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Sample records for quality cassava flour

  1. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  2. Use of indigenous technology for the production of High Quality Cassava Flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Chinedum Eleazu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the paper was to compare the food qualities of 2 varieties (SME 1 and 2 of high quality cassava flour (HQCF produced from indigenous technology and that of some commercially sold wheat/HQCF samples. Material and methods. The pH, proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant, functional properties and starch yield of the flours were carried out using standard techniques. Results. The wheat flours had higher bulk densities and lipids than the HQCF samples while the oil absorption capacity of the HQCF (SME 2 was higher than other fl our samples investigated. The antioxidant assays of the flours showed that they contained considerable levels of antioxidants with the HQCF sample from DAT having higher antioxidants than other flour samples studied. The HQCF (SME 1 had signifi cantly higher (P < 0.05 starch content among the flour samples. The bacteria counts of the HQCF samples ranged from 0 to 1.4 × 104 cfu/ml while the fungal count ranged from 0 to 2 × 10-3 with the unbranded wheat fl our having the highest microbial load compared with other flour samples studied. Conclusion. The use of this indigenous technology produces HQCF with lower lipids, microbial contamination but higher flavour retaining ability, flavonoids and starch contents than wheat flour. The signifi cant positive correlation (R2 = 0.872 between reducing power of the samples and their DPPH antioxidant activity indicate that either could be used to assay for the total antioxidant activity of cassava and wheat flour. The study underscores the need to buy flour from branded companies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination.

  3. Qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo seca Quality of cassava flour from a dry group

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    Renan Campos Chisté

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Região Norte, a farinha de mandioca é produzida em pequenos estabelecimentos denominados de "Casas de Farinha", que apresentam problemas de adequação às exigências da legislação devido ao seu processamento e às precárias condições higiênico-sanitárias. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o padrão de qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo seca, subgrupo fina, tipo 1. Foram coletadas dez amostras de farinha de mandioca nos principais supermercados e feiras da cidade de Belém, PA, tendo sido realizadas análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e pesquisa de sujidades. De acordo com a Portaria Nº 554 de 30.08.1995 da Secretaria da Agricultura, do Abastecimento e Reforma Agrária, das dez amostras de farinha de mandioca analisadas, em todas foram encontrados valores acima do padrão permitido para a acidez total, cujo valor máximo é de 3 meq. NaOH/100 g, e cinco amostras apresentaram-se abaixo da tolerância mínima exigida para o amido, que é de 75%. De acordo com a Resolução RDC nº 12 de 02.01.2001 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, todas as amostras de farinha de mandioca apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de contaminantes microbiológicos. De acordo com a Resolução RDC nº 175 de 08.07.2003, das dez amostras de farinha de mandioca analisadas, foram encontradas oito fora dos padrões exigidos, por apresentarem sujidades.In the north of Brazil, cassava flour is produced in small-scale processing units called ´flour mill houses'. These processing units have difficulty in complying with current legislation due to processing methods and to poor sanitary conditions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality standard of cassava flour from the dry group, subgroup "fina", type 1. Ten samples of cassava flour were collected from the main supermarkets and free markets in Belém-PA, and the physical-chemical, microbiological and dirt research analyses were carried out. According

  4. Nutritional and sensory properties: Snack food made from high-quality cassava flour and legume blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Alamu, Emmanuel O; Popoola, Ibironke O; Yomeni, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The nutritional benefits of grain legumes such as cowpea and soybean in sub-Saharan Africa have not been fully utilized to alleviate problem of protein-malnutrition in this region. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the nutritional properties and sensory evaluation of snack food made from high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) and soybeans (50:50), and HQCF and cowpea (50:50). Sensory evaluation was conducted among panellists in Nigeria and DR Congo. Results showed that the soy variant of the snack contained significantly higher protein than the cowpea variant. There was cross-cultural difference in snack preference between panellists in Nigeria and DR Congo. Panellists in DR Congo preferred the aroma of the unboiled soy variant, whereas panellists in Nigeria preferred the boiled soy variant more. This study showed the potential of legumes and cassava in the snack food sector not only as a partial substitute for wheat flour but as a major ingredient and also form basis for the new product development in the snacks food industry. The developed product could be possibly used to alleviate the protein-malnutrition among the vulnerable groups of most developing countries.

  5. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

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    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  6. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  7. TEKNOLOGI MODIFIKASI TEPUNG KASAVA Modified Cassava Flour Technology

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    Haryadi Haryadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava productivity is very potential to support food security. Processing of cassava into flour makes the food more durable, less voluminous and easier to handle, and flexible to cook. To extend the use of cassava flour, it is necessary to develop technology to produce quality cassava flour suitable for various food purposes. A certain flour finess is desired to free the starch granules and to allow the granule’s cooking characteristics to express significantly. Modification of cassava flour technology may involve physical, biological, chemical aspects, as well as combination of the aspects. ABSTRAK Potensi produksi kasava sangat besar untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pendukung ketahanan pangan. Pengolahannya men­ jadi tepung memungkinkan lebih awet, lebih ringkas dan lebih mudah diangkut, serta lebih luwes untuk diolah. Untuk memperluas penggunaan tepung kasava, perlu pengembangan teknologi produksi tepung bermutu yang dapat diman­ faatkan dalam berbagai olahan makanan. Tepung dikehendaki pada kelembutan tertentu, sehingga granula-granula pati terlepas dari jaringan awalnya, dan selanjutnya ciri-ciri granula dalam pemasakan menjadi nyata. Modifikasi pembuatan tepung kasava dapat dilakukan secara fisik, biologis maupun kimiawi, ataupun gabungan dari aspek-aspek tersebut.

  8. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR) [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour)

    OpenAIRE

    Anni Faridah*; Simon Bambang Widjanarko

    2014-01-01

    Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf) substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour) to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie ...

  9. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Armando U.O. SABAA-SRUR; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  10. Quality Improvement of Cassava Flour of Local Variety of Ternate Through Fermentation Method (Application on Traditional Food of North Maluku “Sagu lempeng”

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    Hamidin Rasulu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is utilized as one of the main food substances in North Maluku society and it has potential for food diversification due to its special quality compare to other products. Cassava commodity can be processed into composite flours with fermentation methods and it is as prominent of food resources and has low of Cyanide content (HCN. This research used two phases of Program Random Completes; it used fermentation period of cassava with 5 levels: 24,36,48,60, and 72 hours. And the utilization phases of composite flours the making of sagu lempeng. The result of this research showed that with long period of fermentation had produce cassava flours with cyanide content of 16, 41–56, 93 ppm with initial content of cyanide as big as 109,02 ppm. The highest cyanide content was found with fermentation period of 24 hours and lower fermentation of 72 hours. The characteristic of sagu lempeng  with chocolate and orange taste has 0.72 and 0.55 g total fats, 1.05 and 0.57 g protein, 86.9 and 86.28 g total carbohydrate, 2.86 and 1.35 g rough standard fiber.

  11. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

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    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  12. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  13. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

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    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  14. CASSAVA FLOUR AS A DIRECT SUBSTITUTE OF MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Live-weight, feed intake and mortality were recorded and feed conversion ... Increased proportion of cassava flour in the diet resulted in a decrease in weight gain, feed ... imports maize grain to overcome shortages. ..... Unfermented whole root.

  15. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

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    Novelina Novelina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 70% of wheat flour with 30% of cassava and red beans flour mixture at various levels. The observations was carried out on raw materials and the instant noodle products, including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content as well as by different organoleptic test of the flavour, aroma, texture and colour. The results showed that the noodles product that was the most qualified and preferred was the product with the treatment D (a mixture of 70% of wheat flour; 20% of cassava flour and 10% of red bean flour, with the test results of 2.24% of moisture content, 1.07% of ash content, 9.36% of protein content, 17.77% of fat content, carbohydrate content by different of 69.95%, and 71.53% of yield.

  16. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

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    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  17. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

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    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  18. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

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    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  19. Sustainable inclusion of smallholders in the emerging high quality cassava flour value chains in Africa: challenges for agricultural extension services

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, K.; Abayomi, L.; Abass, A.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Forsythe, L; Hillocks, R.J.; Gensi, R.; Gibson, R.W.; Graffham, A.J.; Ilona, P.; Kleih, U.K.; Lamboll, R.I.; Mahende, G.; Martin, A M; Onumah, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the premise that smallholders often get excluded as markets become more commercial, this paper draws lessons from the Cassava: Adding Value for Africa (C:AVA) Project by exploring the main issues and challenges facing extension service partners in five African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi). These lessons includes issues around competiveness in the supply of raw material, assisting smallholders to produce value-added products competitively, working with a ran...

  20. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

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    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  1. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

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    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  2. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

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    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  3. Kinetics of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Cassava Starch and Bitter Cassava Flour and Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst Flour at Low Temperature

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    Hargono Hargono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a potential substrate for this purpose, but the extra cost is needed to hydrolyze it into reducing sugar. As an alternative to the expensive and energy demanding conventional hydrolysis process, the low-temperature hydrolysis is being studied. Granular Starch Hydrolysing Enzyme (GSHE was used in the process to degrade starch into reducing sugar at 30°C and pH 4. The substrates included bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour. Starch concentrations studied were 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 g/L, respectively, while concentration of enzyme was 1.5 % (w/w. The optimum condition of the process was hydrolysis using 200 g/L of substrate concentration and enzyme  concentration of 1.5% for 12 h. It was found that the reducing sugar was  49.3  g/L and the productivity of reducing sugar (Qrs was 4.11 (gL-1 h-1.   Lineweaver-Burk plot of Michaelis-Menten equation was used to study the inhibition kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km  for these three substrates were determined as 141.64 g/L, 137,64 g/L and 140.84 g/L for bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour, respectively. The value of  Vm/Km, which denotes the affinity of the enzyme to the substrate, were determined and compared, and the result showed that the affinity (Vm to the enzyme to this substrate followed  the order of sweet cassava starch˃ bitter cassava flour˃ gadung flour, and all are non-competitive inhibitor, while the  Ki value was 0.022 h -1.

  4. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  5. Processamentos de amêndoa e torta de castanha-do-Brasil e farinha de mandioca: parâmetros de qualidade Processing of Brazil nut and meal and cassava flour: quality parameters

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    Maria Luzenira de Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A castanha-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz são matérias-primas importantes que constituem a base de subsistência para os povos da região Amazônica. Devido à falta de incentivo às suas utilizações pela indústria de alimentos no mercado interno, buscou-se processar a castanha-do-Brasil para obtenção de amêndoa e torta, e de mandioca para obtenção de farinha, objetivando identificar parâmetros de qualidade que justificassem e incentivassem o apelo aos seus aproveitamentos. Os resultados mostraram que a negatividade de aflatoxinas na amêndoa e torta apontaram a alta qualidade do lote da castanha-do-Brasil em relação a segurança alimentar. Os teores encontrados de selênio 2,04mg/kg na amêndoa e 7,13mg/kg na torta, os percentuais de fibra alimentar de 8,02 na amêndoa, de 15,72 na torta e de 5,68 na farinha, proteína bruta de 40,23% na torta e carboidratos 79,33% na farinha, permitiram caracterizar o produto a base de castanha como protéico, rico em selênio e fibras; e o de mandioca como rico em carboidratos e fibras. A proteína bruta da amêndoa é completa, rica em aminoácidos sulfurados, estando uns aminoácidos em quantidades superiores e outros equivalentes aos do padrão da FAO, podendo a castanha e derivados - devido a estes aminoácidos, ao selênio e fibras - serem considerados um apelo ao seu consumo, pelas funções de grande relevância que desempenham à manutenção da saúde do ser humano.Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz are important raw materials, which constitute the basis of subsistence for those who live in the Amazon region. Due to a total lack of incentive for their use by the national food industry, this study aimed at processing Brazil nuts to obtain the nuts and the meal and at processing cassava to obtain the flour, studying the quality parameters which could justify and encourage their use. The absence of

  6. Consumer acceptability of stiff porridge based on various composite flour proportions of sorghum, maize and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangu, N T; Mtebe, K; Nzallawahe, T S

    1994-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine consumer acceptable proportions of flours in sorghum (var. serena) and maize or sorghum, maize and cassava composite flours. Breeder's serena flour extracted at 75 percent was mixed at various proportions with maize or with maize and cassava to constitute composite flours. The various composite flours were made into stiff porridge and presented to a group of panellists for sensory evaluation. The evaluation was conducted by scoring on a hedonic scale of 0-5 for poor to excellent, respectively, for the parameters colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. The responses were analysed statistically. Alternatively the panellists were allowed to eat ad-lib any of the presented samples which appealed to them. The results demonstrated that slight incorporation (porridge overrides other factors in contributing to its acceptability.

  7. Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Jensen, Sidsel; Skibsted, Leif H.;

    2016-01-01

    Composite wheat–cassava (WC) bread was recently proposed as a sustainable alternative to wheat bread. Nonetheless, using >20 % cassava flour on flour basis in bread baking has consistently been proven to impair the sensory quality. Selected enzymes: fungal alpha-amylase Fungamyl® 2500 SG (Fungamyl......), maltogenic alpha-amylase Novamyl® 10000 BG (Novamyl), xylanase Panzea® BG (Panzea), lipase Lipopan® Xtra BG (Lipopan) and glucose oxidase Gluzyme® Mono 10000 BG (GOX) were tested for sensory improvement of the WC bread, investigating textural and structural changes. Wheat flour replacement with fermented...... cassava flour (Polvilho Azedo) at 30 % level resulted in bread of lower volume with chewier texture and smaller crumb pores. Fungamyl, Novamyl and Panzea enhanced loaf volume of wheat bread; however, they decreased volume and conferred stickiness when added to the WC bread. Lipopan increased loaf volume...

  8. Control of konzo in DRC using the wetting method on cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, J P; Nahimana, G; Mandombi, C; Bradbury, J Howard; Denton, Ian C; Kuwa, N

    2012-05-01

    Fifty konzo cases were identified in four villages in Popokabaka Health Zone, DRC. One third of people had only one meal per day, mainly of cassava flour consumed as a thick porridge (fufu) and pounded, boiled cassava leaves. Retention of cyanogens in flour resulted from short soaking of cassava roots. A 1.5 years intervention was made in the largest village Kay Kalenge, where the wetting method was taught to all women of the village, who accepted it willingly. The total cyanide content of cassava flour was reduced to below 10 ppm. Fufu from treated flour tasted and stored better than fufu from untreated flour. The mean urinary thiocyanate content of 100 school children reduced from 332 to 130 μmole/L and the number of samples exceeding 350 μmole/L decreased from 26 to 0 during the intervention. No new konzo cases occurred, which included two dry seasons when konzo peaks. Konzo was first identified by Dr. Trolli in 1938 in Popokabaka Health Zone and it has now been prevented for the first time in the same area. The methodology is now in use in Boko Health Zone and we believe it is the most effective way to control konzo in tropical Africa.

  9. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  10. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  11. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone.

  12. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  13. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... utilizing indigenous bacteria from cyanide rich cassava peel waste and exploited their potential for detoxification. ... lotaustralin), and low content of protein and free amino ... these toxic constituents is required to avoid chronic.

  14. Qualidade microbiológica na obtenção de farinha e fécula de mandioca em unidades tradicionais e modelo Microbiological quality in the flour and starch cassava processing in traditional and model unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Resende Dósea

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de farinha e fécula durante as diferentes etapas do processamento de mandioca, em unidades tradicionais e em uma unidade modelo. Foram determinados índices de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonela spp., bactérias e fungos nas farinhas e féculas. Não foram observadas presenças de B. cereus e Salmonella spp. na farinha e fécula de mandioca produzidas nas unidades estudadas. A incidência microbiana diminui com o avanço da etapa do processamento para obtenção de farinha e foi menor na unidade modelo. Após o processo de torra, a carga microbiana estava de acordo com os valores preconizados pela legislação brasileira, concluindo-se que essa etapa pode ser considerada como crítica na obtenção de farinha. Na obtenção de fécula, a carga microbiana nas unidades tradicionais são maiores que na modelo, e o aumento do número de extrações promove o aumento da incidência de microrganismos, sendo recomendadas apenas quatro extrações.The objective of this research was to evaluate microbiological contamination in the flour and starch during cassava processing in traditional and model units. The total and fecal coliforms indexes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, bacteria, yeast and fungi were determined. Bacillus cereus and Salmonella were not detected in any sample. The incidence of microorganisms decreased along the processing to obtain cassava flour, and is lower in model unit. After the roasting process, the microbial load was below the values established by the Brazilian legislation, and can be regarded as a critical step in obtaining cassava flour. Concerning starch production, the microbial load in the traditional units was higher than in the model units, and the increase of the extraction steps has promoted the growth of microorganisms. It's recommended the used of only 4 extractions.

  15. Production of raw cassava starch-degrading enzyme by Penicillium and its use in conversion of raw cassava flour to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-Juan; Xian, Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Jiang; Luo, Xue-Mei; Xu, Qiang-Sheng; Yang, Qi; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Liang; Tang, Ji-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2011-06-01

    A newly isolated strain Penicillium sp. GXU20 produced a raw starch-degrading enzyme which showed optimum activity towards raw cassava starch at pH 4.5 and 50 °C. Maximum raw cassava starch-degrading enzyme (RCSDE) activity of 20 U/ml was achieved when GXU20 was cultivated under optimized conditions using wheat bran (3.0% w/v) and soybean meal (2.5% w/v) as carbon and nitrogen sources at pH 5.0 and 28 °C. This represented about a sixfold increment as compared with the activity obtained under basal conditions. Starch hydrolysis degree of 95% of raw cassava flour (150 g/l) was achieved after 72 h of digestion by crude RCSDE (30 U/g flour). Ethanol yield reached 53.3 g/l with fermentation efficiency of 92% after 48 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw cassava flour at 150 g/l using the RCSDE (30 U/g flour), carried out at pH 4.0 and 40 °C. This strain and its RCSDE have potential applications in processing of raw cassava starch to ethanol.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Composite Flour Made from Cassava, Sweet Potato, Corn and Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lampung province is one of production center for food commodities such as cassava, maize and sweet potato. The development of these commodities into processed products has been done one of which is a composite flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of composite flour consisting of a mixture of cassava flour (CF, sweet potato flour (SPF and corn flour (NF. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Lampung Assessment Institute for  Agriculture  Technology (AIAT and Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI on May – July 2014. The design used was completely randomized by four treatments such as F1 (60% CF, 0% SPF, 35% NF, 5% Rice Bran/RB , F2 (50% CF, 10% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, F3 (40% CF, 20% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB and F4 (30% CF, 30% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, and the activities was repeated 4 times. The data were statistically analyzed and followed by Duncan Multiple range test. Physical characteristics observed were whiteness, water content, water absorption value (NPA and the water solubility value (NKA. While the chemical characteristics of proximate analysis consist of moisture content, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fiber and ash content by AOAC Methods. The results showed that the whiteness value of four composite flours were not different in the ranged between 57.97% (F4 and 60.37% (F1. While the carbohydrates content ranged from 81.17 to 83.3% (the highest in the F4, protein was from 3.70 to 4.47% (the highest in the F4, fat was from 1.41 to 1.50%, ash content was from 01.47 - 1.66%, 1.81 - 2.17% for crude fiber, 11.64 to 18.80% for amylose, while amylopectin content ranged from 36.68 to 43.98%.

  17. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  18. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  19. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products.

  20. A new alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus as a producer of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Lorena de Araújo Coelho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production.

  1. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  2. Variabilidade físico-química da farinha de mandioca Physicochemical variability of cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maria Leite de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade físico-química da farinha de mandioca comercializada no município de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC por meio da análise multivariada. Foram analisadas 18 amostras de diferentes farinhas de mandioca, quanto às variáveis: umidade, cinzas, lipídios, proteína bruta, fibra bruta, carboidratos totais, acidez e pH. A aplicação da análise multivariada de agrupamento segundo o método de Tocher permitiu o estabelecimento de cinco grupos de farinhas. Os grupos IV e V foram considerados de alta qualidade, o primeiro por apresentar o menor teor de cinzas e o maior de proteína bruta, e o segundo por apresentar o menor teor de umidade e o maior teor de carboidratos dentre os grupos. As técnicas de análise multivariada foram coerentes para identificar as farinhas mais heterogêneas. A identificação de grupos distintos indica a existência de variabilidade nas farinhas de mandioca comercializadas na região de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC, podendo esta variabilidade estar relacionada, especialmente com o processo de produção.The goal of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical variability of the cassava flour, sold in the city of Cruzeiro do Sul - in the state of AC (Brazil, by multivaried analysis. The following contents of eighteen different cassava flours were analyzed: moisture, ashes, lipids, protein, fiber, carbohydrates, acidity, and pH. Grouping multivaried analysis according to the Tocher method allowed the establishment of five groups of flours. The groups IV and V were considered high quality groups. The first one due to the lower ashes and higher protein contents; and the second due to the lower moisture and higher carbohydrates contents. The multivaried analysis techniques presented good responses to identify most heterogeneous flours. The physicochemical variability seen in the five different groups probably indicates different production processes.

  3. Metabolic fates in humans of linamarin in cassava flour ingested as stiff porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, L; Mlingi, N; Juma, A; Ronquist, G; Rosling, H

    1999-04-01

    Insufficiently processed products from cassava roots may contain residual amounts of cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin. The fate of orally ingested linamarin was studied following a meal of cassava porridge prepared from cassava flour from southern Tanzania with 82 mg cyanide equivalents (3035 micromol) of linamarin per kg dry weight. Following ingestion of amounts of porridge containing 243-571 micromol linamarin by 15 healthy adults a mean (range) of 21% (1-47%) of the linamarin ingested was excreted in the urine within 24 hours and a mean of 1% in the next 24 hours. Serum thiocyanate, the main cyanide metabolite, increased in all subjects from a mean (+/-SD) of 34+/-26 to 78+/-28 micromol/litre (P porridge with a mean (range) of 431 micromol (203-669%) of linamarin resulted in a mean linamarin excretion of 127 micromol/litre and an excess thiocyanate excretion of 118 micromol/litre and that 216 micromol was unaccounted for. We conclude that less than one-half of orally ingested linamarin is converted to cyanide and hence thiocyanate, about one-quarter is excreted unchanged and another quarter is metabolized into an as yet unknown compound.

  4. Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Makita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Koutaro; Shoji, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable α-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%.

  5. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSURFACTANT BY Pseudomonas fluorescens USING CASSAVA FLOUR WASTEWATER AS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant with efficient emulsification properties could be produced by Pseudomonas flourescens using cassava flour wastewater (manipueira as media. The ability of P. flourescens to produce biosurfactant could suggest potential use in industrial and environmental applications. Media containing a mixture of natural manipueira and nutrient broth with 48 h fermentation was the optimum condition for the biosurfactant production. Based on UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra, the biosurfactant was indicated as rhamnolipids containing hydroxyl, ester, carboxylic and aliphatic carbon chain functional groups. Biosurfactant exhibited critical micelle concentration (CMC value of 715 mg/L and reduced the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 59 mN/m. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension about 51-70% when benzyl chloride, palm oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsion until 30 days when paraffin, soybean oil, lubricant oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds.

  6. Biologic treatment of wastewater from cassava flour production using vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce T Correia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimate cassava production in Brazil in 2007 was of 25 million tons (= 15% of the world production and most of it is used in the production of flour. During its processing, waste that can cause environmental inequality is generated, if discharged inappropriately. One of the liquid waste generated, manipueira, is characterized by its high level of organic matter. The anaerobic treatment that uses a vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR inoculated with granulated sludge, is one of the ways of treating this effluent. The anaerobic biodigestion phases are separated in this kind of reactor, allowing greater stability and resistance to load shocks. The VABR was built with a width/height rate of 1:2. The pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity and COD removal were analyzed in 6 different regions of the reactor, which was operated with an increasing feeding from ? 2000 to ? 10000 mg COD L?¹ and HRT between 6.0 and 2.5 days. The VABR showed decreasing acidity and turbidity, an increase in alkalinity and pH, and 96% efficiency in COD removal with 3-day HRT and feeding of 3800 mg COD L?¹.

  7. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... production in 2004 (FAO, 2005) with Nigeria contributing. 38.4 million metric .... High volumes and high cost technology. Low volumes and low cost of equipment ... cassava flour from 1% crude protein content to between. 18-20% ..... Cassava leaf meal as a replacement for coconut oil meal in broilers' diets.

  8. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  9. The safety of dark, moulded Cassava Flour compared with white- a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of cyanohydrins plus HCN together“ ranged from 19 to 89% of the total cyanide. ... that safety of cassava ilour cannot be judged by colour or extent of fungal growth. Introduction. Cassava (Manihot ... Cyanogcns and aflatoxins, and some.

  10. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  11. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Fermented Cassava Flour “Lafun” Available in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria

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    A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms involved in the fermentation and spoilage of fermented cassava flour were investigated. The water samples used at the different processing sites were also investigated to determine their safety status. There was predominance of Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus spp., and Escherichia coli in all samples. Coliforms were observed to be present in all of the processing water. In the fermented cassava flour, the total bacterial count ranged between 4.9×106 cfu/mL from Eleso, Bakatari, and Oja Odan processing sites and 8.10×106 cfu/mL in Eruku processing site. The majority of the microorganisms involved in the spoilage of “lafun” were found to be Aspergillus niger which ranged between 4.6×105 cfu/mL in Eleso and 8.1×105 cfu/mL in Kila. The control sample prepared in the laboratory had a low microbial load compared to samples collected from various sites and markets.

  12. Chemical, rheological and mechanical evaluation of maize dough and tortillas in blends with cassava and malanga flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Parra-Pérez, Joaquin; Betancur-Ancona, David; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2015-07-01

    Masa or dough from nixtamalized maize with cassava (Cf) and malanga flour (Mf) addition at 20, 30 and 40 % (w/w) were prepared making seven treatments. The produced masas or doughs were subjected to chemical analysis, rheological and mechanical tests. Tortillas were manufactured from these doughs and mechanical tests were undertaken. Doughs from tubers had less protein and lipid content but higher nitrogen free extract than the control. All doughs presented weak viscoelastic gel-like behavior, with those of Mf behaving mainly as viscous systems. Doughs with Cf showed lower decrease in both the elastic (G') and viscous (G") moduli than those with Mf. The adhesiveness and cohesiveness of doughs with Mf showed a higher reduction of maximum force than those with Cf. Tortillas with Cf were more elastic with higher tensile strength than those with Mf. Using Cf as partial substitution of maize might lower production costs, but Mf is not particularly suitable as maize substitute in tortilla production. Tortillas with 40 % (w/w) cassava flour, presented the highest preference on a sensory test.

  13. Characteristics of Red Sweet Potato (Ipomea batatas Analog Rice (SPAR From The addition of Cassava Flour (Manihot utillisima and Carrot (Daucus carota

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    Tuty Anggraini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of the addition ratio of cassava flour and carrots in making  sweet potato analog rice. This research also used completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replication. The treatment in this study was the addition of cassava flour 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, and the carrots 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% to the entire material. The results showed that the addition of cassava flour and carrots give significantly different results on fat content, antioxidant activity and beta-carotene, no significant difference in moisture content, ash content, protein content, crude fiber content, carbohydrates, total polyphenol. The results of treatment E (50% cassava flour : 50% carrot obtained an average water content of 7.75%, 2.67% ash content, protein content of 2.56%, 0.41% fat, carbohydrate content of 86.59%, crude fibre content 18.74 %, 48.97% antioxidant activity, total polyphenols 0.61%, the determination of the energy value 3.58kcal, beta-carotene 5017.83μg / 100ml.

  14. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  15. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

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    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  16. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

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    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  17. Effects of processing on physical properties of extruded snacks with blends of sour cassava starch and flaxseed flour

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    Camila De Barros Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to supplement common cassava biscuits with a product of higher nutritional value meets consumer expectations. In this work it was studied the effects of process parameters and flaxseed addition on physical properties of expanded snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single screw extruder in a factorial central composite rotatable design with four factors: flaxseed flour percentage (0-20%, moisture (12-20%, extrusion temperature (90-130 °C and screw speed (190-270. The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color parameters (L*, a* ,b* and hardness. The data analysis showed that variable parameters of the extrusion process and flaxseed flour affected physical properties of puffed snacks. Among the experimental conditions used in the present study, expanded snack products with good physical properties can be obtained under the conditions of 10% flaxseed flour, 230 rpm screw speed, temperature of 90 °C and moisture of 12%.

  18. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is

  19. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is co

  20. Cassava flour separation using inverse cyclone Separação de farinha de mandioca em um ciclone inverso

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    Carlos A. Herrera

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries cassava starch is produced mostly rurally using artisan methods through wet-way processes that consume as much as 37 m³ of water per processed ton. In comparison, the little industrial production consumes 5 m³ of water per processed ton. These waste waters, highly contaminated, are usually discharged in to the rivers without any treatment. With the aim of industrializing the cassava flour production, CIAT and CLAYUCA are developing an alternative dry technology, environmentally sustainable, to produce enriched flour as a starch substitute. The intention is to separate the starch enriched flour ( 44 mum. The use of an inversely operated cyclone (related to the conventional operation showed good potential in terms of efficiency and economy. In this paper we propose pressure drop (deltap, fines (Nos países em desenvolvimento, a maioria do amido de mandioca é produzido ruralmente, via úmida e com consumo de 37 m³ de água por tonelada processada. A minoritária produção industrial consome 5 m³ de água por tonelada processada. Estas águas altamente poluentes são descarregadas nàs correntes superficiais, sem tratamento adequado. Para industrializar a mandioca e fazer os processos ambientalmente sustentáveis, CIAT y CLAYUCA estão desenvolvendo tecnologias alternativas de produção seca de farinha enriquecida, elemento substitutivo do amido. A finalidade é separar a farinha fina enriquecida em amido ( 44 mim. O uso de um ciclone operado de maneira inversa à convencional, mostrou-se como alternativa muito promissóro em termos de efetividade e economia. Aqui propõese, como parâmetros de desempenho do dispositivo, a queda de pressão (deltap, a efetividade (eta de captura de finos menores de 44 mim e a qualidade (q dos finos capturados. As provas mostram que deltap,eta, e q depende da velocidade de entrada ao ciclone (v g e da concentração (c de sólidos na alimentação. As eta, e q obtidas (60 e 80% mostram

  1. Use of the wetting method on cassava flour in three konzo villages in Mozambique reduces cyanide intake and may prevent konzo in future droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhassico, Dulce; Bradbury, James Howard; Cliff, Julie; Majonda, Rita; Cuambe, Constantino; Denton, Ian C; Foster, Matthew P; Martins, Arlinda; Cumbane, Adelaide; Sitoe, Luis; Pedro, Joao; Muquingue, Humberto

    2016-07-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly in children and young women associated with large cyanide intake from bitter cassava coupled with malnutrition. In East Africa outbreaks occur during drought, when cassava plants produce much more cyanogens than normal. A wetting method that removes cyanogens from cassava flour was taught to the women of three konzo villages in Mozambique, to prevent sporadic konzo and konzo outbreaks in the next drought. The intervention was in three villages with 72 konzo cases and mean konzo prevalence of 1.2%. The percentage of children with high (>350 μmol/L) urinary thiocyanate content and at risk of contracting konzo in Cava, Acordos de Lusaka, and Mujocojo reduced from 52, 10, and 6 at baseline to 17, 0, and 4 at conclusion of the intervention. Cassava flour showed large reductions in total cyanide over the intervention. The percentage of households using the wetting method was 30-40% in Acordos de Lusaka and Mujocojo and less in Cava. If the wetting method is used extensively by households during drought it should prevent konzo outbreaks and chronic cyanide intoxication. We recommend that the wetting method be taught in all konzo areas in East Africa.

  2. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

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    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  3. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  4. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  5. Extrusão de misturas de castanha do Brasil com mandioca Extrusion of Brazil nut and cassava flour mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luzenira de Souza

    2008-06-01

    potential, low consumption in Brazil, low added-value and is an organic product; that cassava has high productivity and low cost; and that the technology of thermoplastic extrusion presents wide applicability and considerable advantages, the objective of this work was to use these three variables, formulating Brazil nut and cassava flour mixtures and processing them by extrusion, with the aim of obtaining ready-to-eat extruded products containing high levels of vegetable protein. Semi-defatted Brazil nut cake and cassava flour were used to formulate the mixtures for extrusion. A complete factorial central composite design (2³ with 3 independent variables, and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of the proximate composition and caloric value, according to the variations in the quantity of nut, moisture content and temperature. The results indicate that the mixtures with higher Brazil nut levels present higher levels of protein, fat and ash, while the mixtures with less Brazil nut present higher levels of carbohydrate. The average regression coefficients of the statistical model for the responses are: moisture 7.40; carbohydrate 51.09; protein 15.34; fat 11.77; total fibre 9.92 and kcal 371.65. The trials with lower quantities of Brazil nut and higher quantities of flour are more expanded and of a lighter colour, while those with more Brazil nut do not expand and are greyish in colour. It is concluded that the addition of Brazil nut to cassava flour results in a mixture that could be submitted to extrusion, producing an extruded product that could serve as a ready-to-eat source of vegetable protein, and attend the demands of consumers who do not consume proteins of animal origin.

  6. Enhanced butanol production by solvent tolerance Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 from cassava flour in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-Guang; Ma, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wu, Ya-Qing; Li, Xun-Hang

    2016-12-01

    To enhance the butanol productivity and reduce the material cost, acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 was investigated using batch, repeated-batch and continuous cultures in a fibrous bed bioreactor, where cassava flour was used as the substrate. With periodical nutrient supplementation, stable butanol production was maintained for about 360h in a 6-cycle repeated-batch fermentation with an average butanol productivity of 0.28g/L/h and butanol yield of 0.32g/g-starch. In addition, the highest butanol productivity of 0.63g/L/h and butanol yield of 0.36g/g-starch were achieved when the dilution rate were investigated in continuous production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol using a fibrous bed bioreactor, which were 231.6% and 28.6% higher than those of the free-cell fermentation. On the other hand, this study also successfully comfirmed that the biofilm can provide an effective protection for the microbial cells which are growing in stressful environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars Estabilidade de alimento em barra à base de farinha de mandioca

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    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.A farinha de mandioca apresenta redução de consumo por não se adequar ao estilo de vida moderno. Para inverter esta tendência, novos produtos poderão ser desenvolvidos e direcionados a mercados valorizados. As barras de cereais destacam-se como fast food de bom perfil nutricional. Uma fórmula foi usada para mimetizar as barras de cereais, usando uma mistura de farinha de mandioca, gordura vegetal, bananas secas, castanha de caju e xarope de glicose. As barras prensadas foram secas por 1 hora a 65 °C, embaladas em filmes e armazenadas em condição ambiente. A estabilidade do produto foi acompanhada

  8. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, J M; Sahi, S S; García-Alvarez, J; Turó, A; Chávez, J A; García, M J; Salazar, J

    2007-06-01

    Within the baking industry, the control of dough properties is required to achieve final product quality and consistency. Traditional methods for dough testing are slow and off-line and do not provide fundamental rheological information. There is therefore a need for the development of fast and on-line instruments capable of providing relevant data for baking. Ultrasonics provide a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. In this work, the water content of dough is investigated using ultrasonic techniques. The capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes is also studied. Doughs from more than 30 flours were characterised rheologically using a Chopin Alveograph and a Brabender Extensograph. Ultrasound measurements on the doughs prepared from these flours were also performed. The measurements were correlated, showing that ultrasound was an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  9. Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits.

  10. Digestibilidad Aparente de una Harina Proveniente de Hojas de Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Apparent Digestibility of Flour Made from Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió y evaluó la digestibilidad aparente de la proteína, materia seca y energía de la harina de hojas de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, para consumo humano obtenida de la variedad MCol 1505 de tres meses de edad. Una dieta control (caseína 12 % y dietas con sustitución de harina de hoja de yuca en 10 % y 20 % fueron suministradas a ratas de Wistar durante un periodo de 15 días con siete días de acostumbramiento y ocho días de recolección de muestras. Se encontró que el uso de harina de hoja de yuca para alimentación es recomendable en niveles de inclusión máximo del 10 % y que la puntuación de aminoácidos corregida por digestibilidad proteínica es 0.43 para metionina.The apparent digestibility of protein, dry matter and energy of cassava leaves flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz, for human consumption obtained from MCol 1505 variety of three months of age, were studied and evaluated. A control diet (casein 12 % and diets with substitution of cassava leaves flour 10 % and 20 % were given to Wistar rats during a period of 15 days with seven days to get accustomed to the diet and eight days for gathering the samples. It was found that the use of cassava leaves flour for human consumption is advisable in maximum inclusion levels of 10 % and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score is 0.43 for metionine.

  11. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch Extracts. ... However, the quality of the starch obtained from these alternative drying methods needs to be investigated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Microbiologia de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz durante o armazenamento Microbiology of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Ferreira Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características microbiológicas em farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz simples e temperadas, armazenadas durante 180 dias. Os materiais consistiram de cinco amostras, sendo uma de farinha de mandioca sem mistura (simples e as demais de farinhas de mandioca temperadas. A farinha simples foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade com capacidade de 1,0kg e as farinhas temperadas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos de polipropileno pigmentado, com capacidade 0,5kg. Em todas as amostras, foram realizadas contagens de coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. As análises foram realizadas em intervalos de 30 dias. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as características microbiológicas das amostras simples e das temperadas. O armazenamento não alterou os padrões microbiológicos das amostras. As amostras apresentaram esterilidade para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp. e Staphylococcus aureus. Os valores encontrados para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas e para bolores e leveduras estavam dentro dos padrões fixados pela legislação brasileira.This work was accomplished with the aim of evaluating the microbiological characteristic in cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz simple and temperate, stored during 180 days. The materials consisted of five samples, being one of cassava flour without mixture (simple and the others of temperate cassava flours. The simple flour was packed in polyethylen bags of low density with capacity of 1,0kg and the temperate flours were packed in colored polipropilen bags, with capacity of 0.5kg. In all the samples fecal coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophile bacterias, yeasts counting and Salmonella sp research were accomplished. The analyses were accomplished in intervals of 30 days. Differences were not

  13. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40℃, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions.

  14. Valor nutricional de farinha de trigo combinada com concentrado protéico de folha de mandioca Nutritional value of wheat flour mixed with cassava leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bryan Heinemann

    1998-06-01

    ímico apontem uma possível melhoria na qualidade protéica da farinha de trigo com 5 e 10 % de CPFM, esse fato não foi evidenciado no ensaio biológico. Isso pode ser devido à presença de fatores antinutricionais ou a possível baixa solubilidade da proteína, que estariam atuando na redução da digestibilidade do CPFM.Non - conventional foods, as cassava leaf, with about 20% of protein in dry-weight, have been often used in the human diet as alternative foods. The use of cassava leaf as a concentrate enables the elimination of part of its residue and makes it easier to be added to conventional foods, such as cereals, improving their protein value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of mixtures of wheat flour (WF and cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC, onthe levels of 5 and 10% of CLPC in WF. The CLPC was obtained by grinding the fresh leaves with NaOH 0.1 N, followed by filtration, precipitation of the protein in the "juice" by natural fermentation,homogenization of the precipitate and dehydration by spray-dryer. The composition of CLPC was determined (protein 36.36%, fibers 3.79%, lipids 12.26%, ashes 8.59% and carbohydrates 39%. The amino acid level showed a good profile, except for methionine which was limiting. A biological assay was carried out with rats to determine the protein quality of the mixture of CLPC and WF by Net Protein Ratio and its digestibility. Although the chemical score of WF has been improved by the addition of CLPC, the mixture remained limiting in lysine. There was no significant difference in the weight gain of the rats fed with wheat flour diets with or without the addition of CLPC, being all below the values obtained for casein diet. The Net Protein Ratio values were 2.03, 1.98, 2.15 and 4.61 for diets containing zero, 5 and 10% of CLPC and casein, respectively. There was a significant decrease on the digestibility of he diet with increasing addition of CLPC to WF, from 99.6% for the diet without addition to 96

  15. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Water Quality Changes Associated with Cassava Production: Case Study of White Volta Bain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Bediako, Michael Asare; Harris, Emmanuel; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2016-08-01

    The outcome reveal that as the land use in the catchment areas change from mixed agricultural to cassava cultivation, the simulated loads and concentrations of nitrogen species from cassava land-use scenario recorded reduction. The resultant concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for both current and future land-use scenarios are all below the daily limit suggested by the WHO, (World Health Organization). For the phosphate concentration, an increase of 4.21% was depicted under cassava land-use scenario. The results show that SWAT is a reliable water quality model, capable of simulating accurate information for developing environmental management plans.

  17. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  18. [Chemical composition and biological quality of defatted hazelnut flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Schneeberger, R; Ballester, D; Santibáñez, S

    1989-06-01

    The results of the chemical composition and biological quality of deffated hazel nut flour are shown. The samples analyzed contained significant amounts of proteins (19%) comparable to legume flour, higher than cereals and lower than deffated oleaginous flours. The oil extracted from the seed was analyzed and the average results obtained were the following: Refraction index, 1.47; saponification No. 184.8; iodine No. 85.0. The average composition of the fatty acids obtained by gas liquid chromatography was: Palmitic acid 2.3% Palmitoleic acid 37.0% Stearic acid 0.5% Oleic acid 39.5% Linoleic acid 6.9% Linolenic acid 1.1% Eicosanoic acid 2.3% Eicosaenoic acid 4.6% Docosenoic acid 3.4% Tetraeicosanoic acid 0.3% These results indicate a good-quality oil due to the low content of linolenic acid. The nutritive value of the deffated meal measured in the rats gave a net protein ratio (NPR) of 3.58, lower than the corresponding casein value (4.10). The true protein digestibility measured in the rat gave a value of 7.3%, compared to 95% for casein. The amounts of iron and phosphorous are comparatively lower than those reported for rape-seed meal and sunflower meal.

  19. Produção de snacks funcionais à base de farinha de soja e polvilho azedo Production of functional snacks from soybean flour and sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão e da porcentagem de farinha de soja sobre a expansão (IE, o índice de absorção de água (IAA, o índice de solubilidade em água (ISA, a cor (L*, a* e b* e a dureza de biscoitos extrusados. O processo de extrusão seguiu o delineamento central composto rotacional para dois fatores, totalizando 11 tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a temperatura e a porcentagem de farinha de soja tiveram efeitos significativos sobre as propriedades físicas dos produtos. Nas condições intermediárias de temperatura e baixa porcentagem de farinha de soja (10%, é possível obter biscoitos funcionais de mandioca com elevada expansão, índices intermediários de absorção e solubilidade em água, cor clara e baixa dureza.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the extrusion temperature and the percentage of soybean flour in mixes on the expansion index (EI, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index(WSI; color (L *, a *, b * and hardness of extruded sour cassava snacks. The extrusion process followed the rotational central composite design for two factors, totalizing 11 treatments. The results showed that the extrusion temperature and percentage of soybean flour in mixes had significant effects on the physical properties of products. Under the conditions of intermediate temperature and low percentage of soybean meal is possible to obtain function cassava snacks with high expansion, intermediate index of absorption and solubility in water, light color and low hardness.

  20. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  1. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  2. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  3. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P≤0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P≤0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial

  4. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  5. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  6. Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba-wheat flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M J; Salinas, M V; Carbas, B; Ferrero, C; Brites, C; Puppo, M C

    2017-06-01

    Algarroba flour is used to supplement lysine-limiting systems such as wheat flour due to its amino acidic composition. The effects of adding up to 30% of this flour to wheat flour (W-A30) on dough characteristics and breadmaking performance were studied. Dough rheology was tested by farinograph, oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analyses. Molecular mobility was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and viscoamylograph studies. Besides, different bread quality parameters were evaluated. Incorporation of algarroba flour resulted into increase in water absorption, development time and degree of softening, and decrease in stability of wheat flour, leading to softer, less adhesive and elastic dough, although at intermediate replacement levels cohesiveness improved. At the molecular level, a reduction of water activity and limited proton motion were observed in W-A30 samples, suggesting that protons were highly bound to the dough matrix. Dough samples with algarroba flour showed lower G' and G″ values than the control, although with the formation of a more elastic structure for W-A30. In addition, algarroba flour produced a protective effect on starch granule disruption and interfered with amylose-amylose association during cooling. The specific volume of breads decreased with the increase in algarroba level, W-A30 reaching the highest decrease (15%). Bread crumbs with algarroba flour exhibited higher values of hardness and resilience. The use of algarroba flour resulted in lower quality when compared to the control. However, algarroba flour at 20% level can be added to wheat flour to obtain bakery products of similar technological quality and with improved nutritional components.

  7. PREDICTION OF WHITE FLOUR QUALITY OBTAINED BY INDUSTRIAL MILLING OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA APRODU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the relations between quality of the wheat and white flour obtained through industrial milling, several parameters related to functional properties of the proteins and starch were analyzed. The parameters defining the proteins functionality are wet gluten, Gluten index, deformation energy of dough and minimum torque C2 and allowed establishing significant correlations between wheat and flour. Concerning the starch baking performance, the parameters that allowed establishing significant correlations between wheat and flour are falling number value, amylase activity, starch gelatinization and cooking stability range. Analyzing the trend of variation of the quality parameters given by Mixolab and Alveograph tests for wheat and flour, one can see that it is possible to predict the flour quality based on wheat quality.

  8. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  9. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  10. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  11. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and

  12. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  13. Bulk H analysis using neutrons for routine quality control of cassava and products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, S.A., E-mail: jonahsa2001@yahoo.co [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okunade, I.O. [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Abolude, O. [Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Onyike, E.; Inuwa, I.M. [Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    Nuclear and related techniques are useful in addressing the issues of food security and safety facing the world today, via quality control of raw materials and products. In this work, experimental investigations were performed to assess the use of total hydrogen content in cassava and products as a quality control indicator of starch and cyanide contents. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Cassava samples and products were obtained from retail outlets of Ibadan, Umudike and Zaria, representing three major regions of Nigeria. In general, data obtained indicate a total hydrogen content range of 4.47{+-}0.11-10.71{+-}0.27 wt% for the various samples, including raw, dry and processed cassava. Results show that samples having low hydrogen content are generally rich in cyanide compounds and demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogen content and cyanide content. The implication of this is that the neutron reflection facility can be used as a quality control setup for routine determination of hydrogen as an indicator of the cyanide content in cassava and products.

  14. Enhancement of butanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 through accelerating phase shift by different phases pH regulation from cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Yu, Xiao-bin; Wei, Luo; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A prominent delay with 12h was encountered in the phase shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in butanol production when the substrate-glucose was replaced by cassava flour. To solve this problem, different phase of pH regulation strategies were performed to shorten this delay time. With this effort, the phase shift occurred smoothly and the fermentation time was shortened. Under the optimal conditions, 16.24g/L butanol and 72h fermentation time were achieved, which were 25.3% higher and 14.3% shorter than those in the case of without pH regulation. Additionally, the effect of CaCO3 on "acid crash" and butanol production was also investigated. It was found that organic acids reassimilation would be of benefit to enhance butanol production. These results indicated that the simple but effective approach for acceleration of phase shift is a promising technique for shortening the fermentation time and improvement of butanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  16. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; CHENG Shun-he; MA Chuan-xi

    2007-01-01

    Steamed bread is very popular in the East and Southeast Asian regions, and its quality is affected by some physicochemical properties. Chinese steamed bread was made by adding waxy flour into normal wheat flour in the present study. The results showed that specific volume was not affected by the proportions of waxy flour, whereas, adding waxy flour decreased the appearance, color, texture, elasticity, stickiness, and the total score of Chinese steamed bread. However, there were no significant differences in all values when the proportions of waxy flour were below 10%. All evaluations but specific volume of Chinese steamed bread were positively influenced by the peak viscosity, resistance, and maximum resistance. When the waxy flour proportions were below 25%, the firmness of Chinese steamed bread stored at -18℃ for 3 days gradually decreased with the increase of waxy flour. It was revealed that the qualities of Chinese steamed bread cannot, be improved by waxy flour but it can be widely used in frozen storing food in the future.

  17. Variation and trends in dough rheological properties and flour quality in 330 Chinese wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushi Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate variation and trends in dough rheological properties and flour quality traits in 330 Chinese wheat varieties. The dough rheological properties of development time (DT, stability time (ST, and farinograph quality number (FQN were evaluated, as well as the flour quality traits of protein (PC, wet gluten content (WGC, and sedimentation value (SV. The coefficients of variation of DT (40.5%, ST (58.1%, and FQN (42.4% were higher than those of PC (9.1%, WGC (10.1%, and SV (15.3%. Normal distributions were observed for the flour quality indices but not for the rheological parameters. SV was strongly correlated with the three rheological parameters and accordingly might be used as a primary indicator for dough rheological property evaluation. Our results showed that there has been marked improvement in dough rheological properties for Chinese wheat varieties released since 1986, while flour quality has remained stable.

  18. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  19. dried Cassava pieces In North-East Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety of dark, moulded Cassava Flour compared with white- a comparison of traditionally ... darker flours had significantly lower levels *f cyanogenic potential, as well as cyanohydrins plus. HCN. ... Cyanogens and aflatoxins, and some.

  20. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  1. Effect of fructooligosaccharides on the physicochemical properties of sour cassava starch and baking quality of gluten-free cheese bread

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Sandoval, Eduardo; Landi Franco, Celia M. [UNESP; Manjarres-Pinzon, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to explore the influence of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the functional and thermal properties of sour cassava starch and the quality characteristics of gluten-free (GF) cheese bread. Fructooligosaccharides were used to replace sour cassava starch at substitution level of 9% (SF1), 17% (SF2), and 29% (SF3). The functional and thermal properties of the starch-FOS mixtures were determined by the water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), p...

  2. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  3. Remoção de polifenóis da farinha de folhas de mandioca Removal of polyphenols of the flour cassava leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Duarte Corrêa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de folhas de mandioca apresenta baixa digestibilidade, mesmo possuindo um teor relativamente elevado em proteínas, principalmente, devido à presença de substâncias como os polifenóis. Visando melhorar o aproveitamento protéico desta farinha, empregaram-se três solventes (água, etanol 50mL/100mL e hidróxido de amônio 1mol/L para remover os polifenóis. Folhas maduras de mandioca foram coletadas na fase vegetativa, em três repetições, colocadas em bandejas de papel e secas à sombra sobre bancadas de madeira, em recinto fechado e arejado, em temperatura ambiente. Após secagem, retiraram-se os pecíolos e as folhas foram moídas e passadas em peneira de 40mesh. A farinha foi submetida, antes e após a remoção dos polifenóis, às análises de umidade, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, açúcares totais, proteína bruta, vitamina C total, beta-caroteno, cianeto, inibidor de tripsina, polifenóis e digestibilidade protéica in vitro. Após remoção dos polifenóis, houve diminuição dos teores de açúcares totais, vitamina C total, inibidor de tripsina e polifenóis e aumento de FDN, FDA, proteína bruta, beta-caroteno e digestibilidade protéica in vitro. Dos solventes empregados para remover polifenóis, o hidróxido de amônio foi o mais eficaz, com índice de remoção de 94%, seguido pelo etanol (83% e água (65%. A digestibilidade da proteína in vitro aumentou em 74%, quando o solvente empregado na remoção dos polifenóis foi o hidróxido de amônio.Even featuring a relatively high level in proteins, the flour of cassavaleaves presents low digestibility, mainly, due to the presence of such substances as polyphenols. Seeking to improve the protein availability of such flour, three solvents (water, ethanol 50mL/100mL and ammonium hydroxide 1mol/L were used for the removal of the polyphenols. Mature leaves of cassava were picked in phase of vegetative development, in three repetitions, they

  4. Effect of blends of dehydrated green pea flour and amaranth seed flour on the rheological, microstructure and pasta making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Leelavathi, K

    2012-12-01

    Effect of dehydrated green pea flour (DGPF) and additives like glycerol mono stearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and dry gluten on the rheological characteristics and pasta making quality made from Indian Triticum aestivum was studied. 5-10% of amaranth seed flour was used in the formulation to enhance the protein and fiber contents of the product. Increase in DGPF from 0 to 30% decreased the maximum consistency values from 550 to 513 FU, whereas the mixing tolerance index values decreased from 108 to 52 FU. The cooked weight and cooking loss increased from 320.8 to 332.9 g% and 5.0 to 8.2% respectively and the firmness values decreased from 104 to 75 g. Sensory evaluation of pasta showed that addition of DGPF above 20% resulted in greenish colour pasta of mashy texture. Addition of additives improved the quality of pasta at 30% level as seen in the reduction in the cooking loss from 8.2 to 5.9%, increase in the firmness values to 140 g and improvement in the eating quality. Protein content of pasta improved from 9.56 to 16.57%. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that the addition of additives in combination helped in the formation of rupture free structure with a continuous network.

  5. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  6. Cianeto na farinha e folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cyanide in the leaves and cassava leaves flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição, por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais, além de ser um subproduto de ampla disponibilidade e baixo custo. Porém, a toxicidade, devido à presença de cianeto, pode restringir seu uso na alimentação humana. Determinaram-se os teores de cianeto nas folhas e nas FFM de cinco cultivares (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 e Mocotó, a fim de selecionar a cultivar com menores níveis desse antinutriente. Constatou-se que as cultivares apresentaram diferentes teores de cianeto e percentuais de perdas, destacando-se a IAC 289-70, com os níveis mais baixos e os maiores percentuais de perdas de cianeto. Portanto, antes de se indicar uma cultivar para a inclusão na dieta da população, faz-se necessário avaliar os teores de cianeto.In Brazil, cassava leaves flour (CLF has been used to combat undernourish, because it is a source of vitamins and minerals. Besides that, it is a sub-product of wide availability and low cost material. However, the toxicity, due to the presence of cyanide, can restrict its use for human feeding. The contents of cyanide in leaves and in CLF of five cultivars (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 and Mocotó, were determined, in order to select cultivars with smallest levels of these substance. It was verified that cultivars presented different levels of cyanide and percentile of losses, standing out the IAC 289-70 with the lowest levels and the largest losses of cyanide. Therefore, before indicating a cultivar for the inclusion in the population diet it is necessary to evaluate the contents of cyanide.

  7. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  8. Effect of ambient storage on the quality characteristics of aerobically packaged fish curls incorporated with different flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem Hussain; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ambient storage on the quality attributes of aerobically packaged fish curls incorporated with optimum levels of different flours. The curls were developed by extrusion technology using fish meat (Catla catla). The fish curls containing optimum levels of different flours viz. 20 percent corn flour, 10 percent black gram flour and 10 percent peanut flour were compared with the control snacks containing 30 percent rice flour and assessed for storage quality and shelf life at ambient temperature. The curls were aerobically packaged in LDPE (low density polyethylene) pouches and evaluated for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Mean values of pH of all the curls showed significantly (p flour incorporated samples, 6.36 ± 0.01 on day 0 and 6.14 ± 0.01 on day 28 for black gram flour incorporated samples, 6.57 ± 0.007 on day 0 and 6.34 ± 0.01 on day 28 for peanut flour incorporated samples). TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg), total plate count (log cfu/g) and yeast and mould count (log cfu/g) for the control as well as treatment samples showed significantly (p flours were acceptable up to 21 days of ambient storage within the LDPE pouches.

  9. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  10. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  11. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  12. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  13. Variation and trends in dough rheological properties and flour quality in 330 Chinese wheat varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiushi; Yang; Li; Wu; Zhihua; Zhu; Guixing; Ren; Sancai; Liu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate variation and trends in dough rheological properties and flour quality traits in 330 Chinese wheat varieties. The dough rheological properties of development time(DT), stability time(ST), and farinograph quality number(FQN)were evaluated, as well as the flour quality traits of protein(PC), wet gluten content(WGC), and sedimentation value(SV). The coefficients of variation of DT(40.5%), ST(58.1%), and FQN(42.4%) were higher than those of PC(9.1%), WGC(10.1%), and SV(15.3%). Normal distributions were observed for the flour quality indices but not for the rheological parameters. SV was strongly correlated with the three rheological parameters and accordingly might be used as a primary indicator for dough rheological property evaluation. Our results showed that there has been marked improvement in dough rheological properties for Chinese wheat varieties released since 1986, while flour quality has remained stable.

  14. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  15. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  16. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  17. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality.

  18. Desenvolvimento de snacks extrusados a partir de misturas de farinha de soja, fécula e farelo de mandioca Development of extruded snacks from blends of soya flour, cassava starch and bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rossi Moretti Trombini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito das condições de extrusão sobre as propriedades físicas de produtos extrusados. Foi utilizado o delineamento central composto rotacional com quatro variáveis independentes (2(4 e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados de índice de expansão, volume específico, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água e cor, de acordo com as variações de temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, porcentagem de farelo de mandioca e porcentagem de farinha de soja. Os resultados indicam que é possível produzir novos produtos extrusados com boas propriedades físicas a partir de misturas de farinha de soja, fécula e farelo de mandioca.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the extrusion conditions on physical properties of extruded products. A factorial central composite design (2(4 with four independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index and color, according to the variations in barrel temperature, screw speed, percentage of cassava bran and percentage of soya flour. The results indicate that is possible to produce new extruded products with good physical properties from blends of soya flour, cassava starch and bran.

  19. Konzo and dietary pattern in cassava-consuming populations of Popokabaka, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diasolua Ngudi, D; Banea-Mayambu, J-P; Lambein, F; Kolsteren, P

    2011-03-01

    Food frequencies and 24h diet recall were registered from 487 randomly selected heads of household in Popokabaka (Bandundu Province, DRC) where the first cases of konzo were reported more than seventy years ago. Konzo is still occurring in this area with a prevalence of 1.4%. High prevalence of konzo was found to be associated with female gender (P = 0.0024), unmarried status (P = 0.030), illiteracy (P = 0.021), farmer as main occupation (P cassava from own farm land (P = 0.045). The diet was largely dominated by cassava. Luku, cassava flour stiff porridge, was consumed at least once during the day in 99.2% of households. A median of 304 g (max. 592 g; min. 120 g) of cassava flour providing 1070 kcal (max. 2085 kcal; min. 422 kcal)/day/person was used to prepare luku. Saka-saka (pounded cassava leaves) (40%), cowpeas (30%), sesame (23.2%), mbondi (Salacia pynaertii) (18.1%), mushrooms (17.7%) and mfumbwa (Gnetum africanum) (11.3%) were consumed as side-dishes with luku. These results showed that major foods consumed are of poor quality in protein, especially in sulphur containing amino acids.

  20. Extrusion parameters in snacks production from cassava flour and casein / Parâmetros de extrusão na produção de snacks de farinha de mandioca enriquecidos com caseína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Mischan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of operational conditions of the extrusion process (temperature, moisture and protein content in production of cassava snacks added of casein, aiming to provide information to the cassava processing industry. The cassava flour and casein were characterized as their chemical components and color. The experimental design followed the central composite rotational design with three factors. The obtained products were characterized as for rate of expansion, specific volume, color and hardness. Data analyses showed that the lower moisture, protein and temperature conditions provided desired expanded products with light color attributes, high expansion and low hardness.Este trabalho teve por objetivo a avaliação dos efeitos das condições operacionais do processo de extrusão (temperatura de extrusão, umidade e teor de proteína na obtenção de produtos expandidos de mandioca, enriquecidos com caseína, visando fornecer informações ao setor de processamento de mandioca. A farinha de mandioca e a caseína foram caracterizadas quanto aos seus componentes químicos e cor. O experimento seguiu o delineamento experimental “central composto rotacional” para três fatores. Os produtos obtidos foram caracterizados quanto ao índice de expansão, volume específico, cor e dureza. A análise dos dados mostrou que as condições de menor umidade, teor de proteína e temperatura proporcionaram a obtenção de produtos expandidos com atributos desejados, ou seja, cor clara, alta expansão e baixa dureza.

  1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Maciel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento objetivou avaliar o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais e vísceras comestíveis de frangos tipo caipira alimentados com rações contendo farinha de raízes de mandioca (FRM como fonte energética alternativa ao milho. Para tanto, dividiram-se, aleatoriamente, trezentos e vinte pintos, metade de cada sexo, em quatro tratamentos representados por rações isonutritivas com diferentes níveis de substituição de milho por FRM (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FRM e dois sexos, com quatro repetições por tratamento e vinte aves por unidade experimental. Aos 84 dias, as aves foram pesadas e abatidas após jejum de seis horas e, em seguida, sangradas, depenadas e evisceradas para avaliação do rendimento de carcaça, cortes e órgãos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a substituição de milho por FRM reduziu significativamente o peso ao abate, mas não afetou o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais ou vísceras comestíveis e promoveu redução no acúmulo de gordura abdominal, podendo ser uma alternativa satisfatória quando a redução no custo da ração compensar a diminuição no peso final das aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos alternativos, avicultura, mandioca, rendimento de carcaça. 
    The experiment aimed to evaluate carcass yield, commercial cuts and edible organs of free range broiler chickens fed on rations containing cassava root flour as alternative energy source replacing corn. Three hundred and twenty one-day-old chicks, one half of each sex, were randomly assigned into four treatments represented by isonutritive rations with different levels of cassava root flour (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. A completely randomized 4x2 factorial design (4 levels x 2 sexes was used, being four replicates per treatment, with twenty birds each. Avian were slaughtered at 84 days after fasted

  2. Produção de farinha instantânea de mandioca: efeito das condições de extrusão sobre as propriedades térmicas e de pasta = Cassava instant flour: effect of extrusion conditions on thermal and viscosity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Borges Lustosa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o avanço de tecnologias, existe a possibilidade da introdução, no mercado, de farinhas de mandioca diferenciadas, como as farinhas instantâneas, sendo esta uma alternativa de grande interesse para as indústrias processadoras de mandioca. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, umidade da farinha e rotação da rosca sobre as propriedades térmicas e de pasta de farinhas de mandioca extrusadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeitos significativos da rotação da rosca sobre a viscosidadeinicial, pico e quebra de viscosidade. O pico de viscosidade foi influenciado pelos três parâmetros de processo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos dos parâmetros sobre a viscosidade final e tendência a retrogradação. As propriedades térmicas das farinhasextrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização residual.With the advancement of technology, there is the possibility ofintroduction of differentiated flours, such as cassava instant flour. This alternative has generated great interest from the cassava processing industries. This study aimed to assess the effect of extrusion temperature, moisture content and screw speed on the thermal and viscosity properties of extruded cassava flour. The results showed significant effects of process parameters on the viscosity properties, with effect of screw speed on cold viscosity,viscosity peak and breakdown. The viscosity peak was influenced by the three parameters of extrusion process. No significant effects of operational conditions were observed on the final viscosity and retrogradation. The thermal properties of extruded cassava flours showed no residual enthalpy of gelatinization.

  3. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of liquid waste, press water and pond water, produced in the cassava flour industry, and of antitoxic sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lilian Ávila; Düsman, Elisângela; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-02-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a plant used as food and an ingredient in industry, contains cyanogenic glycosides. The cassava root contains wastewater, popularly known as manipueira, which is a toxic substance. Its ingestion by animals causes poisoning although they react positively to treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The present research evaluates the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity of liquid waste produced in the process of industrialization of the bitter cassava, olho-junto variety. The liquid wastes are characterized as press water, which is obtained when the cassava roots are pressed; pond water, which is press water stored in impounded ponds; and a solution of sodium thiosulfate, pure and with other waste. The system tests comprised root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Rattus norvegicus. Treatment with saline solution was cytotoxic for Allium cepa L. and significantly reduced cell division rate. Although no treatment was cytotoxic in any of the tests with rats, the thiosulfate solution was clastogenic for the chromosomal aberrations test. Since it is harmful to the genetic material submitted within the conditions of current research, sodium thiosulfate should only be used in emergency conditions in which the benefits exceed the risks. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The application of residual oats flour in bread production in order to improve its quality and biological value of protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. High nutritional value of residual oat flour, which is a by-product in the production β-D-glucan concentration BETAVEN, was the reason to make a trial to apply it in the production of wheat and wheat-rye bread. The aim of the study was to establish a formulation for wheat and wheat-rye bread, in which part of wheat flour would be replaced by residual oat flour (at the level 20% of wheat flour, and to check the influence of this additive on sensory and nutritional properties of the products, with special consideration to content and biological value of the proteins. Material and methods. The material consisted of wheat flour, rye flour and residual oat flour, as well as loaves, baked with these flours. The quality of the obtained loaves was analysed taking into account: organoleptic assessment, loaf mass and volume, moisture content crumb and texture profile of the crumb. In the studied raw materials and bread, the following components were determined according to AOAC methods: protein content, fat, fiber and ash. In addition, composition of amino acids was assessed. Basing on the amino acid composition, Chemical Score (CS and Exogenic Amino Acid Index (EAAI were calculated, applying WHO/FAO protein standard (1991. Results. Bread with the share of residual oats flour received high consumer acceptance (37 points, comparable to control bread (38 points despite of lower volume. The applied amounts of oats flour did not influence moisture content and texture profile during storage. Wheat and wheat-rye loaves with the share of residual oats flour were characterised by a significantly higher level of dietary fiber, fat and protein, in comparison to control bread. It was found that biological activity of protein in wheat-rye bread was significantly higher (CS = 53.5, EAAI = 91.5 in comparison to wheat bread (CS = 47.9, EAAI = 89.9. The share of oats flour caused an increase in biological value of all bread types – wheat-oats (CS = 52

  5. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  6. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Steffolani, María Eugenia; Barrera, Gabriela N; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2015-12-01

    The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  7. Estudo das propriedades físico-químicas e microbiológicas no processamento da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água Study of physical-chemical and microbiological properties when processing cassava flour from the water group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Campos Chisté

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização físico-química das etapas de processamento da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, bem como a identificação de contaminantes microbiológicos e físicos. As coletas das amostras foram realizadas em uma Casa de Farinha, no Município de Castanhal - PA. Selecionou-se os pontos de coleta: mandioca descascada e lavada após o período de molho (MD; mandioca triturada (MT; mandioca prensada (MP; e farinha de mandioca (FM, realizando-se as análises de umidade e acidez em todos os pontos de coleta e, para a farinha de mandioca, além destas, cinzas, atividade de água, proteínas, lipídios e amido. A umidade inicial da amostra MD foi de 59,22 a 62,64%, obtendo o produto final (FM umidade de 1,43 a 2,12%. A acidez inicial foi alta (4,91 a 5,96 meq NaOH.100 g -1 na MD, ocorrendo aumento progressivo até a obtenção da farinha (6,54 a 10,19 meq NaOH.100 g -1, onde o exigido pela legislação é de 3 meq NaOH.100 g -1. Para o amido, o valor obtido foi de 73,19 a 75,31%, conforme o exigido pela legislação (mínimo 70%. A farinha apresentou-se aceitável pela legislação para Coliformes (The aim of this work was to define the physical-chemical characterization of the processing stages of cassava flour from the water group and identify microbiological and physical contaminants. The samples were collected in a flour mill located in Castanhal, Pará. The selected points were: peeled and washed cassava after (MD; triturated cassava (MT, pressed cassava (MP; and cassava flour (FM analysing humidity and acidity at all the points of collection and for the cassava flour, ash, water activity, proteins, fats and starch. The initial humidity of the MD sample was from 59.22 to 62.64%, obtaining the flour humidity from 1.43 to 2.12%. The initial acidity was high (from 4.91 to 5.96 meq NaOH.100 g -1 in the MD, gradually increasing until attaining flour (6.54 to 10.19 meq NaOH.100 g -1, whereby

  8. Quality and in Vivo Assessment of Precooked Weaning Food From Quality Protein Maize, Soy Bean and Cashew Nut Flour Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ikujenlola, Abiodun Victor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The problem of infantile mortality caused by imbalance feeding of infant shortly after cessation of breastfeeding is still a serious concern in most developing countries. This study aimed at producing precooked weaning food of high nutrient quality that can alleviate the problem of malnutrition associated with weaning children from quality protein maize, soy bean and cashew nut. METHOD: Three formulations were produced from various mixture of flours produced from QPM, soybean a...

  9. Quality characteristics and acceptability of 'amala' (yam-based thick paste) as influenced by particle size categorization of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele, B C; Bolade, M K; Usman, M A

    2013-02-01

    The study was essentially an investigation on the influence of size-categorized yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour on the quality characteristics and acceptability of amala (yam-based thick paste). Yam flour was separated into three major particle size categories (i.e. 75-150 µm, 150-300 µm and whole meal [yam flours were found to decrease with the decrease in the particle size giving 2.87% and 2.27% in 75-150 µm flour category, respectively. The loose bulk density and packed bulk density of the whole meal (yam flours and sensory quality characteristics of amala.

  10. Effect of sugar and water contents on non-expanded cassava flour extrudates Efeitos dos teores de açúcar e água em produtos extrusados não expandidos de farinha de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Ruano Ortiz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose and water contents on cassava flour processed by extrusion at varied concentrations of sucrose (0-20% w/w and water (28-42% w/w were studied by applying response surface methodology. The extrusion of the mixtures was performed in a twin screw extruder fitted to a torque rheometer. The specific mechanical energy (SME dissipated inside a conical twin-screw extruder was measured. Water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and paste viscosity readings (cold viscosity (CV, peak viscosity (PV, breakdown (BD and set back (SB during a gelatinization-retrogradation cycle measured in a Rapid Visco Analyzer were determined on non-directly extruded products. The results indicated that SME and WSI decreased as a function of water and sucrose contents. WAI and pasting properties were influenced by water content. A non antiplasticizing effect of the sucrose content was observed on pasting properties, suggesting that sucrose did not reduce the availability of water available for gelatinizing cassava flour during the extrusion process. The nature of the optimum point was characterized as a saddle point for WAI, WSI, PV and BD, whereas SME showed a maximum and CV and SB a minimum. The results indicated to be valuable for the production of non-expanded cassava flour extrudates with desirable functional properties for specific end users.Foram estudados os efeitos da sacarose e da água de mistura no processamento de farinha de mandioca por extrusão. As variações de sacarose (0-20% p/p e água (28-42% p/p foram estudadas empregando-se metodologia de superfície de resposta. O processo de extrusão foi conduzido em uma extrusora de dupla rosca acoplado a um reômetro de torque. A energia mecânica específica (SME dissipada no final da extrusora foi calculada. As amostras extrusadas foram analisadas quanto aos índices de absorção de água (WAI e de solubilidade em água (WSI, e quanto às propriedades de pasta durante o

  11. THE PRODUCTION OF A LOW DIETARY BULK DENSITY CASSAVA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    nutrient densities in the porridges, but reduced the viscosity of the gruels. Key words: .... Cassava flour gruels studied in this experiment were prepared in the laboratory by .... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Annual Report. IITA.

  12. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses.

  13. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  14. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  15. Biological and fermentative properties of a Thermotolerant yeast Strain in alcohol production from cassava flour%一株耐温酵母菌的生物学特性及其木薯酒精发酵特性(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    筛选得到一株适用于木薯淀粉酒精发酵的耐温性酵母菌株,并对该菌株的形态及部分生理和发酵特性进行了研究。结果表明该菌株为一株耐热、耐酸和耐乙醇的酵母菌属菌。其发酵最适温度为34 ℃,最适初始pH3.5。采用低温蒸煮工艺和25%(w/v)木薯淀粉醪进行发酵,48 h产酒精10.67%(v/v),淀粉酒精转化率达理论值的93.1%,故该菌株适用于木薯淀粉的酒精发酵生产。%A thermotolerant yeast strain was screened for production of ethanol from cassava flour. Some morphological and physiological characteristics and the fermentation properties of the strain were investigated. Results indicated that it was a typical strain of Saccharomyces sp. with thermostability, relatively high ethanol resistance and low pH tolerance. The optical temperature and initial pH for alcoholic fermentation from 25%(w/v) of cassava flour in the fermentation broth were 34℃ and 3.5, respectively. Under these conditions and with a low temperature cooking process, 10.67%(v/v) of the ethanol could be obtained in 48 h with a yield rate of 93.1% based on the theoretical value of the starch content from cassava. The strain appeared suitable for ethanol production from cassava flour in industry.

  16. FORMULATION AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF INFANT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM GERMINATED POPCORN, BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi; Oluremi Olufunke Keshinro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce and evaluate the nutritional quality of complementary foods from popcorn, African locust bean and Bambara groundnut. The popcorn, bambara groundnut and African locust beans were obtained locally in Akure, Nigeria. The seeds were germinated, oven dried, milled and sieved into flours. The flours were mixed as follows: GPA (70% popcorn, 30% African locust bean), GPB (70% popcorn, 30% bambara groundnut) and GPAB (70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, 10%...

  17. Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

    2013-06-01

    Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 μm) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak.

  18. utilization of ensiled metabolizable mixture of cassava peel and caged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toluwande

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... and maize duzza with a view to reduce cost of production [3, 4, 5] . Recent development ... of cassava either into starch, cassava flour or “garri.”[6]. ..... John MJ Alternative approaches to adoption of animal technology: In Proc. ... Determination of energy values of locally produced palm kernel and Coconut.

  19. Effect of water content and flour particle size on gluten-free bread quality and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hera, Esther; Rosell, Cristina M; Gomez, Manuel

    2014-05-15

    The impact of dough hydration level and particle size distribution of the rice flour on the gluten free bread quality and in vitro starch hydrolysis was studied. Rice flour was fractionated in fine and coarse parts and mixed with different amounts of water (70%, 90% and 110% hydration levels) and the rest of ingredients used for making gluten free bread. A larger bread specific volume was obtained when coarser fraction and great dough hydration (90-110%) were combined. The crumb texture improved when increasing dough hydration, although that effect was more pronounced when breads were obtained from a fine fraction. The estimated glycaemic index was higher in breads with higher hydration (90-110%). Slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) increased in the coarse flour breads. The coarse fraction complemented with a great dough hydration (90-110%) was the most suitable combination for developing rice bread when considering the bread volume and crumb texture. However, the lowest dough hydration limited starch gelatinization and hindered the in vitro starch digestibility.

  20. Efficacy of Flaxseed Flour as Bind Enhancing Agent on the Quality of Extended Restructured Mutton Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have become very conscious about their nutrition and well being due to changes in their socio-economic lifestyle and rapid urbanization. Therefore, development of technology for production of low cost and functional meat products is urgently required. One such approach is innovative restructuring technology in which binding of meat pieces still remains the main challenge and extension of product is generally associated with poor binding and texture. Thus, the present study was envisaged as an attempt to solve this problem by the incorporation of flaxseed flour (FF as bind enhancing agent. The FF was used at three different levels viz., 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% to replace lean meat in pre-standardized restructured mutton chops formulation. The products were subjected to analysis for physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties. Cooking yield, moisture percentage and fat percentage increased with increase in the level of incorporation of FF, however, protein percent and pH decreased with increase in the level of incorporation. Shear force value of product incorporated with 1.5% FF was significantly higher (p<0.01 than control and product containing 0.5% FF level. Among the sensory attributes, product with 1% flaxseed flour showed significantly higher values (p<0.05 for general appearance, binding, texture and overall acceptability. Hardness showed significant increasing (p<0.01 values with increasing levels of incorporation of flaxseed flour, however all other parameters of texture profile analysis showed a decreasing trend. On the basis of sensory scores and physico-chemical properties, the optimum incorporation level of FF was adjudged as 1%. Products incorporated with optimum level of flaxseed flour (1% were also assessed for water activity and microbiological quality during the storage period of 15 days. It was found that the extended restructured product could be safely stored under refrigeration (4°C±1°C in low density

  1. Effect of maize based composite flour noodles on functional, sensory, nutritional and storage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, D; Vijayalakshmi, D; Puttaramnaik; Asha, K J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilization of maize flour in noodle preparation, eight different combinations (T1 to T8) with varied amount of maize flour (MF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF), wheat gluten (WG), soya protein isolate (SPI), kansui (Sodium Carbonates), potato starch (PS) were extruded to standardize good quality noodles. Among various combinations tested, the combination T5 (50 %MF + 30 %RWF + 10 %SPI + 7 %RF + 3 %WG) was rated the best for appearance (8.3) colour (8.25) taste (8.5) elasticity (8.3) with an overall acceptability of 8.2 on a nine point hedonic rating sensory scale. There was no significant difference in normal noodle (NN) and Quality protein maize (QPM) noodle (QN) for T5 with respect to sensory characteristics when compared to control noodle (CN) prepared out of refined wheat flour. The cooked yield was more for maize based noodle (234 g NN and 220 g QN) with lower cooking loss of 7.80 and 7.76 respectively for NN & QN. The nutritional composition of maize noodles revealed that addition of 10 % soya protein isolate had increased the protein content of noodles to the tune of 16.6 and 12.7 % in QN and NN respectively. The soluble (3.18NN, 3.76QN) and insoluble fiber (21.67NN, 21.87QN) contents of both NN & QN was significantly more compared to CN (0.15 and 9.3 g).There was non- significant increase in moisture and peroxide values up to 3 months of storage with high overall acceptable sensory scores (4.0, 4.1, & 4.2 respectively for NN, QN and CN but beyond third month of storage the increase was significant. However the noodles were within the acceptable range up to 6 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 3.0, 3.4 and 3.2 for NN, QN and CN respectively on a five point hedonic scale.

  2. Caracterização físico-quimica de farinhas oriundas de variedades de mandioca utilizadas no vale do Juruá, Acre Physicochemical characteristics of flours deriving of cassava varieties used in the Vale do Juruá, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maria Leite de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características de farinha de mandioca dependem da variedade da raiz utilizada para o processamento. Objetivou-se avaliar as características físico-químicas da farinha de mandioca oriundas de variedades utilizadas no estado do Acre. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas variedades: T1= Paxiubão, T2= Im221, T3 = Caboquinha, T4 = Araçá, T5 = Colonial, T6 = Branquinha, T7 = Panati e T8 = Mansa e Brava. Foram coletadas amostras das oito variedades de mandioca em casas-de-farinha no município de Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. As raízes foram transportadas via aérea para o Laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos da Embrapa-AC, na cidade de Rio Branco, Acre. Foram avaliados: teor de umidade, cinzas, lipídios, proteína, fibra bruta, carboidratos, acidez, pH e atividade de água. Todas as amostras se apresentaram de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira para farinha de mandioca quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas e carboidratos. As farinhas analisadas apresentam teores baixos de fibras e baixa acidez. A atividade de água das farinhas analisadas esteve abaixo do limite mínimo capaz de permitir o desenvolvimento de microrganismos. As variedades Araçá, Colonial e Branquinha se mostraram adequadas para a fabricação de farinha de mandioca devido, principalmente, ao elevado teor de proteína e carboidratos presente nas farinhas produzidas.Some characteristics of the cassava depend on the variety used for the processing. The objectified of this study was to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of the cassava flour from varieties used in Acre. The treatments were composed by the varieties: T1 = Paxiubão, T2 = Im221, T3 = Caboquinha, T4 = Araçá, T5 = Colonial, T6 = Branquinha, T7 = Panati and T8 = Mansa e Brava. Samples of flour of eight cassava varieties were collect in cassava mils in Cruzeiro do Sul. The samples were sent by airmail to Rio Branco, Acre, to be analyzed in the Food and Technology Laboratory at

  3. Instant blend from cassava derivatives produced by extrusion

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    Fernanda Rossi Moretti Trombini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The current research aimed to evaluate the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics of extruded blends of cassava leaf flour and starch. A factorial central composite design with four independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of color parameters (L*, a*, b*, water absorption index, water solubility index and paste properties, according to the variations in the leaf flour percentage (1.5 to 7.5%, extrusion temperature (60 to 100ºC, screw speed (175 to 231rpm and moisture (20 to 30%. Extrusion conditions affect color, water absorption and water solubility indexes and paste properties of blends. The intermediate tested conditions of variable parameters lead to obtain extruded products with higher cold viscosity and water absorption index and light color, desirable qualities for rapid preparation products.

  4. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  5. Cocoa Husk/Cassava Leaf Inclusions in Layers Mash Produced Quality Cheap Feeds

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    Olubamiwa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-week trial was conducted to investigate the effects of cocoa husk meal (CHM/cassava leaf meal (CLM mixtures in layers mash on laying hen production performance and egg quality. Results were compared with those obtained using two locally popular standard commercial feeds (CFDs. CHM/CLM mixtures were included in the two test diets in the following order : Diet 1 (7.3 CHM/2.7 % CLM and Diet 2 (14.6 CHM/5.4 CLM. Forty 6-month-in-lay individually caged Black Nera hens were randomly allocated to the four diets. Feeding was ad libitum Feed intake, egg weight and percentage egg production were reduced (P <0.05 on Diet 2 relative to the CFDs. The reduction in egg weight was however marginal while the values were in line with the 56-58 g in the literature. Similarly, the value of 65 % percent egg production was considered not poor. Feed efficiency, yolk colour index, shell thickness and yolk percentage were not influenced by diet. On average, feed cost of the CHM/CLM diets were 60 % of those of the CFDs while the feed cost/kg egg was roughly doubled on the latter. It was concluded that the inclusion of CHM/CLM in layers mash promises to be a very economically rewarding venture where the two farm by-products are available.

  6. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  7. Study the effect of non-traditional type of flour on the quality of pasta products made of soft wheat

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    T. N. Malyutina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasta products are very popular among different population groups. Therefore they are promising objects for their enrichment with functional ingredients. As the enriching raw materials for the manufacture of pasta products spelt wheat flour was used. Spelt is characterized by a high content complete protein, which is composed of essential amino acids. Spelt flour exceeds the wheat one greatly in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron, B vitamins. The effect of different doses of spelt flour on the properties of pasta dough, semifinished and finished products was studied. Short-cut macaroni products such as vermicelli were produced on a laboratory pasta press of the type AML-2. Soft type of dough, in which the mass fraction of moisture of all samples was 32.5%, was adopted in the work due to the design of the laboratory pasta press. An increasing number of wet gluten, washed from pasta dough samples with the addition of flour from spelt due to further introduced protein was defined. The quality of all of the gluten samples was characterized as good and elastic. Increased hydration of gluten ability and reducing of the critical moisture values upon drying at introduction of 20% spelt flour was found. The low temperature mode for convective drying of pasta semi-finished products with the proposed flour additive was recommended because of its high content of active enzymes that may cause browning of products during drying. Finished products had solid flat color with a touch of milk, without dark inclusions and traces of underkneading. Boiling properties of the samples of flour from spelt were characterized as good, all the samples retained their form at 100%, the rate of dry matter loss during cooking was maintained within the regulatory documentation requirements. The studies proved the feasibility of grain spelt flour application in manufacturing of pasta products.

  8. Efficacy of flaxseed flour as bind enhancing agent on the quality of extended restructured mutton chops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Heena; Sharma, Brahma Deo; Mendiratta, S K; Talukder, Suman; Ramasamy, Giriprasad

    2014-02-01

    Consumers have become very conscious about their nutrition and well being due to changes in their socio-economic lifestyle and rapid urbanization. Therefore, development of technology for production of low cost and functional meat products is urgently required. One such approach is innovative restructuring technology in which binding of meat pieces still remains the main challenge and extension of product is generally associated with poor binding and texture. Thus, the present study was envisaged as an attempt to solve this problem by the incorporation of flaxseed flour (FF) as bind enhancing agent. The FF was used at three different levels viz., 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% to replace lean meat in pre-standardized restructured mutton chops formulation. The products were subjected to analysis for physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties. Cooking yield, moisture percentage and fat percentage increased with increase in the level of incorporation of FF, however, protein percent and pH decreased with increase in the level of incorporation. Shear force value of product incorporated with 1.5% FF was significantly higher (pflour showed significantly higher values (pflour, however all other parameters of texture profile analysis showed a decreasing trend. On the basis of sensory scores and physico-chemical properties, the optimum incorporation level of FF was adjudged as 1%. Products incorporated with optimum level of flaxseed flour (1%) were also assessed for water activity and microbiological quality during the storage period of 15 days. It was found that the extended restructured product could be safely stored under refrigeration (4°C±1°C) in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches for 15 days without marked deterioration in sensory and microbiological quality. Thus, it was concluded that flaxseed flour can be used as a good bind enhancing agent in extended restructured meat products at an economic cost.

  9. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  10. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Quality attributes of sweet potato flour as influenced by variety, pretreatment and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Ganiyat O; Henshaw, Folake O; Idowu, Michael A; Tomlins, Keith

    2016-07-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods (soaking in water, potassium metabisulphite solution, and blanching) and drying methods (sun and oven) on some quality attributes of flour from ten varieties of sweet potato roots were investigated. The quality attributes determined were chemical composition and functional properties. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation. The range of values for properties of sweet potato flour were: moisture (8.06-12.86 ± 1.13%), starch (55.76-83.65 ± 6.82%), amylose (10.06-21.26 ± 3.92%), total sugar (22.39-125.46 ± 24.68 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (140-280 ± 26), water solubility (6.89-26.18 ± 3.80), swelling power (1.66-5.00 ± 0.50), peak viscosity (24.50-260.92 ± 52.61 RVU), trough (7.08-145.83 ± 34.48 RVU), breakdown viscosity (11.00-125.33 RVU), final viscosity (10.21-225.50 ± 60.55 RVU), setback viscosity (3.04-92.21 RVU), peak time (6.07-9.06 min) and pasting temperature (69.8-81.3°C). Variety had a significant (P  0.05) affect moisture, fat and lightness (L*). Drying method did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect fiber and L*. The interactive effect of variety, pretreatment and drying method had a significant (P fiber. Total sugar correlated significantly (P < 0.01) with water solubility (r = 0.88) of the flour samples. Variety was a dominant factor influencing attributes of sweet potato flour and so should be targeted at specific end uses.

  12. Effect of coating preservation on storage quality of edible fresh cassava%涂膜保鲜对食用鲜木薯品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢江; 查春月; 刘婷; 邓小顺; 古碧; 林莹

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of fresh cassava during stor age . the preservation effect of fresh cassavas, which was respectively coated with sodium alginate, chitosan, licjuid paraffin, was studied at normal atmospheric temperature. The moisture content, starch con-lent, reducing sugar content, respiration intensity- weight loss rate and decay rate of the fresh cassava were discussed during cassava storage. The results showed that, compared with control group, three kinds of coating pretreatment could reduce changes of quality of fresh cassava during storage at normal atmospheric temperature. A mo rig three kinds of coating pretrcatment, the liquid paraffin coating had the best effect for fresh-keeping of cassava. It could ohviousty inhibit the respiration, water loss, starch hydrolysis and reducing sugar produclion and reduce weight loss rate and decay rate of fresh cassava.%为了提高食用鲜木薯在贮藏期间的质量,研究海藻酸钠、壳聚糖和液体石蜡涂膜剂处理对鲜木薯常温下的贮藏保鲜效果的影响,探讨鲜木薯在贮藏过程中水分含量、淀粉含量、还原糖含量、呼吸强度、失重率和腐烂率的变化规律.结果表明:在常温条件下,和空白组相比3种涂膜剂均能减缓鲜木薯在贮藏期间的品质变化.3种涂膜剂中,液体石蜡的保鲜效果最佳,能明显抑制鲜木薯呼吸作用、水分的散失、淀粉的水解和还原糖的产生,减缓鲜木薯失重和腐烂.

  13. Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases

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    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their high growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very high growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at least 0.6 in the cyanide containing media were selected for further studies. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. All the isolates were grown in media containing Tween 80 solution and in control media without the surfactant. Best enzyme activity of 6.82 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing Tween 80 solution and Lactobacillus fermentum as the test bacterium. Comparatively, linamarase production by the isolates in media without Tween 80 showed lower enzyme productivity. Cassava endogenous and microbial enzymes were tested for their abilities to hydrolyze cyanide in cassava flour samples pretreated to either remove the endogenous or microbial enzyme. Residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with linamarase of Lactobacillus plantarum was undecteded in 30 h, while in contrast, the residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with endogenous linamarase was 0.39 mg/10g cassava flour after 80 h. Residual cyanide in the untreated control sample was 1.98 mg HCN /10g cassava flour after 80 h. The results from this finding demonstrated improved cassava cyanide degradation with microbial linamarase as compared to endogenous cassava linamarase. Massive inoculation of fermenting cassava tubers with the isolates reported in this study would enable better control of the cassava fermentation process and may

  14. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P flour. The emulsion stability and cooking yield was greater (P flours. The colour and appearance and flavour scores were lower (P flour than canola oil incorporated CMP. The texture scores were not influenced (P flour.

  15. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  16. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Daniel D; Bettge, Arthur D; Morris, Craig F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality. Functional differences were examined relative to arabinoxylan content, protein content, and oxidative cross-linking potential of flour slurries. Oxidative cross-linking measurements were obtained on flour slurries with a low shear Bostwick consistometer and considered endogenous oxidative cross-linking potential (water alone) or enhanced oxidative cross-linking potential (with added hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase). A 2-way ANOVA indicated that flour blend was the greater source of variation compared to grain lot for all response variables except water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Patent flours produced larger sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes, and contained significantly less total and water-unextractable arabinoxylans, protein, and ash than did straight grade flours. Patent flours produced more viscous slurries for endogenous and enhanced cross-linking measurements compared to the straight grade flours. The functional differences between patent and straight grade flours appear to be related to the particular mill streams that were utilized in the formulation of the 2 flour blends and compositional differences among those streams.

  17. Farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em associação ao feijão e arroz, na dieta de ratos em crescimento Cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, in association with beans and rice, in the diet of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Cavalcanti Metri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da mistura de feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteína (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em ratos wistar machos recém-desmamados (n=60, durante 28 dias. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dietas: experimentais (feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com leveduras; feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca comum; controle (farinha de mandioca enriquecida com levedura; e padrão (caseína. Determinaram-se os testes biológicos. Os orgãos foram removidos para análise de pesos úmido e seco (rim esquerdo, baço e amostras do fígado e cérebro, teor de proteína (fígado e cérebro e histopatologia (fígado, coração e rim direito. Foram ainda quantificados os lipídios totais da carcaça dos animais. Os dados foram estatisticamente avaliados pelo teste Não Paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo teste de Comparações Múltiplas (pThe effect of a mixture of beans, rice and cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein was assessed in weanling male Wistar rats (n=60, during 28 days. The following diets were used: experimental (beans, rice and manioc flour with yeast protein; beans, rice and cassava flour without yeast protein; control (cassava flour with yeast protein; and standard (casein. The biological test were determined. The organs were removed for evaluation of wet and dry weights (left kidney, spleen and liver and brain samples, protein levels (liver and brain, and histopathology (heart, right kidney and liver. Carcass total lipids were also recorded. Results were statistically analyzed by the Nonparametric Test of Kruskal-Wallis and the Test of Multiple Comparisons (p<0.05. The highest values for all investigated parameters were found in the casein-fed group, followed by the experimental groups. Data suggest that flour enriched with yeast protein can be recommended as a dietary supplement to eradicate the nutritional deficiency in the poor population.

  18. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. peel flour

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    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%, protein (28.3% and dietary fibber (31%, while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1. The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%. Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.

  19. Efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of corn replacement with cassava shaving flour in commercial laying hen diets

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    Frank George Guimarães Cruz

    2006-12-01

    flour were evaluated in 200 Lohmann LSL laying hens with 46 weeks old, kept in 25 cages. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with five treatments and five replicates of eight birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of corn replacement with cassava shavings flour. Quadractic effect on daily feed intake, with averages of 100.68, 101.00, 100.72, 99.42, and 99.50 g, in the respective replacement levels, was observed. Viability, egg production and feeding conversion (kg/dz and g/g showed no significant differences. It was observed treatment effect (quadractic effect on egg weight, albumen percentage, shell percentage, shell thickness and specific gravity. Egg mass and yolk percentage were not affected by the treatments. The 50% level treatment provided the lowest shell percentage in spite of presenting the highest egg weight. The egg yolk colour was affected by the treaments and showed linear decrease (7.84, 7.52, 7.35, 5.32, and 5.12 as the corn replacement level increased. From an economical viewpoint, the 100% level treatment presented higher difference on the cost per kilogram of feed, egg-dozen, and egg-box in relation to the other treatments. It is possible to replace up to 100% of corn by with cassava shavings flours with no changes on egg yield and feeding conversion. However, the replacement will depend on the relative cost of corn and pigments to be used for correcting egg yolk pigmentation.

  20. Composição e propriedades fisiológico - nutritivas de uma farinha rica em fibra insolúvel obtida do resíduo fibroso de fecularia de mandioca Composition, physiological and nutritive properties of an insoluble high fiber flour obtained from cassava fibrous waste

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    D.S. RAUPP

    1999-05-01

    existentes no comércio.At the brazilian starch industries the production process of sour or fermented cassava starch generates a high quantity of a by-product denominated residual cassava fibrous waste or bagasse. Normally such material is discarded with deleterious effects to the environment or it is utilized, in low quantity, as a component of animal feed. It was prepared in laboratory, from the bagasse, a cassava flour which presented higher insoluble dietary fiber (43.1% and lower starch (47.1%, compared to cassava flours obtained from the market place. The proportions of protein, lipid and ash of the high-fiber flour were similar to commercial flours. In addition, defecation frequency, wet (fresh and dry fecal weight and fecal bulking in rats fed high-fiber flour increased, but It did not interfere in the food efficiency ratio and on the protein efficiency ratio (PER op values. A reduction of the body weight gain, as a result of a decrease in food ingestion, was observed for the treatments containing the high fiber cassava flour. Such results indicate that the high-fiber cassava flour presents nutritional and gastrointestinal properties which allows it to be used as an adequate source of dietary fiber for human nutrition. The cassava fibrous waste may be used as high-fiber cassava flour containing high proportion of insoluble fiber, a distinct feature from the regular commercial flour.

  1. Effect of species, pretreatments, and drying methods on the functional and pasting properties of high-quality yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bashirat A; Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Sanni, Silifat A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Obadina, Adewale O; Kajihausa, Olatundun E; Adegunwa, Mojisola O; Sanni, Lateef O; Tomlins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the functional properties of HQYF (high-quality yam flour) from tubers of four dioscorea species. The tubers were processed into HQYF using two pretreatments (potassium metabisulphite: 0.28%, 15 min; blanching: 70°C, 15 min) and drying methods (cabinet: 60°C, 48 h; sun drying: 3 days). Significant differences (P yam species for diverse food applications. The pastes of flour from Dioscorea dumetorum pretreated with potassium metabisulphite and dried under a cabinet dryer were stable compared to other samples, hence will have better applications in products requiring lower retrogradation during freeze/thaw cycles.

  2. Modelling the effects of transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid on substandard quality wheat flour by response surface methodology

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    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decade, there have been observed extreme variations in climatic conditions which in combination with inadequate agro techniques lead to decreased quality of mercantile wheat, actally flour. The application of improvers can optimise the quality of substandard wheat flour. This paper focuses to systematic analysis of individual and interaction effects of ascorbic acid and transglutaminase as dough strengthening improvers. The effects were investigated using the Response Surface Methodology. Transglutaminase had much higher linear effect on the rheological and fermentative properties of dough from substandard flour than L-ascorbic acid. Both transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid additions had a significant linear effect on the increase of bread specific volume. Effects of transglutaminase and ascorbic acid are dependent on the applied concentrations and it is necessary to determine the optimal concentration in order to achieve the maximum quality of the dough and bread. Optimal levels of tested improvers were determined using appropriate statistical techniques which applied the desirability function. It was found that the combination of 30 mg/kg of transglutaminase and 75.8 mg/kg of L-ascorbic acid achieved positive synergistic effect on rheological and fermentative wheat dough properties, as well on textural properties and specific volume of bread made from substandard quality flour.

  3. Qualidade física e sensorial de biscoitos doces com fécula de mandioca Physical and sensorial quality of sweet cookies with cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucyanne Carvalho Vieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a substituição de 5, 10 e 15% de farinha de trigo por fécula de mandioca na elaboração de biscoito doce. Ambas, farinha e fécula, foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química, reológica e análise térmica diferencial (DTA. Os biscoitos produzidos foram comparados por meio de análises sensoriais e microbiológicas. O resultado da análise térmica diferencial não mostrou qualquer alteração no comportamento de gelatinização do amido. O teste de aceitação sensorial mostrou que a crocância foi o único atributo que apresentou diferença significativa, indicando a viabilidade técnica de substituição da farinha de trigo por 15% de fécula de mandioca.This research evaluated the substitution of 5, 10 and 15% of wheat flour for cassava starch in sweet cookies production. Both, flour and starch were submitted to the physicochemical, rheological and differential thermal analysis (DTA. The produced cookies were compared through sensory and microbiological analyses. The DTA result didn´t show any alteration in the starch gelatinization behavior. The result of the sensory acceptance analysis showed that crispness is the unique attribute that presented significant difference, indicating the technical viability of wheat flour substitution for 15% of cassava starch.

  4. 利用清粉机提高面粉质量及出粉率的技术措施%Technical measures of improving flour quality and flour yield by using purifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆霞; 李清筱

    2011-01-01

    面粉质量及出粉率与小麦加工企业经济效益密切相关,清粉机对提高面粉质量及出粉率起到至关重要的作用,制粉工艺的复杂性及清粉机本身操作的复杂性对利用好清粉机具有一定的难度。基于此,从清粉系统的合理配置、研磨和筛理的配合、清粉机的操作与清粉效果的控制三个方面介绍了利用清粉机提高面粉质量及出粉率的技术措施。%Flour quality and flour yield are closely related to the economic benefits of wheat processing enterprises.Purifier is an extremely important equipment to improve flour quality and flour yield.The complexity of milling technology and purifier itself operation make how to effectively use purifier has certain difficulty.On this basis,technical measures improving flour quality and flour yield by using purifier were introduced from three aspects about the reasonable disposition of purification system,the coordination of milling and sieving,the operation of purifier and control of purification effects.

  5. Cassava starch coating and citric acid to preserve quality parameters of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pereira, Leila M; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-06-01

    Combination of citric acid dipping (5 g/L) and cassava starch coating (10 g/L), with and without glycerol (10 g/L), was studied to verify the effectiveness of these treatments to inhibit enzymatic browning, to reduce respiration rate, and to preserve quality parameters of "Tommy Atkins" fresh-cut mangoes during storage at 5 degrees C. Color characteristics (L and C), mechanical properties (stress at failure), weight loss, beta-carotene content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated during 15 d. The respiration rate of fruit subjected to the treatments was also analyzed. Nontreated fresh-cut mango was used as a control sample. Cassava starch edible coatings and citric acid dipping promoted a decrease in respiration rate of mango slices, with values up to 41% lower than the control fruit. This treatment also promoted better preservation of texture and color characteristics of mangoes and delayed carotenoid formation and browning reactions during storage. Moreover, the treated fruit showed great sensory acceptance by consumers throughout the whole storage period. However, the use of glycerol in the coating formulation was not efficient in the maintenance of quality parameters of fresh-cut mangoes, promoting a higher weight loss of samples, impairing fruit texture characteristics, increasing carotenogenesis, and favoring microbial growth during storage.

  6. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of noodles produced with partial replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Samir Vedia-Quispe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pasta is a worldwide high consumption and acceptability food due to its low cost, easy preparation and storage. Pasta is usually made of edible wheat semolina and water. The replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour stimulates the development of new products and improves nutritional profile of pasta. The aim of this study was to assess physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of noodles made with partially replaced wheat semolina by whole grain and raw amaranth flours. Material and Methods: We evaluated the effect of the partial substitution (20% and 30% of wheat semolina using raw amaranth and whole grain amaranth flours in physicochemical, microbiological, quality characteristics and sensory analysis of acceptance. Results: The best treatment was the combination of 70% wheat semolina and 30% raw amaranth, where flavor was the factor in the overall acceptance, and some quality parameters correlated with the sensory responses. All pastas show sanitary quality and food safety. Conclusions: The partial substitution of amaranth flour, either raw or whole grain, improved significantly physicochemical characteristics of fiber with an increase of 60% and 140% in minerals (calcium and iron in the noodles.

  7. Quality evaluation of beef patties formulated with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakali, J S; Irtwange, S V; Mzer, M T

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated composite beef-bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour patties to determine the effect of bambara groundnut flour (BGF) inclusion on the quality and acceptability of the products. The effect of different levels of BGF (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) on the proximate composition and pH indicate that BGF had no significant (p0.05) effect on moisture, protein and carbohydrate of raw patties except ash and pH whereas there was significant (p0.05) effect on all the parameters for the cooked patties. BGF significantly (p0.05) reduced the shrinkage of the cooked patties from 9.13% to 6.76%, while percentage cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention increased significantly (p0.05) with increasing BGF levels from 79.1% to 87.2%, 67.51% to 78.05% and 73.51% to 88.34%, respectively. The use of BGF significantly (p0.05) increased the pH of cooked patties from 6.16 to 6.23. Beef patties extended with BGF up to 5% addition exhibited good quality attributes most acceptable to the consumers. The pH of the 0% BGF-beef patties decreased significantly during storage, up to day 14, and increased thereafter. However, the pH of the patties with BGF consistently decreased significantly up to day 21. The TBA values of both (0% and 5% BGF-beef patties) increased significantly (p0.05) from 0.054 to 0.25 and from 0.05 to 0.24mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively. All sensory attributes decreased significantly (p0.05) as storage time progressed. The physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the patties were found to be acceptable after 21days refrigerated storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  9. Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Gallo, Antonio; Cerioli, Carla; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The use of rice/leguminous blend may be nutritionally convenient in gluten free product manufacturing. Gluten free spaghetti was prepared with rice flour and different concentrations of bean flour (included at levels of 0%, 20% and 40%, w/w) derived from a new developed white-seeded low phytic acid and lectin free (ws+lpa+lf) bean cultivar. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased linearly (Presistant starch content, while decreasing quadratically (Pglycemic index. The partial replacement of rice flour with bean flour can favourably be used in gluten free spaghetti formulation.

  10. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Impacto da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro aminoácido quelato no nível de hemoglobina de pré-escolares Impact of cassava flour fortified with iron amino acid chelate on the hemoglobin level in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahilda Brito Tuma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliou-se o impacto da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro aminoácido quelato em 80 pré-escolares de uma Unidade Filantrópica de Manaus, AM, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos de 20 crianças cada, por um período de 120 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas farinha de mandioca sem fortificação (Grupo zero e fortificada com 1, 2 e 3mg de Fe/dia, correspondendo a quantias diárias de 5, 10 e 15g de farinha, respectivamente, as quais foram distribuídas no horário do almoço, sendo ainda entregue às famílias a quantidade destinada ao consumo do final de semana. O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado no início e ao final do experimento, adotando-se como limite discriminatório entre eutrofia/desnutrição o ponto de corte OBJECTIVE: The impact of the cassava flour fortified with iron amino acid chelate was evaluated in 80 pre-scholars of a Philanthropic Unit of Manaus, state of Amazonas, randomly distributed in four groups of 20 children each, for a period of 120 days. METHODS: Cassava flour was used without fortification (group zero or fortified with 1, 2 and 3mg of Fe/day, corresponding respectively to 5, 10 and 15g of flour/day, which were given to the children at lunch time on weekdays. The equivalent amount was previously distributed to their families for flour intake also during the weekends. In the beginning and at the end of the experiment the children's nutritional status was evaluated, being adopted the cutoff point <-2 Z-scores as a discriminating limit between eutrophy/malnutrition, in agreement with the World Health Organization criteria, as well as being established as a cutoff point for the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia a hemoglobin rate of less than 11g/dL. RESULTS: At the end of this study, children recovered from chronic malnutrition, and a significant increase (p <5% of the hemoglobin rates, independently of iron concentration, from 11.4±0.9g/dL to 12.2±0.8g/dL, was observed in

  12. Effect of konjac flour incorporated with soy protein isolate on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... flour on physical, chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ... konjac flour and SPI tended to be darker, juicy, sweet and flavour, but less hard than the control; ..... The Maillard reaction involves the reaction between ...

  13. Drying performance of fermented cassava (fercaf) using a convective multiple flash dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handojo, Lienda A.; Zefanya, Samuel; Christanto, Yohanes

    2017-05-01

    Fermented cassava (fercaf) is a tropical versatile carbohydrate source flour which is produced by modifying the characteristics of cassava. Drying process is one of the processes that could influence the quality of fercaf. In general, for food application, convective and vacuum drying were used, however recently another advanced method using combination of both convective and vacuum, i.e. convective multiple flash drying (CMFD), was proposed. This method is conducted by repeating cycles of convective and vacuum drying in intermittent manner. Cassava chips with thickness of 0.1-0.2 cm were fermented for 24 hours at room condition. Then, the drying process was conducted by using 3 techniques, i.e. convective, vacuum, and combined method (CMFD), with operation temperatures between 50 and 70°C for 10 hours or until fermented cassava reached a moisture content of less than 20%. The study shows that CMFD was the fastest drying method with only 5-6 hours period compared to 8-10 hours using vacuum and more than 10 hours using convective method. CMFD also produces harder fercaf chips than those of vacuum and convective methods. Moreover, this research also proves that the operating pressure and temperature influence the moisture content.

  14. Effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality%荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温纪平; 毛瑞; 郑学玲

    2013-01-01

    According to the abundant nutrition,medicine and edible value of buckwheat,steamed bread was prepared by 10 %,20%,30%,40%,50% and 60% of the total buckwheat flour in replacement of high gluten wheat flour.By the changes of sensory evaluation,color,texture properties,the effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality was studied.The results showed that:the buckwheat flour dough structure and steamed bread quality were weakened;with the increase of the content of buckwheat flour,the steamed bread skin and internal color was darkened,hardness,gelling and chewiness significantly increased.%荞麦具有丰富的营养和药食价值,采用10%、20%、30%、40%、50%和60%的全荞麦粉置换出等量高筋小麦粉蒸制馒头,通过荞麦馒头感官评价、色泽、质构特性的变化,研究荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响.结果表明:全荞麦粉会弱化面团结构,影响馒头的品质.随着荞麦粉添加量的增加,馒头表皮及内部色泽变暗,质构参数中硬度、胶凝性、咀嚼性明显增大.

  15. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  16. Otimização do processo de extrusão termoplástica da mistura castanha do Brasil com farinha de mandioca Optimization of the process of thermoplastic extrusion of mixtures of Brazil nut with cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luzenira de Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar as condições de processamento por extrusão termoplástica de misturas de torta de castanha do Brasil com farinha de mandioca, em função da aceitabilidade. Foi feito o delineamento fatorial completo 2³ para a produção dos extrudados e a avaliação dos ensaios extrusados em função das respostas de aceitação. No estudo de aceitação global aplicou-se o teste afetivo de escala hedônica com 9 pontos e no de intenção de compra o de 5 pontos. O resultado da metodologia de superfície de resposta indica que aumentos de castanha do Brasil, temperatura e umidade elevam as notas de aceitação global e intenção de compra do produto, com uma região de otimização do processamento nas seguintes condições: temperatura entre 120 a 160 °C, castanha entre 48 a 80% e umidade entre 20 a 25%. Na torta de castanha, a temperatura e a umidade da mistura muito alta ou muito baixa diminuem as notas de aceitação global e a intenção de compra. As maiores notas de aceitação global e a intenção de compra neste experimento estão nos pontos centrais e indicam a validade do modelo.The objective of this work was to optimize the conditions of processing mixtures of Brazil nut with cassava flour through thermoplastic extrusion as a function of acceptability. A 2³ full factorial design was used for the production of the extrudates and the evaluation of the products was according to acceptability responses. An affective hedonic scale of 9 points was applied to evaluate global acceptability and a 5-point scale was used to evaluate purchase intention. The results of the response surface methodology indicated that increases in Brazil nut percentage, temperature and moisture increased global acceptability and purchase intention of the product, with an optimized processing region in the following conditions: temperature between 120 and 160 °C, Brazil nut percentage between 48 and 80% and moisture between 20 and 25

  17. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  18. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  19. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric me...

  20. Quality assessment of dried okara as a source of production of gluten-free flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann-Porcel, María V; Rinaldoni, Ana N; Rodriguez-Furlán, Laura T; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-07-01

    Okara is a by-product of soymilk and of tofu elaboration that is rich in protein, fiber and vegetable oils as a source of gluten-free flour. In order to take advantage of the nutritional characteristics of okara and to be able to determine an appropriate drying methodology, microwave, rotary dryer and freeze-drying were assessed. Furthermore, flour with an enzymatic treatment was characterized as well as its functional, physicochemical, and textural properties. The results showed that the physiochemical characteristics of the flour were affected by the drying process, reaching adequate water content, and high protein and fiber content. The freeze-drying process produced clearer flours with porous structure and high water absorption capacity, and with a higher protein denaturation. Okara dried by microwave and rotary dryer exhibited a denser structure with similar functional properties and improved textural characteristics such as firmness and consistency. The microwave-produced flour was darker due to the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The enzymatic treatment employed improved the consistency of the flour. It was possible to choose the drying process to be applied according to the feasible use of the flour, intended to preserve the favorable nutritional aspects of the okara flour. Based on the results, it can be affirmed that the physicochemical properties and attributes of okara are influenced by the drying process employed. Okara dried by freeze-drying resulted in a better product because it had a low final moisture content and the highest whiteness index. The flour presented a porous structure with high solubility, which is an indicator of potential applications in foods developments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of whole wheat flour on the quality, texture profile, and oxidation stability of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinlei; Zhou, Sumei; Yi, Cuiping; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-05-04

    The effects of whole wheat flour (WWF) on pasting properties of instant fried noodle dry mix and quality of final product were investigated in this research. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by WWF at different levels. The peak and final viscosities were significantly and negatively correlated to WWF substitution level. With increasing WWF level, the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience values of instant fried noodles decreased by 11.63, 16.23, 16.67, 20.00%, respectively. WWF darkened noodle's surface color and increased its oil content (26.63%). A porous and less uniformed structure of the WWF instant fried noodles was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the WWF incorporation lowered peroxide values of the instant fried noodles during storage. In conclusion, even though the oil content increased, WWF was helpful to inhibit the oil oxidation and produce instant fried noodles with softer texture and less sticky surface. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in dietary fibers, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. The addition of WWF delayed the retrogradation tendency of starch in the dry mix. WWF-added instant noodles had softer texture, less sticky surface, and lower peroxide value. Based on the results of this study, the refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle could be partially replaced by WWF to make noodles with better texture profile and higher consumer acceptance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  3. Study of the microbiological conditions of marketing of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour in supply center of Alagoinhas, Bahia Estudo das condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz comercializadas no centro de abastecimento de Alagoinhas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelza Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Alagoinhas, Bahia, and in most Northeastern states, the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour is produced in a craft house, most often located in the place of production. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological conditions of cassava flours marketed Supply Centre in Alagoinhas, Bahia. We collected 30 samples of cassava flour, 100 grams, which were placed in sterile, insulated container. The samples were tested for heterotrophic bacteria using the method of standard plate count, followed by Gram staining, the search for total and fecal coliforms was performed by the Most Probable Number (MPN. The results indicate that the samples that the samples are in accordance with current legislation regarding the analysis of total coliforms and thermotolerant (No município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, e na maioria dos estados do Nordeste, a farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é produzida de forma artesanal em casas-de-farinha, na maioria das vezes localizadas no próprio local de plantio da mandioca. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca comercializadas no Centro de Abastecimento em Alagoinhas-Bahia. Foram coletadas 100 gramas de 30 amostras de farinha de mandioca, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos estéreis, em recipiente isotérmico. As amostras foram submetidas à pesquisa de bactérias heterotróficas empregando-se o método de contagem padrão em placas, seguido da coloração de Gram, e a pesquisa para coliformes totais e termotolerantes foi realizada pela técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP. Os resultados indicam que as amostras estão em conformidade com a legislação vigente em relação à análise de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (<3NMPg-1, na contagem de bactérias heterotróficas algumas amostras mostraram-se fora dos padrões aceitáveis. Na coloração de Gram foram observados bacilos, diplobacilos e estreptobacilos Gram positivos e Gram

  4. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Quality of [omega]-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripudaman Singh; Manish K Chatli; Ashim K Biswas; Jhari Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    ...]-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T^sub 1^), 2% canola flour (T^sub 2^), 3% linseed oil (T^sub 3^), and 4% canola oil (T^sub 4...

  6. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  7. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  8. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flour in the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of 319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days of maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of 3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamon capable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared to controls (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality of meat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.

  9. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread).

  10. 苦荞超微粉对苦荞小麦混合粉及其挂面品质的影响%Influence of micronized buckwheat flour on the quality of buckwheat-wheat mixed flour and dried noodle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽萍; 田晓红; 刘明; 刘艳香; 吴娜娜; 谭斌

    2015-01-01

    Common buckwheat flour,ultrafine buckwheat flour A and B,with 5% ~30%,was added to wheat flour and mixed,respectively. The farinograph properties of mixed flour were analyzed. The senso-ry quality,cooking quality and texture characteristics of dry noodle made of mixed flour were studied. The results showed that:compared with common buckwheat flour,the water absorption of ultrafine buck-wheat flour dough was increased,dough formation time and stability time were shorten,dough softness was increased,farinogram quality number was decreased,the sensory quality of noodle was improved be-cause of adding ultrafine buckwheat flour. Adding buckwheat flour with 15% or less,the cooking weight of the noodles containing common buckwheat flour was higher than the others. Adding 15% ~30%,the cooking weight with ultrafine buckwheat flour A was higher. Adding with 5% ~30%,the cooking loss of ultrafine buckwheat flour A was the least. Because of buckwheat micronization,the firmness and shear power of buckwheat noodles were increased and the chewiness and toughness of noodles were enhanced.%将普通苦荞粉,苦荞超微粉A和B按照5%~30%的比例添加到小麦粉中,对苦荞小麦混合粉的面团粉质特性及其挂面的感官品质、蒸煮品质及质构特性进行了研究,结果表明:与普通粉相比,添加苦荞超微粉的混合粉面团的吸水率增加,面团形成时间和稳定时间缩短,弱化度值升高,粉质指数降低;添加苦荞超微粉提高了挂面的感官品质;添加量在15%以下时,添加苦荞普通粉制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,添加量在15%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,而添加量在5%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟的干物质损失率最低;苦荞粉超微处理增加了苦荞挂面的坚实度和剪切功,面条咀嚼性和韧性增强。小麦粉中添加20%苦荞超微粉A时制作的挂面韧性,口感良好。

  11. Effect of processing conditions on the texture of reconstituted cassava dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformability modulus, hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cassava dough reconstituted from precooked flour were evaluated using a lubricated compression test and texture profile analysis. Cassava parenchyma processed under different cooking conditions and left at either -5ºC or -20ºC for 24 h was used to make flour, which was reconstituted into dough. As temperature decreased to -20ºC during the storage period of cooked parenchyma, deformability modulus, hardness and cohesiveness of dough increased significantly. The temperature during the storage period was the most important factor affecting the textural properties of cassava dough.

  12. Score System Study for Hand-Extended Noodle Quality Based on HMW-GS Index in Wheat Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhi-yu; WANG Jian-jun; SHANG Xun-wu

    2007-01-01

    Hand-extended noodle, a special kind of noodle, requires particular quality flour to make it. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in wheat are important protein subunits, which affect flour quality. To improve breeding and selection efficiency of wheat varieties which are used in making hand-extended noodle, 100 spring wheat varieties were selected to study the importance of HMW-GS on noodle quality score indexes such as color, appearance, taste agreeability, toughness, stickiness, smoothness, taste, and total score, through methods of quantity theory and statistic evaluation. It was shown that the hand-extended noodle quality score of HMW-GS 1, 2*, N, 7, 7 + 8, 17 + 18, 22, 2 + 10, 2 +11, 2+ 12, 5 + 10, and 10 was 5.40, 5.35, 0, 2.55, 2.56, 9.19, 0.05, 0.15, 1.49, 1.14, 10.00, and 5.14, respectively. The score system for hand-extended noodle quality based on HMW-GS index included eight multiple linear regression equations (R2 > 0.98).Hence, using the HMW-GS composition, the eight hand-extended noodle quality indexes would be forecasted exactly.Results indicated that ideal subunit compositions of HMW-GS for this special usage were composition 1, 17 + 18, 5 + 10, or composition 2*, 17 + 18, 5 + 10. This standard could be used on variety selection in the early generation of breeding crosses. HMW-GS 2 + 10, 2 + 11, and 2 + 12 were the least desirable subunits for hand-extended noodle, which should be avoided in wheat variety selection aimed for hand-extended noodle flour use.

  13. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  14. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P 

  15. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties I: flour and protein characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-03-01

    The relationships of polymeric as well as monomeric proteins (unextractable and extractable) with various flour properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Unextractable polymeric proteins and unextractable monomeric proteins in flours ranged from 23.83% to 51.97% and 48.03% to 76.17%, respectively. Varieties with higher grain hardness index resulted into flours with higher a(∗), ash content and protein content. Unextractable polymeric and monomeric proteins were related to grain hardness index. Unextractable polymeric proteins showed a positive correlation with gluten index and LASRC. Majority of varieties with HMW-GS combinations of 91kDa+80kDa+78kDa+74kDa PPs showed very high grain hardness index (97-100).

  16. Ionizing radiation effect on different types of flours used in bakery technology; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em diferentes tipos de farinhas utilizadas em tecnologia de panificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Christian Alexandre Heinz Melsheimer

    2011-07-01

    In this work, an evaluation of the changes caused by ionizing radiation in different types and quantities of products rich in starch (wheat flour, cassava, rye, whole wheat, green banana pulp and maize) on rheological, technological, physical and texture characteristics was studied. The samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source with doses up to 10kGy, and dose rate about 2kGy/h. It was studied the force and the extensibility of strong and weak wheat flours and the rheological behavior was observed for one, five and thirty days after irradiation. The technological characteristic studied for up to 1 month after irradiation, was the enzymatic activity of the irradiated, weak and strong flours. The physical characteristics: height, weight and moisture loss and texture of loaves made with a partial replacement (30%) of wheat flour by different irradiated flours was established. The results showed that with the increase of radiation dose there was an increase of enzymatic activity, especially for higher doses (9kGy). These results corroborate for the understanding that there would be no need of addition of enzymatic improvers for the bread confection. The height, weight, and loss of moisture from the products developed with different substitutions of flours used in the formulations, showed different behaviors. With an increasing of the radiation dose applied, there was an increase in the height of the loaves, as well as a reduced loss of moisture on the products developed with substitution of 30% of the wheat flour with irradiated wheat flour and pulp of green banana flour. From a technological standpoint, the enzymatic activity was not adversely affected by radiation. Considering the characteristics studied, the dose of 9kGy would be recommended seeking the production of loaves. Although the irradiation process is generally applied in the preservation of hygienic quality of food products, its use on different kinds of flours used in bread production may induce some

  17. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  18. Effect of partial substitution of gluten-free flour mixtures with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour on quality of gluten-free noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer

    2017-06-01

    In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168.30 mg/100 g and 47.46 mg/100 g to 1057.69 mg/100 g and 298.27 mg/100 g, respectively with CSF usage. Increase of CSF level in gluten-free noodle samples caused an expected increase in the amounts of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Noodle samples containing CSF showed darker colour than control. Significant increase was observed in volume increase and weight increase values with CSF addition. DATEM reduced cooking loss values of noodle samples. The use of CSF improved the gluten-free noodles taste and odor score. As a result, 20% of CSF with DATEM can be used in gluten-free noodle formulation with acceptable sensory attributes of raw and cooked samples. The present results showed that CSF had a good potential to improve the nutritional quality of noodle.

  19. Development of an Electrically Operated Cassava Peeling and Slicing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Aji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and construction of an electrically operated cassava peeling and slicing machine was described in this paper. The objective was to design, construct and test an electrically operated machine that will peel and slice cassava root into chips, to aid the processes of drying, pelletizing and storage. The methodology adopted includes; design, construction, calculation, specification, assembly of component parts and performance test. The machine was able to Peel and slice cassava to fairly similar sizes. Performance test reveals that 7 kg of cassava tuber was peeled and chipped in one minute, which shows that, the machine developed can significantly reduce the cost of labour and time wastage associated with traditional processing of cassava tubers into dried cassava pellets, and finished products, such as; garri, and cassava flour. The machine has a capacity of 6.72 kg/min, with peeling and chipping efficiency of 66.2% and 84.0% respectively. The flesh loss of the peeled tuber was 8.52%, while overall machine efficiency obtained as 82.4%. The machine is recommended for use by small scale industries and by cassava farmers in the rural areas. It has an overall cost of N46100 ($150. The machine can easily be operated by an individual and maintained, by using warm water to wash the component parts, and sharpening of the chipping disc when required.

  20. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  1. The Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Flours Obtained from Polish Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglińska, Alicja; Reder, Magdalena; Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Samples of wheat, spelt, rye, and triticale flours produced by different Polish mills were studied by both classic chemical methods and FT-IR MIR spectroscopy. An attempt was made to statistically correlate FT-IR spectral data with reference data with regard to content of various components, for example, proteins, fats, ash, and fatty acids as well as properties such as moisture, falling number, and energetic value. This correlation resulted in calibrated and validated statistical models for versatile evaluation of unknown flour samples. The calibration data set was used to construct calibration models with use of the CSR and the PLS with the leave one-out, cross-validation techniques. The calibrated models were validated with a validation data set. The results obtained confirmed that application of statistical models based on MIR spectral data is a robust, accurate, precise, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient methodology for determination of flour characteristics, as well as for detection of content of selected flour ingredients. The obtained models' characteristics were as follows: R2 = 0.97, PRESS = 2.14; R2 = 0.96, PRESS = 0.69; R2 = 0.95, PRESS = 1.27; R2 = 0.94, PRESS = 0.76, for content of proteins, lipids, ash, and moisture level, respectively. Best results of CSR models were obtained for protein, ash, and crude fat (R2 = 0.86; 0.82; and 0.78, resp.). PMID:28243483

  2. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  3. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  4. Influence of gamma-radiation on the nutritional and functional qualities of lotus seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Karim, Alias A; Young, Chiu C; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha B

    2009-10-28

    In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical and functional properties of lotus seed flour exposed to low and high doses of gamma-radiation (0-30 kGy; the dose recommended for quarantine and hygienic purposes). The results indicated raw seed flour to be rich in nutrients with minimal quantities of antinutritional factors. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in some of the proximal constituents. The raw and gamma-irradiated seeds meet the Food and Agricultural Organization-World Health Organization recommended pattern of essential amino acids. Some of the antinutritional factors (phytic acid, total phenolics, and tannins) were lowered with gamma-irradiation, while the seed flours were devoid of lectins, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and polonium-210. The functional properties of the seed flour were significantly improved with gamma-radiation. gamma-radiation selectively preserved or improved the desired nutritional and functional traits of lotus seeds, thus ensuring a safe production of appropriate nutraceutically valued products.

  5. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met...

  6. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met...

  7. Analise térmica e microscópica de laminados biodegradáveis obtidos a partir de farinha de mandioca, sorbitol e poli (butileno adipato co-tereftalato PBAT. Thermal and microscopic analysis of biodegradable laminates made from cassava flour, sorbitol and poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate PBAT - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.13183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Tirolli Rett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver blendas de materiais laminados biodegradáveis, utilizando farinha de mandioca como fonte de amido, fibras naturais, sorbitol como plastificante e PBAT. Primeiro obteve-se peletes de três formulações diferentes e a partir destes, utilizou-se a termoprensagem a alta temperatura como alternativa na formação dos laminados. A caracterização foi feita através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e calorimetria diferencia de varredura (CDV. A quantidade se sorbitol que melhor se ajustou à extrusão foi a de 15% (peso/peso; a formulação do laminado mais homogêneo, observada pela microscopia, foi de 55:40:15 (farinha/sorbitol/PBAT. As fibras ficaram dispersas por toda a superfície nos três tratamentos estudados, porém, por dentre eles, observaram-se zonas dispersas das fibras. Conforme se aumentou o teor de farinha, houve aumento no ponto de fusão dos laminados em comparação ao PBAT puro.Blends of biodegradable laminated materials were developed using cassava flour as starch and natural fibers source, sorbitol as a plasticizer and PBAT as a biodegradable polyester. After obtaining pellets from three different formulations, high temperature thermopressure was used to form laminates. The characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The amount of sorbitol for the best extrusion process was 15% (weight/weight and the formulation of the best homogeneity observed by microscopy was 55:40:15 (flour/sorbitol/PBAT. Although fibers were dispersed throughout the surface in the three treatments, scattered areas of fibers could be found among them. As rates of flour increased, an increase in the melting point of the laminates occurred when compared to pure PBAT.  

  8. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flourin the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 daysof maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1%cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamoncapable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared tocontrols (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality ofmeat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.Keywords: cinnamon leaf, meat quality, Pangsianodon hypopthalmus

  9. Qualidade microbiana e aspecto visual de mandioca minimamente processada = Microbial quality and visual aspect of minimally processed cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guerra Lund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade microbiológica de mandioca minimamente processada, embalada a vácuo e refrigerada (4-7ºC, com quatro a oito dias de armazenamento. Três amostras representativas foram obtidas no comércio da região de Pelotas, a partir de três lotes do produto. As amostras foram coletadas em supermercado para realizar as seguintesavaliações: contagens de bactérias mesófilas, psicrotróficas, láticas, clostrídios sulfito redutores, coliformes totais e fecais, mofos e leveduras, e presença de Salmonella. Os resultados das contagens (UFC g-1 variaram de 4,7 x 106 a 6,3 x 108, para bactériasmesófilas; 1,8 x 107 a 6,0 x 108, para psicrotróficas; 2,8 x 107 a 3,8 x 108, para láticas; 1,5 x 103 a > 1,1x106, para coliformes totais; The hygienic-sanitary quality of minimally processed vacuum packaged and refrigerated cassava (4-7ºC, with 4-8 days of storage was evaluated. Three representative samples from 3 different lots of cassava were obtained from retail stores in Pelotas, Rio Grande do SulState, Brazil. The following microbial counts were carried out in each sample: mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lactic and sulfide-reducing bacteria, total e fecal coliforms and yeast and molds. The presence of Salmonella was also investigated. Results of counts ranged from 4.7 x 106 to 6.3 x 108 CFU g-1 for mesophilic bacteria, 1.8 x 107 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 for psychrotrophic bacteria, 2.8 x 107 to 3.8 x 108 CFU g-1 for lactic bacteria, 1.5 x 103 to > 1.1 x 106 for total coliforms, < 30 to 4.6 x 104 for fecal coliforms, 2.4 x 102 to 2.5 x 104 CFU g-1 for yeasts and molds and < 10 CFU g-1 for sulfide-reducing bacteria. Salmonella was not detected. The high counts of bacteria in the product suggest poor processing or storage practices.

  10. Effects of Heat Treatment on Preservation and Quality of Fresh Cassava Root%热处理对木薯的保鲜效果研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡坤; 李开绵; 陈松笔

    2016-01-01

    The fresh root of the cassava variety South China NO.9 were immersed in hot water of 50, 60 and 70℃ for 5 minutes. Then they were drained and were put in cold storage at 4 ℃ by enclosed with vacuum bags. After 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, the physiological and biochemical indexes were assayed. The results showed that the appropriate heat treatment could not only inhibit the development and reproduction of microbial that could made the fresh cassava root rotten, and at the same time, could delay the browning of the fresh root and keep the cassava root fresh and had well sensory quality. Among the three treatment, at 60℃ for 5 min worked best, after the treatment, the cassava root could be preserved 10d at 4℃ and still fresh.%为研究热处理对木薯鲜薯储存后品质的影响,本文以华南9号木薯鲜薯为实验材料,将其分别置于50、60和70℃的热水中浸泡5 min后沥干, PE袋真空包装后置于4℃冷库中贮藏,每2 d测定其相关生理生化指标。结果表明,适当的热处理可抑制微生物繁殖、延缓褐变、保持鲜薯的感官品质,对鲜薯有较好的保鲜效果;其中60℃热水浸泡处理5 min对鲜薯的保鲜效果最好,其能在0~4℃冷库中贮藏10 d仍维持鲜薯较好的品质。

  11. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products.

  12. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  13. Effect of infrared heating on the formation of sesamol and quality of defatted flours from Sesamum indicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Mahendra; Appu Rao, A G; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) heating offers several advantages over conventional heating in terms of heat transfer efficiency, compactness of equipment, and quality of the products. Roasting of sesame seeds degrades the lignan sesamolin to sesamol, which increases the oxidative stability of sesame oil synergistically with tocopherols. IR (near infrared, 1.1 to 1.3 microm, 6 kW power) roasting conditions were optimized for the conversion of sesamolin to sesamol. The resultant oil was evaluated for sesamol and tocopherol content as well as oxidative stability. The defatted flours were evaluated for their nutritional content and functionality. IR roasting of sesame seeds at 200 degrees C for 30 min increased the efficiency of conversion of sesamolin to sesamol (51% to 82%) compared to conventional heating. The gamma-tocopherol content decreased by 17% and 25% in oils treated at 200 and 220 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. There were no significant differences in the tocopherol content and oxidative stability of the oil. Methionine and cysteine content of the flours remained unchanged due to roasting. The functional properties of defatted flours obtained from either IR roasted or conventionally roasted sesame seeds remained the same. Practical Applications: Sesame oil is stable to oxidation compared to other vegetable oils. This stability can be attributed to the presence of tocopherols and the formation of sesamol, the thermal degradation product of sesamolin-a lignan present in sesame. Roasting of sesame seeds before oil extraction increases sesamol content which is a more potent antioxidant than the parent molecule. The conversion efficiency of sesamolin to sesamol is increased by 31% by infrared roasting of seeds compared to electric drum roasting. This can be used industrially to obtain roasted oil with greater oxidative stability.

  14. A comparative study among methods used for wheat flour analysis and for measurements of gluten properties using the Wheat Gluten Quality Analyser (WGQA

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    Maria Cristina Ferrari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing both the results of wheat flour quality assessed by the new equipment Wheat Gluten Quality Analyser (WGQA and those obtained by the extensigraph and farinograph. Fifty-nine wheat samples were evaluated for protein and gluten contents; the rheological properties of gluten and wheat flour were assessed using the WGQA and the extensigraph/farinograph methods, respectively, in addition to the baking test. Principal component analysis (PCA and linear regression were used to evaluate the results. The parameters of energy and maximum resistance to extension determined by the extensigraph and WGQA showed an acceptable level for the linear correlation within the range from 0.6071 to 0.6511. The PCA results obtained using WGQA and the other rheological apparatus showed values similar to those expected for wheat flours in the baking test. Although all equipment used was effective in assessing the behavior of strong and weak flours, the results of medium strength wheat flour varied. WGQA has shown to use less amount of sample and to be faster and easier to use in relation to the other instruments used.

  15. [Digestibility and protein quality of quinua: comparative study of quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa) seed and flour in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Romaña, G; Graham, G G; Rojas, M; MacLean, W C

    1981-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the digestibility of quinua seed is the limiting factor in the utilization of nutrients from this staple, two quinua-based diets were prepared using quinua seeds and quinua flour. Theses diets were offered to children recovering from malnutrition. The digestibility and protein quality of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua seed is the limiting factor in the protein and energy utilization, and that milling improves significantly the digestibility of fat and carbohydrates. Findings also confirmed that the protein quality of quinua seeds is adequate for human consumption.

  16. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  17. Pemberian Tepung Tempe Meningkatkan Kualitas Tulang pada Tikus Ovariektomi (ADMINISTRATION OF TEMPE FLOUR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF OVARIECTOMY-RATS BONE

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    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to determine the potential of tempe flour in improving bone quality of ovariectomized rats (ovxbased on calcium (Ca and phosphorus(P levels in the plasma and bones; osteoblast and osteoclastprofiles have been conducted for 4 months. A total of 20 female Sprague Dawley albino rats, age of 3months and average body weight of 200 g were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups,i.e.normal rats + diets (K0; normal rats +tempe flour (K1; ovx + diets (OV0; and ovx + tempe flour (OV1,respectively. The Ca and P levels in plasma and bones were analyzed using Atomic AbsorptionSpectrophotometer (AAS and spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the profiles of osteoblast andosteoclast were also observed. The results showed that Ca and P levels in plasma and bones of normal ratswere 11.08 mg/dL and 7.06 mg/dL; 30.88 mg/dL and 18.63 mg/dL, respectively. The highest Ca and P levelsin both plasma and bones were observed in normal rats which were given tempe flour (K1, 11.25 mg/dLand 7.42 mg/dL; and 31.60 mg/dL and 19.78 mg/dL, respectively. Similarly, Ca and P levels in plasma andbones of ovxwhich were given tempe flour were slightly higher (10.91 mg/dL and 6.96 mg/dL; and 29.89 mg/dL and 17.87 mg/dL compared to ovx without tempe flour diets (9.38 mg/dL and 6.46mg/dL; and 26.58 mg/dL and 16.75 mg/dL. The numbers of osteblast was found slightly higher both in normal rats and ovxwhich were given tempe flour; whereas slightly decreased of osteoclast was observed only in ovx which weregiven tempe flour. The administration of tempe flour in ovx diets could improved bone quality as indicatedby the Ca and P levels in plasma and bones and decreased numbers of osteoclast.

  18. Pemberian Tepung Tempe Meningkatkan Kualitas Tulang pada Tikus Ovariektomi (ADMINISTRATION OF TEMPE FLOUR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF OVARIECTOMY-RATS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to determine the potential of tempe flour in improving bone quality of ovariectomized rats (ovxbased on calcium (Ca and phosphorus(P levels in the plasma and bones; osteoblast and osteoclastprofiles have been conducted for 4 months. A total of 20 female Sprague Dawley albino rats, age of 3months and average body weight of 200 g were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups,i.e.normal rats + diets (K0; normal rats +tempe flour (K1; ovx + diets (OV0; and ovx + tempe flour (OV1,respectively. The Ca and P levels in plasma and bones were analyzed using Atomic AbsorptionSpectrophotometer (AAS and spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the profiles of osteoblast andosteoclast were also observed. The results showed that Ca and P levels in plasma and bones of normal ratswere 11.08 mg/dL and 7.06 mg/dL; 30.88 mg/dL and 18.63 mg/dL, respectively. The highest Ca and P levelsin both plasma and bones were observed in normal rats which were given tempe flour (K1, 11.25 mg/dLand 7.42 mg/dL; and 31.60 mg/dL and 19.78 mg/dL, respectively. Similarly, Ca and P levels in plasma andbones of ovxwhich were given tempe flour were slightly higher (10.91 mg/dL and 6.96 mg/dL; and 29.89 mg/dL and 17.87 mg/dL compared to ovx without tempe flour diets (9.38 mg/dL and 6.46mg/dL; and 26.58 mg/dL and 16.75 mg/dL. The numbers of osteblast was found slightly higher both in normal rats and ovxwhich were given tempe flour; whereas slightly decreased of osteoclast was observed only in ovx which weregiven tempe flour. The administration of tempe flour in ovx diets could improved bone quality as indicatedby the Ca and P levels in plasma and bones and decreased numbers of osteoclast.

  19. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  20. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer

    OpenAIRE

    N. K. Kortei; Dzogbefia, V. P.; Obodai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8 ...

  1. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  2. Effects of soya fatty acids on cassava ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongguang; Wu, Shuai; Zhu, Xudong; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol tolerance is a key trait of microbes in bioethanol production. Previous studies have shown that soya flour contributed to the increase of ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. In this paper, the mechanism of this ethanol tolerance improvement was investigated in cassava ethanol fermentation supplemented with soya flour or defatted soya flour, respectively. Experiment results showed that ethanol tolerance of cells from soya flour supplemented medium increased by 4-6% (v/v) than the control with defatted soya flour. Microscopic observation found that soya flour can retain the cell shape while dramatic elongations of cells were observed with the defatted soya flour supplemented medium. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) compositions of cell membrane were analyzed and the UFAs amounts increased significantly in all tested strains grown in soya flour supplemented medium. Growth study also showed that soya flour stimulated the cell growth rate by approximately tenfolds at 72-h fermentation. All these results suggested that soya fatty acids play an important role to protect yeast cells from ethanol stress during fermentation process.

  3. FORMULATION AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF INFANT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM GERMINATED POPCORN, BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study was to produce and evaluate the nutritional quality of complementary foods from popcorn, African locust bean and Bambara groundnut. The popcorn, bambara groundnut and African locust beans were obtained locally in Akure, Nigeria. The seeds were germinated, oven dried, milled and sieved into flours. The flours were mixed as follows: GPA (70% popcorn, 30% African locust bean, GPB (70% popcorn, 30% bambara groundnut and GPAB (70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, 10% African locust bean. The chemical composition, functional properties, sensory attributes and nutritional qualities of the food samples were determined using standard methods. The protein content of the food samples range between 23.85±1.54 – 28.84±1.02 g/100g, energy values, 434.47±2.04 - 444.11±2.47 and appreciable amount of minerals. The total essential amino acid (TEAA composition range from 27.63 to 31.09 g/100g. The calculated biological value range from 29.84 to 42.01 % . The oxalate, tannin, phytate and trypsin concentration of the food samples were reduced; while the choking property of the popcorn-based diets was eliminated with respect to the survival of experimental animals. The calculated molar ratios for [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn], phytate:calcium and phytate:iron were less than the critical values For sensory attribute, the GPB was rated highest in terms of overall acceptability over the GPA and GPAB, but rated less when compared with ogi and cerelac. It could be concluded that GPB had a better nutritional quality based on the overall ranking using protein, energy, Ca/P ratio, TEAA, biological value and sensory attributes indices.

  4. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a peroxidação lipídica, o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e o peso do fígado de ratos Effects of cassava leaf flour on lipidic peroxidation, blood lipidic profile and liver weight of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que polifenóis e saponinas apresentam efeitos antioxidante e hipolipidêmico, respectivamente. Como folhas de mandioca contêm estas substâncias, foi investigado o efeito de dietas contendo a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM sobre a peroxidação lipídica, o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e o peso do fígado de ratos. Para isto, folhas maduras de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao foram secas em estufa ventilada a 30-35 ºC e trituradas sem os pecíolos. Um ensaio biológico, com 32 ratos machos Wistar, foi conduzido por um período de 7 semanas com quatro tratamentos: dieta controle e dietas contendo 5%, 10% e 15% de FFM, sendo todas suplementadas com 1% de colesterol. As dietas se apresentaram isoenergéticas e contendo os mesmos níveis de proteína digestível e fibras. Foi observado que dietas contendo FFM não apresentaram efeitos significativos sobre o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e sobre as variáveis de desempenho, mas contribuiram para o aumento no peso do fígado. Já as dietas contendo 10% e 15% de FFM foram associadas à redução nos teores plasmáticos de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico.It is well known that polyphenols and saponins present antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects, respectively. As cassava leaves contains these substances, the effects of diets supplemented with cassava leaf flour (CLF on lipidic peroxidation, blood lipid profile and liver weight of rats were investigated. Therefore, ripe cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao were dried in a ventilated oven at 30-35 ºC and ground without the petioles. A biological assay was conducted during 7 weeks with 32 Wistar male rats submitted to four treatments: control diet and diets containing 5%, 10% and 15% CLF, all supplemented with 1% cholesterol. Diets were isoenergetic and contained the same levels of digestible protein, and fibers. It was observed that diets containing CLF presented no significant effect on blood

  5. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ridwan; Y. Widyastuti; W. D. Astuti; E. Yetti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste) and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1) vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2) vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3) vegetable waste + onggo...

  6. Physico-chemical quality and homogeneity of folic acid and iron in enriched flour using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Bruno T; Boen, Thaís R; Wagner, Roger; Lima-Pallone, Juliana A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine parameters of the corn and wheat flour matrix, such as protein, lipid, moisture, ash and carbohydrates, folic acid and iron contents. Three principal components explained 91% of the total variance. Wheat flours were characterized by high protein and moisture content. On the other hand, the corn flours had the greater carbohydrates, lipids and folic acid levels. The concentrations of folic acid were lower than the issued value for wheat flours. Nevertheless, corn flours presented extremely high values. The iron concentration was higher than that recommended in Brazilian legislation. Poor homogenization of folic acid and iron was observed in enriched flours. This study could be useful to help the governmental authorities in the enriched food programs evaluation.

  7. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  8. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a atividade das enzimas AST, ALT, FA e lipídios hepáticos de ratos Wistar Effects of cassava leaves flour on the AST, ALT, ALP enzymes activity and hepatic lipids of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de mandioca possuem substâncias como ligninas e saponinas que podem apresentar efeito hipolipidêmico. Todavia, um estudo recente relatou aumento no peso do fígado de ratos alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao, tornando-se necessário um estudo mais aprofundado dos efeitos desta farinha sobre os parâmetros hepáticos. Para este estudo, um ensaio biológico com 32 ratos machos Wistar foi conduzido por um período de 7 semanas, sendo os tratamentos: dieta controle e dietas contendo 5, 10 e 15% de FFM. As dietas contendo FFM não apresentaram efeitos sobre as atividades das enzimas Aspartato Aminotransferase (AST e Fosfatase Alcalina (FA, mas aumentaram significativamente a atividade da enzima alanina aminotransferase (ALT. O estudo histopatológico revelou vacuolização do citoplasma dos hepatócitos para todos os grupos. No entanto, a freqüência de animais com vacuolização acentuada foi superior nos grupos que receberam dietas com FFM, apresentando também maiores teores de lipídios e colesterol total hepáticos e maior relação peso fígado/peso corporal. Estes resultados indicam que os antinutrientes presentes nas folhas de mandioca, como taninos, cianeto e saponinas, podem ser responsáveis pela redução da função hepática nos animais alimentados com FFM.Cassava leaves contain substances such as lignins and saponins that can present the hypolipidemic effect. However, a recent study has reported an increase in liver weight of rats fed diet containing cassava leaves flour (CLF - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao. Thus, a further study of the effect of this flour on the hepatic parameters is necessary. For the development of this study, a biological assay with 32 male Wistar rats was conducted for a period of 7 weeks with the following treatments: control diet and diets containing 5, 10, and 15% of CLF. The diets containing CLF showed no effects on the

  9. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  10. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties.

  11. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyp...

  12. Use of Recombinant Lines of Wheat for Study of Association Between High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits and Flour Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Rezai

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The relation between high molecular weight glutenin subunit alleles and flour quality traits have been studied for 117 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived by single seed descend to F7 from a cross of Anza, a low quality cultivar, and Inia, a high quality cultivar, containing different alleles at 3 GLU-1 seed storage protein loci. RILs were classified by SDS-PAGE for the 8 possible combinations of the alleles. The allelic variation at the GLU-D1 locus accounted for most of the variation observed in SDS-sedimentation, mixing time and tolerance, and protein content. The GLU-D1 allele encoding the subunits 5+10 was superior to its allelic counterpart, encoding 2+ 12. All three loci had significant single locus additive effects for SDS-sedimentation volume and mixing tolerance. The additive effects of GLU-D1 locus on mixing time and protein content were also significant. The epistatic additive effects were mostly negative and with the exception of αAB and αAD for SDS-sedimentation volume were not significant.

  13. Individual and combined effects of water addition with xylanases and laccase on the loaf quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Skibsted, Leif H.; Kidmose, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    hardness was measured at 58 % water addition, likely due to insufficient plasticization of the gluten–starch network, while hardening and crumb structure collapse were observed at 76 % water addition. Enzyme evaluation revealed higher pore size upon treatment with the xylanase Panzea® BG (Panzea) compared......The objective was to study how water addition and addition of enzymes like xylanases and a laccase will improve the loaf quality of composite wheat–cassava bread. The loaf quality was determined by sensory profiling, volume measurement and texture profile analysis. High intensity of sensory...... of polyphenols and/or arabinoxylans. In confirmation to these findings, the combination of high water addition (70 %) and Panzea treatment generated larger and better structured bread....

  14. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be

  15. Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S; Domingo, M V

    1985-12-01

    Forty-five harvests corresponding to the two predominating domestic species of amaranth in Mexico were studied. The proximate analysis revealed some statistically significant differences throughout three years of observation. The Ca, P and Fe content did not vary greatly in 15 samples. No chemical differences were either manifested in the Mercado and Aztec types of A. hypochondriacus, nor in the Mexican type of A. cruentus. The latter exhibits a higher grain yield and a shorter life cycle; however, its baking quality is apparently inferior to that of the Mercado type of A. hypochondriacus. The heat treatment of the seeds (toasting, popping and cooking) affected protein and lysine contents as does in cereals and leguminous seeds although toasting in particular improves its sensory characteristics without altering digestibility and PER. Popping only improves PER. Heating at 90 or 170 degrees C for three to five minutes, at the usual seed's moisture rate of 6 to 15%, does not affect protein content and does so only slightly in the case of the fatty acids content. Amylographic and farinographic values of the starchy fractions indicate similarities to C. quinoa and differences with respect to wheat. In the case of "amaranth milk", viscosity and gelatinization temperature produced satisfactory values. The extension of amaranth cultivation in the country is hereby suggested in view of the seed's nutritional quality, and considering the behavior of whole amaranth flour and its fractions.

  16. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  17. Effects of pretreatments of banana (Musa AAA,Omini) on the composition, rheological properties, and baking quality of its flour and composite blends with wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Ogunbowale, Olukemi D; Adegunwa, Mojisola O; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2017-03-01

    Effects of chemical and heat pretreatments on the protein, gluten, and alpha-amylase activity, pasting (Peak [P], Final [F] setback [S] viscosity, pasting temperature [PT] and time [T]) and alveogram (Energy [E], maximum inflation [MI], P/L, and elasticity index [EI]) properties of flour from the pretreated bananas and its composite with wheat flour (WF) were examined. The baking (water absorption [WA] and specific volume [SV]) and sensory properties of bread produced from the flour were also examined. Protein, gluten, and alpha-amylase activity ranged from 4.75 ± 0.07%, 30.25 ± 0.05%, and 4.00 ± 0.05 min to 13.75 ± 0.06%, 35.64 ± 0.06%, and 39.61 ± 1.18 min with WF:PTBF/95:05, WF:CTBF/00:100, WF:BBF/80:20, WF:100 and WF:CTBF/00:100, WF:PTBF/95:05, WF:100, WF:PTBF/00:100 having lowest and highest values, respectively. P, F, S viscosities, PT and T ranged from 186.17 ± 0.71, 217.08 ± 1.41, 38.92 ± 5.42 RVU, 84.70 ± 0.28°C, 5.04 ± 0.05 min to 461.0 ± 5.07, 348.5 ± 8.84, 88.83 ± 0.24 RVU, 87.20 ± 0.00°C, 6.24 ± 0.05 min, respectively. E, MI, P/L, and EI ranged from 141.50 ± 0.71 × 10(-4)J, 15.35 ± 0.07, 0.59 ± 0.83 and 35.85 ± 0.07 to 325.00 ± 1.4 × 10(-4)J, 22.55 ± 0.07, 2.75 ± 0.07, and 70.50 ± 0.71, respectively. WA and SV were 48.12 ± 0.07 to 52.60 ± 0.14 and 2.850 ± 0.07 to 5.635 ± 0.18 with the WF having significantly (P < 0.05) higher values than other blends and the most acceptable in terms of appearance and taste.

  18. Study the effect of non-traditional type of flour on the quality of pasta products made of soft wheat

    OpenAIRE

    T. N. Malyutina; V. Yu. Turenko

    2016-01-01

    Pasta products are very popular among different population groups. Therefore they are promising objects for their enrichment with functional ingredients. As the enriching raw materials for the manufacture of pasta products spelt wheat flour was used. Spelt is characterized by a high content complete protein, which is composed of essential amino acids. Spelt flour exceeds the wheat one greatly in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron, B vitamins. The effect of different doses of ...

  19. 麦麸酚基木聚糖对面粉品质特性的影响%Effects of phenolic xylans on quality properties of flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玲; 马森; 王晓曦; 陈成; 王瑞

    2015-01-01

    以小麦粉为原料,采用4个添加量(0.25%,0.5%,1.0%,2.0%)、2个分子量(820 kD,581 kD)添加麦麸酚基木聚糖,研究麦麸酚基木聚糖对面粉品质特性的影响。结果表明:随着麦麸酚基木聚糖添加量的增加,面粉的白度降低、色泽变暗、糊化黏度值降低、吸水率下降,而面筋指数、吸热焓、峰值温度、形成时间、稳定时间增加,弱化度先下降后上升,粉质指数呈上升趋势。麦麸酚基木聚糖分子量对面粉的品质影响较小,其中小分子量的麦麸酚基木聚糖的面筋指数、吸热焓较高,吸水率较低。麦麸酚基木聚糖添加量在0~1.0%范围内,面粉的整体品质较好,当添加量达到2.0%时,面粉品质变差。由相关性分析可知,麦麸酚基木聚糖与面粉品质具有显著相关性。%Effectsof phenolic xylans from wheat bran with different addition levels(0.25%,0.5%, 1.0%,2.0%) andmolecular weights(820 kD,581 kD)on quality propertiesof flour were studied.The results showed that along with the incrementof phenolic xylans,whiteness,color,pasting viscosity values and water absorptionof flour decreased,while gluten index,endothermic enthalpy,peak temperature,formation time,stability timeof flour increased. Degreeof softening decreased first and then increased and silty index showed a rising trend with increasing addition level. Effectof phenolic xylans with differentmolecular weighton quality propertiesof flour was less.The smallmolecular weightof wheat bran phenolic xylanshadhigh gluten index and endothermic enthalpy and low water absorptionof flour.The quality propertiesof flour improved when ban levels was lower than 1.0%. However,flour quality deteriorated when phenolic xylanscontent was 2.0%.Thecorrelation analysis showed that phenolic xylans from wheat branhad a significantcorrelation with flour quality.

  20. Prediction of wheat tortilla quality using multivariate modeling of kernel, flour and dough properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat grain attributes that influence tortilla quality are not fully understood. This impedes genetic improvement efforts to develop wheat varieties for the growing market. This study used a multivariate discriminant analysis to predict tortilla quality using a set of 16 variables derived from kerne...

  1. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  2. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  3. Cassava-soy weaning food: biological evaluation and effects on rat organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajide, J M; Babajide, S O; Uzochukwu, S V

    2001-01-01

    Weaning food was formulated using a cassava product, 'Tapioca' (TAP), supplemented with roasted-sprouted soybeans (SS), with and without additional (10%) malted sorghum flour (MS). Biological evaluation was carried out on the formulations using 4-5 week old weanling albino rats, with Cerelac (a commercial maize-milk weaning food) as the control diet. There were increases in growth rate of rats fed with both the test and control diets. There were no significant (p >0.05) differences between the test diets and control diet in true digestibility values. The biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) values for the formulated diets were above the recommended minimum values. The weight of organs (small intestine, pancreas, liver and heart) of rats fed TAP + SS and TAP + SS + MS based diets were not higher than those of organs of rats fed Cerelac. It was concluded that cassava products could potentially be employed successfully in the preparation of weaning foods of comparable quality to available commercial brands.

  4. Concentrations of total glutathione and cysteine in wheat flour as affected by sulfur deficiency and correlation to quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, Julia; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2008-08-27

    A method for the simultaneous quantitation of total glutathione and total cysteine in wheat flour by a stable isotope dilution assay using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. As internal standards, L-[(13)C3, (15)N]cysteine and L-gamma-glutamyl-L-[(13)C3, (15)N]cysteinyl-glycine were used. The method consisted of the extraction and reduction of flour with tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine after the addition of internal standards, protection of free thiol groups with iodoacetic acid, derivatization of free amino groups with dansyl chloride, and HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of detection and quantitation for glutathione were 0.75 nmol/g and 2.23 nmol/g flour, respectively. For cysteine, the limits of detection and quantitation were 0.72 nmol/g and 2.12 nmol/g flour, respectively. The developed method was found to be sensitive enough for quantitation of total glutathione and cysteine levels in wheat flour. This method was then utilized to investigate the effect of sulfur (S) deficiency on the amount of total glutathione and cysteine in flour. In S-deficient wheat, the concentrations of total glutathione and cysteine were proportional to the amount of S supplied during growth. The calculation of correlations revealed that GSH and Cys concentrations influenced the rheological dough properties and the baking performance at least as much as protein parameters. Thus, the low concentration of GSH and Cys in flour from S-deficient wheat had a similar effect on the technological properties as the altered composition of gluten proteins.

  5. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  6. Cassava Genetic Transformation and its Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Qijie Zheng; Qiuxiang Ma; Kranthi Kumar Gadidasu; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones.Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality,building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide.

  7. Role of the farinograph test in the wheat flour quality determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diósi G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most objectively, the dough rheological methods can characterize the quality of winter wheat. The Farinograph test is the traditionally used one in Hungary, but the importance of other methods, such as Alveograph and Extensograph tests, are getting more widely known due to the interest and requirements of the industry and export markets. The Hungarian Standard on wheat quality follows the changes in the global markets; this is why the falling number appeared in the MSZ (Hungarian Standard 6383 in 1998. As the interest in the results of other rheological test increased from our accession to the European Union, the evaluation of these parameters on different varieties has become an important issue of qualification and in 2012 limit values for Alveograph and Extensograph parameters appear in the Hungarian wheat quality standard. Additionally, while the baking value was the only evaluated parameter of the Farinograph test earlier, the standard was supplemented with limit values for water absorption capacity and stability too.

  8. Effects of Blends of Low-Protein Winter Wheat Flour and Barley Byproducts on Quality Changes in Noodles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Young

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of fresh noodles made with blends of low-protein wheat flour and barley byproduct (BBP, 250 μm) were investigated. The crude protein contents (PC) of flour from Goso and Backjoong cultivars were 7.91% and 7.67%, respectively. PC and β-glucan contents from the BBP were 14.10% and 3.11%, respectively, which were higher than those in wheat flour. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of various blends was increased as a function of BBP but not gluten contents. Goso flour had the highest starch content (78.68%), with peak and final viscosities of 3,099 and 3,563 cp, respectively. Peak and final viscosities, trough, breakdown, and setback of the blends were decreased with the addition of BBP. Noodles made with Backjoong had the highest thickness score, while the hardness of noodles made with blends of Goso or Backjoong and 20% BBP were similar to those made from wheat flour only. The WHC of the samples was strongly correlated with PC, crude fiber, and β-glucan. The PC was not correlated with final viscosity, setback, thickness, hardness, gumminess, or chewiness. PMID:28078259

  9. Evaluation of sorghum flour functionality and quality characteristics of gluten-free bread and cake as influenced by ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Kathryn; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-12-01

    Commercially milled food-grade sorghum flour was subjected to ozone at the rate of 0.06 L/min for 15, 30, and 45 min. The pH of ozone-treated flour decreased as exposure time increased. The L* (lightness) values of sorghum flour significantly increased (p ozone exposure time increased. Peak viscosity significantly increased as time of ozonation increased from 0 to 45 min. Results showed that gluten-free cake volume significantly increased as ozonation time increased. Additionally, longer ozonation exposure times increased cells per slice area, lightness, and slice brightness values in gluten-free cakes while reducing crumb firmness. Despite improving lightness and slice brightness values, ozonation did not significantly increase the specific volume of gluten-free batter-based bread. While ozonation improved the volume and texture in cakes, it did not have the same positive effects on gluten-free bread. Bread made from ozonated sorghum flour had an open ragged structure with equivalent volume to the control flour. In both applications, the increased brightness and lightness values due to ozone exposure is recommended to increase the acceptability of sorghum products.

  10. Qualidade tecnológica de grãos e farinhas de trigo nacionais e importados Technological quality of national and imported wheat grain and wheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças da Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de trigo possui variadas aplicações na indústria de alimentos, apresentando um importante papel no aspecto econômico e nutricional da alimentação humana. Sabe-se, que as características nutricionais e tecnológicas da farinha de trigo sofrem interferência direta das condições de cultivo, colheita, secagem e armazenamento dos grãos de trigo utilizados como matéria-prima. Este estudo objetivou avasliar a qualidade tecnológica de amostras de grãos de trigo nacionais e importados, bem como de amostras de farinhas produzidas a partir destes grãos, através da análise de parâmetros físico-químicos (umidade, cinzas, glúten úmido, número de quedas e peso hectolitro e da farinografia (absorção de água, tempo de desenvolvimento e estabilidade. As análises físico-químicas mostraram diferenças significativas (p Wheat flour has a wide range of applications in the food industry, with an important economic and nutritional role in the human diet. It is known that the nutritional and technological aspects of wheat flour depend on the cultivation, harvesting, drying and storage conditions of the wheat grains used as raw material. This research aimed at analyzing the technological quality of samples of national and imported wheat grains, as well as of flour samples obtained from them. For this, physical-chemical (moisture, wet gluten, mineral content, falling number, hectoliter weight and farinographic (water absorption, development time, stability analyses were carried out. Physical-chemical analyses showed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the mineral content, wet gluten and falling number of the imported and national grain samples, and also among the flour samples obtained from them. Moisture was the only physical-chemical parameter that did not present a significant difference (p < 0.05 among the national and imported samples. Imported wheat grains and their flours presented higher values for wet gluten (28

  11. Flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissinum) consumption improves bone quality and decreases the adipocyte area of lactating rats in the post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in the intake on adiposity and femur structure of the lactating rats during the post-weaning period. After weaning, the lactating rats were divided into control (C, n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) groups treated with a diet containing flaxseed flour. Serum hormone and fatty acids composition, morphology of intra-abdominal adipocytes, computed tomography and biomechanical analyses of femur were determined. Food intake, body mass and hormone analysis have shown similar results. The F group showed the following (p < 0.05): lower arachidonic acid (-60%), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-30%) and retroperitoneal adipocytes (-36%) area. Higher radiodensity of femoral head region (+29%) and higher maximum force (+18%), breaking strength (+18%) and rigidity (+31%). Fatty acid composition of flaxseed flour decreased the area of adipocytes and improved the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid levels, during the post-weaning period.

  12. The effects of lentil and chickpea flours as the breading materials on some properties of chicken meatballs during frozen storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Hepsağ, Fatma; Kurt, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential values of yellow lentil flour (Y) and chickpea flour (C) as breading materials the effects of yellow lentil and chickpea flours on the quality of fresh and frozen chicken meatballs were studied...

  13. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of reducing agents on wheat gluten and quality characteristics of flour and cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of reducing agents (Lcystine, glutathione and proteases on wheat gluten recovery and quality characteristics of dough and cookies. PBW-343 and RAJ-3765 wheat varieties were analysed for physico-chemical properties which indicated that wheat variety RAJ-3765 had superior quality characteristics in comparison to PBW-343. Wet gluten and dry gluten %yields were reduced with addition of reducing agents. As the concentration of reducing agents increased gluten, yield decreased further. The dough strength (resistance to extension decreased, whereas extension of dough increased significantly with the addition of reducing agents. Upon addition of reducing agents, spread factor increased, whereas hardness decreased. Glutathione was found to be the most effective reducing agent out of the three reducing agents used in this study.

  15. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz: AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R., ANJOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feeding trials with cattle have shown cassava hay to have a dry matter intake levels DMI of around 3.2% of BW and a digestibility (71%. The hay also contains tannin-protein complexes that may be a good source of rumen un-degradable protein that will be available to the animal post-ruminally. It has also be shown that supplementing 1-2 kg/head/day of cassava to dairy cattle may go a long way in reducing feeding costs and significantly increasing milk quality and quantity produced. Cassava hay was also noted to be anthelminthic and therapeutic since it contains condensed tannins. Condensed tannins have been proven to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes. Use of cassava as a substitute of maize in dairy rations can significantly lower the feed costs in smallholder dairy farms in cassava producing countries like Mozambique. It was concluded that cassava is potentially an affordable substitute for conventional energy source for small scale dairy farmers.

  16. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  17. Effect of different proportions of brea gum in the functional characteristics of wheat flour starch: impact on the physical quality of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Patricia LÓPEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the changes induced by BG in the behaviour of wheat starch, and observe the influence of these variations on the quality of a basic white bread. The effect of four BG addition levels in the wheat flour functional characteristics (WAI, WSI, and pasting properties and bread quality (physical parameters, crumb grain structure, moisture and hardness was investigated. The highest levels of BG (1% and 2% decreased the peak viscosity, and increased the stability and setback of the flour. This was due to a lower gelatinization of the starch granules, caused by a competition for water between the hydrocolloid and starch. These changes influenced the bread quality. The loaves added with 1% and 2% of BG presented smaller alveoli: this resulted in more compact, hard and less airy crumbs. Nevertheless, the moisture of the samples at 1% and 2% of added gum was higher than the control bread. However, the incorporation of BG at 0.5% did not affect the pasting parameters and bread quality, but increased moisture of crumb, so this concentration would be most recommended for baking, since higher humidity could favour the shelf- life of the product.

  18. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  19. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages. PMID:27433100

  20. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  1. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava Processors in Rural ... Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... sites in southwest, Nigeria thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution. ... to lack of awareness of cassava peel utilization technologies in the study areas.

  3. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp. during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anihouvi VB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC, pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl concentration, type of salt were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%. Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05 increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

  5. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  6. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  7. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  8. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  9. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  10. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  11. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  12. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted.

  13. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  14. 高粱粉对面团特性及面包品质的影响%Influence of Sorghum Flour to Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海娟; 张传智; 韩诚俊

    2014-01-01

    Research on sorghum flour added to the dough and bread, using Brabender farinograph instrument measuring the dough properties, and the determination of containing water retention and aging degree of sorghum flour bread. The results showed that sorghum powder adding quantity 10%, farinograph properties of bread dough decline was not obvious, with better sensory quality of bread , which was high water retention, and aging degree was low.%将高粱粉加入到面团与面包中,利用布拉班德粉质仪测定面团的粉质特性,并测定含高粱粉面包的保水性与老化度。结果表明,高粱粉添加量为10%时,面包面团的粉质特性下降不明显,获得的面包感官品质较好,保水性性高,老化度低。

  15. 全脂豆粉对面团流变学特性及面包品质的影响%Effects of Soybean Flour on Rheological Properties of Dough and Quality of Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马栎

    2013-01-01

    将全脂豆粉添加到面粉中,研究全脂豆粉对面团流变学特性及面包品质的影响.结果表明,全脂豆粉添加量不大于3%时,可以改善面团及面包的品质,表现为面团形成时间、稳定时间明显增加,面包的总评分、纹理结构等指标有所提高.但当添加量大于3%时,面团及面包品质出现劣变,表现为面团的筋力减小,面包体积减小、色泽加深、口感发黏.%Fullcream soybean flour was added to wheat flour to study the effects of fullcream soybean flour on rheological properties of dough and bread quality.The results showed that when dose of fullcream soybean flour was less than 3%,it could improve the quality of dough and bread as the development time,stability time of dough and the total score,texture of bread was increased.However,when adding more than 3% soybean flour to wheat flour,it would led the fission of dough and bread quality as the strength of dough as well as the volume of bread were smaller,the color of bread was dark,and the taste was sticky

  16. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  17. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  18. Pengaruh Pemberiaan Tepung Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorrizha Roxb) Dalam Ransum Terhadap Kualitas Karkas Ayam Broiler Umur 6 Minggu [The Influence of Temulawak Flour (Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb) In A Portion to Quality of Carcass Broiler 6 Weeks Old

    OpenAIRE

    Yunilas; Mirwandhono, Edhy; Sinaga, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This research aim to give of temulawak flour in ransum to carcass quality (colour, tekstur and pH) broiler 6 week old. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consists of 5 treatments and 4 replications, and each replication consist of 5 chickens. The parameter in this experiment are meat colour, meat teksture, and meat pH. The result of research obtained of temulawak flour until level 4% in ransum not significant (P>0.05) to meat colour, meat teksture an...

  19. INTEGRATING CASSAVA VARIETIES AND Typhlodramulus aripo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The cassava green mite (CGM), Mononychellus tanajoa, is a pest that reduces root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by ... analysed for cassava varieties to sustain high population of T. aripo. ..... Journal of Economic Entomology.

  20. Variação na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca Culinary quality variation in cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A falta de regularidade na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca de mesa é um dos fatores de restrição à expansão de seu consumo. Raízes cozidas de boa qualidade, entre outras características, devem apresentar-se, quando esmagadas por um garfo, na forma de uma massa não encaroçada, plástica e não pegajosa. O tempo de cozimento culinário correlaciona-se bem com a qualidade da massa cozida, isto é, quanto menor esse tempo, melhor a massa gerada. Dessa forma, neste trabalho, a duração do tempo de cozimento (DTC foi usada como método indireto e expedito para avaliação da qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca. Os fatores que interferem na DTC podem ser reunidos em dois grupos: (a intrínsecos: variação dentro e entre raízes da mesma planta e entre plantas da mesma variedade; (b extrínsecos: variação em função do genótipo, do ambiente e do estado fisiológico das plantas. Estudos preliminares realizados pelo Instituto Agronômico (IAC tiveram por objetivos verificar e quantificar a magnitude dessas variações. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos de campo, em dois solos distintos, utilizando cinco variedades amostradas mensalmente, do 7.° ao 15.° mês de idade das plantas. A DTC foi determinada a partir de água fervente, em subamostras de cada raiz da planta. Os resultados mais relevantes mostraram que: (a a DTC diminuiu, de 10 a 14 minutos, da base para a ponta da raiz; (b a amplitude média de variação entre as raízes de uma mesma planta foi de 11, 10 e 27 minutos, respectivamente, para plantas com 8, 12 e 15 meses; (c houve diferenças na DTC para variedades (9 minutos e para tipos de solo (17 minutos; (d o efeito médio de época de colheita foi de 19 minutos. O período de menor DTC foi do 7.° ao 12.° mês de idade das plantas.Irregular culinary quality of cassava roots has been one of the major point that restricts its expansion for human consumption. A good quality cassava root, after cooking

  1. Effect of meat enhancement solutions with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and konjac flour on texture and quality attributes of pale, soft, and exudative pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, B L; Castell-Perez, M E; Miller, R K

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of hydrocolloids, buffer ingredients, salt, and sodium phosphate improve the color, texture, and pH of normal and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat. Specific solutions include potassium bicarbonate (KHCO), ammonium bicarbonate (NHHCO), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and konjac flour (KF). Three studies were carried out. First, the stability and viscoelastic properties of the different solutions was determined. Second, fresh normal (pH 5.6-5.9) and PSE (pHu  .05) on overall like/dislike of flavor, but PSE frankfurters were preferred (p Meat processors could use KHCO with HPMC or KF as ingredients to improve color, texture, and pH of PSE meat. The reduction of variation between PSE and normal pork muscle would improve pork quality and add value to PSE meat products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage.

  3. ESTIMACIÓN DE LAS ISOTERMAS DE ADSORCIÓN Y DEL CALOR ISOSTÉRICO EN HARINA DE YUCA ESTIMAÇÃO DAS ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO E DO CALOR ISOSTÉRICO EM FARINHA DE MANDIOCA ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS AND ISOSTERIC HEAT ESTIMATION IN CASSAVA FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO AYALA-APONTE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las isotermas de adsorción de humedad en harina de yuca a 20, 25, 30 y 35°C mediante el método gravimétrico en el intervalo de actividad de agua entre 0.111 y 0.901. Los valores experimentales de adsorción se ajustaron mediante los modelos de GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Henderson y Chung and Pfost. El calor isostérico de sorción (Qst se determinó mediante la ecuación de Clausius-Clapeyron. Las isotermas obtenidas presentaron una forma sigmoidea (Tipo II. El contenido de humedad de equilibrio (CHE disminuyó con el aumento de la temperatura para un valor constante de actividad de agua. Los modelos de sorción GAB, Oswin y Smith fueron los que mejor ajustaron los valores experimentales. El Qst disminuyó con el aumento del CHE obteniéndose un valor máximo y un mínimo entre 118.84 y 45.20 kJ/mol para humedades entre 5 y 35 (g agua/g ms respectivamente.Se determinaram as isotermas de adsorção de humidade dafarinha de mandioca, 20, 25, 30 e 35°C utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico numa faixa de atividade de água entre 0.111 e 0.90. Os valores experimentais de adsorção foram ajustados pelos modelos de GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Henderson e Chung, e Pfost. O calor isostérico de adsorção (Qst foi determinado pela ecuação de Clausius-Clapeyron. Os resultados mostraram que as isotermas obtidas foram de forma sigmoidal (Tipo II. O teor de humidade de equilibrio (CHE apresentou dependência com a temperatura, diminuindo com o aumento desta a um valor constante de atividade de água. Os Modelos de adsorção GAB, Oswin e Smith foram os que presentaram melhor ajuste aos valores experimentais. O Qst diminuío com o aumento de CHE, obténdo-se um máximo e um mínimo entre 118,84 e 45,20 kJ / mol de humidade entre 5 e 35 (g de água/g bs, respectivamente.Moisture adsorption isotherms of cassava flour were determined using a gravimetric static method at 20,25, 30 and 35°C in the range of water activity from 0.111 to 0

  4. 10个小麦品种面粉品质对其面条品质影响的研究%Effect of Wheat Flour Quality to Noodle Quality in Ten Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宏; 王慧; 汪帆; 王冠球; 张文明; 郑文寅; 姚大年

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the breed difference in some quality traits of wheat flour and noodle, and to analyze correlation of noodle quality and some quality characters of wheat flour. [ Method ] 10 wheat varieties, including Yannong 19, Wanmai 48 and Yangmai 12, were selected as materials to test 14 major quality traits of wheat flour and 8 quality traits of noodle and a related analysis between each index was given. [Result] The difference between 14 quality traits of wheat flour and 8 quality traits of noodle was highly significant. Moreover, noodles color and appearance had highly significant or significant negative correlation with protein contents, wet gluten contents, ash contents, total pentosan, water- insoluble pentosan, but which were presented very significantly positive correlation with some starch quality trait such as Peak viscosity and Final viscosity; Meanwhile, noodles taste, smoothness and total grade were presented similar tendency. [ Conclusion ]Effect of wheat flour quality to noodle quality in ten wheat varieties was outstanding in this research.%[目的]研究小麦面粉及面条若干品质性状的品种间差异,分析小麦面粉与面条若干品质性状间的相关性.[方法]选用烟农19、皖麦48和扬麦12等10个小麦品种(系)为试验材料,分别测定其面粉的14个主要品质性状和面条的8个品质性状,并进行面粉与面条各品质性状间的相关性分析.[结果]小麦面粉14个主要品质性状及面条8个品质性状的品种间差异均达到极显著水平;面条色泽和表现状态均与蛋白质含量、湿面筋含量、灰分含量、总戊聚糖含量、非水溶性戊聚糖含量呈显著或极显著负相关,与高峰粘度、最后粘度等部分淀粉性状呈显著正相关;面条适口性、光滑性和面条评分也表现出相似趋势.[结论]该研究10个小麦品种的面粉品质对其面条品质具有显著影响.

  5. Comparison between the nutritional quality of flour obtained from raw, roasted and fermented sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seed grown in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folasade Maria Makinde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. The most common form of utilization of sesame seed is its roasting, which supplies nutrients to the diet. Therefore, in view of the nutritional values of sesame seeds, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of roasting and fermentation 011 the nutritional quality of sesame flour. Material and methods. Nigeria grown white sesame seeds (NC’RI-98-60 were collected from National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI. Badegi. Nigeria. The seeds were divided into three portions, and treated as raw. roasted and fermented sesame seeds respectively. Each of the samples was milled, sieved and analysed for chemical composition using standard methods. Animal smdies were used to evaluate the raw and processed sesame in terms of nutritional and histopathological qualities. Results. The ranges of proximate contents from sesame were: protein 15.4-26.5 g/100 g. fat 52.4-62.8 g/100 g, crude fibre 3.34-3.89 g/100 g. ash 3.93-6.78 g/100 g. carbohydrate 11.7-13.4 g/100 g and energy value 550.7-593.7 kcal/g. Among the minerals, calcium was highest (464-567 mg/100 g followed by phosphorus (442-508 mg/100 g. magnesium (399-455 mg/100 g and potassium (336-489 mg/100 g. Total essential amino acid was within the range of 26.66-32.73 mg/100 g and these values were higher than FAO/WHO dietary requirement for infant and adult. Fatty acid profiles of raw. roasted and fermented sesame showed a predominance of oleic acid (46.43%, 44.20%, and 43.16%, respectively followed by linoleic acid (36.76%. 39.02%, and 39.67%; while the least was behenic acid. The unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranges between 5.01-5.13. Phytate and oxalate concentrations of fermented sesame were significantly reduced than other food samples. In general, fermented sesame was found to have to have better nutritional quality as indicated by rat growth response. Correspondingly, the Food Efficiency Ratio (FER value of 0.16 was higher than raw and roasted sesame respectively

  6. Comparison between the nutritional quality of flour obtained from raw, roasted and fermented sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed grown in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Folasade Maria; Akinoso, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The most common form of utilization of sesame seed is its roasting, which supplies nutrients to the diet. Therefore, in view of the nutritional values of sesame seeds, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of roasting and fermentation 011 the nutritional quality of sesame flour. Nigeria grown white sesame seeds (NC'RI-98-60) were collected from National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI). Badegi. Nigeria. The seeds were divided into three portions, and treated as raw. roasted and fermented sesame seeds respectively. Each of the samples was milled, sieved and analysed for chemical composition using standard methods. Animal studies were used to evaluate the raw and processed sesame in terms of nutritional and histopathological qualities. The ranges of proximate contents from sesame were: protein 15.4-26.5 g/100 g. fat 52.4-62.8 g/100 g, crude fibre 3.34-3.89 g/100 g. ash 3.93-6.78 g/100 g. carbohydrate 11.7-13.4 g/100 g and energy value 550.7-593.7 kcal/g. Among the minerals, calcium was highest (464-567 mg/100 g) followed by phosphorus (442-508 mg/100 g). magnesium (399-455 mg/100 g) and potassium (336-489 mg/100 g). Total essential amino acid was within the range of 26.66-32.73 mg/100 g and these values were higher than FAO/WHO dietary requirement for infant and adult. Fatty acid profiles of raw. roasted and fermented sesame showed a predominance of oleic acid (46.43%, 44.20%, and 43.16%, respectively) followed by linoleic acid (36.76%. 39.02%, and 39.67%); while the least was behenic acid. The unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranges between 5.01-5.13. Phytate and oxalate concentrations of fermented sesame were significantly reduced than other food samples. In general, fermented sesame was found to have to have better nutritional quality as indicated by rat growth response. Correspondingly, the Food Efficiency Ratio (FER) value of 0.16 was higher than raw and roasted sesame respectively. Significantly higher Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) value

  7. Making cassava flour safe using the wetting method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuropathy in older people, and aggravation of iodine deficiency disorders (such as goitre and cretinism) in iodine deficient areas. The wetting ..... associated nutritional factors in the Popokabaka District,. DRC. PhD Thesis, 2005. ... processing and risk of dietary cyanide exposure in Zaire. Food Nutrition Bulletin 1992; 14: ...

  8. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    acceptability of bread using the seven point food action rating scale [7]. For descriptive ... desirability of the sensory attributes under consideration. 2193 ... Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows version 12.0 and index to volume.

  9. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  10. Evaluation of different hydrocolloids to improve dough rheological properties and bread quality of potato-wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingli; Mu, Taihua; Yamul, Karim Diego; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Fauconnier, Marie Laure; Andrea, Perez Vanina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the effect of hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), arabic gum (AG), konjac glucomannan (KG) and apple pectin (AP) at 2% (w/w, potato-wheat flour basis) on the potato-wheat dough (the mass ratio was 1:1) rheological, fermentation and bread making properties. The tan δ of potato-wheat dough was significantly increased upon addition of adding HPMC which was close to wheat dough (0.531). Moreover, dough height during fermentation process was significantly improved on addition of hydrocolloids, with the order of HPMC (23.1 mm) > AP (19.3 mm) > AG (18.6 mm) > KG (13.6 mm). Protein bands of potato-wheat dough were pale in the presence of hydrocolloids, suggesting the formation of higher molecular weight aggregates formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins after fermentation process. Furthermore, HPMC significantly increased specific volume (from 1.45 to 2.22 ml/g), and hydrocolloids restricted the retrogradation of starch in potato-wheat breads.

  11. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  12. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  13. 氮磷钾施用量对木薯产量及品质影响的研究进展%Advances in effects of NPK application rates on yield and quality of cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋万; 吴勇; 杨金辉; 宋勇

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is the world’s fifth major crops. NPK application rates influence growth potential growth strength, yield and quality of cassava. This paper reviews studies that the effects of NPK application rates on the growth potential, yield and root quality of the cassava plant and its related research. The conclusions are as follows:(1)the importance of NPK is in the order of N>K2O>P2O5. (2) the cassava get its best growth potential when the NPK application rates are 150~200 kg/hm2 (N), 50~120 (P2O5) kg/hm2 and 150 kg/hm2 (K2O), respectively. (3)Effects of N and K application rates on yield show a quadratic equation. Effect of P application rate on yield shows a linear plus platform equation or quadratic equation. (4)When the N, K rates are at the middle or low level, the dry matter content and starch content increase slightly with the increase of P rate. When N, P rates are at the low level, the dry matter content and starch content are in proportion to K rates. When P, K rates are at a low level, the N rate has little effect on dry matter content and starch content. (5) Currently the study on the relationship between nitrogen levels and quality of cassava roots is insufficient.%木薯是世界第五大作物。氮磷钾施用量的高低影响木薯的生长势强弱、产量高低、品质好坏。综述氮磷钾施用量对木薯植株生长势、产量及块根品质方面的影响研究,研究表明:(1)氮磷钾的重要性顺序依次为N>K2O>P2O5。(2)氮磷钾施用量为150~200 kg/hm2(N)、50~120 kg/hm2(P2O5)、150 kg/hm2(K2O)时,生长势最优。(3)N肥与K肥施用量对产量的影响呈一元二次方程。施P量与产量的关系呈线性加平台方程或一元二次方程。(4)当N、K肥处于中、低水平时,随着P肥含量的增加而略有增高;N、P肥处于低水平时,干物率、淀粉含量与施K成正比;当P、K肥处于低水平时,施N水平的高低对干物率影响不大。(5)目前较为缺乏氮肥

  14. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    , which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion...

  15. A Comparative Study of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with Whey and Soy Protein on Rheological Properties of Dough and Cookie Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wheat-based foods that are enriched with proteins is increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of partial replacement of wheat flour with whey and soy proteins (0–30% on the rheological properties of dough and cookie-making quality. The incorporation of whey protein (WP diluted the concentration of gluten, leading to an increase in dough development time (MDT and breakdown torque and a decrease in stability time (MST and minimum torque (MMT. The gelation of WP during the heat treatment increased dough peak torque (MPT, G′, and G′′. As a contrast, the addition of soy protein (SP increased dough MST, MDT, and MMT. The aggregation of SP helped increase G′ and decrease tan δ of the dough in oscillatory shear tests. The weak gelling effects and higher water absorption of SP decreased MPT, G′, and G′′ of the dough during heat treatment. With SP, the spread ratio of cookies first decreased from 6.39 to 5.66 and then increased to 6.86, and the overall acceptability scores ranged from 6.62 to 7.02, indicating that the formed soy protein network helped maintain the dough structure for obtaining an improvement in the quality of bakery products.

  16. Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Bala

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem.

  17. Michaelis kinetic analysis of extracellular cellulase and amylase excreted by Lactobacillus plantarum during cassava fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediansyah, Andri; Kurniadi, Muhamad

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study reveal that single culture of Lactobacillus plantarum has ability to ferment cassava tuber in relation to produce modified cassava flour (mocaf). It was used to accelerate a fermentation process. L. plantarum grow well and produce some extracellular enzymes i.e. cellulase to change the structure and breakdown the cell wall of cassava tuber. Then, the starchy materials will be hydrolyzed by i.e. amylase into simple sugar and convert to organic acid. All of these process will give new characteristic of cassava i.e. lower fiber content, good flavor, taste, aroma and texture and the amount of cyanide acid is lower. Therefore this present study was to analyze Michaelis kinetics of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase production by L. plantarum during cassava fermentation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase activity of 8.60 U/ml and 14.07 U/ml, respectively, were obtained from filtrate which has been incubated at 37°C for 18 h under stationary conditions. The Vmax and Km of CMCase were 0.8506 × 10-3 U/ml and 0.9594 × 10-3 g/mL, respectively. For amylase were 9.291 × 10-3 U/ml and 0.9163 × 10-3 g/ml, respectively.

  18. 面粉高白度小麦种质资源筛选及其品质分析%Screening of Wheat Germplasm with High Flour Whiteness and Analysis of Its Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华东; 樊庆琦; 刘爱峰; 李玉莲; 隋新霞; 黄承彦; 李根英; 楚秀生

    2012-01-01

    为了挖掘面粉白度高、品质优的小麦种质,对1 248份小麦种质资源进行了面粉白度测定,并对面粉白度值超过80的小麦种质的籽粒硬度、淀粉RVA糊化特性以及面团揉混特性等有关品质性状进行了分析。筛选出面粉白度值≥80的小麦种质195个,其籽粒硬度指数分布范围为15~77;淀粉RVA糊化特性参数峰值黏度范围为1 030~3 407cP,稀懈值范围为629~1 522cP,回生值范围为5~1 546cP,糊化温度范围为65.3~88.2℃,最终黏度范围为755~3 870cP;面团形成时间范围为1.3~4.2min,衰落角范围为3~35度,沉降值范围为21~58.7mL。研究结果还表明,面粉中类胡萝卜素含量低,则面粉白度就高,仅靠延长面粉储存时间不会大幅度提高面粉白度。筛选出的14个高白度优异小麦种质可用于培育中强筋面粉高白度小麦新品种。%In order to find out wheat germplasm with high flour whiteness and good quality, the flour whiteness of 1248 wheat varieties or lines was investigated, and the grain and flour qualities such as grain hardness index, starch RVA (rapid viscosity analyzer) gelatinization characteristics, and dough mixing property of wheat germplasm with flour whiteness value over 80 were analyzed. One hundred and ninety five wheat varieties or lines with flour whiteness value over 80 were selected, and their grain hardness index ranged in 15-77. Starch RVA gelatinization characteristics such as peak viscosi- ty, breakdown, revive value, gelatinization temperature and final viscosity of those materials were determined and ranged in 1030-3407 cP, 629-1522 cP, 5-1546 cP, 65.3-88.2 ℃, and 755-3 870 cP, respectively. The dough development time, declination angle and sedimentation value of those materials ranges ranged in 1.3-4.2 min, 3-35 degree, and 21-58.7 mL, respectively; The study also showed that the flour whiteness becomes higher when the carotenoid content in wheat flour is less, and the flour

  19. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  20. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  1. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  2. Quality improvement of whole wheat flour with fungal α-amylase and glucose oxidase%真菌α-淀粉酶和葡萄糖氧化酶对全麦面粉品质的改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洁; 陈宁春; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Effects of zymin on rheological properties of whole wheat flour and quality improvement of whole wheat flour steamed bread were investigated in order to develop satisfactory whole wheat steamed bread products. [Method]Quality improvement experiments were conducted using fungal α-amylase and glucose oxidase addition to whole wheat flour. Effects of zymin on dough and quality of whole wheat flour steamed bread were evaluated. [Result]With added fungal α-amylase, dough had greater elasticity, gas-holding capacity and expansion effect. In addition, softer, bigger and more flexible whole wheat flour steamed bread proved that the processing technique for flour was well optimized. When glucose oxidase was added to flour, the dough was more elastic, more resistant to stir and less sticky. Sensory evaluation score of the whole wheat flour steamed bread was high with 4 mg/kg fungal α-amylase and 30 mg/kg glucose oxidase. [Conclusion]The whole wheat flour, improved by fungal a-amylase and glucose oxidase, had better ductility and gas -holding capacity, thus the steamed bread was bigger with higher sensory evaluation scores.%[目的]探讨添加酶制剂对全麦面粉流变学特性的影响及全麦馒头品质的改良作用,为制作出营养健康、口感良好的全麦馒头提供参考依据.[方法]将真菌α-淀粉酶、葡萄糖氧化酶添加到含8%麸皮的全麦面粉中进行品质改良试验,比较和优化酶制剂对面团及全麦馒头品质的影响.[结果]在全麦面粉中添加真菌α-淀粉酶后,面团弹性增强、持气性和膨胀效果好,蒸制出的全麦馒头变松软、体积增大、弹性增强,面粉加工品质得到改良;添加葡萄糖氧化酶,也能改善面粉粉质特性和面粉拉伸特性,形成更耐搅拌且不粘的面团.当真菌α-淀粉酶、葡萄糖氧化酶添加量分别为4和30 mg/kg时,全麦馒头的感官评价值较高.[结论]全麦面粉经真菌α-淀粉酶和葡萄糖氧化酶改良

  3. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  4. 不同粉碎方式的碗豆粉对豌豆挂面品质的影响%Influences of pea flour milled by different methods on the quality of pea dried noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓红; 沈群; 张敏; 李芳; 谭斌

    2016-01-01

    Making dried noodles with mixed wheat flour and yellow pea flour which was ground by Pin mill (PM),Roller mill(RM),Stone mill(SM)and Hammer mill(HM).The qualities of pea flour and the dried noodles were evaluated.The effect of milling method on the qualities of pea flour and the dried noo-dles was discussed.The result showed that The particle size of yellow pea flours milled by RM and PM are smaller with more uniformity than that milled by HMand SM.The particle size of pea flours (D[4, 3],D[3,2],d(0.5),d(0.9))correlates very significantly negative with damaged starch content(r were-0.929,-0.708,-0.757,-0.978 respectively );The pea noodles containing flour milled by RM were smoother,with better uniformity and appearance and higher score.Next was that by PM.While some granules can be seen on surface of the pea noodles which contained pea flour milled by HM and SM.The total scores of the noodles contain pea flour milled by RMand PMare 91.4 and 91.8 respective-ly,which were suitable to grind flore for making dried noodles than Stone mill and Hammer mill.%用四种粉碎方式(锤磨、针磨、辊磨和石磨)得到的脱皮黄豌豆粉,制作豌豆粉挂面,并对豌豆粉和豌豆挂面的品质进行评价,探讨粉碎方式对豌豆及豌豆挂面品质的影响规律。结果表明:辊磨制备的豌豆粉粒度分布均匀,粒度最小,其次是针磨,锤磨和石磨制得的豌豆粉粒度较大,且分布不均匀;豌豆粉粒径的 D[4,3]、D[3,2]、d(0.5)、d(0.9)与损伤淀粉含量均呈极显著的负相关关系(r 分别为-0.929、-0.708、-0.757、-0.978);辊磨的豌豆挂面表面光滑、均匀,外观好,感观得分最高,其次是针磨的豌豆挂面,锤磨和石磨的豌豆挂面表面有肉眼可见的小白色颗粒,外观稍差;辊磨的豌豆挂面和针磨玩豆挂面的总分最高,分别为91.4分,和91.8分,适合制作豆类挂面。

  5. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORCIÓN DE BIOPLÁSTICOS DE HARINA DE YUCA MOLDEADOS POR COMPRESIÓN ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE FARINHA DE MANDIOCA BIOPLÁSTICOS MOLDADAS POR COMPRESSÃO ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA FLOUR BIOPLASTICS COMPRESSION MOLDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA P NAVIA

    2011-06-01

    C para a variedade MBRA 383, enquanto o modelo de GAB foi a 35°C por MBRA 383. Calor isostérico de sorção diminuiu com o aumento do teor de umidade de equilíbrio foi encontrado um valor máximo de 87 kJ/mol e 78 kJ/mol, e mínima de 44,6 kJ/mol e 44,5 kJ/mol em amostras preparadas com o CM 7951-5 e MBRA 383, respectivamente.Water adsorption and isosteric heat were evaluated in biopolymers made from flour of two varieties of cassava (CM 7951-5 and MBRA 383, fique dust and glycerol by compression molding technique. The adsorption isotherms of polymeric samples were performed at 15,25, and 35°C in a water activity range of 0.12 to 0.98, using a gravimetric method. The adsorption experimental data were adjusted using the GAB, Caurie, Oswin, Smith, Henderson and Peleg models. The sorption isosteric heat (Qst was determined with Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The results showed that the Peleg model was adjusted appropriately to experimental values of adsorption at 15, 25 and 35°C in the samples prepared with the variety CM 7951-5 and 15 and 25°C for the variety MBRA 383, while the GAB model was at 35°C for MBRA 383. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in equilibrium moisture content finding the maximum in 87Kj/mol and 78 Kj/mol, and minimum in 44.6 Kj/mol and 44.5 Kj/mol in samples made with CM 7951-5y MBRA 383 respectively.

  6. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  7. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, .... on the management of the cassava peels; ... likely to enhance their adoption of new .... determines the adoption of innovation and as.

  8. EFFECT OF THE INDUSTRIAL MILLING PROCESS ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ionescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the milling process a large number of milling streams are obtained. These fractions are usually combined into a single composite product, but it is possible to select for blending certain fractions to obtaining different types of flours. In this work the rheological behavior, of the industrial flours obtained in different extraction levels was analyzed using Mixolab and Alveograph devices. Our results showed that the flour extraction rate is an important factor influencing rheological behavior. When by the milling process were obtained two types of flour, the flour with high ash content presented higher values of C3, C4 and C5 torques compared to flour with lower ash content. Therefore, the quality of the white flour obtained from wheat milling at different extraction levels highly depends on the flour fractions that are selected for blending.

  9. Effect of Cassava Residue on Milk Yield and Quality of Dairy Cattle%木薯渣对奶牛产奶量和奶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫慧诚

    2012-01-01

    30 healthy and mid-lactation Holstein cows with the 0 parity,body weight about 400 kg, similar milk production (P〉0.05)were randomly divided into two groups: 10 cows in control group were fed on lactation period normal diet, 20 cows in treatment group were fed on tile diet putting into five kilograms cassava residue inplace of lucerne hay at the control diet basis, to study the effect of cassava residue on milk yield and quality of dairy cattle. The results indicated that putting cassava residue into lactation period diet had no significantly influence on milk yield (P〉0.05). According to test statistic datas of milk compositions, it bad no remarkable effect on dairy cow's milk compositions, milk fat, milk protein,lactose, milk solids and non-fat solid(P〉0.05 ).%试验选用30头体重约400kg、健康无病、胎次相同,且处于泌乳中期,产奶量相近(P〉0.05)的荷斯坦奶牛,随机分为2组:对照组10头,用产奶期正常饲料饲喂;试验组20头,每头牛在对照组日粮基础上投5kg木薯渣替代5kg苜蓿干草,研究木薯渣对奶牛产奶量及奶品质的影响。结果表明:在产奶期日粮中添加木薯渣对奶牛的产奶量没有显著影响(P〉0.05);从乳成分分析统计数据看,其对奶牛的乳成分影响不明显,乳脂、乳蛋白、乳糖、乳固形物和非脂固形物均无显著差异(P〉0.05)。

  10. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 16 novilhas ¾ Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 15 meses e peso médio inicial de 144kg, para avaliar o efeito da adição de diferentes níveis (5; 10; 15 e 20% de bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum sobre a qualidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas contendo, como volumoso, silagem de capim-elefante com quatro diferentes níveis de bagaço de mandioca, mais concentrado balanceado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Avaliou-se a qualidade das silagens, os consumos de nutrientes das dietas e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes das silagens e das dietas totais. O bagaço de mandioca elevou o teor de matéria seca (MS da silagem, preservando-a com o pH que variou de 3,85 a 4,07 e a relação N-NH3/NT de 6,2 a 7,85. Os consumos médios diários de MS e proteína bruta (PB não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente (P0,05 na digestibilidade da MS (DMS, da FDN (DFDN e da FDA (DFDA das silagens. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das silagens foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da PB (DPB, do extrato etéreo (DEE e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DCNF das silagens decresceu linearmente (P0,05 na DMS, DPB, DFDN, DFDA, DEE, DCNF e NDT entre as dietas experimentais. O nível de adição de 5% de bagaço de mandioca à silagem de capim-elefante é satisfatório para sua preservação, propiciando boa digestibilidade.Sixteen ¾ Holstein-Zebu heifers aging 15 month-old averaging 144kg were used to evaluate the effect of the additions of different levels of cassava bagasse (5; 10; 15 and 20% to elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum ensilage on the diet quality and nutrients digestibility. The treatments consisted of four diets containing, as roughage, elephant grass

  11. Cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental hazards ... Majority of the respondents also complained of lack of water (78.4%), lack of ... so as to reduce the problems faced by cassava processors during processing.

  12. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... 1Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Technology, ... About 60% of the cassava produced all over the world is used for human consumption. ... utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava peels waste.

  13. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  14. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE HARINA DE SIETE VARIEDADES DE YUCA Y POLVILLO DE FIQUE POR MICROSCOPÍA ÓPTICA DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN -MOAR- CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DA FARINHA DE SETE VARIEDADES DE MANDIOCA E POEIRA DE FIQUE POR MICROSCOPIA ÓPTICA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO -MOAR- FLOUR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN CASSAVA VARIETIES AND FIQUE DUST BY HIGH RESOLUTION LIGHT MICROSCOPY-HRLM-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA PAOLA NAVIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características morfológicas de siete variedades de harina nativa de yuca y polvillo de fique. Las muestras fueron dispersadas en albúmina de huevo, posteriormente extendidas sobre placas de vidrio y teñidas con azul de toluidina para su observación al microscopio. Se usó la técnica de Microscopía Óptica de Alta Resolución (MOAR por contraste diferencial de interferencia (DIC, para observar las muestras y caracterizar las imágenes. Se encontraron en las harinas gránulos de almidón esféricos y semiesféricos algunos con formas truncadas, y estructuras fibrosas de diferentes formas. En el polvillo de fique se observaron microfibrillas longitudinales en forma de cintas, celdas y espirales. Este estudio permitió caracterizar la morfología de las materias primas estudiadas, cuya información es punto de partida para la continuidad de su uso en el campo de los materiales biodegradables.Nós avaliamos as características morfológicas de sete variedades de farinha de mandioca nativas e pó de fique. As amostras foram dispersas em albúmina de ovo, em seguida, espalhar sobre placas de vidro e corados com azul de toluidina para observação ao microscópio. Utilizamos a técnica de Microscopia de Alta Resolução de Luz (HRLM com contraste de interferência diferencial (DIC de observar as amostras e caracterizar as imagens. Foram encontradas no amido de farinha de grãos esféricos e hemisférica, truncada e com algumas estruturas fibrosas de diferentes maneiras. Em microfibrilas poeira fique longitudinal foram observados sob a forma de fitas, e as células em espiral. Este estudo permitiu caracterizar a morfología das materias-primas estudadas, cuja informação é o ponto de partida para a sua utilização continuada na área de materiais biodegradáveis.Morphological characteristics of seven varieties of native cassava flour and fique dust were evaluated. The samples were dispersed in egg albumen, then spread on glass

  16. Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Narducci, Valentina; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2014-06-15

    Food industry is interested in the utilisation of legume flours for the improvement the nutritional quality of cereal based foods. In this context, this research aimed at investigating the beneficial properties of different commercial carob seed flours -Ceratonia siliqua L.-. In particular, we determined chemical parameters (protein, fat, ash, soluble and insoluble fibre) by standard AOAC methods, lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol) by HPLC methods, the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant properties by the FRAP assay. The carob germ flour and the raw carob seed flour reached the highest insoluble fibre, lignan and total polyphenols content and these results were matched by their antioxidant properties. Different carob flours showed a different distribution of the various lignans.

  17. The effect of mung bean powder, and/or low fat soy flour as meat extender on the chemical, physical, and sensory quality of buffalo meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.; Abdelsalam R.R.; El-Sherif S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation of buffalo meat patties was evaluated in order to study the effect of adding low fat soy flour and/or mung bean powder as meat extenders. The results indicated that using low fat soy flour or mung bean powder as meat extenders at a level of 10% reduced the moisture and fat content, whereas increased the fiber and protein contents in the cooked samples. The reduction was greatest in the control (100% buffalo meat), and lowest in the sample contain...

  18. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in Cassava's byproducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hai-Teng; Zhang, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Lüi, Fei-Jie; Tai, Jian-Xiang; Li, Kai-Mian

    2009-07-01

    Cassava is a main cultivated tropical crop in China, its rich starch roots are often used to produce fuel ethanol in recent years, so it's a kind of hot biomass energy crops. But cassava's byproducts such as leaves, stems and peels are regarded as waste, and are not fully utilized. Cassava's byproducts contain many nutrients, and can be used to process high value food products. The contents of mineral elements and heavy metals in cassava's byproducts were studied by ICP-MS. The results showed that cassava's byproducts contained many elements necessary to human health, the sequence of macroelements was K>Ca>P> Mg>S>Mn>Zn>Na>Fe>B>Cu, particularly, the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and B ranged from 10 to 800 microg x g(-1) (DW), while the contents of microelements including Mo, Co, Se and Ge ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 microg x g(-1) (DW), which are important to human health. Besides macroelements and microelements, the contents of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb and Hg) were also important to identify the quality of farm products, and the results showed that cassava's byproducts contained little heavy metals except Pb (2.19 microg x g(-1) (DW) in stalk peels). All the data showed that cassava's byproducts accorded with the national hygiene standards.

  19. Effect of late-season nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and on flour rheological quality and stability in common wheat, under different production situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-06-01

    retrogradation was observed. In short, the top-dress granular N fertilizer applied at the beginning of heading (T3 led to a more constant increase in GPC and flour rheological quality than the foliar application. Moreover, the adoption of this fertilization strategy resulted in a reduction in qualitative variability under different environmental and soil conditions.

  20. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  1. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  2. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quali...

  3. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  4. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  5. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  6. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  7. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  8. Hepatic Necrosis and Degenerative Myopathy Associated with Cassava Feeding in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Daniel-Igwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three deaths were recorded among pigs fed boiled cassava meal at a private piggery over a period of two years. There were signs of sudden death in some cases with blood exuding from the external nares, vomiting, muscular weakness and pain or reluctance to move, emaciation, and stunted growth. The necropsy lesions included skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and necrosis, icterus, hepatic necrosis, and oedema of the dependent parts. The deaths and clinical signs are thought to be due to a non cyanide toxic principle in cassava, possibly the coumarins (scopoletin, which is found in high levels in cassava diet even after heat treatment. Therefore, the use of proper processing technology to obtain cassava products of high quality is recommended.

  9. 热辅助超高压对复合甜面酱品质特性的影响%Effect of high-pressure thermal sterilization on quality of compound fermented wheat flour paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 任欣; 娄阁; 沈群

    2015-01-01

    该文分别从流变、色差、风味及脂肪酸组成等方面展开试验,旨在研究热辅助超高压技术对甜面酱感官品质等品质特性的影响。结果表明,复合甜面酱经热辅助超高压处理后,黏度降低,并随着压力增加,黏度逐渐下降。经300 MPa和400 MPa处理后的样品的黏度变化小于500 MPa处理的样品。经过加压处理后,甜面酱的色差值(ΔE)发生显著变化,棕色指数(browning index, BI)下降,但亮度(L*)和红绿色度值(a*)无显著变化(P>0.05)。复合甜面酱中的挥发性风味物质以醛类、酯类为主,酯类含量在高压处理后减少。此外,400 MPa 的热辅助超高压处理并没有对脂肪酸的组成和含量造成较大的影响。由此得知,400 MPa、45℃、10 min的热辅助超高压处理可以较好地保护复合甜面酱质地、色泽、风味等方面的品质。为热辅助超高压技术对复合调味酱的进一步研究及工业化生产提供了理论依据。%Compound fermented wheat flour paste is favored by Chinese consumers as a traditional condiment, which is made of fermented wheat flour by Aspergillus oryzae. During the fermentation process, sterilization plays a key role, because the compound fermented wheat flour paste is prone to getting polluted. Heat sterilization is a conventional and simple method to kill the microorganisms in the products. However, the method has undesirable influences on the qualities of the product such as texture and flavor due to uneven heating. Besides, the microorganisms cannot be killed thoroughly. The high-pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) is a new type of sterilization technology which combines the methods of pressure and temperature. And this approach can extend the shelf life and maintain the safety of the products. The properties such as rheological characteristics, color, specific aroma compositions and fatty acid compositions in the compound fermented

  10. Analysis of sources of information for Improved Cassava Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cassava Production Technology (ICPTS) in Biase Local Government Area, ... of new technologies in cassava production, high cost of fertilizers, high cost of ... pave a way to increase cassava production and farm income of stakeholders.

  11. An Automated Cassava Peeling System for the Enhancement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Automated Cassava Peeling System for the Enhancement of Food Security in ... However, of all the unit operations involved in cassava processing, cassava ... machine was thus developed in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, ...

  12. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  13. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  14. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  15. Emprego de fubá de melhor qualidade protéica em farinhas mistas para produção de biscoito Use of quality-protein maize in flour blends and in the production of cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima F. P. Guilherme

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Farinhas mistas (FM à base de farinha de trigo com substituição parcial por isolado protéico de soja, soro de leite em pó e três tipos de fubá (mimoso ou de cultivares BR451 e BR2121 foram preparadas para melhorar a qualidade protéica da farinha de trigo. As características sensoriais e químicas dos biscoitos foram avaliadas, e o valor protéico em potencial foi calculado. Os resultados foram comparados com os da farinha de trigo ou seu biscoito (controles. Os teores em macronutrientes nas FM e nos biscoitos foram superiores aos dos respectivos controles, com exceção de carboidratos. Apenas na aparência o biscoito com FM BR2121 foi estatisticamente inferior à daquele com FM mimoso, sendo semelhantes ao controle e aos outros biscoitos na textura e no sabor. O biscoito com FM mimoso teve a maior aceitação. O valor calórico médio dos biscoitos foi de 436kcal. A qualidade protéica dos biscoitos com as FM - lisina e treonina como aminoácidos limitantes e C-PER em torno de 2 - foi superior a do controle. O custo (preço/kg dos biscoitos assados com as FM foi superior ao do biscoito controle, devido ao custo da FM ter sido cerca do dobro da farinha de trigo pura e de se necessitar maiores quantidades de ingredientes na formulação.Flour blends (FB based on wheat flour with partial substitution for isolated soy protein, powdered whey and three corn flour types (common or cultivar BR451 and BR2121 were prepared to improve the protein quality of wheat flour. The sensory and chemical characteristics of the cookies were evaluated and the potential proteic value was calculated. The results were compared with the wheat flour or its cookie (controls. Macronutrients levels in FB and cookies were superior than those in the respective controls, except for carbohydrates. Only in the appearance the cookie made with FB BR2121 was statistically inferior to the one with common corn FB, being similar to the control and other cookies in texture and

  16. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  17. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  18. 木薯品质分析的近红外光谱模型建立及其应用研究%Study on the establishment and application of NIR spectrum model for cassava quality analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 李扬华; 苏琳

    2012-01-01

    应用近红外光谱法(NIRS)建立木薯中淀粉、水分定量分析的近红外光谱数学模型,探讨了修正偏最小二乘法(MPLS)、偏最小二乘法(PLS)以及主成分回归法(PCR)等优化处理对定标模型的影响,确定了修正偏最小二乘法(MPLS)是建立模型最适合的数学方法.并对模型预测结果的准确性进行了评价.结果表明:验证集样品的化学值和近红外预测值拟合存在较好的线性关系,相关性显著.淀粉模型预测标准偏差(Sep)为0.850,系统偏差(Bias)为-0.095,相关系数(r)为0.971.水分模型预测标准偏差(Sep)为0.075,系统偏差(Bias)为0.007,相关系数(r)为0.980.淀粉、水分定量分析的NIPS数学模型具有较高的预测准确性,可应用于木薯批量收购中的品质等分析.%Application of Near Infrared Spectral method ( NIRS ) establish cassava starch? water quantitative analysis of the near infrared spectrum mathematical model, this paper discusses the influence of Modified Partial Least Squares ( MPLS) , Partial Least Squares ( PLS) and Principal Component Regression method ( PCR) for calibration model. Determine the Modified Partial Least Squares( MPLS) is building a model the most suitable mathematical method. And evaluate the results of model prediction accuracy. The results show that, validation samples of the chemical value and the prediction of near infrared fitting existence good linear relationship,significantly related. Starch model predicts standard deviation ( Sep) is 0. 850, the System deviation( Bias) for already deviation 0. 095 .correlation coefficient(r)of 0. 971. Moisture prediction model(Sep) the standard deviation is 0. 075 ,the System deviation ( Bias ) is 0. 007 , the correlation coefficient is 0. 980 ( r). Starch, moisture to quantitative analysis of NIRS mathematical model has higher prediction accuracy and can be used in the batch purchase for the quality of cassava analysis, etc.

  19. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  20. RP-HPLC and chemometrics for wheat flour protein characterisation in an industrial bread-making process monitoring context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Vigni, Mario; Baschieri, Carlo; Marchetti, Andrea; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-08-15

    In the baking industry, a difficult task is to keep the quality perceived by the consumer as constant as possible, given the inner variability of flour, e.g. due to different wheat mixtures, harvesting time, etc. Here, we evaluated the influence of flour batches properties on bread quality, considering an industrial bread making process. In particular, flour composition in terms of protein fractions (gliadins, glutenins) has been determined by means of RP-HPLC, to assess the inter- and intra-batch variability of flour mixtures deliveries at a baking plant. Multivariate data analysis allowed evaluation of correlation between flour protein composition and technological properties. A great variability within different deliveries of a same flour batch emerged, as well as a considerable seasonal variability. Correlation models among protein sub-fractions, technological properties and bread quality are difficult to establish; however, the role of the protein profile on flour behaviour in bread making could be highlighted.

  1. Development of waxy cassava with different Biological and physico-chemical characteristics of starches for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Dufour, Dominique; Sánchez, Teresa; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhang, Peng

    2011-08-01

    The quality of cassava starch, an important trait in cassava breeding programs, determines its applications in various industries. For example, development of waxy (having a low level of amylose) cassava is in demand. Amylose is synthesized by granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) in plants, and therefore, down-regulation of GBSSI expression in cassava might lead to reduced amylose content. We produced 63 transgenic cassava plant lines that express hair-pin dsRNAs homologous to the cassava GBSSI conserved region under the control of the vascular-specific promoter p54/1.0 from cassava (p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi) or cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S (35S::GBSSI-RNAi). After the screening storage roots and starch granules from field-grown plants with iodine staining, the waxy phenotype was discovered: p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi line A8 and 35S::GBSSI-RNAi lines B9, B10, and B23. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that there was no detectable GBSSI protein in the starch granules of plants with the waxy phenotype. Further, the amylose content of transgenic starches was significantly reduced (starch granules from the wild-type (about 25%). The inner structure of the waxy starch granules differed from that of the untransformed ones, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis as well as morphological changes in the iodine-starch complex. Endothermic enthalpy was reduced in waxy cassava starches, according to differential scanning calorimeter analysis. Except B9, all waxy starches displayed the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Amylogram patterns of the waxy cassava starches were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer and found to have increased values for clarity, peak viscosity, gel breakdown, and swelling index. Setback, consistency, and solubility were notably reduced. Therefore, waxy cassava with novel starch in its storage roots was produced using the biotechnological approach, promoting its industrial utilization.

  2. Investigação da qualidade de farinhas enriquecidas utilizando Análise por Componentes Principais (PCA Enriched flour quality investigation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Thiago Soeiro

    2010-09-01

    that corn and wheat flours have to be fortified with folic acid and iron. The main objective of this work was to investigate some enriched flour characteristics using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Wheat and corn flours presented, on average, acceptable centesimal composition according to the Brazilian Legislation. For the wheat flours investigated, the folic acid concentration was, on average, close to the expected value. Corn flours contained higher amount of vitamin. For both types of flour, the iron content exceeded the label claim of the products. Parameters, such as folic acid, iron, protein, lipids, moisture, ash, and carbohydrates content were present in 30 flour packages purchased from the local market. A matrix with 30 rows and 7 columns was organized and the data was autoscaled. The first information observed was an expected discrimination according to the type of flour. The wheat flours were characterized by high protein, moisture, and ash content. On the other hand, the corn flours had high iron, carbohydrates, lipids, and folic acid. Another important observation was related to the package type. It was noted that the flours packed in plastic bags had less folic acid (152 µg.100 g-1, on average than those packed in paper (259 µg.100 g-1, on average bags. This behavior is probably due to the light incidence during the storage period. This study can be useful to help the governmental authorities in the enriched food program evaluation. In this case, it will be possible to set suitable rules for appropriate food packaging.

  3. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  4. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Torkpo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV. Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs, which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.

  5. Taro Tube Flour Modification via Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

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    Catarina Sri Budiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Colocasia esculentum (L Schott known as “Talas bogor” in Indonesian language is easily grown in every island in Indonesia. It proved to have high content of carbohydrate as it can be utilize for wheat flour replacement in addition to prior modification using hydrogen peroxide. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of taro flour by assessing the effect of several parameter such as ratio of slurry, oxidation agent concentration, oxidation time and temperature. The result shows that using ratio of slurry 20% with 2% of H2O2 concentration in temperature of oxidation process 30oC and 60 min operation time can produced good quality of modified taro tube flour in terms of swelling power and water solubility with 7.2 g/g and 6.93% respectively. This condition has chosen by taking the technical and economic feasibility as consideration. This result also can be used as proof of evidence that using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent in the process of taro tube flour modification can improve the functional properties of the flour. As the swelling power and water solubility of original taro tube flour were 3.7 g/g and 1.8% respectively.

  6. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Hardened Tubers Composite Flours

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    Véronique Josette Essa’a

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w. Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC, and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (P, extensibility (L, stability (P/L, and deformation energy (W. Results showed that trifoliate hardened-yam flours do not have acceptable baking properties as pictured by the low Zeleny sedimentation index and the low Hagberg falling number. Protein quality (Zeleny index, 31 of wheat flour helped to compensate gluten deficit of yam flours, but the amylasic activity determined by the Hagberg falling number could not be adjusted, which resulted in a loss of extensibility (L of the paste at 10% substitution. Multivariate analysis of experimental data regrouped wheat flour and all wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours in one homogeneous cluster. Although wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours had physicochemical and functional properties similar to wheat, the inadequate diastasic activity makes them inappropriate for bread making, marking the strongest influence of that parameter.

  7. Characteristics and oil absorption in deep-fat fried batter prepared from ball-milled wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatuksorn, Pariya; Kajiwara, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Toru

    2010-01-15

    The porous structure generated during frying influences oil absorption and textural qualities. The alteration in physical properties of wheat flour is suspected to affect the structure formation. The present study investigated the effect of physicochemical changes in wheat flour by the ball-milling process on structure formation and consequently oil absorption of a fried wheat flour batter model. Batter models containing 600 g kg(-1) moisture were made of 0-10 h ball-milled wheat flour and then fried in frying oil at 150 degrees C for 1-7 min. The samples made of milled flour possess larger pores and exhibit lower oil absorption than sample made of 0 h milled flour. The fracture force of a fried sample prepared from 5 and 10 h milled flour is lower than that of a sample prepared from 0 h milled flour. The decrease in glass transition temperature (T(g)) and melting temperature (T(m)) of milled flour affect the microstructure formation in the fried wheat flour batter. The microstructure is responsible for oil absorption and fracturability in fried food. The samples made of flour of longer ball-milling time have lower oil absorption and higher crispness. Ball-milling may be a tool to produce mechanically modified wheat flour which can reduce oil absorption for fried batter. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Sensory response and physical characteristics of gluten-free and gum-free bread with chia flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katira da Mota HUERTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical quality and sensory acceptance of gluten-free breads with different percentages of chia flour (Salvia Hispanica L .. The chia flour was used to substitute rice flour and soy flour in order to replace the gum required in this type of bread. Four formulations were developed; a standard made with gum, and three formulations with 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of chia flour. Analyses of specific volume, cooking losses and the rise in dough of the breads were performed. Sensory analysis included tests for affective acceptability and purchase intent. The results showed that the bread with 2.5% chia flour had specific volume and cooking losses similar to the standard. In terms of the rise in dough, the standard showed the highest values, followed by the bread made with 5.0% chia flour. The substitution of soy and rice flour with 2.5% of chia flour produced bread with sensory characteristics similar to the standard in all of the analyzed attributes; it also received higher purchase intent. Using chia flour at a concentration of 2.5%, compared to rice flour and soy flour, proved that it was possible to replace gum in the bread formulation.

  9. QUALITY OF COOKIES FORMULATED WITH DIFFERENT PEQUI PEEL FLOUR CONTENTS QUALIDADE DE BISCOITOS FORMULADOS COM DIFERENTES TEORES DE FARINHA DE CASCA DE PEQUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of cookies formulated with different pequi peel flour contents (FCP, replacing wheat flour (FT. A completely randomized design was used, with control plus four treatments (12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of FT substitution by FCP, and four replications. The acceptability, color (brightness, nutritional composition, energetic value, and calcium, magnesium, copper, and manganese contents of each sample were analyzed. The data were evaluated by variance analysis and the averages compared by the Tukey test. When the FT substitution by FCP increased, cookies became darker, with higher dietary fiber, moisture, ash, magnesium, manganese, and copper contents, and lower carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and energetic value contents. In terms of acceptability, cookies with up to 25% of FT substitution by FCP do not differ from those without FCP (control, reaching 52% of consumer purchase intention and 5.2% of ingredients cost reduction, as compared to control. Therefore, up to 25% FT replacement by FCP, for this kind of cookie, is a feasible option, with functional, economical, and ecological benefits.

    糙米粉对小麦面团流变学及饼干品质特性的影响%Influence of Brown Rice Flour on Wheat Dough Rheological Properties and Cookie Quality Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓智; 扈战强; 周剑敏; 方勇; 沈新春; 胡秋辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Effects of brown rice flour on the thermomechanical and dynamic rheological properties of wheat flour dough as well as physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. The aim of the research is to provide a basis for further utilization of brown rice in developing new food products.[Method]Mixolab and dynamic rheometer were employed to study the effects of brown rice flour replacement on rheological properties of wheat flour dough. The dough microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cookies were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of brown rice flour replacement on cookie quality characteristics. [Result] With the addition of brown rice flour, the water absorption of the flour dough and the degree of protein weakening increased, while dough development time and stability time decreased. The addition of brown rice flour diluted the concentration of gluten and destroyed the continuous state of the flour dough, which resulted in being difficult to form the stable gluten network structure, and subsequently leading to higher degree of protein weakening under double effects of mechanical force and heating. The increase of replacement ratio of brown rice flour decreased the temperature of starch gelatinization, peak and break down viscosity of the mixed flour, and setback value of the starch due to the higher degree of starch hydrolysis. It was shown from dynamic rheological studies that with the addition of brown rice flour, the dough remained viscoelastic system and storage modulus and loss modulus increased, while tanδof the dough decreased, indicating higher degree of molecular cross-linking and elastic proportion in the mixed system. From SEM, with the addition of 10% brown rice flour, the dough microstructure became loose with small cracks and starch granules distributed unevenly. Irregular shape of rice starch granules could be observed and their adhesion force to dough surface significantly

  10. Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process:Relation of Flour Yield,Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend%Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process: Relation of Flour Yield, Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y S Kim; C W Deyoe; O K Chung; E Haque

    2006-01-01

    The profit margin in the flour milling industry is quite narrow, so high-quality raw materials and efficiency of milling operations are crucial for every company. Many flour mills, especially those which import wheat from other countries and have limited storage space for the different varieties or classes of wheat, can not afford to buy low quality wheat. Consequently, a mathematical model which can test the impact and interactions of raw materials, in technical point of view, would be a useful decision-making tool for the milling industry. A flour miller tests wheat for physical and chemical characteristics, cleanness and soundness. The miller also performs experimental milling, if available, to have some idea how the given wheat will behave during commercial milling. Based on these test results, the miller can only guess the commercial milling results such as flour yields and flour ash and protein contents. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop empirical equations to estimate commercial milling results, using the physical, chemical and experimental milling data of the given wheat blend and also, additionally, flour ash and protein specifications of the end-user. This was done by using the actual commercial milling procedures and their wheat physical, chemical, experimental milling data, and other vital data. Data were collected from a commercial mill located in East Asia that had four production lines and used wheat blend combinations from five different wheat classes, i.e. Hard Red Winter (HRW),Dark Northern Spring (DNS), Soft White (SW), Australian Soft (AS), and Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat to produce over 40 different products. The wheat physical and chemical characteristics included test weight, thousand kernel weight, ash and protein contents. The experimental milling data were straight-grade and patent flour yields, along with patent flour ash and protein contents from a Buhler experimental mill. The commercial milling results included

  11. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  12. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

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    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  13. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  14. A Study on the Quality of Fast Frozen Dough Made From Glutinous Rice Flour%速冻糯米粉团品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福来; 鲁茂林; 王华; 戴飞

    2001-01-01

    研究发现冷藏过程糯米凝胶脱水收缩作用,能促使速冻糯米粉团冷藏后表面开裂,适当添加猪脂,有利于减缓这个现象发生。通过显微照片分析,发现在粉团中的凝胶脱水收缩后成网状结构。采用正交试验得出的配方为水分40%、凝胶30%、猪脂8.0%,速冻冷藏后糯米粉团表面基本能消除裂纹现象。%It found that the syneresis of glutinous rice in cold storage period would cause cracking in the surface of the fast frozen dough made from glutinous rice flour. However adding appropriate amount of lard in the dough can slow down this phenomenan. Analyzing the microphotograph, it showed that the gel in the dough would become net structure after syneresis cracking. With the formula(40% water, 30% gel, 8.0% lard) from the orthogonal tests, the cracking in the dough of glutinous rice flour can be basically eliminated after cold storage.

  15. Caracterização de concentrado protéico de folhas de mandioca obtido por precipitação com calor e ácido Characterization of cassava leaf protein concentrate obtained by heat and acid precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Fátima Modesti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de mandioca apresentam um teor elevado de proteínas, todavia sua digestibilidade é baixa. A produção de concentrado protéico de folhas de mandioca (CPFM permite a utilização das proteínas das folhas com um reduzido teor de fibras e melhor qualidade protéica. Neste trabalho, analisaram-se características químicas de CPFM obtidos por diferentes formas de precipitação, com calor e com ácido. Os CPFM praticamente não apresentaram diferenças na composição centesimal. O nível de proteína dos CPFM aumentou 57,72% em comparação ao da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Os rendimentos de extração das proteínas também foram semelhantes para os CPFM. O teor de Fe dos CPFM foi mais elevado quando comparado com o da FFM. A FFM apresentou absorção de água e de óleo mais elevada que os CPFM, mas, entre os tipos de CPFM, os resultados foram semelhantes. A mínima solubilidade de nitrogênio da FFM e dos CPFM foi observada em pH entre 3 e 5. Verificou-se que a FFM apresentou uma capacidade de formação e estabilidade de espuma mais elevada que os CPFM. Tanto a FFM quanto os CPFM não apresentaram boa estabilidade de emulsão.Cassava leaves have a high content of protein of low digestibility. The production of cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC enables cassava leaf protein to be used with a reduced fiber content and better protein quality. This work involved an investigation of the chemical characteristics of CLPC produced by different forms of precipitation, using heat and acid. No significant differences were found in the centesimal composition of the CLPC. The protein content in CLPC was 57.72% higher than in cassava leaf flour (CLF. Both types of CLPC precipitation also yielded similar protein concentrations. The CLPC Fe content was higher than that of the CLF. The CLF presented higher water and oil absorption than did CLPC, although the CLPC extracted by the two methods showed similar results. The lowest nitrogen

  16. High-Level Butanol Production from Cassava Starch by a Newly Isolated Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Fuzhi; Huang, Jiajian; Pang, Zongwen

    2015-10-01

    A new Clostridium acetobutylicum strain, exhibiting the ability to resist butanol stress and produce butanol, was identified and named GX01. Strain GX01 can use a wide variety of carbohydrates, especially cassava starch, to produce butanol. After the optimization of culture conditions, C. acetobutylicum GX01 could produce 27.3 g/L solvent, including 17.1 g/L butanol, 7.9 g/L acetone, and 2.3 g/L ethanol, from 100 g/L cassava flour and 3 g/L soybean meal. Furthermore, when its acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was performed in 10- and 30-L bioreactors, the production of total solvent and butanol reached 29.2 and 18.3 g/L, respectively, and 28.8 and 18.8 g/L, respectively. Thus, the high level and stability of butanol production make strain GX01 a promising candidate for ABE fermentation using the low-cost cassava starch.

  17. Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction.

  18. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  19. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading α-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol.

  1. 小麦粉糊化特性与冷冻面团(馒头)品质关系研究%Research of the relationship between wheat flour viscosity and quality of frozen dough mantou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓曦; 刘亚楠; 董秋晨; 冯攀屹

    2012-01-01

    选取筋力各不相同的18种小麦粉为研究对象,测定其糊化特性,并进行冷冻面团馒头的制作实验,分析小麦粉糊化特性与冷冻面团馒头质构特性(TPA)和感官品质的关系。结果显示,两者关系密切。高中低三种不同筋力小麦粉表现出的糊化特性和冷冻面团馒头品质不同,高筋粉所制冷冻面团综合品质较好,低筋粉最差。峰值粘度与冷冻面团馒头的TPA硬度呈显著负相关;低谷粘度与回复性显著正相关;衰减值与TPA硬度显著正相关,与感官总得分、外观状况、柔软度呈极显著或显著负相关;糊化温度与TPA弹性和粘着性显著正相关,与冷冻面团馒头瓤的白度呈显著负相关;崩溃值与冷冻面团馒头比容呈负相关,关系接近显著。%18 kinds of different gluten wheat flour as the experimental material, their pasting properties were selected,and carried on the experimental production of frozen dough mantou,finally,the effect of the wheat flour viscosity on the frozen dough mantou texture character (TPA) and sensory quality was analysised.The results showed the two were closely related.The pasting properties and the quality of frozen dough mantou were different from the high-gluten to the low.The quality of frozen dough mantou with high-gluten flour was better,while the quality of frozen dough mantou with low-gluten flour was worst. Peak viscosity and frozen dough mantou TPA hardness was significantly negatively correlated. Low viscosity and recovery was significant positive correlated. Breakdown and TPA hardness was significantly positive correlated,with sensory total score,the appearance of the situation,flexibility were significantly or significant positive correlated.Peak temperature with TPA springiness and adhesiveness were significant positive correlated, with the whiteness of frozen dough mantou was negative correlation.The relationship between setback and the specific

  2. Cultivation of oyster mushrooms on cassava waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Obodai, M.; Asagbra, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is a major food crop for approximately 700 million people, especially in African countries. A large quantity of waste is produced during processing of cassava, mainly consisting of tuber peels. Although previous research has shown that these peels can be an ingredient for substrate to cultiv

  3. Molecular techniques for detection of confused flour beetle infestations in stored products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle) is a stored-product pest which contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although a number of methods for detection of stored-produc...

  4. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans occurs during Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. Fo...

  5. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  6. Research Advance of Effects of Soybean Dietary Fiber on the Rheological Properties of Dough and Qualities of Flour Products%大豆膳食纤维对面团流变学特性及面制品品质影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姿含; 管骁

    2011-01-01

    With the rising demands for a balanced diet and high quality flour products,addition of the soy dietary fiber has became a hot research spot. Soy dietary fiber could improve the rheological properties of dough and the quality of the flour products. The effects of addition of soybean dietary fiber on the rheological properties of wheat dough and flour products in recent years were reviewed in this paper. Furthermore,the research methods and related conclusions were concerned. Meanwhile,the mechanisms of soybean dietary fiber on the qualities of dough and flour products were also summarized. In some levels,it will provide some reference for the processing of soybean dietary fiber-rich pasta and flour products with high quality.%随着人们对均衡膳食和高品质面制品需求的不断提高,通过添加大豆膳食纤维改良面团流变学特性,进而在一定程度上改良面制品品质成为新的研究热点.该文综述了近年来添加大豆膳食纤维改善面团流变学特性及面制品品质方面的研究进展.同时,归纳了大豆膳食纤维改善面团流变学特性及面制品品质的作用机理,为加工富含大豆膳食纤维的高品质面团及面制品提供参考.

  7. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    .... The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied...

  8. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  9. Effect Debranning on Purple Waxy Wheat Flour Characteristics and Bread Baking Quality%脱皮对紫糯小麦粉特性和面包焙烤品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琴琴; 张宪省; 罗斐斐; 侯汉学

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同脱皮时间下制得紫糯小麦粉的理化特性和面团的流变特性,以及对面包焙烤品质和贮藏过程中老化程度的影响.紫糯小麦的脱皮时间分别设定为0、1、3、5、7 min,相当于约0%、1%、3%、5%、9%的皮层被去除.结果表明,随着紫糯小麦脱皮时间的延长,小麦粉的出粉率提高,蛋白质和灰分含量及面团的粉质和拉伸特性也发生改变.脱皮5 min后制得的紫糯小麦粉以15%比例添加到普通面包粉中,面包含水量显著增加,体积和质量呈增大趋势,并且面包结构变好,面包评分显著上升.此外,添加紫糯小麦粉的面包较长时间放置后仍然松软,能有效延迟贮藏期间面包的老化,在一定程度上延长了其货架期.%In this paper, we study the effect different debranning time on the physico - chemiscal characteristics of purple waxy wheat and rheological properties of dough, as well as bread baking quality and the degree of ageing during storage. The debranning time of purple waxy wheat was set to 0,1,3,5,7 minutes, respectively. Equivalently, a-bout 0%,1%,3%,5%,9% of the outer layers were removed. Results showed that with the extension of debranning time,the yield of flour was improved. The protein and ash content and farinograph and extensograph properties of dough also changed. Made purple waxy wheat flour after debranning 5 minutes was added as 15% to regular bread flour so that the moisture content increased significantly; volume and weight of bread tended to increase; bread structure and score raised. In addition,bread added the purple waxy wheat after a long time was still soft,that could effectively retard the staling of bread during storage and extend its shelf life in a certain extent.

  10. Effect of harvesting periods on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of delayed harvesting on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour were studied. The tubers were harvested at 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11months after maturity and were processed into flours. Chemical and pasting properties of the flours were determined. White trifoliate yam flour at 11months was significantly different (p0.05) from yellow trifoliate yam flour at 11months. Amylose and starch contents decreased while the sugar contents increased with harvesting periods. Yellow trifoliate yam flour had higher amylose at 10months while the white trifoliate yam flour had higher starch at 9months and sugar contents at 11months. Potassium and sodium were the major minerals found in the yam with higher values in yellow trifoliate yam flours. Peak viscosity and breakdown decreased while the holding strength and final viscosities increased with harvesting periods. Harvesting trifoliate yam tubers at 7-9months produced flour with high quality and prevents post harvest losses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualidade da farinha obtida de grãos de trigo fumigados com dióxido de carbono e fosfina Quality of flour obtained from wheat grains fumigated with carbon dioxide and phosphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda R. D. Faroni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar a qualidade da farinha obtida de grãos de trigo fumigados com atmosfera sintética (21% de CO2 associada a níveis reduzidos de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75 g m-3 foi o que se objetivou através deste trabalho. Para posterior comparação dos resultados, realizaram-se dois tratamentos com ar ambiente associado às dosagens de zero e 1,0 g m-3 PH3, em três períodos de exposição (24, 72 e 120 h e temperatura de 29 ºC e 60% de umidade relativa. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir-se que, em geral, os tratamentos não influenciaram na qualidade da farinha para panificação obtida do trigo fumigado com fosfina associada à atmosfera sintética (21% de CO2 e ao ar ambiente.The objective of present study was to evaluate the quality of wheat flour dough as affected by fumigation with a synthetic atmosphere containing 21% CO2 associated with low levels of phosphine (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g m-3. For comparison purposes, two tests were carried out using atmospheric air associated with 0 and 1.0 g m-3 of phosphine. All treatments were submitted to three exposure times (24, 72 and 120 h, at 29 ºC and 60% relative humidity. Results indicated that none of the treatments had any deleterious effects on wheat flour dough for bread making.

  12. RVA and Farinograph Properties Study on Blends of Resistant Starch and Wheat Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Lei; TIAN Ji-chun; SUN Cai-ling; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is the undigested starch that passes through the small intestine to the large intestine. As a functional low calorie additive, it has special applications in the food industry. Rapid visco analysis (RVA) and the Brabender farinograph were used to study the pasting properties and the viscoelasticity of blends of RS (RS3 and RS2) and three wheat flours. The wheat flours represented strong gluten wheat (SGW), intermediate gluten wheat (IGW), and weak gluten wheat (WGW) flours, at different levels of RS substitution (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). The influence of RS3 on the control wheat flours and RS-wheat flour blends were consistent with those of RS2. The peak, trough, and final viscosities of RS3-wheat flour blends were higher than those of the corresponding RS2-wheat flour blends. The peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities of wheat-RS blends decreased with an increase in resistant starch contents from 0 to 20% in the blends. The 0-20% RS-wheat flour blends were all able to form doughs. The dough development times, dough stabilities, dough breakdown times, and farinograph quality numbers for the RS-wheat flour blends decreased as the RS proportion in the blends increased. The values for RS-SGW flour blends were the highest, followed by RS-IGW and then RS-WGW flour blends. The water absorption values for RS-wheat flour blends and the mixing tolerance index for RS-WGW flour blends were found to increase significantly with an increasing proportion of RS from 0 to 20%, but the mixing tolerance index for RS-SGW and RS-IGW flour blends showed no significant differences amongst the different ratios. Correlation analysis showed that the Farinograph quality number was highly positively correlated with dough breakdown time, dough stability, and dough development time (r= 1.000, 0.958, 0.894), and highly negatively correlated with the mixing tolerance index (r=-0.890). Data from this study can be used for the development of dough

  13. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  14. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene...

  15. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  16. Cassava Processing: Safety and Protein Fortification

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in tropical regions, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cassava as a human food is a good source of energy as it has a comparable high energy density of about 610 kJ/100 g fresh root. The crop has growth advantages and production can take place in soil where other crops such as maize, sorghum and sweet potatoes cannot grow. In the region, cassava is used mainly by the farmers themselves as a subsistence crop b...

  17. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  18. Studies on the rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition, rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour were investigated. Compared with wheat flour, waxy wheat flour has lower protein (9.52%), amylase (1.02%) and higher crude starch (73.19%) contents. Because of its different chemical composition, waxy wheat flour exhibited some better processing characteristics (water-holding capacity, dough development time, extensibility, swelling power and setback) than normal wheat flour. It also exhibited some defects in rheological characteristics, including a higher degree of softening, a lower Farinograph quality number and smaller resistance to extensibility ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that waxy wheat flour gelatinized at higher onset (To=60.9 °C), peak (Tp=64.9 °C), conclusion (Tc=73.6 °C) temperatures and required more energy (ΔH=7.6J/g) to melt gelatinized starch gels. The results of this investigation indicated that blending waxy wheat flour with normal flour is a promising way to improve product quality in baked foods and to prolong the shelf-life of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  20. Qualidade da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. emurchecido ou acrescido de farelo de mandioca Quality of elephantgrass silage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. wilted or adding cassava meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Ferrari Júnior

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a silagem de capim-elefante cv. Taiwan A-146, submetida a seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: A - capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por 8 horas; B - capim-elefante sem emurchecimento; C - capim-elefante (98% mais farelo de mandioca (2%; D - capim-elefante (96% mais farelo de mandioca (4%; E - capim-elefante (92% mais farelo de mandioca (8% e F - capim-elefante (88% mais farelo de mandioca (12%. A adição de 12% de farelo de mandioca mostrou-se mais eficiente que o emurchecimento em aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem. A adição de farelo de mandioca promoveu decréscimo no teor de proteína bruta, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e hemicelulose de forma linear, porém aumentou os teores de extrativo não nitrogenado, matéria mineral e carboidratos solúveis das silagens. Os teores de ácido lático mostraram-se baixos, indicando que o farelo de mandioca não foi utilizado de forma eficiente pelos lactobacilos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as porcentagens dos ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático nas silagens. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca podem ser utilizados como alternativas para aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem.Silage evaluation of elephantgrass cv. Taiwan A146 was done at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP-Botucatu. Six treatments were used with four replications as follows: A - elephantgrass with eight hours of wilting under the sun; B - elephantgrass; C - elephantgrass (98% plus cassava meal (2%; D - elephantgrass (96% plus cassava meal (4%; E - elephantgrass (92% plus cassava meal (8%; F - elephantgrass (88% plus cassava meal (12%. The efficiency meal (12% was greater than wilting in increasing total dry matter content. The addition of cassava led to a linear decrease in CP, OM, NDF and hemicellulose content, at the same time it increased the NFE, ASH and soluble carbohidrates

  1. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  2. 食品胶对冷冻面团馒头品质的影响研究%Effect of food gum on quality of frozen flour dough steamed bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍宇茹; 王显伦

    2011-01-01

    研究和探讨了黄原胶、卡拉胶和羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)3种食品胶对冷冻面团馒头品质的影响,通过单因素实验和正交实验,对冷冻面团馒头品质的各项指标进行了评价.结果表明,在单因素实验中,当最适添加量分别为黄原胶0.4%、卡拉胶0.04%、CMC0.10%时,成品馒头的内部结构和外部结构的各项指标评分最高;黄原胶0.5%、卡拉胶0.04%和CMC0.08%的复合食品胶能明显提高馒头的比容、弹韧性和内部结构等指标,馒头的综合品质得到改善.%the effects of xanthan gum, carrageeenen and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) on quality of frozen flour dough steamed bread was studied and discussed in this paper.By single factor test and orthogonal experiment, all indexes of quality of frozen flour dough steamed bread were evaluated.The results showed that when the optimum additive amount of xanthan gum, carrageeenen and CMC was 0.4%, 0.04% and 0.08% respectively, the index scores of the internal and external structure of the finished bread were highest.The compound food gum with 0.5% xanthan gum, 0.04% carrageeenen and 0.08% CMC can increase the indexes of steamed bread, such as specific volume, toughness and the internal structures, and improve the comprehensive quality of steamed bread.

  3. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  4. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  5. Thermal Diffusivity of Sweet Potato Flour Measured Using Dickerson Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Tastra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.

  6. Changes in nutritional composition, functional, and sensory properties of yam flour as a result of presoaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale Olusegun; Babatunde, Bukunola Olaide; Olotu, Ifeoluwa

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of soaking pretreatments on some of the properties of flour obtained from two varieties of yam namely;Dioscorea alata andDioscorea rotundata with a view of providing information that will enhance their end use. The yam varieties were washed, chipped, parboiled at 50°C, soaked for different periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 h), dried at 60°C, and milled into flour. The flour samples were analyzed for their nutritional composition, pH, color, and functional properties. The flour samples were also made into pastes and were sensorially analyzed and 0 h soaked samples were used as control. The protein content of 18 h-soakedD. rotundata andD. alata flour samples was significantly different from the control and soaking had no effect (P > 0.05) on the fat and ash content but the carbohydrate content of the flour samples ranged from 83.08% to 86.13%. The 18 h-soakedD. rotundata flour sample had the lowest peak viscosity, breakdown value, and final viscosity among theD. rotundata variety samples. Pasting temperature ranged from 79.80 to 83.60°C and 6-h soakedD. alata flour sample had the lowest water absorption capacity and the highest bulk density. On the basis of sensory analysis, the panelist preferred the taste, texture, color, and appearance of paste made from the 18-h soakedD. rotundata flour to the paste of other flour samples. The results of this study show that D.rotundata should be soaked for 18 h prior to drying and milling in order to obtain a good-quality flour and paste.

  7. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doo-Jee; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yookyung

    2013-11-01

    For the development of healthful gluten-free soy bread acceptable to consumers, we evaluated the effects of various processing procedures for soy flour on bread quality, in terms of beany flavour and texture. We pretreated soy flour by both non-heating (raw:NS and germinated:GS) and heating (steamed:SS and roasted:RS) methods. In addition, to improve the loaf volume, we added 1% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) to RS flour. Lipoxygenase activity was retained in the non-heat-treated flours (279 U/g for NS and 255 U/g for GS), but was significantly reduced in the heat-treated flours (106U/g for SS and 69 U/g for RS). Moreover, heat-treated flour had higher isoflavone and ferric reducing antioxidant power than had non-heat-treated flour. However, RS flour had the lowest moisture content and lowest L value. The GS bread had the highest specific loaf volume (3.53 cm(3)/g), followed by NS (2.96 cm(3)/g), RS (2.25c m(3)/g), and SS (1.81 cm(3)/g) bread. GS bread had the lowest hardness (1.53N), followed by NS (1.65 N), RS (2.00 N), and SS (3.75 N) bread. The addition of 1% HPMC to RS increased the loaf volume (2.44 cm(3)/g), but decreased the bread's hardness (1.80N). As to the sensory properties, the bread with heat-treated flour was perceived to have a less beany odour and taste than was the bread with non-heat-treated flour. However, the latter had a better appearance than the former. These results indicated that soy flour pretreatment could enhance the loaf volume and reduce the beany flavour of whole soy bread.

  8. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin ... amino acid and available vitamins with modified functional properties .... Proximate composition of unsprouted and sprouted soybean flours.1. Proximate ..... similar to that of purified soyabean protein in human subjects: a study using ...

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF CASSAVA IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited research and development activities on the crop in Africa until comparatively recently. ... several serious challenges facing cassava researchers in Africa today; key among these are the need to ..... on cas sava white flies in Colombia:.

  10. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    The paper examined health issues on production and consumption of cassava. It was revealed .... This is potential cocoa output lost due to ineffective ..... Productive Benefit of improving Health: Evidence from low income countries. Mimeo ...

  11. technologies: controlling african cassava mosaic virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    healthy planting material, rogue infected plants and change varieties in attempts at control. This ... Moreover, obstacles to adoption must be identified and overcome. Key Words: Cassava .... adaptability, ACMD resistance and yield of improved ...

  12. EFFICENCY OF CASSAVA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technology that can kick start and complete cassava tuber processing into any of ... is recommended that our engineers should construct low cost processing ... remove this poison, reduce its toxicity, increase and its palatability and storage life ...

  13. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  14. Effects of the Fungus Powder of Scorias spongiosa on the Quality of Wheat Flour%海绵胶煤炱菌菌粉对小麦粉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凌; 贺新生

    2015-01-01

    Through the drying experiments,rheological experiment,bread baking experiment, we discussed the influence of the fruiting bodies of Scorias spongiosa, adding quantity on the quality of domestic wheat flour. Experiment shows,dealing with the fruiting bodies Scorias spongiosa through the methods of vacuum freeze drying;adding the fruiting bodies of Scorias spongiosa fungus powder 3%after milling ,dry and wet gluten flour increased ,and then the extensibility increased by 0.02 cm/min,the ductility increased by 0.2 mm/h,the elasticity was without change ,the viscosity gradually decreased,moisture content was reduced by 0.03 %, protein content increased by 0.7%, sendimentation value increased by 2 mL,ash content reduced by 0.02%, decline in value added 20 s.The bread made by adding about 3 % the fruiting bodies powder of Scorias spongiosa,contains more rich nutrients ,and its quality was better.Finally,the edible fungus Scorias spongiosa Bread is a new baked goods with market prospect.%通过干燥试验,流变学试验、面包烘焙试验,探讨了海绵胶煤炱菌子实体添加量对小麦粉品质的影响。试验表明,采用真空冷冻干燥处理海绵胶煤炱菌子实体,制粉后添加海绵胶煤炱菌子实体菌粉3%,此时面粉干湿面筋均有所增加,其中延伸性增加了0.02 cm/min,比延性增加了0.2 mm/h,弹性无变化,流散性逐渐减小,水分降低了0.03%,蛋白含量增加了0.7%,沉降值增加了2 mL,灰分降低0.02%,降落数值增加了20 s。添加3%左右海绵胶煤炱菌子实体菌粉制成的面包,具有更丰富的营养物质,且其品质较佳,是一种具有市场前景的新型食用菌烘焙食品。

  15. Cultivar difference in physicochemical properties of starches and flours from temperate rice of Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don

    2014-08-15

    Starch and flour of seven temperate rice cultivars grown in Himalayan region were evaluated for composition, granule structure, crystallinity, Raman spectrometry, turbidity, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and textural properties. The rice cultivars showed medium to high amylose content for starch (24.69-32.76%) and flour (17.78-24.86%). SKAU-382 showed the highest amount of amylose (32.76%). Rice starch showed polyhedral granule shapes and differences in their mean granule size (2.3-6.5 μm) were noted among the samples. The starch and flour samples showed type A-pattern with strong reflection at 15, 18, and 23. Pasting profile and textural analysis of rice starch and flour showed that all the cultivars differences, probably due to variation in amylose content. The present study can be used for identifying differences between rice genotypes for starch and flour quality and could provide guidance to possible industries for their end use.

  16. Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality of Bali Cattle Fed a Ration Supplemented with Soybean Oil Calcium Soap and Cashew Fruit Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study to evaluate growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites profile and meat fatty acid of Bali cattle treated with 3 different types of rations were conducted using a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Ration treatments were R1: 40% native grass (NG + 60% concentrate, R2: 40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% soybean oil calcium soap (SOCS, and R3: (40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% SOCS + 10% cashew fruit flour (CFF. Variables measured were growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood metabolites, and meat fatty acid profile. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results of the study showed that the 3 different feed treatments did not have any significant effect on dry matter intake and organic matter intake, daily body weight gain, feed efficiency, crude fiber, ADF and NDF digestibilities, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total fatty acid contents and content of unsaturated and saturated meat fatty  acids of Bali cattle meat. Different treatment rations also did not affect dry matter digestibility, however the treatments significantly affect the organic matter, crude protein, and fat digestibility (P<0.05. Bali cattle fed 5% SOCS (R2 and 5% SOCS + 10% CFF (R3 had higher organic matter and ether extract digestibilities and linoleic acid content of meat (P<0.05 compared with the control (R1. The Bali cattle fed with R1 and R2 had higher crude protein digestibility (P<0.05 compared with that of R3. It is concluded that the supplementation of 5% SOCS and 10% CFF in the ration improved the digestibility of organic matter, ether extract and linoleic fatty acids content in Bali cattle meat.

  17. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of ...

  18. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava.

  19. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  20. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    Flour Value Chains in Africa: Challenges for Agricultural Extension Services. Adebayo, K. 1 ... African Innovations Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 5. ... Abstract. Based on the premise that smallholders often get excluded as markets become more ... already know how to create the basic raw material for HQCF (grated cassava).

  1. Effect of Lupine Flour on Baking Characteristics of Gluten Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Maghaydah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease in genetically susceptible individuals caused by intolerance to gluten protein in some cereals, resulting in mucosal inflammation, which causes malabsorption. An effective treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that excludes cereals containing gluten. One of the most desirable wheat products is the cookie, which is considered suitable for all ages due to its low manufacturing cost, convenience, long shelf life and good eating quality. Therefore, the production of local, high quality and affordable gluten-free cookies was the main objective of this study in which lupine flour was used as a main wheat flour alternative. Eight gluten-free cookie flour blends were prepared: 100% Lupine Flour (AF, 50% lupine flour and 50% corn starch (BF, 40% lupine flour and 60% corn starch (CF, 30% lupine flour and 70% corn starch (DF, 30% lupine flour, 40% rice flour and 30% corn starch (EF, 30% lupine flour, 40% corn flour and corn starch 30% (FF, 20% lupine flour, 30% corn flour, 20% rice flour and 30% corn starch (GF and 20% lupine flour, 30% rice flour, 20% corn flour and 30% corn starch (HF, with equal amounts of hydrocolloids (1.5% xanthan and 1.5% carrageenan which were used as a functional gluten alternative, as well as a control sample with Wheat flour (WC. The chemical composition, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation of all treated flour blends and cookies were determined. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that corn and wheat flour were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in moisture content, while lupine flour had significantly (p≤0.05 higher contents of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. Starch significantly (p≤0.05 showed the highest carbohydrate content. The moisture of blend BC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than all blends and blend AC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher in ash, protein, lipid and fiber content. The carbohydrate content of blend DC was significantly (p≤0

  2. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Caracterizacao de diferentes amostras de mandioca por espectroscopia de ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: gisele@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Tecnologia, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  3. Enhancing yield and profitability of cassava in the savannah and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-05-30

    May 30, 2015 ... economical and environmental performance of production ... interactions between them and the environment. Besides the ..... varieties of yam, cassava and maize in ... Ph.D Thesis. 2004 ... influenced by cassava genotype.

  4. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... potential on domestic, regional and international markets. Cassava ... healthy and nutrition importance, cassava leaves con- sumption may be .... nonparametric test was done for sensory characteristics with strong departure ...

  5. post harvest production efficiency and output elasticity in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d

    CASSAVA PROCESSING ACTIVITIES IN RIVERS STATE. UCHE, C. Department of .... (Cassava Product Export Central Working Committee (CPECWC), 2002). According to ... In Fufu production, a unit increase in capital resulted in – 0.097.

  6. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences (2014) Vol. 12 No. 2, 20-25. Introduction ... as planting materials, appropriate fertilizer regimes and weed management ... emptive management of the cassava mosaic disease. (CMD), the cassava ...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... tested for dye fixation, fastness (acid, alkali, wash) and solvent stability. Results ... obtained by using such an agricultural waste in feeding ... The cassava peels were obtained from a cassava processing mill at. Choba, Nigeria.

  8. Mycoflora and nutrient analysis of sundried cassava chips (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... cassava chips (Manihot esculenta) during storage. 7411. Mycoflora and .... of the stored dried cassava chips were scrapped and plated aseptically on potato ..... storage of plantain chips and the health implications. Journal of ...

  9. chemical adjustment chemical adjustment of effluent from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    makes the treatment of this wastewater difficult. Several waste ... industries and homes are discharged into the rivers, canals ... after anaerobic bio digestion, waste water from cassava can ..... Cassava Wastewater Effluent Disposal” European.

  10. determination of the specific growth rate on degradation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Menten Equation. In order ... Wastewater from cassava starch industry usually is a ... include sun drying, oven drying, and treatment with ..... Analysis of Contaminated Water Resources Due to. Cassava Wastewater Effluent Disposal. European.

  11. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  12. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  13. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  14. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at roo

  15. Comparative Analysis of Processing Characteristics of Whole Cassava Flour and Cassava Flour%木薯全粉和木薯粉加工特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林立铭; 李开绵; 徐缓; 简纯平; 张振文

    2016-01-01

    以华南9号木薯块根为研究对象,利用不同加工工艺生产木薯全粉和木薯粉,分析比较10个主要加工特性指标差异,利用统计学方法分析其加工特性的相关性.结果表明:木薯粉的吸油性和相对粘度分别是木薯全粉的1.76和14.30倍,达到极显著差异,其他特性指标差异不显著.主成分统计分析表明,在第1主成分中,相对粘度和冻融稳定性2个指标的累积贡献率分别达到100.00%和95.05%,说明两者均是影响加工特性的关键因素.进一步相关性分析还表明,不同指标对木薯产品加工特性相关性不同,根据相关性系数排列,排名前5位分别是相对粘度、冻融稳定性、淀粉含量、吸水性和吸油性.

  16. 1092-IJBCS-Article-Casimir Anouma KOKO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali. Casimir ... Fresh roots of one local cassava variety .... an indication of a good stable shelf life if ... content contribute to increase the stability and ... protein (animal and vegetable).

  17. PROFIL GELATINISASI BEBERAPA FORMULASI TEPUNG-TEPUNGAN UNTUK PENDUGAAN SIFAT PEMASAKAN (GELATINISATION PROFILE OF SEVERAL FLOUR FORMULATIONS FOR ESTIMATING COOKING BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The combination of starch from various sources, salt and protein, are the basic formulation often found in the Indonesian traditional food. The different composition of amylopectine-amylose and the interactions among the ingredients in the formulation, determines pasting properties in order gain a suitable texture characteristics. The aim of the research is to study the interactions of severals kinds of flours with water, white egg protein, and salt and its influences to the cooking behaviour of semi-solid food. There are four formulations for each kind of flour (rice, glutenniuos rice, wheat and cassava that are: (1 water: flour = 25 : 3 g; (2 water :  flour : salt  =  25 : 3 : 0.28 g; (3 water : flour : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.3 g; and (4 water : flour : salt : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.28 : 0.3 g. The flours are analysed for proximate, particle size distribution and amylose-amylopectine composition. Pasting behaviour is measured using Rapid Visco Analizer (RVA to determine peak viscosity, peak temperature, and peak time gelatinisation. Rice, glutinous rice, wheat and cassava flours have different gelatinization profiles that depend on starches structural origin and amylose and amylopectin composition. Wheat flour has the lowest peak viscosity among four type of flour examined, whether cassava flour has the highest. Salt in starch-water system delays peak time. Egg white protein raises peak viscosity of starches, the addition of salt and egg white protein simultaneously into the system increases peak viscosity and causes the peak occurs earlier. In food processing, tapioca flour can be used to give viscosity at short time cooking but it could not give a sufficient viscosity to the cold products. Rice flour needs a long time cooking to give a suitable viscosity to the products, however this viscosity can hold well in cold temperature. Keywords: flour, salt, protein, gelatinisation, viscosity   ABSTRAK Kombinasi berbagai macam tepung dengan

  18. Effect of cassava-starch coatings with ascorbic acidic and N-acetylcysteine on the quality of harton plantain (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coatings was evaluated on the quality ofharton plantain fruits (Musa paradisiaca in the postharvest stage.Solutions for three treatments were prepared from 50 g L-1 cassavastarch (Manihot esculenta with 30 g L-1 glycerol as the plasticizerand 6 g L-1 polyethylene glycol-600®; for anti-browning agents, 6g L-1 ascorbic acid (AA and 8 g L-1 N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC wereadded. The fruits were coated by immersion, stored at 18 ± 4°Cand 85% RH. Physicochemical properties were determined at 32days postharvest. The applied coatings decreased the physiologicalweight loss (%WL and resulted in a higher pulp firmness (PF; nosignificant difference was seen with a confidence level of 95% inthe concentration of total soluble solids (TSS, acidity or maturityindex. The skin color was measured by the CIE L*a*b* method, withan average L value of 70 for the fruits coated with the 6 g L-1 AAand 8 g L-1 NAC mixture, while the control fruits had a value of 57.Also, lower a* coordinate values and browning indices were foundfor the epidermis of the coated fruits. The enzymatic activity of thepolyphenol oxidase decreased with the number of postharvest daysfor all of the treatments, being lower for the fruits with the mixtureof anti-browning agents by 27%, as compared to the control. It wasconcluded that the coating mixture containing the anti-browningagents ascorbic acid, 6 g L-1, and N-acetyl-cysteine, 8 g L-1, showeda better effect as an alternative for storing fruits and prolongingthe shelf-life of harton plantain.

  19. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-01-05

    Jan 5, 2008 ... Merrill] sowing dates on the yield performance of the ... There was no interaction effect between cassava planting method ... used, soybean sown 4 or 2 weeks before cassava gave the highest monetary returns ..... soybean/maize/cassava intercrop, in which they were of .... Relative sowing time and density.

  20. BEMISJA TAB4CI: THE WHITEFLY VECTOR OF CASSAVA MOSAIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The ecology of the Bemisia tabaci/cassava/African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) pathosystem is reviewed ... importance ofinteractions of B. tabaci with other arthropod pests of cassava and the influence of ecological .... spreads at different rates in different agro- ..... Manage = Management, Inter = Intercropping ...

  1. 魔芋粉与黄原胶复配物对重组牛肉品质特性的影响%Effect of konjac flour and xanthan gum on quality characteristics of restructured beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑶; 刘骞; 孔保华

    2013-01-01

    The restructured beef was prepared by adding transglutaminase(TG) and sodium casetnate as cold-binding agent and the added quantity was 1.2% of the grossary weight. In order to improve the quality characteristics of restructured beef,konjac flour and xanthan gum were added. The binding strength,shearing force,thawing loss,cooking loss.color(L* and a*-values) and texture of restructured beef were determined. The result showed that the ratios of konjac flour and xanthan gum was 6:4,and additive amount of hybrid edible gum was 0.4% of the grossary weight could produced the highest binding strength(p<0.05) and the lowest shearing force. Meanwhile,the texture of restructured beef was improved and also possessed the best bond effect.%将转谷氨酰胺酶和酪蛋白酸钠作为重组牛肉使用的黏合剂,添加量为原料牛肉质量的1.2%(m/m).为了改善重组牛肉的品质特性,在此基础上添加魔芋粉与黄原胶复合物,通过测定重组牛肉的粘结强度、剪切力、解冻损失、蒸煮损失、色差和质构来说明食用胶对重组牛肉加工特性的影响.研究结果表明,魔芋粉与黄原胶的比例为6∶4,复合食品胶添加量为0.4%(m/m)时,重组牛肉的粘结强度最好(p<0.05),生肉和熟肉的剪切力均最低,改善了肉的嫩度,使得重组肉具有最好的粘结效果.

  2. 小麦粉中添加植酸对馒头品质的影响%Effects of Added Phytic Acid in Wheat Flour on Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴澎; 陈建省; 段纯明; 田纪春

    2011-01-01

    As a new natural food additive, phytic acid is used as antioxidant, antiseptic, ferment accelerant and chelant in food industry. In the experiment, three kinds of wheat flour with three different gluten gradients were used and added with the phytic acid with the proportion of 0.005% ,0.025% ,0.05% ,0.1% ,0. 15% and 0.2% (phytic acid:wheat flour), and then were used to make Chinese steamed bread, so as to measure its structural features and evaluate the steamed bread. The result indicated that with the increase in the proportion of phytic acid, the textural properties of steamed breads had a little changes, while the volume and the total score of steamed breads reduced slightly, but the color of steamed breads improved slightly. Significant negative correlations were detected between hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, chewiness, volume with the increase proportion of phytic acid, while no significant correlations were identified between other properties with the increase in the proportion of phytic acid. In conclusion,there was no significant influence of the addition of phytic acid on the quality of steamed bread.%植酸是一种新型的天然食品添加剂,作为抗氧化剂、防腐剂、发酵促进剂或螯合剂广泛用于食品工业.试验利用3个不同筋力梯度的小麦粉,按0.005%、0.025%、0.05%、0.1%、0.15%、0.20%(植酸与制造馒头小麦粉质量比)的比例添加植酸后制作馒头,测定其质构特性并做馒头感官评价试验.结果表明,随着植酸添加比例的增加,馒头的体积和评分值均有小幅度下降,但是无论馒头瓤和皮的色差都有小幅度的增白现象.硬度、黏着性、胶着性、咀嚼性和体积与植酸添加量呈显著线性负相关,其余性状与植酸添加量的相关性不显著.但总的来说,添加植酸对馒头的品质特性没有起到显著性的影响.

  3. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding.

  4. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  5. Spatial-temporal water quality parameters evaluation of the Santa Rita river (BA with respect to the release of manipueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Porto Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The watershed of the river Santa Rita includes the towns of Simão and Campinhos, where exists about 150 flour houses. Campinhos is among the largest cassava processing facilities in the region, generating many direct and indirect jobs. Manipueira is a liquid residue originating from the cassava pressing and presents high pollutant potential due to its high amount of glucose and fructose, this potential is 25 times greater than the one from domestic sewer. This work had as objective the evaluation of possible impacts of manipueira release in the water quality of Santa Rita river. For this, the land use map was elaborated and the physiographic characterization developed, besides being performed six campaigns for water samples collection in four sampling points along the river. The obtained results indicated that the watershed is elongated, with low drainage efficiency and it is not prone to flooding. Estimated water quality parameters indicated that organic effluents from Campinhos and Simão impact the values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and zinc, suggesting that the water quality of the river Santa Rita is affected by manipueira release. The concentrations of total phosphorus, iron and cooper were superior downstream of the Sewer Treatment Station. The river water was saline in the three sampling points most affected by the release of manipueira.

  6. Differential effects of a post-anthesis fertilizer regimen on the wheat flour proteome determined by quantitative 2-DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenbach Susan B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrition during wheat grain development has large effects on wheat flour protein content and composition, which in turn affect flour quality and immunogenic potential for a commodity of great economic value. However, it has been difficult to define the precise effects of mineral nutrition on protein composition because of the complexity of the wheat flour proteome. Recent improvements in the identification of flour proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and the availability of a comprehensive proteome map of flour from the US wheat Butte 86 now make it possible to document changes in the proportions of individual flour proteins that result from the application of mineral nutrition. Results Plants of Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization (PAF and quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze protein composition of the resulting flour. Significant changes in the proportions of 54 unique proteins were observed as a result of the treatment. Most omega-gliadins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and serpins as well as some alpha-gliadins increased in proportion with PAF. In contrast, alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors, farinins, purinins and puroindolines decreased in proportion. Decreases were also observed in several low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS, globulins, defense proteins and enzymes. The ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS in the flour increased from 0.61 to 0.95 and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins increased from 1.02 to 1.30 with PAF. Because flour protein content doubled with PAF from 7 to 14%, most protein types actually increased in absolute amount (μg/mg flour protein. Data further suggest that flour proteins change with PAF according to their content of sulfur-containing amino acids Cys + Met. Conclusions A 2-DE approach revealed changes in the wheat flour proteome due to PAF that are important for flour

  7. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L) WALP

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Samuel Oladeji ADESIYAN

    2013-01-01

    This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection), TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection) and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties), hand weeded and unweeded (controls) wer...

  8. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  9. Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian. The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  10. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  11. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses.

  12. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Telengech, P. K.; Maling’a, J. N.; Nyende, A. B.; Gichuki, S. T.; Wanjala, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DX...

  13. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  14. EFFECTS OF FREE LIPIDS IN WHEAT FLOUR ON QUALITY OF YELLOW ALKALINE NOODLES%小麦粉中游离脂含量对黄碱面条品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艳林; 陆启玉; 章绍兵; 郭孝源

    2013-01-01

    利用分离重组方法研究面粉中游离脂含量对黄碱面条品质的影响,并用TA-XT2i质构分析仪测定生熟面条的质构特性,进行蒸煮品质试验.结果表明:随着游离脂含量的增加,生面条的硬度、弹性、黏聚性和回复性显著减小;熟面条的硬度增大,回复性显著减小;面条的拉断力先增大后减小,拉伸距离显著增大;面条的蒸煮时间、吸水率和干物质损失率均随游离脂含量增加而降低.%We studied the effects of free lipids in wheat flour on the quality of yellow alkaline noodles by segregation and recombination;the texture properties of raw and cooked noodles were tested by a TA-XT2i texture analyzer; and cooking quality test was conducted.The results showed that the hardness,springiness,cohesiveness and resilience of raw noodles decreased remarkably as the content of free lipids increased;the hardness of cooked noodles increased,and the resilience decreased remarkably; the pulling strength of the noodles increased firstly and then decreased,and the pulling distance increased remarkably; and the cooking time,water absorption rate,and dry matter loss of the noodles decreased as the content of free lipids increased.

  15. 生长期对不同品种(系)木薯品质特性的影响%The Effect of Growing Period on the Quality Properties of Various Cassava Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莹; 古碧; 李凯; 代道芳

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了不同生长期对不同品种(系)木薯含粉率、氢氰酸和单宁含量等品质特性的影响.结果表明,随着生长期的延长,木薯含粉率呈现先增加后下降的趋势,氢氰酸和单宁含量的变化趋势因品种(系)而异.品种南植在生长7个月收获时,木薯淀粉含量高,氢氰酸和单宁含量较低,品种D、SC和ZM在生长9个月收获时,木薯淀粉含量高,氢氰酸和单宁含量较低,因此适合食品用淀粉的深加工;品种C和E在生长8个月收获时,淀粉含量高,但氢氰酸和单宁含量也较高.本研究探明了不同生长期和品种对鲜木薯含粉率、单宁和氢氰酸含量的影响,为合理选择生长期和木薯品种提供理论支撑.%We studied the effect of different growing period on starch content, hydrocyanic acid and tannin of different cassava cultivars. The results showed that the starch contents of cassava cultivars mcreased first, and then decreased with extending growing period. Changes of the hydrocyanic acid and tannin content at different harvesting periods could be discriminated according to the cultivars. Starch content was high and hydrocyanic acid and tannin was low in nanzhi cultivars when harvested at 6th month. For D, SC and ZM cultivars, starch content was high and hydrocyanic acid and tannin was low at 9th month, so they were suited to food applications: For C and E cultivars, starch content was high and hydrocyanic acid and tannin was also high at 8th month, so there were suited to other industrial applications. This study proved the effect of different growing period on starch content, hydrocyanic acid and tannin of different cassava cultivars, and provided a reasonable choice for the growing season and cassava varieties.

  16. Nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from wheat flour and pitaya (Hylocereus undatus peel flour blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hoon Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food waste produced from fruits and vegetables processing plants possesses an important natural and valuable material in producing less expensive functional food due to the presence of several bioactive substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory quality of the control, wheat flour cookies substituted with 5, 10, and 15% pitaya peel flour (PPF. The proximate analyses results demonstrated that PPF-containing cookies had significantly higher ash, fiber, and carbohydrate content but lower moisture and protein than the control. Physical analyses results showed that cookies incorporated with PPF had higher diameter and spread ratio but lower crumb height than the control. Sensory evaluation results indicated that wheat flour partially substituted with PPF up to 15% level did not affect to the overall acceptability ratings of cookies by panelists. Thus it can be concluded that PPF can be partially substituted for wheat flour in cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory acceptability of composite cookies.

  17. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  18. PARTIAL HYDROLYSIS OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO FLOUR BY AMYLASE FROM Saccharomycopsis fibuligera AND ITS APPLICATION FOR COMPOSITE BREADMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato is one of underutilized carbohydrate sources in Indonesia, whilst known as good source of carbohydrate and can act as functional food due to its anthocyanine and dietary fiber contents. Therefore in the present study, we try to modify the sweet potato flour by partial hydrolysis using amylase produced by Saccharomycospsis fibuligera R64 and apply the partially hydrolyzed flour for composite breadmaking. The amylase was produced using batch method and partially purified by the addition of ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G25 using fast performance liquid chromatography system. The enzyme was then used to hydrolyze the purple sweet potato flour. Characterizations of the partially hydrolyzed flour comprise reduction in amylose-iodine complex, SEM and XRD. Partially hydrolyzed flour was then used as composite flour for bread, with ratio of wheat to partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour was 70 : 30. The produced bread was then analyzed for its texture, organoleptic test and visualization of the bread crumb using TEM. The results of the present study indicate that the enzyme partially hydrolyzed the sweet potato flour. Even though the quality of the composite bread is not as good as wheat bread, partial hydrolysis seems to improve the texture and appearance of the composite bread, as indicated by better swelling volume and firmness of the composite bread using partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour.

  19. Deep Assessment of Genomic Diversity in Cassava for Herbicide Tolerance and Starch Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duitama, Jorge; Kafuri, Lina; Tello, Daniel; Leiva, Ana María; Hofinger, Bernhard; Datta, Sneha; Lentini, Zaida; Aranzales, Ericson; Till, Bradley; Ceballos, Hernán

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important food security crops in tropical countries, and a competitive resource for the starch, food, feed and ethanol industries. However, genomics research in this crop is much less developed compared to other economically important crops such as rice or maize. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) maintains the largest cassava germplasm collection in the world. Unfortunately, the genetic potential of this diversity for breeding programs remains underexploited due to the difficulties in phenotypic screening and lack of deep genomic information about the different accessions. A chromosome-level assembly of the cassava reference genome was released this year and only a handful of studies have been made, mainly to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) on breeding populations with limited variability. This work presents the results of pooled targeted resequencing of more than 1500 cassava accessions from the CIAT germplasm collection to obtain a dataset of more than 2000 variants within genes related to starch functional properties and herbicide tolerance. Results of twelve bioinformatic pipelines for variant detection in pooled samples were compared to ensure the quality of the variant calling process. Predictions of functional impact were performed using two separate methods to prioritize interesting variation for genotyping and cultivar selection. Targeted resequencing, either by pooled samples or by similar approaches such as Ecotilling or capture, emerges as a cost effective alternative to whole genome sequencing to identify interesting alleles of genes related to relevant traits within large germplasm collections.

  20. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

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    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  2. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing.

  3. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  4. Microbial degradation and utilization of cassava peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuya, C O; Nwajiuba, C J

    1990-06-01

    Cassava peel was readily degraded and utilized by a strain ofRhizopus growing in a solid-state fermentation. Growth was maximal at 45°C and was proportional to the degree of hydrolysis of the peel. The yield of biomass, as weight of dry mycellum from the reducing sugars of the peel, was 51%. After 72 h fermentation, the peel contained 76% moisture, 6% cellulose, 7% hemicellulose and 0.4% ash and the protein content had increased from 5.6% to 16%. These results suggest a possible economic value of cassava peel in the production of fungal biomass and feedstock.

  5. Efecto de la translocación 1BL.1RS en la calidad del grano y harina de trigo Effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation in quality of wheat grain and flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliel Martínez Cruz

    2011-04-01

    without translocation in F7 recombinant lines, derived from breeds Gálvez M87*Bacanora T88 and Bacanora T88*Salamanca S75. The materials were cultivated in the Experimental Field Bajío, Roque, Guanajuato; during 2008 spring-summer cycle. The identification of glutenins combinations with and without translocation (identified as allele Glu-B3j, and determination of grain physical parameters, was carried out in quality laboratory from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (commonly known as CIMMYT for Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo. Measured variables were: hectoliter weigh, grain hardness, protein in grain and protein in flour. Translocation was identified in six and two different recombinant combinations in breed Gálvez M87*Bacanora T88 and Bacanora T88*Salamanca S75, respectively. The analysis of allele Glu-B3j presence in different combinations of HMWG and LMWG, it allowed to identify lines that were associated to high and low values of hectoliter weigh, same behavior was seen for protein in grain and flour; while in both breeds translocation was associated to greater grain hardness.

  6. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Borah, Basanta K; Resmi, Thulasi R; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-09-28

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A.

  7. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Karthikeyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A.

  8. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Borah, Basanta K.; Resmi, Thulasi R.; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-01-01

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A. PMID:27690084

  9. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  10. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  11. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the

  12. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in screening cassava for resistance to cassava mosaic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Atiri, G I; Dixon, A G O; Winter, S

    2006-10-01

    Inoculation of cassava with infectious clones of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) and total DNA extracts from plants infected with well-characterised viruses was evaluated using the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun System. Total DNA extracts from infected plants and cloned viruses were produced for coating gold particles and bombardment onto new cassava genotypes, 96/1089A, 96/1039, 96/0160, 96/0304 and three local landraces TME 117, TME 3 and TME 4. Cloned DNA of a Kenyan isolate of the recombinant variant of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG2-[Ka]), was only infectious to TME 117 (7/10 plants), 3 weeks post-inoculation with mild infection symptoms in the newly developing leaves. Biolistic inoculation with a chimeric pseudorecombinant virus between DNA A and B components from EACMV-[Ke-Kilifi] and EACMV-UG2-[Ka], respectively, was infectious to TME 117, 96/1039 and 96/0304 and developed very severe and persistent symptoms. TME 3 and TME 4 also developed symptoms, 12 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.). Total DNA extracts of ACMV and EACMV-[Ke-Kilifi] resulted in serious infections with symptoms already evident, 10d.p.i. In general, biolistic inoculation trials with total DNA extracts resulted in a higher number of infected plants expressing symptoms at a much earlier stage (10-12d.p.i.) compared with trials inoculated with virus clones.

  13. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  14. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  15. Interactive effects of temperature and drought on cassava growth and toxicity: implications for food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alicia L; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Gleadow, Ros; Miller, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Cassava is an important dietary component for over 1 billion people, and its ability to yield under drought has led to it being promoted as an important crop for food security under climate change. Despite its known photosynthetic plasticity in response to temperature, little is known about how temperature affects plant toxicity or about interactions between temperature and drought, which is important because cassava tissues contain high levels of toxic cyanogenic glucosides, a major health and food safety concern. In a controlled glasshouse experiment, plants were grown at 2 daytime temperatures (23 °C and 34 °C), and either well-watered or subject to a 1 month drought prior to harvest at 6 months. The objective was to determine the separate and interactive effects of temperature and drought on growth and toxicity. Both temperature and drought affected cassava physiology and chemistry. While temperature alone drove differences in plant height and above-ground biomass, drought and temperature × drought interactions most affected tuber yield, as well as foliar and tuber chemistry, including C : N, nitrogen and cyanide potential (CNp; total cyanide released from cyanogenic glucosides). Conditions that most stimulated growth and yield (well-watered × high temperature) effected a reduction in tuber toxicity, whereas drought inhibited growth and yield, and was associated with increased foliar and tuber toxicity. The magnitude of drought effects on tuber yield and toxicity were greater at high temperature; thus, increases in tuber CNp were not merely a consequence of reduced tuber biomass. Findings confirm that cassava is adaptable to forecast temperature increases, particularly in areas of adequate or increasing rainfall; however, in regions forecast for increased incidence of drought, the effects of drought on both food quality (tuber toxicity) and yield are a greater threat to future food security and indicate an increasing necessity for processing of

  16. 玉米粉和乳酸菌对甘薯蔓、酒糟及稻草混合青贮品质的影响%Effects of corn flour and lactic acid bacteria on quality of mixed silage made from sweet potato vines,distiller’s grains and rice straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿泽; 王之盛; 康坤; 邹华围; 申俊华; 胡瑞

    2014-01-01

    为评价玉米粉和乳酸菌对甘薯蔓、酒糟及稻草(4∶4∶2)混合青贮品质的影响,试验设对照组(CK)、玉米粉添加组(CF)、乳酸菌添加组(LAB)、玉米粉和乳酸菌组合添加组(CF+LAB),每个处理6个重复,室温下贮藏60 d开封,取样分析青贮品质。结果表明,添加玉米粉和乳酸菌制剂均明显提高了青贮料的感官品质,与 CK 相比,CF处理、LAB 处理及 CF+LAB 处理中 CP 含量极显著提高(P <0.01),NH3-N/TN、AA、PA、Ash 含量极显著降低(P <0.01),CF 处理极显著地提高了 DM、CP、LA 含量(P <0.01),而 LAB 处理则极显著地降低了 NDF、ADF 含量(P <0.01),CF+LAB 中 NH3-N/TN、AA 含量及 pH 值极显著低于 LAB(P <0.01),显著低于 CF(P <0.05)。综上所述,添加玉米粉和乳酸菌制剂均提高了青贮品质,单独添加乳酸菌制剂青贮品质要次于单独添加玉米粉,两者组合添加青贮品质更好。%This study aimed to evaluate the effects of corn flour and lactic acid bacteria addition on the quality of mixed silage of sweet potato vines,distiller’s grains and rice straw during ensiling.The treatments were:con-trol (CK),corn flour added (CF),lactic acid bacteria added (LAB),and corn flour and lactic acid bacteria add-ed (CF+LAB).After ensiling for 60 d at ambient temperature,the silage quality of each treatment was meas-ured.Applications of corn flour and lactic acid bacteria improved the sensory evaluation of silage.Compared with CK,CP content of CF,LAB and CF+LAB silage were significantly higher,while NH 3-N/TN,acetic acid (AA)and propionic acid (PA)contents were significantly lower.The dry matter (DM),crude protein (CP)and lactic acid (LA)contents of CF silage were significantly higher than those of CK silage,while neutral detergent fiber (NDF)and acid detergent fiber (ADF)contents of LAB silage were significantly lower than those

  17. Relationship between the dough quality and content of specific glutenin proteins in wheat mill streams, and its application to making flour suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Eriko; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Nishio, Zenta; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Hanaoka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Hisashi; Tanida, Masatoshi; Saruyama, Haruo

    2006-04-01

    The content of specific proteins such as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS 5+10 and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits LMW-GS KS2 in wheat mill streams of extra-strong Kachikei 33 wheat was quantified by SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The mill streams showed varied quantities of HMW-GS 5+10 (0.077 to 2.007 mg/g of mill stream), LMW-GS KS2 (0.018 to 0.586 mg/g of mill stream) and total protein (9.42% to 18.98%). The contents of these specific proteins in the mill streams were significantly correlated with the SDS sedimentation volume and the mixing properties, which are respective indices of specific loaf volume and dough strength. The contents of these specific glutenin proteins in the mill streams were therefore found to be significantly important for improving the dough quality suitable for bread and Chinese noodles. Accordingly, we present here the application of this information to the development of an effective method for producing mill streams with high quality and yield that are suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

  18. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  19. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance.

  20. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  1. Recent advances in cassava pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A C; Smith, L; Lapointe, S L

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) occupies a uniquely important position as a food security crop for smallholder farmers in ares of the tropics where climate, soils, or societal stresses constrain production. Given its reliability and productivity, cassava is the most important locally produced food in a third of the world's low-income, food-deficit countries. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugar, and maize. World production of cassava from 1994-1996 averaged 166 million tons/year grown on 16.6 million hectares (ha), for an average yield of 9.9 tons/ha. Approximately 57% is used for human consumption, 32% for animal feed and industrial purposes, and 11% is waste. Africa accounts for 51.3% of the production; Asia, 29.4%; and Latin America, 19.3%. The area planted to cassava in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is 10.3, 3.7, and 2.6 million ha, respectively.

  2. Revamping Nigerian Economy through Cassava Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    AFRREV VOL. 11 (3), S/NO 47, JULY, 2017. 197 ... The main kernel of this paper is on revamping Nigerian economy through cassava production. .... almost 40% of the World's palm produce value at 18 billion US dollars (Business day,. 2012).

  3. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  4. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  5. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  6. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  7. Carob flour and sugar beet fiber as functional additives in bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoronja-Simović Dragana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of functional additives (carob flour and sugar beet fiber on empirical rheological dough performance and bread quality was examined. Also the microbiological quality of bread was investigated during 16 days of storage. The study included 5 samples: control (CON, with preservative calcium propionate (CONP, with carob flour (CON-CAR, with sugar beet fiber (CON-SBF and with a combination of carob flour and sugar beet fibers (CON-SBF-CAR. Samples with functional additives had a higher water holding capacity (2-10% and extended dough development time due to the presence of dietary fiber. Dough resistance of these samples was significantly increased, especially in CON-CAR, in which the time of final fermentation is remarkably prolonged (20% in comparison to CON. The addition of the functional ingredients (due to hydration properties of dietary fiber improved texture and sensory characteristics of bread. In sample CON-SBF crumb firmness was significantly reduced (by 70% while elasticity was increased by 25% compared to CON. Positive effect of addition of sugar beet fiber was proved by improving the elasticity of the crumb and finer crumb structure (sample CON-SBF in comparison with the addition of carob flour (sample CON-CAR. In bread sample with carob flour there was no microbiological contamination for 16 days of examination, which confirms the fact that carob flour can be used as a natural preservative.

  8. CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN VOLUME AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY OF CAKE WITH PROPERTIES OF HARD WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanee Al-Dmoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important factor in cakes making is the availability of soft wheat flour. Sometimes cake flour is producing by milling hard wheat because the shortage of soft wheat flour. The aim of this study is to identify a specification for production cake flour from hard wheat which gives a high quality of cake products. Protein %, ash %, wet gluten %, dry gluten %, gluten index, falling no, acidity %, damaged starch, sedimentation values and particles size are 8.82, 0.5, 24.1, 8.44, 97.65, 310.3, 0.15, 7.71,72.7 and 10.07 respectively. The development time, stability, elasticity, softening, water absorption, resistance, extensibility and R: F values for dough are 1.35, 3.1, 102, 89.4, 57.73, 98.6, 357, 155 and 2.31 respectively. The average of cakes volume is 711 c.c and overall acceptability is 7.55 of 9 hedonic scales. Both of cake volume and overall acceptability of sensory evaluation test correlate positively (p<0.005 with protein and gluten content, sedimentation rate and extensograph parameters which give an indication about hard wheat cake flour could be substituted for soft wheat flour. Cake producers should apply a special treatment to improve the quality of cake.

  9. Comparison of the Suitability of Contiguous Fallow-forest Lands for Cassava, Yam, Cocoyam and Sweet Potato Production in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadu Charles L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis compared the suitability of contiguous fallow-forest lands for cassava, yam, cocoyam and sweet potato production in Nsukka, south-eastern Nigeria. The fallow plots were brought into cultivation in 1998 under the IITA-UNN long-term collaborative research. The sole cassava plots were grown to cassava only continuously for five years and then left to fallow. Soil samples were collected from 0-20 cm depth in triplicates using an auger and core sampler from the seven representative fallow plots previously grown to sole cassava from 1998–2003 and under fallow till date as well as the adjacent forest land. The objective was to use the soil qualities as recovered during the fallow period and those from the original adjacent forest to determine their current suitability for the production of the four crops. Using the FAO’s principle of limiting conditions revealed that after 13 yrs of fallow, the plots grown to sole cassava was classified as highly suitable (S1 for sweet potato production but moderately suitable (S2 for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The remnant forest land was highly suitable for sweet potato production but moderately suitable for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The dominant soil limitations are organic matter, low cation exchange capacity and exchangeable potassium for both cassava and yam production. The major limitations to cocoyam production are low available phosphorous, base saturation and soil pH. If these constraints are addressed adequately by soil nutrient management programmes all the plots will scale up to S1 class for the four crops.

  10. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (Pmedida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  11. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de Souza; Martha Maria Mischan

    2011-01-01

    Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extrud...

  12. The Effect of Arrowroot Flour (Maranta Arrundinaceae on Physical And Sensoric Qualitiy of Rabbit Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfi Noor Hakim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to observe the effect of addition level of arrowroot flour (Maranta arrundinaceae on physical and sensoric quality of rabbit nugget. Rabbit meat and arrowroot flour were used in current experiment. There were four treatments with three repetations in current experiment, addition level of arrowroot flour 0 % (P0, 10 % (P1, 20 % (P2, and 30 % (P3 in rabbit nugget. The variables measured in experiment were physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, and texture and sensory quality (color, flavor, odour, and texture. This experiment was statisically analyzed by using Completelly Randomized Design (CRD. The difference between means was analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. This experiment showed that pH, water holding capacity, and sensoric quality (color, flavor, odour, and texture were significantly affected (P 0.05 in physical texture. The addition level 20 % of arrowroot flour (P2 gave the highest value on physyical and organoleptic quality of rabbit nugget. The conclusion of this experiment was the increase of addition level of arrowroot flour in rabbit nugget improved the phyical texture, but it reduced pH, water holding capacity, and sensoric palatability (color, flavor, odour, and texture.

  13. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; LÓPEZ, CAMILO; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  14. Proteolytic modification of selected legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Baraniak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pepsin (EC 3.4.1.1 and trypsin (EC 3.4.4.4 action on the chemical composition of legume flours was the aim of this study. The level of proteins and lipids in hydrolysed flours was changed significantly. In comparison to the raw flours also fatty acid composition in treated flours was altered. In the lentil flours both trypsin and pepsin digestion conditions have decreased the level of unsaturated fatty acid. It is noteworthy that in all investigated, hydrolysed flours ratio linoleic: oleic fatty acid was significantly decreased in comparison to unhydrolysed flours (about 40%-pea; 60%- -lentil. Our investigations were also focused on the potential implementations of IMAC method in the separation and purification of peptides. Generally, peptides separation profiles, performed on immobilized Zn (II, were dependent on the kind of flour and enzyme used in the hydrolysis process. In the lights of our results is clearly visible that investigated peptides had a weak affinity to the chelated metal ions. It is noteworthy, that in some cases the influences of chelating factor on separation profiles were noticeable.

  15. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  16. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry ... coaster or wood flour dish (see figure 1), toys, tool handles, toilet seats, trays, core doors ... They lack natural resin and to use their flour or.

  17. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  18. Ultrasonic characterisation of flour-water systems: a new approach to investigate dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, J; Alava, J M; Chavez, J A; Turo, A; Garcia, M J; Salazar, J

    2006-12-22

    The viscoelastic properties of dough are of great interest in the baking industry as they affect the quality of the final product. In this work, the viscoelastic properties of dough were investigated using ultrasonic techniques and then compared with traditional methods. It has been shown that ultrasonics provides a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. A common protocol for dough preparation was used for each type of measurement. Experimental results on more than 30 different flour quality and dough processing were presented. The measurements were correlated and compared with traditional dough quality tests. In addition, the capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes was also studied, showing the potential of ultrasound as an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  19. Formulation of gluten-free flour culinary products of high nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the production of gluten-free foods that are necessary for people suffering from this disease as celiac disease. The article reveals the relevance of developing recipes for gluten-free foods, which are not inferior to traditional in many respects. Classic recipes gluten-free bakery products, mainly based on rice, buckwheat, corn flour, which have little nutritional value. In this regard, the current development of technologies and formulations pastry dishes with use of nonconventional vegetable raw materials rich in dietary fibers, proteins and other beneficial substances that improve the biological and nutritional value of these products. The paper describes the formulation of gluten-free muffins, was based on the recipe of the cake "Capital". The main raw material for the new compositions of selected rice flour, and as enriching additives – flax flour and flour from the eggshell. Was conducted baking tests on the basis of which was chosen percentage of the input substances and the assessment of quality of semifinished and finished products. The quality of semi-finished products was evaluated by such indicators as humidity and the microstructure of the test. The quality of finished products was assessed using organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters, the results presented in the tables. Investigated the antioxidant activity of products. Produced sensometrical evaluation of aroma of control and experimental samples. Calculated chemical composition. The content of protein, vitamins, mineral substances in the experimental sample is significantly increased compared to control. Making flour egg shell has achieved the ratio of Ca-Mg-P as close to a perfect 1:0,39:1,53 Replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed and rice flour and the introduction of egg shell improve the amino acid composition of the product. The biological value increased by 2.3%.

  20. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  1. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  2. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particle size effects of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour on quality attributes of frying batters were characterized in terms of physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties. High-amylose rice flours were fractionated into four fractions (70, 198, 256, and 415 µm) of which morpho...

  3. Dough Rheology and Breadmaking Traits of Flour Mill Streams from a Hard Spring Wheat and Relationships to Sulfur Content and Protein Size Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the differences in quality traits among individual flour mill streams (FMS) provides more precise blending techniques that would meet customer’s flour specifications. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in dough rheology and breadmaking traits among FMS and their relations...

  4. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  5. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  7. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cassava development into new growth markets have attracted ... study assessed the information needs of cassava farmers in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta. State. Specifically ... rural farmers. This study .... sources such as extension worker, radio, television .... should be revitalized to complement the little.

  8. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  9. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, Kodjovi Senam

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in s

  10. Biofortified yellow cassava and Vitamin A status of Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, Hans; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Maziya-Dixon, B.; Boy, Erick; Zimmermann, M.B.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas conventional white cassava roots are devoid of provitamin A, biofortified yellow varieties are naturally rich in b-carotene, the primary provitamin A carotenoid. Objective: We assessed the effect of consuming yellow cassava on serum retinol concentration in Kenyan schoolchildr

  11. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; Chavarriaga, P.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Sititunga, D.; Zhang, P.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava

  12. Physiological causes of yield variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research program

  13. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cas