24 h hemoglobin in each group. The coagulation detector was used to detect PT, APTT, and FIB before delivery and 24 h after delivery. The blood pressure and heart rate before and after medication in each group were observed.Results: The amount of bleeding at delivery, 2 h and 24 h after delivery in the carbetocin group was signiifcantly less than that in the oxytocin group (P0.05). The heart rate and blood pressure after medication in each group were not significantly changed when compared with before medication (P>0.05).Conclusions:Carbetocin can effectively prevent the postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia, and is safe and effective in application of vaginal delivery and cesarean section; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  19. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, Arthur J., E-mail: aolch@chla.usc.edu [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Southern California and Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Gerig, Lee [Department of Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mihaylov, Ivaylo [Department of Radiation Oncology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Morgan, Andrew [The Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  20. Posttranslational modifications of Rab proteins cause effective displacement of GDP dissociation inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterlin, Lena K; Goody, Roger S; Itzen, Aymelt

    2012-04-10

    Intracellular vesicular trafficking is regulated by approximately 60 members of the Rab subfamily of small Ras-like GDP/GTP binding proteins. Rab proteins cycle between inactive and active states as well as between cytosolic and membrane bound forms. Membrane extraction/delivery and cytosolic distribution of Rabs is mediated by interaction with the protein GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) that binds to prenylated inactive (GDP-bound) Rab proteins. Because the Rab:GDP:GDI complex is of high affinity, the question arises of how GDI can be displaced efficiently from Rab protein in order to allow the necessary recruitment of the Rab to its specific target membrane. While there is strong evidence that DrrA, as a bacterially encoded GDP/GTP exchange factor, contributes to this event, we show here that posttranslational modifications of Rabs can also modulate the affinity for GDI and thus cause effective displacement of GDI from Rab:GDI complexes. These activities have been found associated with the phosphocholination and adenylylation activities of the enzymes AnkX and DrrA/SidM, respectively, from the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Both modifications occur after spontaneous dissociation of Rab:GDI complexes within their natural equilibrium. Therefore, the effective GDI displacement that is observed is caused by inhibition of reformation of Rab:GDI complexes. Interestingly, in contrast to adenylylation by DrrA, AnkX can covalently modify inactive Rabs with high catalytic efficiency even when GDP is bound to the GTPase and hence can inhibit binding of GDI to Rab:GDP complexes. We therefore speculate that human cells could employ similar mechanisms in the absence of infection to effectively displace Rabs from GDI.

  1. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  2. Swimming and cycling do not cause positive effects on bone mineral density: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Abrahin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Osteoporosis is considered a common metabolic bone disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In this context, physical activity has been used as a non-pharmacological tool for prevention and auxiliary treatment of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of cycling and swimming practice on bone mineral density (BMD. This research was conducted in accordance with the recommendations outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The studies were consulted in the period from 2004 to 2014, through major electronic databases: PubMed®, SciELO® and LILACS®. Ten studies evaluated the effects of cycling on BMD, and the results showed that nine studies have linked the practice of professional cycling with low levels of BMD. Another 18 studies have reported that swimming has no positive effects on bone mass. We conclude that cycling and swimming do not cause positive effects on BMD; thus, these are not the most suitable exercises for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Does quality of sleep mediate the effect of depression on hopelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality, depression, and hopelessness in advanced cancer patients and whether sleep quality mediated the effect of depression on hopelessness. The final sample consisted of 102 advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. Patients completed the Greek Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a sleep quality instrument, the Greek Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depression, and finally the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Patients' performance status was assessed by their overall physical functioning, as defined by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Depression was highly associated with hopelessness (r = .52, phopelessness (r = .37, pdepression (r = .36, pdepression influenced hopelessness directly as well as indirectly by its effect on sleep quality. About 14.58% of the variation in hopelessness was explained by depression; 4% of the variance in hopelessness explained by depression was accounted for by the mediation pathway indicating that sleep quality mediated the relationship between depression and hopelessness. Similarly, in the reverse mediation analysis, depression mediated the relationship between sleep quality and hopelessness; 43% of the variation in hopelessness was explained by sleep quality. In conclusion, some of the effect of depression on hopelessness was mediated by sleep quality, but depression had a direct effect on hopelessness as well. Additionally, some of the effect of sleep quality on hopelessness was mediated by depression. The current findings are important because improving sleep quality by treating depression may contribute to decreased hopelessness scores and vice versa: Treating depression by improving sleep quality may also contribute to lower hopelessness scores.

  4. Oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents: effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doo, E.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhshin@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, J.H.; Song, H.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents. Materials and methods: The study comprised 11 children (median age 6 years; range 1-14 years) with oesophageal strictures caused by corrosive agents, who underwent a total of 36 balloon dilatation sessions. The technical and clinical success, recurrence of dysphagia, complications, and primary and secondary patency rates were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Technical success was achieved in 91% of patients and in 97% of balloon dilatation sessions. Clinical success (defined as improved food intake and reduced dysphagia within 1 month of the first balloon dilatation session) was achieved in 64% of patients (7/11). During the mean 35-month follow-up period (range 1-89 months), 10 (91%) patients experienced recurrence. Oesophageal rupture (types 1 or 2) occurred in 45% of patients and in 31% of balloon dilatation sessions. Primary patency rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 36, 27, 14, 14, 14, and 14%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 82, 82, 82, 56, 42, and 42%, respectively. The secondary patency rate was higher than the primary patency rate (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study examined oesophageal balloon dilatation for paediatric oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents. Although the technical success rate was high and there were no deaths, the clinical success rate was low owing to a high recurrence rate. However, repeated balloon dilatations resulted in an acceptable secondary patency rate.

  5. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-15

    National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r=0·88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r=0·83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r=0·77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This

  6. THE THREAT OF WORSENING THE QUALITY OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND WATERS CAUSED BY AN UNRECULTIVATED WASTE DUMPING SITE IN TŁOKINIA KOŚCIELNA NEAR KALISZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Jan Małecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This food industry waste landfill is located in Tłokinia Kościelna near Kalisz in the basin of the Pokrzywnica and the Swędrnia rivers. There is a legitimate fear concerning the influence of the unreclaimed landfill on the quality of surface waters in the Swędrnia and the Pokrzywnica rivers, the retention water in Pokrzywnica reservoir in Szałe and the quality of high protection underground waters of the main underground waters reservoir number 311. Additionally, saline ground waters coming from the landfill have a negative effect on underground structures (foundations, engineering networks, hydrotechnical and water-drainage structures. The waste landfill in Tłokinia Kościelna has to be reclaimed in accordance with the legally binding rules and engineering art.

  7. Effect of climate change on sporulation of the teleomorphs of Leptosphaeria species causing stem canker of brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Kedziora, Andrzej; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Dakowska, Sylwia; Karg, Grzegorz; Jedryczka, Małgorzata

    Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa are closely related sibling fungal pathogens that cause phoma leaf spotting, stem canker (blackleg) and stem necrosis of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The disease is distributed worldwide, and it is one of the main causes of considerable decrease in seed yield and quality. Information about the time of ascospore release at a particular location provides important data for decision making in plant protection, thereby enabling fungicides to be used only when necessary and at optimal times and doses. Although the pathogens have been studied very extensively, the effect of climate change on the frequencies and distributions of their aerially dispersed primary inoculum has not been reported to date. We have collected a large dataset of spore counts from Poznan, located in central-west part of Poland, and studied the relationships between climate and the daily concentrations of airborne propagules over a period of 17 years (1998-2014). The average air temperature and precipitation for the time of development of pseudothecia and ascospore release (July-November), increased during the years under study at the rates of 0.1 °C and 6.3 mm per year. The day of the year (DOY) for the first detection of spores, as well as the date with maximum of spores, shifted from 270 to 248 DOY, and from 315 to 265 DOY, respectively. The acceleration of the former parameter by 22 days and the latter by 50 days has great influence on the severity of stem canker of oilseed rape.

  8. Quality review of an adverse incident reporting system and root cause analysis of serious adverse surgical incidents in a teaching hospital of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsandi Maziar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of surgical patients are unintentionally harmed during their hospital stay. Root Cause Analysis (RCA aims to determine the aetiology of adverse incidents that lead to patient harm and produce a series of recommendations, which would minimise the risk of recurrence of similar events, if appropriately applied to clinical practice. A review of the quality of the adverse incident reporting system and the RCA of serious adverse incidents at the Department of Surgery of Ninewells hospital, in Dundee, United Kingdom was performed. Methods The Adverse Incident Management (AIM database of the Department of Surgery of Ninewells Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. Details of all serious (red, sentinel incidents recorded between May 2004 and December 2009, including the RCA reports and outcomes, where applicable, were reviewed. Additional related information was gathered by interviewing the involved members of staff. Results The total number of reported surgical incidents was 3142, of which 81 (2.58% cases had been reported as red or sentinel. 19 of the 81 incidents (23.4% had been inappropriately reported as red. In 31 reports (38.2% vital information with regards to the details of the adverse incidents had not been recorded. In 12 cases (14.8% the description of incidents was of poor quality. RCA was performed for 47 cases (58% and only 12 cases (15% received recommendations aiming to improve clinical practice. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate the need for improvement in the quality of incident reporting. There are enormous benefits to be gained by this time and resource consuming process, however appropriate staff training on the use of this system is a pre-requisite. Furthermore, sufficient support and resources are required for the implementation of RCA recommendations in clinical practice.

  9. The Effects of Website Quality on Customer e-Loyalty: The Mediating Effect of Trustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Poh-Ming Wong Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Website has been used as an efficient platform to tailor their products or services and as a unique profit mode of e-commerce. Due to this advance of the Internet, this study is mainly to examine the relationship between website quality and customer e-loyalty. The present study aims to explore the effect on website quality on customer e-loyalty through trustworthiness. SmartPLS (M3) was used as the main analytical tool to test the proposed research model. This study provides a theoretical fra...

  10. Employee Perceptions of Quality Management: Effects of Employee Orientation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdere, Mesut; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study examines employee perceptions of quality management at three different time periods. New employees at a large United States manufacturing organization were surveyed regarding their perceptions of their organization's quality management practices before they attended a new employee orientation training, immediately after the…

  11. Effective Interventions on Service Quality Improvement in a Physiotherapy Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Gharibi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and improves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reliable researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. Results: In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Service quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  12. Effective interventions on service quality improvement in a physiotherapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Farid; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh; Eteraf Oskouei, MirAli; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associ-ated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and im-proves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reli-able researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (PService quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  13. Pathophysiological effects caused by the venom of the social wasp Synoeca surinama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Mayer, Andreia Biolchi; Freire, Daniel Oliveira; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelas; Gomes de Oliveira Junior, Nelson; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-04-01

    Envenomation by wasp stings is a public health preoccupation, and signals after stings have variable effects depending on the number of attacks and individual sensitivities. Even with the high rate of wasp sting cases, the study of phatophysiological effects of the envenomation is still very incipient. In this context, early and accurate assessment of this prognostic can aid in the reduction of the symptomatology and complete remission of the later symptoms. Then, the present study evaluated the toxicological effects caused by envenomation produced by Synoeca surinama, a wasp easily found in Neotropical regions. In vivo tests comprised the evaluation of LD50 (OECD 423), nociception, edema, myotoxic lesion and hemorrhage induction, in vitro tests were realized to evaluate hemolysis, contractile and coagulation alteration. The envenomation effects observed were dose- and time-dependent; the LD50 observed for S. surinama was 178 μg/kg, approximately 17 times more lethal than that of the honeybee. Moreover, a potent algesic and oedema effect, and weak hemorrhagic signal were observed after injection of the venom wasp. Assays in vitro showed that this venom is able to prolong the clotting time of plasma and to increase creatine kinase levels. Our results demonstrated that this venom induced serious local and systemic effects in mammals and, so, to avoid permanent damage to the patient, health professionals should carefully investigate each accident. Moreover, due to its high occurrence in Neotropical regions, ecological management, particularly in areas with free access of children and elderly, should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different effects of mexiletine on two mutant sodium channels causing paramyotonia congenita and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbecker, K; Würz, A; Mohammadi, B; Mansuroglu, T; George, A L; Lerche, H; Dengler, R; Lehmann-Horn, F; Mitrovic, N

    2000-01-01

    Effects of the antiarrhythmic and antimyotonic drug mexiletine were studied on two sodium channel mutants causing paramyotonia congenita (R1448H) and an overlap paramyotonic and hyperkalemic paralytic syndrome (M1360V). Channels were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and studied electrophysiologically, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Compared to the wild-type, channel, both mutants showed alterations of inactivation, i.e. slower inactivation, left shift of steady-state inactivation and faster recovery from inactivation. Mexiletine caused a significantly larger use-dependent block of the R1448H mutant when compared to M1360V and wild-type channels. This can be explained by a prolonged recovery from mexiletine block as observed for R1448H channels, since the affinity of mexiletine for the inactivated state was similar for all three clones. The use-dependent block of sodium channels by mexiletine reduces repetitive series of action potentials and therefore improves muscle stiffness in myotonic patients. The enhanced use-dependent block as seen with R1448H may explain the extraordinary therapeutic efficacy of mexiletine in most patients with paramyotonia congenita.

  15. Staff stress in the children's hospice: causes, effects and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K

    2001-05-01

    Although there are an increasing number of hospices opening around the country, the concept of the children's hospice is still relatively new. Although stress involved in giving palliative care to adults has been examined quite extensively, very little work has been done on the impact of caring for children in the hospice setting. This article is a literature review, examining the causes and effects of staff stress in the children's hospice, as well as the factors that enable staff to cope with working in this environment. It concludes that the main causes of stress are often related to conflicts within the staff group, communication problems and role conflict. Poor relationships with the child's family as well as the inability to relieve distressing symptoms the child may be experiencing have also been identified as common sources of stress. Teamwork, good communication and the home-like atmosphere of the hospice all contribute to enabling staff to deal with work stress. Staff support groups may be beneficial, but need to be run well, by someone experienced in leading such groups. Additionally, stress can be reduced by providing staff with the appropriate training and education and by encouraging them to take some responsibility for preventing and relieving stress themselves.

  16. Impaired standing balance in elderly: a new engineering method helps to unravel causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Denise; Pasma, Jantsje H; Schouten, Alfred C; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B; Mergner, Thomas; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-03-01

    Deteriorated balance control is the most frequent cause of falls and injuries in the elderly. Balance control comprises a complex interplay of several underlying systems (ie, the sensory systems, the motor system, and the nervous system). Available clinical balance tests determine the patient's ability to maintain standing balance under defined test conditions and aim to describe the current state of this ability. However, these tests do not reveal which of the underlying systems is deteriorated and to what extent, so that the relation between cause and effect often remains unclear. Especially detection of early-stage balance control deterioration is difficult, because the balance control system is redundant and elderly may use compensation strategies. This article describes a new method that is able to identify causal relationships in deteriorated balance control, called CLSIT (Closed Loop System Identification Technique). Identification of impaired balance with CLSIT is a base for development of tailored interventions and compensation strategies to reduce the often serious consequences of deteriorated balance control in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar flare associated coronal mass ejections causing geo-effectiveness and Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Beena; Chandra, Harish

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we have selected 35 halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) associated with solar flares, Geomagnetic Storms (GSs) and Forbush decrease (Fd) chosen from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2007 (i.e., the descending phase of solar cycle 23) observed by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the SOHO spacecraft. Statistical analyses are performed to look at the distribution of solar flares associated with halo CMEs causing GSs and Fd and investigated the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters with GSs and Fd. Forbush decrease is the phenomenon of rapid decrease in cosmic ray intensity following the CME. Our analysis indicates that during 2000 to 2007 the northern region produced 44 % of solar flares associated with halo CMEs, GSs, and Fd, whereas 56 % solar flares associated with halo CMEs, GSs, and Fd were produced in the southern region. The northern and the southern hemispheres between 10° to 20° latitudinal belts are found to be more effective in producing events leading to Fd. From our selected events, we found that about 60 % of super-intense storms (Dst ≤ -200 nT) caused by halo CMEs are associated with X-class flares. Fast halo CMEs associated with X-class flares originating from 0° to 25° latitudes are better potential candidates in producing super-intense GSs than the slow halo CMEs associated with other classes of flares.

  18. Effects of physical therapy on quality of life in osteoporosis patients - a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Guido

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Summary The aim of this prospective randomized single-center study was to investigate whether sling exercise therapy is superior to conventional exercises in osteoporosis patients. Background Patients with osteoporosis frequently experience fractures of the vertebral body, which may cause chronic back pain and other symptoms. These, in turn, may lead to immobilization, muscular atrophy, and restrictions in activities of daily living. The situation can be improved with specific medication and physiotherapy. We explored the effects of a variety of physical treatments on activities of daily living in patients with osteoporosis. Method Fifty patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received traditional physiotherapy (PT while group B underwent sling exercise therapy (ST. Both treatments were given twice a week for three months. The results of the treatment were registered on the quality of life questionnaire (Qualeffo-41 devised by the International Osteoporosis Foundation. After a further three months with no specific exercise treatment, we again tested all patients in order to draw conclusions about the long-term effects of both types of exercise. Results Forty-four patients (88% completed the study. Patients were assigned to small groups (a maximum of 5 patients in each group and thus received individual attention and motivation. Quality of life was improved in both groups; a significantly greater improvement was registered in patients who performed sling exercises (Global score Qualeffo: p = 0.002. Conclusion The test results confirm the known positive effects of physical therapy on the quality of life of osteoporosis patients, as well as the fact that sling exercises are a sound alternative treatment for this condition.

  19. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  20. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  1. Soil Mineralogy and Substrate Quality Effects on Microbial Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, B. K.; Rasmussen, C.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Mau, R. L.; Liu, X. J. A.; Hungate, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) cycling can slow or accelerate in response to new C inputs from fresh organic matter. This change in native C mineralization, known as the "microbial priming effect," is difficult to predict because the underlying mechanisms of priming are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that soil mineral assemblage, specifically short-range-order (SRO) minerals, influences microbial responses to different quality C substrate inputs. To test this, we added 350 μg C g-1soil weekly of an artificial root exudates mixture primarily comprised of glucose, sucrose, lactate and fructose (a simple C source) or ground ponderosa pine litter (a complex C source) for six weeks to three soil types from similar ecosystems derived from different parent material. The soils, from andesite, basalt, and granite parent materials, had decreasing abundance in SRO minerals, respectively. We found that the simple C substrate induced 63 ±16.3% greater positive priming than the complex C across all soil types. The quantity of soil SRO materials was negatively correlated with soil respiration, but positively correlated with priming. The lowest SRO soil amended with litter primed the least (14 ± 11 μgCO2-C g-1), while the largest priming effect occurring in the highest SRO soil amended with simple substrate (246 ± 18 μgCO2-C g-1). Our results indicate that higher SRO mineral content could accelerate microorganisms' capacity to mineralize native soil organic carbon and respond more strongly to labile C inputs. However, while all treatments exhibited positive priming, the amount of C added over the six-week incubation was greater than total CO2 respired. This suggests that despite a relative stimulation of native C mineralization, these soils act as C sinks rather than sources in response to fresh organic matter inputs.

  2. Effects of Oil Spillage on Groundwater Quality In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu A. N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of oil spillage on groundwater quality in the oil producing Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in Abacheke community in Egbema Local Government area, Imo state.Water Samples were collected forquality analysis in boreholes/wells at three locations A, B, C. Locations A and B are areas with history of spillage while C is a location downstream with no history of oil spillage. The following parameters were tested for; physical parameters (temperature and turbidity, inorganic constituents (Conductivity, PH, TDS, DO, BOD, Mg, and P and organic constituents (Total hydro-carbonThe results showed the some parameters exceeded the WHO permissible levels. Comparatively, Sample C had a lower value of hydrocarbon content (0.6 mg/l while Samples A and B values were 0.9mg/l and 1.1mg/l respectively.The Turbidityvalue for sample C was 5 NTU compared to values of 14 and 18 NTU from samples A and B respectively. Results of PH test also showed that samples A and B were more acidic (5.56 and 5.98 respectively than Sample C. The higher level of Turbidity and Total hydro-carbon for samples A and B isan indication of oil pollution which is attributable to incessant spillage. It is therefore necessary that appropriate treatment be carried out on the water samples to avoid adverse health effects.We also recommend that comprehensive groundwater monitoring should be carried out in the Niger Delta area and cleanup exercises carried outwhenever there is an oil spill to prevent infiltration of oil into the ground water.

  3. Corruption in Education Systems: A Review of Practices, Causes, Effects and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cárdenas Denham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving higher levels of transparency and accountability in education systems is essential for attaining an adequate distribution of educational opportunities. Studies of corruption in education systems are important since they can contribute to increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of corruption and promote political support for the implementation of anti-corruption initiatives in education. This paper describes a typology of corrupt practices and develops a classification for the findings reported in the literature on corruption in education, such as causes, consequences and recommendations, as well as a classification of the methodologies applied to the study of corrupt practices. Finally, it describes the possible implications of these findings for policymakers.

  4. Examples of the application of the cause-effect ergonomic evaluation model to the wheelchair cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà-Guillem, Ricard; Page, Álvaro; Laparra, José; Durà, Juan V

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the potential of the application of the cause-effect model for the ergonomic evaluation in the field of cushions. User involvement in the prescription and development of assistive devices have been identified a key aspect for positive interventions, although the reality is that we lack of systematic approaches and examples of best practices. The potential benefits are identified for the development of new products and in the prescription process. Additional research would be necessary to better link the characteristics of the cushions and users with the biomechanical and physiological performance of the interface cushion-user and the consequences measured in health, user perception and activity performance. This article shows examples of the relationship in this three levels from the point of view of the user perception.

  5. Space Shuttle Operations and Infrastructure: A Systems Analysis of Design Root Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2005-01-01

    This NASA Technical Publication explores and documents the nature of Space Shuttle operations and its supporting infrastructure and addresses fundamental questions often asked of the Space Shuttle program why does it take so long to turnaround the Space Shuttle for flight and why does it cost so much? Further, the report provides an overview of the cause-and effect relationships between generic flight and ground system design characteristics and resulting operations by using actual cumulative maintenance task times as a relative measure of direct work content. In addition, this NASA TP provides an overview of how the Space Shuttle program's operational infrastructure extends and accumulates from these design characteristics. Finally, and most important, the report derives a set of generic needs from which designers can revolutionize space travel from the inside out by developing and maturing more operable and supportable systems.

  6. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kendrick

    Full Text Available A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise.

  7. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R; Fazenda, Bruno M; Cox, Trevor J; Li, Francis F

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise.

  8. The Effectiveness of the Higher Education Quality Assessment System: Problems and Countermeasures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangli, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the higher education quality assessment system is essentially a matter of policy evaluation. On the macro level, such a system refers to external quality assessment, which includes government evaluation, quality certification, and university rankings. Depending on the degree of government intervention, the external quality…

  9. Towards a conceptual model to measure effectiveness of food quality systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In the food industry quality assurance (QA) systems such as GMP, HACCP, ISO and BRC, are applied for assuring food quality. However, it is still unknown to what extent these QA systems contribute to the realization of quality. Therefore, an instrument is required that measures the effectiveness of f

  10. Effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic E. coli on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussalleu, E; Yeste, M; Sepúlveda, L; Torner, E; Pinart, E; Bonet, S

    2011-09-01

    The presence of bacteria in boar semen causes economic losses in artificial insemination (AI) centers, as a consequence of alterations on boar sperm quality. For this reason, the effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) on boar sperm quality were determined in this study, by conducting two experiments. The first one consisted of assessing these effects on boar sperm quality after incubating the inoculated doses at 37°C for a 96-h period, whereas the second inoculated doses were stored at 15°C during 11 days. In both experiments, the infective concentrations ranged from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(2)cfu mL(-1); the negative control being a non-inoculated dose. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, we checked by PCR for the presence of bacteria in all tubes. Sperm quality (sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm morphology) was assessed at 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h after inoculations in the first experiment (37°C), and after 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days in the second (15°C). Whereas no changes were observed in sperm morphology in both experiments, the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa dramatically diminished after 24h of incubation at 37°C, the effect being more detrimental at the highest infective concentration of microbes. Moreover, a significant decrease in the percentage of viable spermatozoa in the tube inoculated with the highest concentration (10(8)cfu mL(-1)) was detected after 24h of incubating contaminated doses at 37°C. After 48h of incubation, the presence of infective concentrations of ETEC and VTEC from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(3)cfu mL(-1) resulted in a significant diminution in the percentage of viable spermatozoa. These results suggest that ETEC and VTEC PCR analyses should be done in doses destined for AI to minimize the use of doses with diminished sperm quality due to the presence of bacteria and to avoid the potential spread of infective diseases.

  11. Disorders in melanopsin effect of pupil constriction as a risk factor causing eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Risks of eye damage and eyesight deterioration to a great extent depend on how efficient a biomechanical eye system is under energy-saving lighting conditions. The system's efficiency is determined by its adequacy in managing pupils and ciliary muscle. We analyzed mathematical models describing changes in pupil's diameter which were determined by light-technical parameters of illumination environment (luminance level and brightness. We highlighted the importance of ganglionic cells and the role they play in managing pupil's diameter (miosis when they are exposed to blue light within 480 nm spectrum. Basing on the assessment of a pupil's constriction under exposure to various light stimuli (blue, red, and green ones we worked out a melanopsin effect concept of a pupil's retention at miosis and showed that it could be a diagnostic sign of some diseases (age-related direct retinopathy, pancreatic diabetes under exposure to a blue light impulse with a certain wave length. Under exposure to blue light within 480 nm spectrum ganglionic cells form a managing signal for a sphincter muscle of a pupil and ciliary muscle which provides accommodation (as per Helmholtz and regulates aqueous humor flow in ciliary channel. All modern energy-saving light sources have a low energy level at wave length equal to 480 nm due to gap in their spectrum in comparison with sunlight spectrum with the same light temperature and luminance level. Inadequate management of pupil's diameter under artificial lighting conditions leads to melanopsin effect disorders and causes disharmony in managing aqueous humor outflow. All the above-stated factors under long-term visual load cause eye diseases risks in modern illumination environment. We detected that contemporary mathematic models describing pupil's diameter fluctuations needed to be refined allowing for new knowledge on functional peculiarities of retina cells and energy-saving light sources spectrum.

  12. Effect of Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside on Experimental Prostatitis Caused by Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Pingnan; Lu, Zhiyong; Ye, Lihong; Fang, Yaqin; Tan, Suhong; Xuan, Guohong; Ru, Jincheng; Mao, Liming

    2016-10-15

    BACKGROUND Prostatitis is a common and refractory urological disease with complicated etiology. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) has a close relationship with human urinary tract infection that can induce nonbacterial prostatitis. Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside (TWP) is a non-steroidal immune inhibitor that causes significant immune suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. Its role in prostatitis caused by UU has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TWP on UU-infected prostatitis in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS UU-infected prostatitis SD model rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the prostatitis group (model group) and the TWP treatment group (treatment group). At 7 days after treatment, prostate weight, leucocyte count, lecithin corpuscles, UU infection rate, and UU microbe count were compared between the 2 groups. Serum inflammatory cytokines TNF-α was determined by ELISA, and ICAM-1 and NF-κB expression were detected. RESULTS UU infection rate was 80% after modeling. The rat prostate weight and leucocyte count in the model group increased significantly, while lecithin corpuscles decreased. Compared with controls, inflammatory factor TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression were obviously higher (P<0.05). TWP markedly reduced prostate weight and leucocyte count, increased lecithin corpuscles, and decreased UU microbe count and TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS TWP can inhibit expression of inflammatory factors and may be useful in treating UU-infected prostatitis through reducing UU infection rate.

  13. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  14. Hypovitaminosis D and adipose tissue - cause and effect relationships in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelczyńska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Walczak, Marcelina; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on pleiotropic directions of effects exerted by vitamin D. Epidemiological data indicate that deficiency of vitamin D in various population groups represents an increasingly widespread phenomenon, while a decreased serum concentration of calcitriol correlates with manifestation of civilization-linked diseases, including visceral obesity. This study aims at a review and synthesis of data linked to relationships between lowered vitamin D concentrations in blood and manifestation of obesity, and potential mechanisms which affect the concentration of the vitamin in conditions of an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Several variables are distinguished which can affect the status of vitamin D in obesity, but the key role in this respect is ascribed to the metabolic activity of visceral adipose tissue. Among others, the activity favours sequestration and modulation of calcitriol turnover. On the other hand, the effects of vitamin D on the process of adipogenesis and its involvement in remodelling of adipose tissue are pointed out. Also, several factors of an environmental nature (e.g. time of year/day, dietetic supply of vitamin D), genetic nature (e.g. genetic polymorphisms) and other conditioning (e.g. coexisting diseases, age, content of melanin in skin) cannot be bypassed as they may affect the concentration of vitamin D. Nevertheless, it still remains unresolved to what extent hypovitaminosis D represents the cause and to which it is the effect of obesity.

  15. Why Ineffective Psychotherapies Appear to Work: A Taxonomy of Causes of Spurious Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    The past 40 years have generated numerous insights regarding errors in human reasoning. Arguably, clinical practice is the domain of applied psychology in which acknowledging and mitigating these errors is most crucial. We address one such set of errors here, namely, the tendency of some psychologists and other mental health professionals to assume that they can rely on informal clinical observations to infer whether treatments are effective. We delineate four broad, underlying cognitive impediments to accurately evaluating improvement in psychotherapy-naive realism, confirmation bias, illusory causation, and the illusion of control. We then describe 26 causes of spurious therapeutic effectiveness (CSTEs), organized into a taxonomy of three overarching categories: (a) the perception of client change in its actual absence, (b) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from extratherapeutic factors, and (c) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from nonspecific treatment factors. These inferential errors can lead clinicians, clients, and researchers to misperceive useless or even harmful psychotherapies as effective. We (a) examine how methodological safeguards help to control for different CSTEs, (b) delineate fruitful directions for research on CSTEs, and (c) consider the implications of CSTEs for everyday clinical practice. An enhanced appreciation of the inferential problems posed by CSTEs may narrow the science-practice gap and foster a heightened appreciation of the need for the methodological safeguards afforded by evidence-based practice.

  16. Protective effect of quercetin against oxidative stress caused by dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassoued Saloua

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of Dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods Lymphocytes were divided into too groups. The first group, lymphocytes were incubated for 4 h at 37°C with different concentrations (0, 40, 60 and 100 mM of Dimethoate. The second group was preincubated with quercetin for 30 min and followed by Dim incubation for 4 h at 37°C. Results Following in vitro incubation, Dimethoate caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels, a significant decrease in thiol levels, as well as a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in lymphocytes at different concentrations. Quercetin pretreated lymphocytes showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects inducted by Dimethoate on the studied parameters. Conclusion In conclusion, antioxidant quercetin could protect against Dimethoate-induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in human lymphocytes.

  17. Effects of ionizing energy treatment on the quality of ginseng products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M. R.; Paré, J. R. Jocelyn

    Pre-established doses were applied to Panax ginseng powders for determining the effects of γ-irradiation on the quality of samples from the microbiological, some physico-chemical and organoleptic points of view. Irradiation at 5 kGy was sufficient not only to reduce total bacterial counts (1.28 × 10 5/g) by about 3 orders of magnitude but to eliminate coliforms, yeast and molds during three months of storage at 30°C and 50-60% RH. An established dose of 5 kGy caused little change in pH, acidity, TBA number, pigments, color, and overall acceptability of the sample, however there was a significant change in color and appearance of the irradiated sample at 10 kGy where all microorganisms were destroyed.

  18. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-04

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  19. Effects of ionizing energy treatment on the quality of ginseng products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon; Belanger, J.M.R.; Pare, J.R.J. (Department of Agriculture, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada). Food Research and Development Centre)

    1989-01-01

    Pre-established doses were applied to Panax ginseng powders for determining the effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the quality of samples from the microbiological, some physico-chemical and organoleptic points of view. Irradiation at 5 kGy was sufficient not only to reduce total bacterial counts (1.28 x 10{sup 5}/g) by about 3 orders of magnitude but to eliminate coliforms, yeast and molds during three months of storage at 30{sup 0}C and 50-60% RH. An established dose of 5 kGy caused little change in pH, acidity, TBA number, pigments, color, and overall acceptability of the sample, however there was a significant change in color and appearance of the irradiated sample at 10 kGy where all microorganisms were destroyed. (author).

  20. Effects of the grinding process on the preparation and qualities of CWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zhang; Guoguang Wu; Xianliang Meng; Zengjie Yun; Frank Shi; Yaqun He; Xiaoqiang Luo

    2011-01-01

    Two different grinding processes were examined to determine the effect grinding has on the quality of a CWS.A series of slurries was prepared from Australian (Au) and Chinese (YZ) coals.Both types of coal were ground by a Chinese (CUMT) and an Australian (JK) grinding process.The performance tests of the prepared CWS showed that fluidity of all slurries was acceptable.The concentration of the CWS from YZ coal ground by the CUMT grinding process was higher than when the JK grinding process was used.The highest concentration was 70.14% in this case.The concentration of the CWS prepared from Au coal by the JK grinding process was higher than when the CUMT grinding process was used.The highest concentration in this case was 70.97%.These differences are caused by the particle size distribution developed during the different grinding processes.

  1. Effect of Continuous Application of Commercial Organic Manure on Farmland Quality and Vegetable Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Wen-ye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Field plot trials were carried out with cabbage, brassica chinensis and corn involving 3 different fertilization schemes including non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, chemical fertilizer with organic manure to investigate the effects of the fertilization schemes on farmland quality as well as vegetable yield. The results showed that the fertilization scheme of organic manure caused accumulation of arsenic, lead and chromium, and the accumulation increased with organic manure amount;pH of alkaline soil was decreased by organic manure;the chemical fertilizer with organic manure significantly increased the content of soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, as well as the yield of cabbage, brassica chinensis and corn, which indicated the increasing of soil fertility and vegetable field were based on fertilizer inputs.

  2. Tramadol: Effects on sexual behavior in male rats are mainly caused by its 5-HT reuptake blocking effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Esquivel Franco, Diana C; Oosting, Ronald; Waldinger, Marcel; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Olivier, Berend

    2017-04-01

    Tramadol is a well-known and effective analgesic. Recently it was shown that tramadol is also effective in human premature ejaculation. The inhibitory effect of tramadol on the ejaculation latency is probably due to its mechanism of action as a μ-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline/serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor. In order to test this speculation, we tested several doses of tramadol in a rat model of male sexual behavior and investigated two types of drugs interfering with the μ-opioid and the 5-HT system. First the μ-opioid receptor agonist properties of tramadol were tested with naloxone, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. Second, the effects of WAY100,635, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, were tested on the behavioral effects of tramadol. Finally the effects of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, combined with naloxone or WAY100,635 treatment, were compared to the effects of tramadol combined with these drugs. Results showed that naloxone, at a sexually inactive dose, could only partially antagonize the inhibitory effect of tramadol. Moreover, low and behaviorally inactive doses of WAY100,635, strongly decreased sexual behavior when combined with a behaviorally inactive dose of tramadol. Finally we showed that the effects of paroxetine on sexual behavior resembled the effects of tramadol, indicating that tramadol's inhibitory effects on sexual behavior are primarily and mainly caused by its SSRI properties and that its μ-opioid receptor agonistic activity only contributes marginally. These findings support the hypothesis that tramadol exerts inhibition of premature ejaculations in men by its 5-HT reuptake inhibiting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Chen

    Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.

  4. Why do organizations not learn from incidents? Bottlenecks, causes and conditions for a failure to effectively learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Hasle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If organizations would be able to learn more effectively from incidents that occurred in the past, futureincidents and consequential injury or damage can be prevented. To improve learning from incidents,this study aimed to identify limiting factors, i.e. the causes of the failure to effectively...... by the participants in thisstudy, were tightly related to the learning process, but some indirect causes – or conditions – such aslack of ownership and limitations in expertise were also mentioned.The results illustrate that there are two types of causes for the failure to effectively learn: direct causesand indirect...

  5. Marital quality as a moderator of the effects of poor vision on quality of life among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed the moderating role of marital quality in the effects of subjective and objective vision on functional limitations, social isolation, and depressive symptomatology. Data from 738 married older adults drawn from a probability-based representative sample of elders residing in the United States were used. Assessments included subjective and objective vision, marital quality variables (relationship satisfaction, supportive spouse behaviors, and free time spent with one's spouse), and three aspects of quality of life (functional limitations, social isolation, and depressive symptomatology). Moderated regression analyses found that relationship satisfaction and supportive spouse behaviors moderated the effects of poor self-reported vision on functional limitations and depressive symptoms and the effects of poor visual acuity on functional limitations. As hypothesized, poorer vision was unrelated to functional limitations and depressive symptoms in more satisfying marriages but predicted higher levels of both outcomes in less satisfying marriages. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of supportive spouse behaviors were associated with more functional limitations in respondents who reported poorer subjective and objective vision. A marriage that is highly satisfying can mitigate the adverse effects of poor vision on functional limitations and depressive symptomatology in late life. The moderating role of supportive spouse behaviors in the link between poor vision and quality of life is less intuitive, however. Whereas relationship satisfaction may operate as a traditional buffer in the context of poor vision, supportive spouse behaviors may increase in response to or be ineffective in this context.

  6. Effect of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and postmortem carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R H; Liang, R R; Lin, H; Zhu, L X; Zhang, Y M; Mao, Y W; Dong, P C; Niu, L B; Zhang, M H; Luo, X

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and carbohydrate metabolism. Broilers (200) were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving heat stress (HS; 36°C for one h), compared to a non-stressed control (C). At slaughter, each group was further divided into 2 groups for slaughter processing (L = laboratory; F = commercial factory). L group breasts were removed immediately after bleeding without carcass scalding or defeathering, and stored at 4°C. F group broilers were scalded (60°C, 45 s) after bleeding and defeathering. Then the breasts were removed and cooled in ice water until the core temperature was ≤4°C. Rates of Pectoralis core temperature and pH decline were changed by slaughter processing, but only HS affected ultimate pH in group L. HS muscles had higher L* values (P  0.05). Sarcoplasmic protein solubility was higher in F processed birds (P < 0.05). HS decreased the solubility of myofibrillar and total protein in the L-slaughtered birds. Thus, HS caused a higher frequency of accelerated muscle glycolysis than controls. Factory processing (chilling) could not completely eliminate the effects of accelerated glycolysis caused by pre-slaughter HS. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. The Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on Children's Quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Zojaji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adenoid hypertrophy is the most common cause of chronic airway obstruction in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on sleep and behavioral disorders in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.   Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study, all children with an indication of adenotonsillectomy based on American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery criteria and sleep disorders referred to our otolaryngology clinic were enrolled and examined. Rutter Children’s Behavior (RCBQ and Child Sleep Habit Questionnaires (CSHQ were completed by the children’s parents both before and 3 months after the operation.   Results: A total of 44 children (25 boys and 19 girls with a mean (standard deviation [SD] age of 7.86± 2.26 years and mean (SD body mass index (BMI of 16.37±1.35 kg/m2 were studied. Mean scores of RCBQ and CSHQ decreased significantly 3 months after adenotonsillectomy, and sleep habits and behavior improved significantly (P

  8. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Todokoro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  9. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures.

  10. Effect Various Combination of Organic Waste on Compost Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hapsoh; Gusmawartati; Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    .... They can be used as compost row materials. The purpose of the research was to get an optimum combination of both wastes to improve compost quality, to meet the Indonesian National Standard 19-7030-2004...

  11. Effect of malting conditions on pearl millet malt quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available and moderate malting loss. These malting conditions and the subsequent malt quality of pearl millet are similar to those reported for sorghum. Pearl millet malt can therefore be used for the production of sorghum type beers....

  12. FAILURE MODE EFFECTS AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (FMECA AS A QUALITY TOOL TO PLAN IMPROVEMENTS IN ULTRASONIC MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inside the complex process used for tire production, ultrasonic cleaning treatment probably represents the best solution to preserve the functionality of tire moulds, by removing residuals from moulds and keeping an unaltered quality for their surfaces. Ultrasonic Mould Cleaning Systems (UMCS is, however, a complicated technology that combines ultrasonic waves, high temperature and a succession of acid and basic attacks. At the same time, an UMCS plant, as part of a long productive chain, has to guarantee the highest productivity reducing failures and maintenances. This article describes the use of Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA as a methodology for improving quality in cleaning process. In particular, FMECA was utilized to identify potential defects in the original plant design, to recognize the inner causes of some failures actually occurred during operations and, finally, to suggest definitive re-design actions. Changes were implemented and the new UMCS offers a better quality in term of higher availability and productivity.

  13. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Pegelow Charles H; Eckman James R; Swerdlow Paul; Waclawiw Myron A; Barton Franca B; Ballas Samir K; Koshy Mabel; Barton Bruce A; Bonds Duane R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU) in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH) previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS) crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL) of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL) measures wer...

  14. Effects of finishing on the surface quality of precision castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patejuk A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some manufacturing problems concerning leaded brass casting using the precision casting method. It shows that the quality of the alloy depends on the intermetalic phase compounds known as hard inclusions that are formed in the alloy. The intrusions, composed mainly of iron, have also negative influence on obtaining good quality i.e. smooth surfaces of products. One of the methods to improve surface smoothness proposed by authors is to apply additional copper plating and fine polishing.

  15. Effects of Metals Associated with Wildfire Ash on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, J.; Clark, A.; Correa, N.; Ali, A.; Blake, J.; Bixby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The forests of the western United States are impacted dramatically by climate change and have suffered from large-scale increases in wildfire activity. This rise in wildfires introduces additional ash to ecosystems and can represent a serious and ongoing threat to water quality in streams and rivers from storm event runoff in burn areas. The effect of metals associated with wildfire ash (from wood collected from the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico) on solution pH and dissolved oxygen was assessed through a series of laboratory experiments. Microscopy and spectroscopy analyses were conducted to characterize the elemental content and oxidation state of metals in unreacted and reacted ash. Certain metals (e.g., Ca, K, Al, Mg) were detected in ash from ponderosa pine, one of the dominant species in the Valles Caldera, with mean concentrations ranging from 400-1750 mg kg-1. Other metals (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, V, Zn, Ni) were present at lower mean concentrations ranging from 12-210 mg kg-1. The initial pH after conducting batch experiments reacting ash with water started at 9.9 and the alkalinity of the water was 110 mg L-1 as CaCO3. Solution pH decreased to 8.0 after 48 hours of reaction, which is almost a delta of two pH units. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased by 2 mg L-1 over the course of 12 hours before the rate of reaeration surpassed the rate of consumption. This presentation will discuss how redox-active metals, such as Fe and Mn, could contribute to the increased dissolved oxygen demand and fluctuation of the oxidation/reduction potential in the system.

  16. [Multiple sclerosis: socioeconomic effects and impact on quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Guillermo Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects young adults. Survival is long, more than 35 years, and consequently the disease has a huge socioeconomic impact. The present article discusses the enormous difficulties of carrying out economic assessments in this field but also describes the advances made in research on this topic and the advantages of performing socioeconomic evaluations with increasingly sophisticated tools. We also discuss the need to quantify indirect and intangible costs to translate them into quality of life and subsequently into economic cost, expressed in euros in the case of Spain. The available data indicate that the enormous cost of the disease (1200 million euros per year) is due more to disability-related expenditure than to treatment, which-although expensive-does not represent more than 16-18% of the total expenditure (approximately 200 million euros per year). The increase represented by the cost of MS is not based on higher treatment expenditure but on an increase in the incidence and-especially-the prevalence of the disease. Above all, in the last few years, there has been a considerable rise in the percentage of patients with an indication for treatment. Reflection is therefore needed on the use of drug therapy in MS, since a saving in the most effective products seems to increase the overall cost of MS, while expenditure on these drugs represents a saving in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

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    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common

  18. Prevention effect of hemabate on postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ying Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the prevention effect of hemabate on postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia.Methods:A total of 200 puerpera with single full-term delivery who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into vaginal delivery group and cesarean section with 100 cases in each group according to the delivery modes. According to the medication methods, each group was divided into hemabate group and oxytocin with 50 cases in each group. The puerpera in the hemabate group were given deep intramuscular injection of hemabate (250 μg) after fetus delivery, and the injection interval and dosage were adjusted according to the condition, with the maximum dose not exceeding than 2 mg. The puerpera in the oxytocin group were given oxytocin (10 U) and 0.9% NaCl after fetus delivery, iv drip, for 2 h. The amount of bleeding during delivery, 2 h and 24 h after delivery in each group was observed. A volume of 3 mL elbow venous blood before delivery and 24 h after delivery was extracted. The full automatic blood cell analyzer was used to detect 24 h hemoglobin decrease value in each group. The coagulation detector was used to detect the change of coagulation function (PT, APTT, and FIB) before delivery and 24 h after delivery. The blood pressure and heart rate in each group were observed.Results:The amount of bleeding during delivery, 2 h and 24 h after delivery in hemabate group was significantly less than that in oxytocin group (P0.05). The heart rate and blood pressure after medication in each group were not significantly different from those before medication, and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusions:Hemabate can effective prevent the postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia, significantly superior to that by oxytocin. It is safe and effective in application of vaginal delivery and cesarean section; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in

  19. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin Yessotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernández Ferreiro

    2014-06-01

    Currently, published evidence indicates that hERG channel dysfunction can be due to more than one mechanism for many drugs (Guth, 2007. Alterations of hERG channel trafficking are considered an important factor in hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Actually, a screening study revealed that almost 40% of the drugs that block Ikr have also trafficking effects (Wible et al., 2005. Although YTX does not block hERG channels, it has been historically described as cardiotoxic due to in vivo damage to cardiomyocytes. Our results show that YTX induces a significant increase of hERG channel levels on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane in vitro. YTX causes cell death in many cell lines (Korsnes and Espenes, 2011 and the alterations of surface hERG levels might be related to the apoptotic process. However, annexin-V, a relatively early marker of apoptosis (Vermes et al., 1995, occurs later than the increase of surface hERG. Additionally, staurosporine triggered apoptosis without a simultaneous increase of surface hERG, so events are not necessarily related. Therefore YTX-induced elevated hERG in the plasma membrane seem to be independent of apoptosis. Functional implications of hERG currents have been described after alterations of cell surface hERG density (Guth, 2007. YTX did not cause significant alterations of hERG currents. Furthermore the hERG levels after YTX treatment were duplicated, so the effect on currents should be clearly evidenced if these channels were functional. The hERG channels on the cell surface are regulated by its production, translocation to the plasma membrane and degradation. The increase of extracellular channel could be a consequence of a higher production and externalization or a slower degradation. Higher synthesis in our cell model would not be physiologically relevant but our results demonstrated that the amount of immature hERG is reduced instead of increased. Fully glycosylated hERG seems slightly increased in these conditions but it is

  20. Effect of staff attitudes on quality in clinical microbiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Sarah J; Sands, Richard L

    2002-01-01

    Technical quality of the work of clinical pathology laboratories is monitored regularly by both internal and external sources. Among the factors that might affect quality, laboratory staff attitudes are rarely considered. In this study, the psychological concepts of 'job satisfaction' and 'climate' are measured among microbiology biomedical scientists in the United Kingdom. A self-report questionnaire was developed and distributed (between November 1998 and February 1999) to biomedical scientists in 161 microbiology laboratories throughout the UK From 2415 questionnaires distributed, 931 replies were received--a response rate of 39%. A separate set of questions covering customer service and participation in internal and external quality assurance schemes was sent to laboratory managers. Biomedical scientists reported lower job satisfaction than did medical technologists in a previous study in the USA. Perception of climate was influenced by several demographic factors, the most important of which being the size of the laboratory. Optimal number of staff in a department was found to be less than 30. Aggregation of climate scores from members of the same department showed that a positive laboratory climate was important for good performance in internal and external measures of technical quality. For the best service, laboratory climate must be supported by a staff perception that the department is committed to enhancing quality--a climate for laboratory quality.