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Sample records for quality anti-relaxation coating

  1. High quality anti-relaxation coating material for alkali atom vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Balabas, M V; Wasilewski, W; Krauter, H; Madsen, L S; Muller, J H; Fernholz, T; Polzik, E S

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of alkali atom vapor cells coated with a high quality anti-relaxation coating material based on alkenes. The prepared cells with single compound alkene based coating showed the longest spin relaxation times which have been measured up to now with room temperature vapor cells. Suggestions are made that chemical binding of a cesium atom and an alkene molecule by attack to the C=C bond plays a crucial role in such improvement of anti-relaxation coating quality.

  2. Experimental study of 199Hg spin anti-relaxation coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhuri, Z; Horras, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Mtchedlishvili, A; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2013-01-01

    We report on a comparison of spin relaxation rates in a $^{199}$Hg magnetometer using different wall coatings. A compact mercury magnetometer was built for this purpose. Glass cells coated with fluorinated materials show longer spin coherence times than if coated with their hydrogenated homologues. The longest spin relaxation time of the mercury vapor was measured with a fluorinated paraffin wall coating.

  3. High-Temperature Alkali Vapor Cells with Anti-Relaxation Surface Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Seltzer, S J

    2009-01-01

    Anti-relaxation surface coatings allow long spin relaxation times in alkali-metal cells without buffer gas, enabling free motion of the alkali atoms and giving larger signals due to narrower optical linewidths. Effective coatings were previously unavailable for operation at temperatures above 80 C. We demonstrate that octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) can allow potassium or rubidium atoms to experience hundreds of collisions with the cell surface before depolarizing, and that an OTS coating remains effective up to about 170 C for both potassium and rubidium. We consider the experimental concerns of operating without buffer gas at high vapor density, studying the stricter need for effective quenching of excited atoms and deriving the optical rotation signal shape for atoms with resolved hyperfine structure in the spin-temperature regime. As an example of a high-temperature application of anti-relaxation coated alkali vapor cells, we operate a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer with sensitivi...

  4. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells Using Surface Science Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M. -A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; C. Jaye; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.

    2010-01-01

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of anti-relaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10,000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the stu...

  5. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells Using Surface Science Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Seltzer, S J; Donaldson, M H; Balabas, M V; Barber, S K; Bernasek, S L; Bouchiat, M -A; Hexemer, A; Hibberd, A M; Kimball, D F Jackson; Jaye, C; Karaulanov, T; Narducci, F A; Rangwala, S A; Robinson, H G; Voronov, D L; Yashchuk, V V; Pines, A; Budker, D

    2010-01-01

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of anti-relaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10,000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We present a survey of modern surface science techniques applied to the study of paraffin coatings, in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present with...

  6. Characterization of high-temperature performance of cesium vapor cells with anti-relaxation coating

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenhao; Peng, Xiang; Pustelny, Szymon; Wickenbrock, Arne; Guo, Hong; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Vapor cells with antirelaxation coating are widely used in modern atomic physics experiments due to the coating's ability to maintain the atoms' spin polarization during wall collisions. We characterize the performance of vapor cells with different coating materials by measuring longitudinal spin relaxation and vapor density at temperatures up to 95{\\deg}C. We found that the spin-projection-noise-limited sensitivity for atomic magnetometers with such cells improves with temperature, which demonstrates the potential of antirelaxation coated cells in applications of future high-sensitivity magnetometers.

  7. Characterization of high-temperature performance of cesium vapor cells with anti-relaxation coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Balabas, Mikhail; Peng, Xiang; Pustelny, Szymon; Wickenbrock, Arne; Guo, Hong; Budker, Dmitry

    2017-02-01

    Vapor cells with antirelaxation coating are widely used in modern atomic physics experiments due to the coating's ability to maintain the atoms' spin polarization during wall collisions. We characterize the performance of vapor cells with different coating materials by measuring longitudinal spin relaxation and vapor density at temperatures up to 95 °C. We infer that the spin-projection-noise-limited sensitivity for atomic magnetometers with such cells improves with temperature, which demonstrates the potential of antirelaxation coated cells in applications of future high-sensitivity magnetometers.

  8. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  9. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the stud...

  10. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells using Surface Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0ch5f6qq Local Identifier: LBNL Paper LBNL-4152E Preferred Citation: Journal of Chemical Physics, 133, 144703, 10/14...NOTES SJS, DJM, MHD , AP, and DB, the Advanced 11 Light Source, and the DSC, FTIR, and AFM studies were supported by the Director, O ce of Science, Of...low-doped (phosphorus, 74-86 Ω·cm resis- tivity) silicon wafers (Silicon Quest International ) were instead used as substrates for paraffin coating

  11. High quality anti-relaxation coating material for alkali atom vapor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balabas, M.V.; Jensen, Kasper; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging p...

  12. Effects of water concentration in the coating solution on the wall relaxation rate of octadecyltrichlorosilane coated rubidium vapor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guiying; Wei, Lihua; Wang, Meiling; Zhao, Kaifeng, E-mail: zhaokf@fudan.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China and Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-01-28

    High quality anti-relaxation surface coatings for atomic vapor cells are essential for the preservation of atomic spin coherence and the enhancement of measurement sensitivity. In this paper, we studied the effects of water concentration in octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) coating solution on the relaxation rate and its reproducibility of OTS coated Rubidium vapor cells. We found that appropriate water concentration can improve the anti-relaxation performance of OTS coated cells.

  13. Physiological quality and imbibitions of soybean seeds with contrasting coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The attributes that confer seed quality can largely be considered dependent on the coat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and hydration pattern of the seeds of four contrasting soybean genotypes for the coats characteristics; BMX Potência RR and CD 202 with yellow coats and IAC and TP with black coats. The first stage of the study consisted of seed multiplication in the 2012/2013 harvest. After storage for five months at a temperature of 17 ºC and a relative humidity of 50%, the seeds were subjected to the following tests: germination, first count and seedling height, with and without immersion of the seeds, emergence in soil, emergence speed and germination index; electrical conductivity; thousand weight seeds and imbibitions of seeds. The design was completely randomized, with five replicates. The data was subjected to variance analysis and the means compared using the Tukey test at a 5% level of probability. Regression analysis was used for the seeds imbibitions test. Genotypes with black coats (especially IAC presented better physiological quality in relation to genotypes with yellow coats. The latter had greater thousand weight seeds. BMX Potência RR presented greater hydration than the other genotypes in the first hours of imbibitions and TP, the least. Genotypes with black coats emitted a radicle faster than the yellow coats genotypes.

  14. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-08-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here.

  15. Effect of chitosan coatings on postharvest green asparagus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Jiang, Hengjun; Ren, Gerui; Huang, Jianying; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-02-15

    Fresh postharvest green asparagus rapidly deteriorate due to its high respiration rate. The main benefits of edible active coatings are their edible characteristics, biodegradability and increase in food safety. In this study, the quality of the edible coatings based on 0.50%, 0.25% high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), and 0.50%, 0.25% low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) on postharvest green asparagus was investigated. On the basis of the results obtained, 0.25% H-chitosan and 0.50% L-chitosan treatments ensured lower color variation, less weight loss and less ascorbic acid, decrease presenting better quality of asparagus than other concentrations of chitosan treatments and the control during the cold storage, and prolonging a shelf life of postharvest green asparagus.

  16. Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaser, Miriam; Naelapaa, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating...... formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain......) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p...

  17. Introduction: Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book gives a history of the development and uses of edible coatings, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The book also disucsses coatin...

  18. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    for assessment of the coating layer quality of tablets. UV images were used to detect, characterize, and localize coating layer defects such as chipped parts, inhomogeneities, and cracks, as well as to evaluate the coating surface texture. Acetylsalicylic acid tablets were prepared on a rotary tablet press...

  19. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka; Rehder, Soenke; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-08-01

    Chemical imaging techniques are beneficial for control of tablet coating layer quality as they provide spectral and spatial information and allow characterization of various types of coating defects. The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of multispectral UV imaging for assessment of the coating layer quality of tablets. UV images were used to detect, characterize, and localize coating layer defects such as chipped parts, inhomogeneities, and cracks, as well as to evaluate the coating surface texture. Acetylsalicylic acid tablets were prepared on a rotary tablet press and coated with a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer using a pan coater. It was demonstrated that the coating intactness can be assessed accurately and fast by UV imaging. The different types of coating defects could be differentiated and localized based on multivariate image analysis and Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy applied to the UV images. Tablets with inhomogeneous texture of the coating could be identified and distinguished from those with a homogeneous surface texture. Consequently, UV imaging was shown to be well-suited for monitoring of the tablet coating layer quality. UV imaging is a promising technique for fast quality control of the tablet coating because of the high data acquisition speed and its nondestructive analytical nature.

  20. Comparison of different technologies for high-quality optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Francois

    1990-08-01

    Modern optical systems require still higher quality optical coatings. Conventional production techniques are not able to give such high quality layers. One of the main defaults comes from the relatively porous structure of the thin films; as a consequence the sensitiveness of the materials to the moisture gives noticeably unstable properties versus time. In this work, after a very short review of the different techniques nowaday used to perform high quality optical thin films, we will be especially interested in oxide layer production (Si02, Ta2O5, Ti02). To give a good comparison of the performances obtained with techniques such as TAD and ion plating we need extremely powerful characterization means: - In vacuo measurements of optical properties allowing the study of spontaneous water adsorption during air entrance; - Absorption measurement with photothermal deflection spectroscopy; - Scattering losses measurements and consequently determination of the grain size of the microstructure. Refractive index measurements, and optical anisotropy determined by guided mode study. Finally some views from electron microscopy justify the validity of the model used with our characterization techniques. To end, we will show the interest of ion plating technique when we are looking for very uniform deposition on large surfaces.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  2. SPARK MACHINING FOR STEEL SURFACES TO IMPROVE PAINT COATINGS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Levchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spark machining of steel surfaces enhances the subsequent paint coatings adhesion and protective properties. These factors improvement was confirmed at the salt-spray chamber testing and by both adhesion to the surface and depth of corrosion penetration below the paint coating layer measurements.

  3. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2013-06-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods.

  4. Internal quality of eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleoni Ana Cláudia Carraro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, since both the loss of moisture and the transport of O2 and CO2 are reduced. The objectives of this work were: to compare weight loss, Haugh units, and albumen pH between fresh eggs and eggs coated with whey protein concentrate (WPC, under six storage periods (3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days, at 25°C. During the entire storage period, regardless of whether the eggs were coated or not, the Haugh unit values and the weight loss decreased, and differences between values from the first to the last period were lower for coated eggs. Albumen pH increased. The Haugh unit values for coated eggs were similar to those found in literature references when the same storage period was considered.

  5. Improved perovskite film quality and solar cell performances using dual single solution coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltakesmez, Ali; Biber, Mehmet; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present high quality perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx thin films prepared by a combination of static and dynamic coating approaches, named dual single solution coating. Static coating, dynamic coating and the combination of these are comparatively studied. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques are used for the determination of morphological, structural, and optical properties of thin films prepared using different coating approaches and deposition temperatures. All the coating approaches are repeated at room temperature and with hot deposition. The high quality and density CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films with full surface coverage are obtained using the dual single solution coating, particularly with hot-deposition. The perovskite solar cells prepared by the dual coating approach with hot deposition have better values for all the performance parameters in comparison to the other coating approaches, resulting in high efficiencies. The best device has a short circuit current of 22.03 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.91 V, a fill factor of 0.73, and a power conversion efficiency of 14.68% from short-circuit to forward bias, and 22.39 mA/cm2, 0.91 V, 75% and 15.32% for the vice-versa, respectively.

  6. Influence of gas detonation spraying conditions on the quality of Fe-Al intermetallic protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senderowski C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present generalized research results and analyses of the quality of coatings produced with self decomposing Fe-Al intermetallic powders deposited on 1045 steel in the gas detonation spraying (GDS. A number of GDS experiments has been carried out with significantly changed operational spraying parameters (the volume of the fuel gas, carrier gas, distance and the frequency of spraying which define the process energy level directly influencing the quality of the coating. On the basis of the initial results the choice of the process parameters has been made to obtain the most advantageous set of geometrical and physical-mechanical properties of the coating material and substrate. The quality of the coatings was considered by taking into account the grain morphology, chemical content, phase inhomogeneity, cohesive porosity, as well as adhesive porosity in the substrate coating joint. The coating roughness was also considered. It was found that all GDS coatings produced are built with lamellar splats which result from the GDS process transformed (changed plasticity and geometry powder particles forming the deposit. The result of the GDS spraying parameters optimization is the lack of signs of melting of the material (even in microareas while the geometry of the deposited grains is considerably changed. This phenomenon has been considered as a proof of high plasticity of the GDS formed Fe-Al intermetallic coatings.

  7. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.

    2012-01-01

    parameter design. The effects of the sol‐gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings......The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings...

  8. [Use of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Images to Differentiate Architectural Coatings with Different Qualities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-bao; Qiao, Xiao-jun; He, Ru-yan; Tian, Fen-min

    2016-02-01

    Architectural coatings sold in market fall into many categories which mean different models and qualities. The research plans to differentiate different kinds of architectural coatings in quality using hyperspectral technology. Near-Infrared hyperspectral images of four kinds of architectural coatings (in a descending quality order of brand A, B, C, and D) in same color were acquired. The optimal wavelengths were selected at 1283 and 2447 nm to differentiate the four kinds of coatings through ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) method. The band ratio index of R₁₂₈₃/R₂₄₄₇ was built and the results were segmented into the corresponding coatings, and the accuracies of segmentation were compared with that from Maximum Likely Classification (MLC). The results indicated all J-M distances are more than 1.8 except between C and D; the lowest accuracy of 87.54% in segmentation and 95.63% in MLC were both from brand D, and others' accuracies all were over 90% in both ratio index and MLC. Therefore, the ratio index R₁₂₈₃/R₂₄₄₇ could be used to distinguish different kinds of architectural coatings. Also, the research could provide support for identification, quality acceptance, as well as conformity assessment of architectural coatings.

  9. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the postharvest quality of tomato fruits (cv. Grandela. Stafresh 2505 (carnauba and Stafresh 151 (mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink. The quality of tomatoes was evaluated periodically at 0, 5, 10, 15, 21 and 28 days of storage at 10°C, plus 2 days at 20°C. For respiration rate analysis, tomatoes were kept at 20°C for 16 days. Results: At the beginning of the study, CO2 production was reduced by 38 and 46% when applying the mineral oil coating on breaker and pink tomatoes, respectively. In addition, early during the study, the mineral oil coating showed suppression of ethylene biosynthesis at both maturity stages. Both coatings reduced 30% PG activity of tomato tissue. At the end of storage, mineral oil coatings delayed color changes and reduced weight losses for up 70 and 46% at the breaker and pink stages, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Respiration rate, color, weight loss and enzyme activity were positively affected by mineral oil coating at both maturity stages. No effects on firmness, titratable acidity and pH were found by the coating application. We concluded that mineral oil coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the postharvest life of tomato fruit.

  10. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Xihong; Jin, Tony Z; Jia, Xiaoyu; Mattheis, James P

    2015-01-16

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three attenuated strains on the smooth skin surface and stem scar area. The zein-based coatings with and without cinnamon (up to 20%) and mustard essential oil or a commercial wax formulation were applied onto tomatoes and the treated fruits were stored at 10 °C for up to 3 weeks. Populations of S. Typhimurium decreased with increased essential oil concentration and storage duration. S. Typhimurium populations on the smooth skin surface were reduced by 4.6 and 2.8 log colony forming units(CFU)/g by the zein coatings with 20% cinnamon and 20% mustard oil, respectively, 5h after coating. The same coating reduced populations of S. Typhimurium to levels below detection limit (1.0 log CFU/g) on the stem scar area of tomato during 7 days of storage at 10 °C. Salmonella populations were not reduced on fruit coated with the commercial wax. All of the coatings resulted in reduced weight loss compared with uncoated control. Compared with the control, loss of firmness and ascorbic acid during storage was prevented by all of the coatings except the zein coating with 20% mustard oil which enhanced softening. Color was not consistently affected by any of the coating treatments during 21 days of storage at 10°C. The results suggest that the zein-based coating containing cinnamon oil might be used to enhance microbial safety and quality of tomato.

  11. Influence of Assist Laser Irradiation Timing on Quality of HAp Coating in LALA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hirotaka; Ishibashi, Keisuke; Dodo, Masahiro; Hashishin, Yuichi; Katto, Masahito; Nakayama, Takeyoshi

    In order to create the implant material which has high biocompatibility, a new hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating method, the laser-assisted laser ablation (LALA) method, has been developed. In this method, control of assist laser irradiation timing (delay time after an ablation laser irradiation) is very important for the quality of a HAp coating layer. We studied the influence of the timing on adhesion strength , crystallinity and Ca/P value of the HAp coating. Quality of the HAp coating layer obtained at a delay time of a few microseconds was extremely high. On the other hand, the layer obtained over 10 microseconds had more amorphous component and contained other calcium phosphate compounds from HAp. Using the present method, we succeeded in fabricating thin film (𕟽 μm) of HAp with high crystallinity.

  12. Realizing of the process approach to quality management of wear resistant coatings

    OpenAIRE

    МЄДВЄДЄВА, Н. А.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2016-01-01

    A process-oriented model of technological process of wear-resistant coatings by electrocontactstrengthening of sprayed coatings (ECSSC) during the recovery machine parts is proposed. Itsstructural description has allowed to reproduce the process approach in conformity with internationalstandard ISO 9001:2015. Also, visual and more formalized presentation of interactionof the quality management system with technological process, working environment and thedynamics of its implementation was don...

  13. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett), and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control) were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemica...

  14. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  15. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  16. 75 FR 10774 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Chinese producers/exporters of certain coated paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet... letter, on February 12, and 25, 2010, the GOC filed information pertaining to the Chinese banking sector... investigations on coated paper from Indonesia and the PRC and the CVD investigation of coated paper...

  17. Effect of starch-beeswax coatings on quality parameters of blackberries (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits.

  18. Fabrication and Application of High Quality Diamond-coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diamond-coated tools were fabricated using Co-cemented carbide inserts as substrates by the electronically aided hot filament chemical vapor deposition (EACVD). An amount of additive in an acid solution was used to promote the Co etching of the substrate surface. The surface of the WC-Co substrate was decarburized by microwave plasma with Ar-H 2 gas. Effect of the new substrate pretreatment on the adhesion of diamond films was investigated. A boron-doped solution was brushed on the tool surface to diffuse ...

  19. EFFICACY OF A COATING COMPOSED OF CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE TO CONTROL THE QUALITY OF JAGGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Mishra; P K Omre; Khan chand; Sanjay Kumar; Ankur Singh Bist

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of coating composed of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Whey Protein Concentrate on the storage characteristics and storage quality conditions of coated jaggery for 15 weeks. The edible coating was based on five different levels of Carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%and 2.5%) and Whey protein concentrate (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%).The results indicate that the storage of jaggery were modified and improved by coating. The statistical data revealed that differ...

  20. Electrostatic spraying of antimicrobial coating to improve strawberry quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing consumer demand for fresh, safe, and high-quality strawberry fruits has lately gained interest on the development of new post-harvest methods to prolong their shelf-life and, at the same time, ensure safety and maintain nutritional and sensory quality. Strawberries are perishable frui...

  1. Scale Up of Pan Coating Process Using Quality by Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anjali M; Pandey, Preetanshu

    2015-11-01

    Scale up of pan coating process is of high importance to the pharmaceutical and food industry. The number of process variables and their interdependence in a pan coating process can make it a rather complex scale-up problem. This review discusses breaking down the coating process variables into three main categories: pan-related, spray-related, and thermodynamic-related factors. A review on how to scale up each of these factors is presented via two distinct strategies--"macroscopic" and "microscopic" scale-up. In a Quality by Design paradigm, where an increased process understanding is required, there is increased emphasis on "microscopic" scale-up, which by definition ensures a more reproducible process and thereby robust scale-up. This article also reviews the various existing and new modeling and process analytical technology tools that can provide additional information to facilitate a more fundamental understanding of the coating process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  3. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

  4. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh-cut mango quality in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Narciso, Jan A; Rattanapanone, Nithiya; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Edible coatings may extend fresh-cut fruit storage by preventing moisture loss and decreasing gas exchange. This study evaluated the effect of an antibrowning dip (calcium ascorbate, citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine), followed or not with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or carrageenan coatings on quality of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days. A fourth treatment, only used in one of four experiments, consisted of chitosan. Treatments were applied on 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' mangoes harvested from Homestead (FL), and on imported store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning dips maintained the best visual quality during storage for all cultivars, as indicated by higher b*, hue and L*. The CMC coating maintained similar visual quality, but carrageenan or chitosan decreased L* and b*. The antibrowning dip containing calcium ascorbate reduced firmness loss on cut pieces of 'Keitt', 'Kent' and store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning treatment maintained higher titratable acidity for 'Kent' and 'Keitt', resulting in lower sensory sweetness. This study with repeated experiments showed that calcium ascorbate with citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine maintained cut mango slices attractiveness in storage by keeping light color in both varieties. The addition of a polysaccharide coating did not consistently improve quality.

  5. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  6. AN AUTOMATIC MEASURING SYSTEM FOR PRINT QUALITY OF COATED INK-JET PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinsongTao; GangChen; MiaonanZhu; AiminTang; HongweiZhang

    2004-01-01

    An automatic visual measuring system designed for evaluating the print quality of coated ink-jet paper is presented. Based on the degree of wicking, feathering, strike-through and color-to-color bleeding, Ink-jet Print Quality Index (IPQI), which was calculated with Area Spread Ratio (ASR), Edge Raggedness (ER), and Roundness Deviation (RD) of the printed dots, was used to evaluate the print quality. An iterative repetition interpolation threshold segmentation algorithm was performed with the aid of magnifying glass, charge coupled device (CCD)camera, frame grabber, image software and computer. Seven kinds of coated glossy photo papers were tested with a constant ink and ink-jet printer, the optical print resolution of each kind was obtained and their performance was ranked. It was shown that the system can meet the requirements ofpapermakers and can provide an objective and quantitative method both for evaluating the print quality, determining the optical print resolution and optimizing the coating process for coated ink-jet paper.

  7. AN AUTOMATIC MEASURING SYSTEM FOR PRINT QUALITY OF COATED INK-JET PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Tao; Gang Chen; Miaonan Zhu; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    An automatic visual measuring system designed for evaluating the print quality of coated ink-jet paper is presented. Based on the degree of wicking,feathering, strike-through and color-to-color bleeding, Ink-jet Print Quality Index (IPQI), which was calculated with Area Spread Ratio (ASR), Edge Raggedness (ER), and Roundness Deviation (RD) of the printed dots, was used to evaluate the print quality. An iterative repetition interpolation threshold segmentation algorithm was performed with the aid of magnifying glass, charge coupled device (CCD)camera, frame grabber, image software and computer. Seven kinds of coated glossy photo papers were tested with a constant ink and ink-jet printer,the optical print resolution of each kind was obtained and their performance was ranked. It was shown that the system can meet the requirements ofpapermakers and can provide an objective and quantitative method both for evaluating the print quality, determining the optical print resolution and optimizing the coating process for coated ink-jet paper.

  8. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow...

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  10. Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eddin, Abdulhakim; Tahergorabi, Reza

    2017-09-05

    Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC (p shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  11. COATLI: an all-sky robotic optical imager with 0.3 arcsec image quality

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Alan M; Núñez, Luis C Álvarez; Ángeles, Fernando; Becerra-Godínez, Rosa L; Chapa, Oscar; Farah, Alejandro S; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Figueroa, Liliana; Lebre, Rosalía Langarica; Quirós, Fernando; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Ruíz-Diáz-Soto, Jaime; Tejada, Carlos G; Tinoco, Silvio J

    2016-01-01

    COATLI will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 900 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited fast-guiding imager. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality over a field of at least 1 arcmin and with coverage of a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro M\\'artir, M\\'exico, during 2016 and the diffraction-limited imager will follow in 2017.

  12. The Effect Of Coating With Chitosan Of Some Degrees Of Concentration On Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lince Romauli Panataria; Dharma Bakti; Elisa Julianti

    2015-01-01

    Strawberries are kind of fruit that easily go bad after they are harvested from the orchards. Thus it is needed good post-harvest handlings to retain the fresh quality of the fruits. One of the handlings is coating the fruits with chitosan. It is expected that this coating the fruits with chitosan can prolong the storage of the fruits after they are harvested. This occurs because chitosan can slow down the ripening process of the fruits wheile they are stored. Research has been done to derive...

  13. Application of quality by design (QbD) approach to ultrasonic atomization spray coating of drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Martin; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hu, Xiaoli; Ash-Shakoor, Ariel; Avery, Reginald; Belyaeva, Anastasiya; Cruz, Celia; Hughes, Minerva; Leadbetter, Joanne; Merkle, Conrad; Moot, Taylor; Parvinian, Sepideh; Patwardhan, Dinesh; Saylor, David; Tang, Nancy; Zhang, Tina

    2015-08-01

    The drug coating process for coated drug-eluting stents (DES) has been identified as a key source of inter- and intra-batch variability in drug elution rates. Quality-by-design (QbD) principles were applied to gain an understanding of the ultrasonic spray coating process of DES. Statistically based design of experiments (DOE) were used to understand the relationship between ultrasonic atomization spray coating parameters and dependent variables such as coating mass ratio, roughness, drug solid state composite microstructure, and elution kinetics. Defect-free DES coatings composed of 70% 85:15 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and 30% everolimus were fabricated with a constant coating mass. The drug elution profile was characterized by a mathematical model describing biphasic release kinetics. Model coefficients were analyzed as a DOE response. Changes in ultrasonic coating processing conditions resulted in substantial changes in roughness and elution kinetics. Based on the outcome from the DOE study, a design space was defined in terms of the critical coating process parameters resulting in optimum coating roughness and drug elution. This QbD methodology can be useful to enhance the quality of coated DES.

  14. SURFACE SIZING AND LOW SOLIDS CONTENT COATING TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yang; Chuanshan Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Surface sizing can improve the surface performances of paper. In this article we used surfacing sizing and ultra fine talcum powder to improve the quality of base paper. The results showed that the optimal formulation is: sodium hexametaphosphate 0.4 parts,PC-01 25 parts and 100 parts ultra fine talcum powder. The solids content of coating is 18%. Surface sizing and low solids coating can improve brightness,opacity, IGT Pick resistance, and breaking length which were improved by 3.4%, 6.5%, 2.07m/sec and 700m separately than uncoated paper respectively. K and N ink absorption value was reduced from 62.1 to 34.6. The method can be used to produce base paper for art paper and ultra low weight coated paper (ULWC). It can reduce the cost of art paper.

  15. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  16. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples.

  17. Whey protein-based coatings on frozen Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Influence of the plasticiser and the moment of coating on quality preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Turienzo, Laura; Cobos, Angel; Moreno, Vanesa; Caride, Amado; Vieites, Juan M; Diaz, Olga

    2011-09-01

    The effects of different whey protein concentrate coating formulations (with or without glycerol or sorbitol in two proportions) on frozen Atlantic salmon quality parameters were evaluated. The influence of the moment of coating application (before or after freezing) was also studied. The coating application after freezing increased the thaw yield, decreased the drip loss, and modified colour parameters of frozen and thawed fillets, in comparison with application before freezing. The moment of coating also influenced the colour of cooked fish fillets. The type of plasticiser affects the colour of thawed and cooked samples, but not the colour of frozen samples. The protein coatings delayed lipid oxidation of salmon fillets, providing better protection against it than water glazing, and this effect was more pronounced when glycerol instead of sorbitol was used in the coating formulation. WPC+glycerol (1:1) coating was the best for frozen Atlantic salmon protection. The sensory properties of salmon fillets were not modified by the use of this coating.

  18. Quality attributes and microbial survival on whole cantaloupes with antimicrobial coatings containing chitosan, lauric arginate, cinnamon oil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiumin; Zhang, Yue; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-10-17

    Cantaloupes are susceptible to microbiological contamination in pre- or postharvest environments. Novel intervention strategies, such as antimicrobial coatings, are needed to improve the microbiological safety of cantaloupes. The objective of this study was to prepare whole cantaloupes coated with mixtures containing chitosan, lauric arginate (LAE), cinnamon oil (CO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and determine survival characteristics of inoculated foodborne pathogens during storage as well as cantaloupe quality attributes. Chitosan coating with 0.1% LAE, 0.1% EDTA, and 1% CO was the most effective for inactivating foodborne pathogens inoculated on cantaloupes. This coating caused a >3logCFU/cm(2) reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes immediately after coating and reduced Salmonella enterica to below the detection limit during a 14-day storage. Total molds and yeasts also were reduced to the detection limit by the coating. The redness and yellowness of uncoated cantaloupes were significantly higher than coated ones from day 6. The firmness of uncoated cantaloupes and those coated with chitosan only was significantly lower than other treatments from day 10. No significant differences were found in total soluble solids content or weight loss between coated and uncoated cantaloupes. Results showed the potential benefits of applying the coating mixtures to improve the quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupes.

  19. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina; Jose Villa-Rodriguez; Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela; Mariana Rodriguez-Armenta; Miguel Espino-Diaz; Jesus F. Ayala-Zavala; Guadalupe I. Olivas-Orozco; Basilio Heredia; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect o...

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums) were ...

  1. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  2. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-05

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments.

  3. Improvement of tablet coating uniformity using a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Atul; Boukouvala, Fani; Keyvan, Golshid; Hsia, Richard; Saranteas, Kostas; Brone, Dean; Misra, Tushar; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2012-03-01

    A combination of analytical and statistical methods is used to improve a tablet coating process guided by quality by design (QbD) principles. A solid dosage form product was found to intermittently exhibit bad taste. A suspected cause was the variability in coating thickness which could lead to the subject tasting the active ingredient in some tablets. A number of samples were analyzed using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based analytical method, and it was found that the main variability component was the tablet-to-tablet variability within a lot. Hence, it was inferred that the coating process (performed in a perforated rotating pan) required optimization. A set of designed experiments along with response surface modeling and kriging method were used to arrive at an optimal set of operating conditions. Effects of the amount of coating imparted, spray rate, pan rotation speed, and spray temperature were characterized. The results were quantified in terms of the relative standard deviation of tablet-averaged LIBS score and a coating variability index which was the ratio of the standard deviation of the tablet-averaged LIBS score and the weight gain of the tablets. The data-driven models developed based on the designed experiments predicted that the minimum value of this index would be obtained for a 6% weight gain for a pan operating at the highest speed at the maximum fill level while using the lowest spraying rate and temperature from the chosen parametric space. This systematic application of the QbD-based method resulted in an enhanced process understanding and reducing the coating variability by more than half.

  4. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product.

  5. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S.

    2015-01-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the ...

  6. Onboard Equipment Coating Appearance Quality Analyzed%机载设备涂层外观质量浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳丽

    2011-01-01

    对比了机载设备产品涂装和汽车涂装的特点,认为机载设备的涂装不同于汽车的涂装。分析了机载设备在用手工空气喷涂法获得涂层时,影响其涂层外观质量的因素,以及预防缺陷的相应措施。%The coating characteristic of onboard equipment product and car coating was compared and it was found out that the onboard equipment coating has difference with car coating,the influence factors to the appearance quality of coating and the corresponding measures to prevent defects were analyzed during manual air spray method for coating process.

  7. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  8. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  9. Effects of alginate edible coating on quality and antioxidant properties in sweet cherry during postharvest storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chiabrando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars (“Big Lory” and “Grace Star”, were treated with 1%, 3% and 5% sodium alginate as an edible coating before storage. Analytical determinations were made after 7, 14 and 21 days of storage at 4°C. Cherries were analyzed for the following quality parameters: firmness, weight loss, titratable acidity, soluble solid content, external color, anthocyanin content, phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity. Alginate treatment at 3% delayed changes in most of the ripening parameters, weight and acidity losses, softening and color changes. However, the soluble solids content was not affected by the alginate fruit coating. In terms of the antioxidant properties, no significant results were obtained with the use of the alginate coating. The results of this study suggest that alginate treatments at 1% and 3% could be used as natural postharvest treatments in cherry cultivars with the aim of delaying the postharvest ripening process and maintaining fruit quality.

  10. The addition of rosehip oil to Aloe gels improves their properties as postharvest coatings for maintaining quality in plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Zapata, Pedro J; Guillén, Fabián; Paladines, Diego; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2017-02-15

    The effect of Aloe vera gel (AV) and Aloe arborescens gel (AA) alone or in combination with rosehip oil (RO) at 2% on ethylene production, respiration rate, quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during plum postharvest storage was studied. Coated plums showed a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate at 20°C and during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, the main effect being observed for those fruits coated with AA+RO. Quality parameters such as softening, colour and maturity index was also delayed during storage by the use of the coatings, which led to a 2-fold increase in plum storability. Accumulation of bioactive compounds was also delayed although at the end of the experiment the content of bioactive compounds was higher than those found for control fruits at the estimated shelf life. The most effective coating for maintaining plum quality and bioactive compounds was AA+RO.

  11. Fatty acid effect on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated 'Ortanique' mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, María Ll; Del Río, Miguel A; Krochta, John M; Pérez-Gago, Maria B

    2008-11-26

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of fatty acid (FA) type and content on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of hydroxypropyl methycellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) stand-alone edible films. The effect of these films formed as coatings on the postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' mandarins was also studied. Selected FAs were stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), and oleic acid (OA), using BW/FA ratios of 1:0.5 and 1:0.2 (w/w). HPMCBW coatings reduced weight and firmness loss of 'Ortanique' mandarins, without compromising flavor quality compared to uncoated mandarins. Coatings containing OA provided the best weight loss control at both concentrations tested; however, when the BW/OA ratio was 1:0.5, the coatings increased fruit internal CO2, ethanol, and acetaldehyde contents of 'Ortanique' mandarins, therefore reducing flavor compared to the rest of the coatings studied. Although barrier and mechanical properties might be used to understand coating performance, differences observed between film oxygen permeability and coating permeability indicate that permeance should be measured on the coated fruit.

  12. Functionality of chitosan in batter formulations for coating of fish sticks: Effect on physicochemical quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Xavier, K A; Hauzoukim; Kannuchamy, Nagalakshmi; Balange, Amjad K; Chouksey, M K; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2017-08-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer having diverse applications in food industry. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chitosan as a hydrocolloid in batter composition in developing enrobed fish sticks with better functional properties and improved quality. Different concentrations of chitosan gel were made in acetic acid medium and incorporated into batter for making enrobed fish sticks. Coating parameters, fat uptake, oil reduction, chemical quality parameters, instrumental texture analysis and colour were studied. Addition of chitosan gel had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the coating pickup, adhesion degree and cooking yield of the product. Total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, lipid oxidation parameters like peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of par-fried fish sticks also showed significant differences. The oil reduction in par-fried samples were 36.84, 65.05, 73.83, 77.65% respectively for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% chitosan added samples. Addition of chitosan significantly reduced crispness, gumminess, Warner-Bratzler shear force and toughness (P<0.05) of the product. The study clearly demonstrated that the inclusion of chitosan at 1.0% in batter can improve functional and other quality aspects of enrobed products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  14. Better Quality Control: Stochastic Approaches to Optimize Properties and Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2010-06-01

    Statistical design of experiment (SDE) methodology applied to design and performance testing of plasma-sprayed coatings follows an evolutionary path, usually starting with classic multiparameter screening designs (Plackett-Burman), and progressing through factorial (Taguchi) to limited response surface designs (Box-Behnken). Modern designs of higher dimensionality, such as central composite and D-optimal designs, will provide results with higher predictive power. Complex theoretical models relying on evolutionary algorithms, and application of artificial neuronal networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic control (FLC) allow estimating the behavior of the complex plasma spray environment through validation either by key experiments or first-principle calculations. In this review, paper general principles of SDE will be discussed and examples be given that underscore the different powers of prediction of individual statistical designs. Basic rules of ANN and FLC will be briefly touched on, and their potential for increased reliability of coating performance through stringent quality control measures assessed. Salient features will be reviewed of studies performed to optimize thermal coating properties and processes reported in the pertinent literature between 2000 and the present.

  15. 汽车涂装过程中的质量保证%The Quality Assurance of Automotive Coatings Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慕祖

    2011-01-01

    The process of car coating are more and the demands are also high;in order to ensure the quality of coating quality,it need planning,production,quality assurance,suppliers and cleaning company joint efforts and strict requirements to achieve the goal.%汽车涂装的过程多、要求高,要保证涂装质量,需要规划、生产、质保、供货商和保洁公司共同努力,严格要求才能达到目的。

  16. Quality control tool of electrode coating for lithium-ion batteries based on X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiemble, A.; Besnard, N.; Adrien, J.; Tran-Van, P.; Gautier, L.; Lestriez, B.; Maire, E.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient method, based on X-ray radiography, is developed to check the quality (homogeneity of the thickness, presence of defects) of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrode coating for Li-ion batteries at the scale of several cm2 with a resolution of 20 μm. As a first step, the attenuation coefficient of NMC- and LFP-based coating is experimentally determined according to the Beer-Lambert law. Then, the attenuation coefficient of each active material is estimated from these experimental results and X-ray attenuation databases, which allows establishing an attenuation law for any coating composition. Finally, thanks to this relationship, the thickness can be evaluated in each spot of the film and the defects, such as pinholes or broad edges with gradual decrease of the thickness coating, can be detected. The analysis of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrodes shows that the coating quality decreases as coating thickness increases and as the nanometric vs. micrometric material content increases in the coating composition. This reveals detrimental aspects of nanomaterials with respect to their use in composite electrode manufactured through conventional slot-die or casting process.

  17. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects.

  18. Quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange grown in semiarid climate and stored under refrigeration after coating with wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlândia da Silva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carnauba-based wax on the quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange produced in Ceará state, Brazil, were studied. The fruits were coated with carnauba-based wax and refrigerated (7 ± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% R.H. for 28 days. The quality attribute parameters assessed were weight loss, peel color (brightness, hue angle, and chromaticity, peel moisture, pH, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols. The results showed that 'Delta Valencia' oranges grown in the dry climate of Ceará state has excellent quality. The coated fruits lost mass at a lower rate than the the control fruits. No significant loss of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and SS/TA ratio was observed, while ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols increased during storage in both the coated and control fruits. Carnauba-based wax coated fruits showed no signal of dehydration keeping their shiny green peel up to the end of the storage. The use of coating was crucial for the maintenance of visual quality by reducing mass loss, as well as keeping peel moisture.

  19. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality.

  20. Effect of alginate coatings with cinnamon bark oil and soybean oil on quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Qiumin; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-12-23

    The quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupes can potentially be improved using antimicrobial coatings that are able to maintain effectiveness throughout storage. The objective of this work was to study the effect of coating mixtures containing sodium alginate and cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on the quality of cantaloupes and the survival of inoculated bacterial pathogens and naturally occurring yeasts and molds during ambient storage at 21 °C. Cantaloupes were dipped in mixtures containing 1% sodium alginate with or without 2% CBO and 0 or 0.5% soybean oil (SBO). Weight loss and total soluble solids content of the flesh were not significantly different among coating treatments. However, changes in color and firmness of cantaloupes were delayed to different extents after coating, most significantly for the CBO+SBO treatment. Cocktails of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cantaloupes were reduced to the detection limit (1.3 log CFU/cm(2)) and completely inhibited during the 15-day storage by the CBO+SBO treatment, while L. monocytogenes and S. enterica reached populations of 2.9 log CFU/cm(2) and 2.4 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, on cantaloupes coated with CBO alone. Antimicrobial coatings, especially with SBO, also reduced yeast and mold counts on cantaloupes by 2.6 log CFU/cm(2). SBO improved the retention of CBO during storage suggesting it is related to the enhancement of quality and microbiological safety. Findings demonstrated the potential of the antimicrobial coating system studied to improve microbiological safety and quality of cantaloupes.

  1. The Effect Of Coating With Chitosan Of Some Degrees Of Concentration On Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lince Romauli Panataria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries are kind of fruit that easily go bad after they are harvested from the orchards. Thus it is needed good post-harvest handlings to retain the fresh quality of the fruits. One of the handlings is coating the fruits with chitosan. It is expected that this coating the fruits with chitosan can prolong the storage of the fruits after they are harvested. This occurs because chitosan can slow down the ripening process of the fruits wheile they are stored. Research has been done to derive what the best concentration of chitosan used in storing some varieties of strawberries is. This research was conducted in Medan North Sumatera. The design was Random Complete Factorial Plan consisting of two factors namely three varieties of strawberries and chitosan of 0-150 mlL concentration at environmental temperature of 25C. The statistics showed that the application of the highest water content and CO2 was on the application of V1K0 local variety no chitosan the lowest was on the application V2K2 Chandler variety 150 mlL liquid chitosan. The highest O2 was on the application V2K0 Chandler varietynochitosan and the lowest oxygen was on the application V1K3 Loal variety 150 mlL liquid chitosan. The application of the highest fiber content was on V2K3 Chandler variety 150 ml L liquid chitosan the lowest was on the V1K0 Local variety no chitosan. The highest vitamin C content was found in the application of coating with 150 mlL liquid chitosan and the lowest was on the application with no chitosan applied.

  2. Light shift averaging in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Zhivun, Elena; Sudyka, Julia; Pustelny, Szymon; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Light shifts are an important source of noise and systematics in optically pumped magnetometers. We demonstrate that the long spin coherence time in paraffin-coated cells leads to spatial averaging of the light shifts over the entire cell volume. This renders the averaged light shift independent, under certain approximations, of the light-intensity distribution within the sensor cell. These results and the underlying mechanism can be extended to other spatially varying phenomena in anti-relaxation-coated cells with long coherence times.

  3. Implementation of quality by design approach in manufacturing process optimization of dry granulated, immediate release, coated tablets - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the process of tablets compression and identification of film-coating critical process parameters (CPPs) affecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) using quality by design (QbD) approach. Design of experiment (DOE) and regression methods were employed to investigate hardness, disintegration time, and thickness of uncoated tablets depending on slugging and tableting compression force (CPPs). Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied to identify critical coating process parameters among selected ones that is: drying and preheating time, atomization air pressure, spray rate, air volume, inlet air temperature, and drum pressure that may influence the hardness and disintegration time of coated tablets. As a result of the research, design space was established to facilitate an in-depth understanding of existing relationship between CPPs and CQAs of intermediate product (uncoated tablets). Screening revealed that spray rate and inlet air temperature are two most important factors that affect the hardness of coated tablets. Simultaneously, none of the tested coating factors have influence on disintegration time. The observation was confirmed by conducting film coating of pilot size batches.

  4. Effect of Chitosan Coating on Fruit Quality and Storage Life of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. GHeysarbigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays use of the edible coatings has been increased because customers tend to buy horticultural products that retain their freshness. The benefits of edible coatings are biodegradability, inhibition of respiratory gas exchange, inhibition of exchange of aromatic and flavorful compounds, and product protection against mechanical damage. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of chitosan on preservation of quality and storage life of sweet lime by measuring physic-chemical properties of fruits. The measured parameters in the study were firmness, TSS, titrable acid, pH, vitamin C, weight loss and chlorophyll content. The experiment consisted four treatments of chitosan solution (control, 0.5, 1 and 2%. The results showed that chitosan had significant effects on all measured parameters (p<0.01. Chitosan-treated fruit had firmness, vitamin C and titrable acids more than those of the non-treated control group during cold storage. The highest firmness was observed in 2% chitosan treatment and the lowest firmness was recorded for the control treatment. Fresh sweet lime fruit treated with chitosan 2% had the lowest percentage of weight loss (5.95 % and the highest TSS (10.6 g/100 ml, titrable acids (0.077 g /100 ml and vitamin C (44/59 mg/100ml. According to the results of this study, it could be suggested that 2% chitosan increases the shelf life of this fruit.

  5. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yage Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time.

  6. Uniform delivery of silicon nanoparticles on device quality substrates using spin coating from isopropyl alcohol colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Osama M.; Antoniadis, Dimitri A.; Mantey, Kevin; Nayfeh, Munir H.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles, of predominately 2.9 nm in size, in isopropyl alcohol are spin coated directly on device quality silicon-dioxide layers across 150 mm substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to image the nanoparticle distributions and low levels of agglomeration with apparently regular internanoparticle distances are observed. AFM depth profiling of the nanoparticle size is in agreement with independent high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Hartree-Fock based atomistic simulations confirm the possible formation of Si nanoparticle/isopropanol complexes with a calculated electrostatic binding energy of 30 meV, which is slightly larger than the room temperature thermal agitation energy. The low levels of agglomeration can be explained in terms of such complexes that may regulate the internanoparticle and nanoparticle-solvent interactions.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP), FINAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP TAGNITE--TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN (T/QAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the Environmental Testing and Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program is to verify pollution prevention and performance characteristics of coating technologies and make the results of the testing available to prospective coating technology use...

  8. PENGARUH MINYAK ATSIRI JAHE MERAH DAN LENGKUAS MERAH PADA EDIBLE COATING TERHADAP KUALITAS FILLET IKAN PATIN (Effect of Edible Coating Enriched with Red Ginger and Red Galangal Essential Oil on the Quality of Patin Fillet)

    OpenAIRE

    Rohula Utami; Kawiji Kawiji; Edhi Nurhartadi; Muslika Kurniasih; Dedy Indianto

    2014-01-01

    The effects of edible coating enriched with red ginger and red galangal essential oil on the quality of patin fillets during refrigerated storage of 8 days were examined. fish quality determined was based on microbiological (Total Plate Count /TPc) and physicochemical (Total Volatile Bases/TVB, Thiobarbituricacid/TBa, pH, and color) quality. Treatment variation of patin fillets were essential oil concentration enriched in edible coating (0 %, 0.1%, 1%). The results indicated that both red gin...

  9. The effect of chlorine dioxide and chitosan/essential oil coatings on the safety and quality of fresh blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries are high-value fruit with strong antioxidant capacity and other health-promoting benefits. Controlled release chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or chitosan coating plus different essential oils were applied to fresh blueberries to preserve their quality and safety during postharvest storage. In vi...

  10. 75 FR 54650 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for...

  11. Measurement of background gas in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, Naota

    2015-01-01

    We measured the rate of velocity-changing collisions (VCCs) between alkali atoms and background gas in buffer-gas-free anti-spin-relaxation-coated cells. The average VCC rate in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells prepared in this work was $1 \\times 10^{6}$ s$^{-1}$, which corresponds to $\\sim$1 mm in the mean free path of rubidium atoms. This short mean free path indicates that alkali atoms do not travel freely between the cell walls. In addition, we found that a heating process known as "ripening" increases the VCC rate, and also confirmed that ripening improves the anti-relaxation performance of the coatings.

  12. Automating quality assurance of digital linear accelerators using a radioluminescent phosphor coated phantom and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Cesare H.; Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Yang, Yong; Xing, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Performing mechanical and geometric quality assurance (QA) tests for medical linear accelerators (LINAC) is a predominantly manual process that consumes significant time and resources. In order to alleviate this burden this study proposes a novel strategy to automate the process of performing these tests. The autonomous QA system consists of three parts: (1) a customized phantom coated with radioluminescent material; (2) an optical imaging system capable of visualizing the incidence of the radiation beam, light field or lasers on the phantom; and (3) software to process the captured signals. The radioluminescent phantom, which enables visualization of the radiation beam on the same surface as the light field and lasers, is placed on the couch and imaged while a predefined treatment plan is delivered from the LINAC. The captured images are then processed to self-calibrate the system and perform measurements for evaluating light field/radiation coincidence, jaw position indicators, cross-hair centering, treatment couch position indicators and localizing laser alignment. System accuracy is probed by intentionally introducing errors and by comparing with current clinical methods. The accuracy of self-calibration is evaluated by examining measurement repeatability under fixed and variable phantom setups. The integrated system was able to automatically collect, analyze and report the results for the mechanical alignment tests specified by TG-142. The average difference between introduced and measured errors was 0.13 mm. The system was shown to be consistent with current techniques. Measurement variability increased slightly from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm when the phantom setup was varied, but no significant difference in the mean measurement value was detected. Total measurement time was less than 10 minutes for all tests as a result of automation. The system’s unique features of a phosphor-coated phantom and fully automated, operator independent self-calibration offer the

  13. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  14. Effect of solid content and composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings on physico-chemical and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Oliva, Adriana; Rojas-Argudo, Cristina; Pérez-Gago, Maria B

    2012-03-15

    Citrus fruit represent an important source of vitamin C, as well as other bioactive compounds. Edible coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of citrus by providing a semi-permeable barrier to water and gases, which depends on coating composition, solid content (SC), and cultivar. However, little is known about the effect of coatings on citrus nutritional quality. This work studies the effect of coating composition and SC of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW)-shellac coatings on the physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins. Coatings prepared at the same lipid content differed in the BW:shellac ratio (1:3 and 3:1) and SC of the formulations (40 and 80 g kg⁻¹). The coating with 1:3 BW:shellac ratio and 80 g kg⁻¹ SC was the most effective controlling weight loss, although it was less effective than the commercial wax tested. Increasing SC had a greater effect than the BW:shellac ratio in fruit internal atmosphere and sensory quality, with the presence of off-flavour when coatings were applied at 80 g kg⁻¹ SC. Nutritional quality was not affected by the application of the different treatments. HPMC-lipid coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of 'Oronules' mandarins. However, care should be taken controlling formulation SC to avoid the build-up of off-flavour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p color, weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, and decay percentage compared to uncoated control fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  16. Improving the quality of polymer-coated urea with recycled plastic, proper additives, and large tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Chao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Yu-Qing

    2012-11-14

    Polymer-coated urea (PCU) has great potential for increasing crop production and enhancing nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency, benefiting the ecosystem. However, current PCUs are used only in a limited market, and the main obstacle to the wider use of PCUs is high cost compared to that of conventional N fertilizers. In this study, the low cost PCU and large tablet polymer-coated urea (LTPCU) were prepared by using recycling polystyrene foam and various sealants as the coating materials. The structural and chemical characteristics of the coating shells of the coated fertilizers were examined. The N release characteristics of coated fertilizers were determined in 25 °C water under laboratory conditions. The relationship between the N release longevity and the amount of coating material and the percentage of different sealants were evaluated. The results indicated that recycling polystyrene foam was the ideal coating material of the controlled release fertilizer. The polyurethane that was synthesized by the reaction of castor oil and isocyanate was better than the wax as the additive to delay the N release rate of coated urea. The coating material used for LTPCU was 70-80% less than those used for commercial PCUs under the same N release longevity. The cost of the recycling polystyrene foam used for coating one ton of pure N of the LTPCU was about one-seventh to one-eighth of the cost of the traditional polymer used for the commercial PCU. The experimental data showed that the LTPCU with good controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for wide use in agriculture and horticulture.

  17. Development of antimicrobial coatings for improving the microbiological safety and quality of shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to develop antimicrobial coatings to decontaminate and prevent cross- contamination of shell eggs. Egg shells were inoculated with nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella enterica Enteritidis strains OB030832, OB040159, and C405, and then treated with antimicrobial coatings. Pol...

  18. Evaluation of edible polymer coatings enriched with green tea extract on quality of chicken nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathyusha Kristam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of chicken nuggets coated with sodium alginate (SA coatings at refrigerated (4±1°C and frozen (−18±1°C storage condition at regular periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: Chicken meat nuggets were separated into three groups: Uncoated control (C, coated with alginate coating (T1, and coated with alginate coating incorporated with 1% green tea extract (GTE (T2. The nuggets were analyzed at regular intervals of 5days for refrigerated storage and 15 days for frozen storage period in terms of pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, peroxide value (PV, total plate count (TPC, water loss, and sensory characteristics. Results: The results indicated that the nuggets coated with alginate-based coatings effectively reduced the spoilage as indicated by pH, TBA, and PVs. pH values of the formulations ranged from 6.15 to 6.34 at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and 6.49-6.71 at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. TBA value of the treatments ranged from 1.28 to 1.54 mg MDA/kg and 1.34 to 1.50 mg MDA/kg under refrigerated and frozen storage temperatures, respectively. Color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the nuggets differed significantly (p<0.05 with the coated nuggets. The coated nuggets were well acceptable upto 15 days at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and upto 75 days at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. Nuggets coated with GTE incorporated coating solution had a lower TBA-reactive substances values, PVs, and TPCs when compared to the nuggets coated with SA and the control group. Conclusion: Study revealed that incorporation of edible coatings with antioxidants, namely, GTE at 1% level had a significant effect in reducing the fat oxidation. The samples recorded a shelf life of 15 days under refrigerated storage when compared to their controls with 10 days of storage period and 75

  19. Effect of silicon carbide ceramic coating process on the mirror surface quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peipei; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Bai, Yunli; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Zhenghang

    2016-10-01

    Silicon carbide, as a new reflector material, its excellent physical and chemical properties has been widely recognized by the industry. In order to make SiC mirror better used in space optical system, we used digital coating equipment during its coating process. By using ion-assisted electron evaporation method, we got a complete metal reflective film system on the surface of finely polished silicon carbide mirror. After automated coating process, by adjusting the coating parameters during the process, the surface roughness of silicon carbide improved from 7.8 nm to 5.1 nm, and the average optical reflectance of the surface reached 95% from visible to near-infrared. The metal reflective film system kept well after annealing and firmness test. As a result, the work of this paper will provide an important reference for high-precision coating process on large diameter SiC mirror.

  20. Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chlorite (SC) alone and its sequential treatment with edible coatings on browning inhibition and quality maintenance of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Edible coatings were prepared from chitosan (CH) and its water soluble derivative: carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH...

  1. PENGARUH MINYAK ATSIRI JAHE MERAH DAN LENGKUAS MERAH PADA EDIBLE COATING TERHADAP KUALITAS FILLET IKAN PATIN (Effect of Edible Coating Enriched with Red Ginger and Red Galangal Essential Oil on the Quality of Patin Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohula Utami

    2014-02-01

    edible coating will retain the patin fillets quality. In terms of microbial quality and TVB value, 1% essential oil of red ginger and red galangal enrichment in edible coating could extend shelf life of patin fillets for 2-4 days. Keywords: Edible coating, essential oil, patin, red ginger, red galangal   ABSTRAK Penentuan pengaruh penambahan minyak atsiri jahe merah dan lengkuas merah dalam edible coating terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin dilakukan pada periode waktu 8 hari. Parameter kualitas ikan yang dianalisis adalah kualitas mikrobiologis (Total Plate Count/TPc, dan kualitas fisikokimia (Total Volatile Bases/TVB, Thiobarbituricacid/TBa, pH, dan warna. Variasi perlakuan fillet ikan patin yaitu konsentrasi minyak atsiri (0 %; 0,1%; 1% yang ditambahkan dalam edible coating. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa penambahan minyak atsiri baik jahe merah maupun lengkuas merah berpengaruh terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin. Penambahan minyak atsiri dalam edible coating mampu mempertahankan kualitas fillet ikan patin lebih baik dibandingkan perlakuan edible coating tanpa minyak atsiri. Berdasarkan kualitas mikrobiologis dan nilai TVB, perlakuan minyak atsiri jahe merah 1% dan minyak atsiri lengkuas merah 1% mampu meningkatkan umur simpan fillet ikan patin selama 2-4 hari. Kata kunci: Edible coating, jahe merah, lengkuas merah, minyak atsiri, patin

  2. Development and application of edible skin coatings to improve the quality of kinnow during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and investigate the effect of application of indigenous skin coating materials for kinnow fruit, which surely would have superior effect on shelf stability and an attractive alternate for inedible coatings. Economical and underutilized sources were explored for this purpose. Eight different formulations were developed to check their suitability through various physico-chemical analyses. It was concluded that edible coating prepared from corn starch, stearic acid, jojoba oil and monoglycerides (T8 was observed best in terms of physico-chemical properties of fruits and significantly increased the shelf life.

  3. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  4. Systems design of COATLI: an all-sky robotic optical imager with 0.3 arcsec image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Langarica, Rosalia; Watson, Alan M.; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Ángeles, Fernando; Farah, Alejandro S.; Figueroa, Liliana; Becerra-Godínez, Rosa L.; Chapa, Oscar; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Quiróz, Fernando; Tejada, Carlos; Álvarez-Núñez, Luis C.; Ruz, Jaime; Tinoco, Silvio J.

    2016-08-01

    COATLI is a new instrument and telescope that will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 920 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited imager. The imager has a steering mirror for fast guiding, a blue channel using an EMCCD from 400 to 550 nm to measure image motion, a red channel using a standard CCD from 550 to 920 nm, and an active optics system based on a deformable mirror to compensate static aberrations in the red channel. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality in the red channel over a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México, in 2016 and will initially operate with a simple interim imager. The definitive COATLI instrument will be installed in 2017. In this work we present the general optomechanical and control electronics design of COATLI.

  5. Effect of plasticizer type and amount on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated plums (cv. Angeleno).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, Maria Ll; Sothornvit, Rungsinee; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-10-22

    The effect of the composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) edible coatings on stand-alone film properties and on postharvest quality of coated 'Angeleno' plums was studied. Glycerol (G) and mannitol (M) were tested as plasticizers at two different plasticizer/HPMC ratios (100:1 and 300:1 molar basis). BW content was 20 or 40% (dry basis). An increase in G content increased film flexibility and vapor permeability (WVP), whereas an increase in M content enhanced film brittleness without affecting WVP. An increase in BW content reduced film flexibility and reduced WVP of only G-plasticized films. Coatings reduced plum softening and bleeding, but were not effective in reducing plum weight loss. At low plasticizer content, coatings reduced texture loss effectively. Low BW also lowered plum bleeding. Plasticizer type affected only ethanol and acetaldehyde contents without affecting the remaining quality parameters. Therefore, HPMC-BW coatings have the potential to extend the shelf life of plums. However, this effect depends on coating composition. Differences between coating and film performance indicate that data from stand-alone films may be used as a preliminary screening, but coating performance should be analyzed on coated fruit.

  6. Radio-Frequency Multipacting as Quality Control of Coatings for E-Cloud Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Calatroni, S; Caspers, F; Edwards, P; Holz, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate electron cloud in particle accelerators a carbon coating with low SEY (Secondary Electron Yield) has been developed. In the case of the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron), which belongs to the LHC injector chain, testing of the performance of coated beam pipes directly in the accelerator must cope with the schedule of the regular machine operation. For this reason an alternative tool based on RF induced multipacting in a coaxial configuration has been designed for ex-situ characterization of the main bending dipoles of the SPS. In this contribution we report the results obtained before and after coating for two 6.4 meter dipoles with different cross sections of the vacuum chambers. The multipacting is monitored by measuring the pressure rise and the RF reflected power. After coating, the power threshold to induce multipacting is strongly reduced indicating a lower propensity for electron cloud. The impact of the RF coupling on the sensitivity of the technique is discussed.

  7. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  8. Cassava starch coating and citric acid to preserve quality parameters of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pereira, Leila M; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-06-01

    Combination of citric acid dipping (5 g/L) and cassava starch coating (10 g/L), with and without glycerol (10 g/L), was studied to verify the effectiveness of these treatments to inhibit enzymatic browning, to reduce respiration rate, and to preserve quality parameters of "Tommy Atkins" fresh-cut mangoes during storage at 5 degrees C. Color characteristics (L and C), mechanical properties (stress at failure), weight loss, beta-carotene content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated during 15 d. The respiration rate of fruit subjected to the treatments was also analyzed. Nontreated fresh-cut mango was used as a control sample. Cassava starch edible coatings and citric acid dipping promoted a decrease in respiration rate of mango slices, with values up to 41% lower than the control fruit. This treatment also promoted better preservation of texture and color characteristics of mangoes and delayed carotenoid formation and browning reactions during storage. Moreover, the treated fruit showed great sensory acceptance by consumers throughout the whole storage period. However, the use of glycerol in the coating formulation was not efficient in the maintenance of quality parameters of fresh-cut mangoes, promoting a higher weight loss of samples, impairing fruit texture characteristics, increasing carotenogenesis, and favoring microbial growth during storage.

  9. Effect of Chitosan Coating on Increasing Postharvest Life and Maintaining Apple fruit Quality Cv “Soltani”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rostamzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of coating agents is reducing transpiration and respiration, leading to maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of the fruits. Chitosan, the most important coating agent, is used during the post-harvest process. In this research the effect of chitosan with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2% on the shelf-life of apple cv “Soltani” was studied. The study was conducted as a split plot in time within a complete randomized design in 3 replications and 4 tratments. After storage at 1°C and 90% RH, fruits were evaluated every 30 days in terms of some traits such as firmness, weight loss, soluble solids and titratable acid and vitamin C, total phenol, antioxidant capacity and pH. Results showed that the fruits treated with chitosan had significantly higher firmness, titratable acid (TA, soluble solids (TSS, vitamin C, total phenol, antioxidant capacity and lower weight loss and pH, compared to the control. There was no significant difference between 1 and 2% chitosan coating concentrations for most of the examined traits, though evidence indicated that the 2% chitosan may act better than the 1% for shelf life extension and quality maintaining.

  10. Application of fungal chitosan incorporated with pomegranate peel extract as edible coating for microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality enhancement of Nile tilapia fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed S; Moussa, Shaaban H; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-06-01

    Fish are generous sources for providing man with his essential nutritional requirements, but the extreme susceptibility to quality deterioration hinders their optimal usage and storage. Natural derivatives are always the perfect alternatives for food preservation. The application of fungal chitosan (Ch), from Aspergillus niger, and pomegranate peel extract (PPE), in coating films for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets preservation ‎and maintaining their microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality during cooled storage at 4°C for 30days, was investigated.‎ Fish fillet were coated with Ch (2%) and combined Ch+PPE, at PPE percentages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%. Fillets coating resulted in sharp decrease of the entire microbial counts during storage; the increased concentrations from PPE strengthened coating film antimicrobial activity. Additionally, fillets coating could retard the chemical spoilage parameters increasing, i.e. nitrogen volatile base (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV) and reactive substances of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), during storage period. The sensory evaluation indicated higher preferences for the odor, texture, color and overall quality of coated samples. Fish fillets coating with Ch and Ch+PPE could be recommended for shelf life extension and maintaining the microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality through the application of safe preservatives from natural origins.

  11. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  12. Effect of meadowsweet flower extract-pullulan coatings on rhizopus rot development and postharvest quality of cold-stored red peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec, Alicja; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna; Przybył, Jarosław L; Bączek, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Zenon

    2014-08-25

    The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P) and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF) or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF). Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%-75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  13. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... collected at storage day 8, 15, 22, 92 and 183 for chemical determination of the astaxanthin concentration. The degradation of astaxanthin was shown to primarily be affected by light and limited to occur at the surface of the fish feed pellets, whereas the astaxanthin embedded in the core of the pellets...

  14. Effect of antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings on Penicillium decay development and postharvest quality of cold-stored "Ortanique" mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2010-10-01

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydrophobic components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated on "Ortanique" mandarins during long-term cold storage. Selected food preservatives included potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB), sodium propionate (SP), and their mixtures. Intact mandarins or mandarins artificially inoculated with the pathogens Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, the causal agents of citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds, respectively, were coated and stored up to 8 wk at 5 °C + 1 wk of shelf-life at 20 °C. HPMC-lipid coatings containing food preservatives controlled better GM than BM on Ortanique mandarins. SB- and SB + SP-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM by about 35% after 4 wk at 5 °C. Among all coatings, only the SB-based coating reduced the incidence of GM (about 16%) after 6 wk at 5 °C. All coatings significantly reduced disease severity of both GM and BM after 6 wk at 5 °C. Analytical and sensory fruit quality was evaluated on intact mandarins. All coatings, especially the SB + SP-based coatings, were effective to control weight loss and maintain the firmness of coated mandarins. Internal gas concentration, juice ethanol and acetaldehyde content, sensory flavor, off-flavor, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of the antifungal coatings. Further studies should focus on the modification of some physical characteristics of the coatings to improve the gloss and visual aspect of treated mandarins.

  15. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Chlorite and Edible Coating on Quality Maintenance of Minimally Processed Citrus grandis under Passive and Active MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Zhaojun; Feng, Jianhua; Wei, Wenwen; Yang, Xiangzheng; Li, Jilan; Guan, Junfeng; Li, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Edible coating has been an innovation within the bioactive packaging concept. The comparative analysis upon the effect of edible coating, sodium chlorite (SC) and their combined application on quality maintenance of minimally processed pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits during storage at 4 °C was conducted. Results showed that the combination of edible coating and SC dipping delayed the microbial development whereas the sole coating or dipping treatment was less efficient. The synergetic application of edible coating and SC treatment under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 10% O2 , 10% CO2 ) was able to maintain the total soluble solids level and ascorbic acid content, while reduce the weight loss as well as development of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Nonetheless, the N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan solely coated samples showed significantly higher level of weight loss during storage with comparison to the untreated sample. Furthermore, the combined application of edible coating and SC dipping under active MAP best maintained the sensory quality of minimally processed pomelo fruit during storage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  17. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  18. The Research of Quality's Parameter on Coating of Forest Tree Seeds%林木种子裹衣质量指标的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨家富

    2001-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of quality's parameter on coating of forest tree seeds, based on test at laboratory and soil, analysis of the effect factors about coating of forest tree seeds, founded the basis on carrying out the coating technique of forest tree seeds.%在试验的基础上,提出了林木种子裹衣的质量指标,分析其影响因素,为实施林木种子裹衣技术奠定基础。

  19. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined....... The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings...... were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol...

  1. 浅析化工设备防腐蚀涂装的质量控制%The Quality Control of Anticorrosion Coating of Chemical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何刚

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the quality control of chemical equipment anticorrosion coating from the aspects of the surface treatment before painting, the quality control of painting process and coating defects treatment, etc.%本文从涂装前表面处理、涂装过程的质量控制、涂装缺陷的处理等方面入手,浅析了化工设备防腐蚀涂装的质量控制。

  2. Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the quality of fresh-cut apples: a hurdle technology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, María R; Álvarez, María V; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatments stand as an alternative for the shelf-life extension of fresh-cut products. The antimicrobial effects of PL are well known; however, its influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh-cut apples. Dipping of fresh-cut apples in ascorbic acid/calcium chloride solution prior to pectin coating and PL treatments was effective to minimize browning and softening of apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin-coated PL-treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted in an almost 2 log CFU g(-1) reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off-odors limited the acceptability of the pectin-coated samples. The results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin-coated fresh-cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf-life of the product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. [Effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fu-Liang; Song, Fu-Peng; Gao, Yang; Zou, Peng

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4%-16.5%, and the grain protein and starch contents by 5.8%-18.9% and 0.3%-1.4%, respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58.2%-101.2%. Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea.

  4. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit.

  5. Research of long IBAD-PLD coated conductors with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, Kazuomi [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan)]. E-mail: kakimoto@rd.fujikura.co.jp; Sutoh, Yasunori [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Kaneko, Naoki [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Saitoh, Takashi [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Long YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub x} (Y-123) coated tapes were produced by reel-to-reel continuous processes using Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD) and Pulsed-Laser-Deposition (PLD). Biaxially textured Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers up to 255 m long were fabricated by IBAD with the production speed of 0.5-1.0 m/h. Y-123 films were formed on them by PLD with the tape speed of 1.0-4.0 m/h. A 105 m long Y-123 film was formed with the uniform thickness of 1.0 {mu}m and the {delta}{phi} of 3-4 deg. . The end-to-end I {sub c} of 126 A was achieved at 77 K, 0 T, whose I-V curve had the n-value of 28.5. The I {sub c} times length reached 13,230 A. Another 70 m long Y-123 tape with the I {sub c} of over 90 A (77 K, 0 T) was wound into a solenoid type magnet whose inner diameter was 60 mm. The central magnetic field of 0.082 T was obtained at 77 K, with operating current of 42 A and that of 0.27 T was obtained at 66 K, with operating current of 130 A.

  6. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  7. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tainá A.; Andrade, Sonalle C. A.; Maciel, Janeeyre F.; Arcanjo, Narciza M. O.; Madruga, Marta S.; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M. T.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1–9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit. PMID:27877156

  8. Mn oxide coated catalytic membranes for a hybrid ozonation-membrane filtration: comparison of Ti, Fe and Mn oxide coated membranes for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, S; Davies, S H; Alpatova, A L; Corneal, L M; Baumann, M J; Tarabara, V V; Masten, S J

    2011-01-01

    In this study the performance of catalytic membranes in a hybrid ozonation-ceramic membrane filtration system was investigated. The catalytic membranes were produced by coating commercial ceramic ultrafiltration membranes with manganese or iron oxide nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. A commercial membrane with a titanium oxide filtration layer was also evaluated. The performance of the coated and uncoated membranes was evaluated using water from a borderline eutrophic lake. The permeate flux and removal of the organic matter was found to depend on the type of the metal oxide present on the membrane surface. The performance of the manganese oxide coated membrane was superior to that of the other membranes tested, showing the fastest recovery in permeate flux when ozone was applied and the greatest reduction in the total organic carbon (TOC) in the permeate. The removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) precursors using the membrane coated 20 times with manganese oxide nanoparticles was significantly better than that for the membranes coated with 30 or 40 times with manganese oxide nanoparticles or 40 times with iron oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved multicrystalline silicon ingot quality using single layer silicon beads coated with silicon nitride as seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    babu, G. Anandha; Takahashi, Isao; Matsushima, Satoru; Usami, Noritaka

    2016-05-01

    We propose to utilize single layer silicon beads (SLSB) coated with silicon nitride as cost-effective seed layer to grow high-quality multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot. The texture structure of silicon nitride provides a large number of nucleation sites for the fine grain formation at the bottom of the crucible. No special care is needed to prevent seed melting, which would lead to decrease of red zone owing to decrease of feedstock melting time. As we expected, mc-Si ingot seeded with SLSB was found to consist of small, different grain orientations, more uniform grain distribution, high percentage of random grain boundaries, less twin boundaries, and low density of dislocation clusters compared with conventional mc-Si ingot grown under identical growth conditions. These results show that the SLSB seeded mc-Si ingot has enhanced ingot quality. The correlation between grain boundary structure and defect structure as well as the reason responsible for dislocation clusters reduction in SLSB seeded mc-Si wafer are also discussed.

  10. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  11. Qualidade de alho (Allium sativum minimamente processado envolvido com revestimento comestível antimicrobiano Quality of minimally processed garlic (Allium sativum coated with antimicrobial edible coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alvarenga Botrel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Alho minimamente processado apresenta uma curta vida de prateleira devido, principalmente, a crescimento de fungos. A retirada da casca que protege o produto das influências externas é um dos fatores que contribui para a deterioração do produto. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos de revestimentos comestíveis antimicrobianos a base de amido de mandioca, quitosana e glicerol no recobrimento de alho minimamente processado. O produto final foi submetido a avaliações de perda de peso, alterações na cor e contagem de psicrotróficos e bolores e leveduras. Os resultados mostraram não haver diferença significativa (p Minimally processed bulb garlic has a short shelf-life, mainly due to fungi growth. Peeling away the outer layers of the garlic makes it more susceptible to the external factors that deteriorate the product. This study evaluated the effect of antimicrobial edible coatings produced from cassava starch, glycerol and chitosan on bulb garlic conservation. The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and psychrotrophic, fungi and yeast counting. Coating treatments showed no significant differences (p < 0.05 for mass loss and color alterations. Garlic bulbs coated with edible coating containing chitosan showed fungi and yeast counting lower than 105 CFU.g -1, during 15 days of storage at 10 °C. Among hurdle technologies, antimicrobial edible coating is a potential technology to improve food safety for bulb garlic and extend its shelf-life.

  12. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sangchul, E-mail: sangchul.hwang@upr.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Martinez, Diana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Perez, Priscilla [Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Rinaldi, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2011-12-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP{sub Fe-surf} was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP{sub Fe-surf} deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP{sub Fe-surf} would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them. - Highlights: > Surfactant-coated engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) were assessed. > Effluent quality was analyzed from a sequencing batch reactor with ENP{sub Fe-surf}. > {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied was present in the effluent. > ENP{sub Fe-surf} significantly (p < 0.05) deteriorated the effluent water quality. > Stable fraction of ENP{sub Fe-surf} will be introduced into environmental receptors. - Stable presence of surfactant-coated engineered iron oxides nanoparticles deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

  13. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  14. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  15. Photometric stereo sensor for robot-assisted industrial quality inspection of coated composite material surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Eva; Zambal, Sebastian; Stöger, Matthias; Eitzinger, Christian

    2015-04-01

    While composite materials are increasingly used in modern industry, the quality control in terms of vision-based surface inspection remains a challenging task. Due to the often complex and three-dimensional structures, a manual inspection of these components is nearly impossible. We present a photometric stereo sensor system including an industrial robotic arm for positioning the sensor relative to the inspected part. Two approaches are discussed: stop-and-go positioning and continuous positioning. Results are presented on typical defects that appear on various composite material surfaces in the production process.

  16. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Teng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a “top grade” herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM.

  17. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhongqiu; Shen, Ye; Li, Jing; Lin, Zhongping; Chen, Min; Wang, Min; Li, Man; Dong, Hongran; Huang, Luqi

    2016-08-27

    Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a "top grade" herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP) genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM).

  18. Performance, carcass quality, and gastric alterations in fattening pigs fed additives containing formic acid either coated with sorbate or mixed with lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth-promoting effects of two dietary acidifiers based on formic acid were studied with 320 fattening pigs from ca 21 kg to ca 105 kg of body weight. The sorbate-coated formic acid contained formic acid and ammonium formate which were absorbed in diatomaceous earth and coated with potassium sorbate. The investigated liquid blend contained formic and lactic acids as the major components. These acidifiers were added to grower and finisher diets at levels of 3, 6, and 12 g kg-1 of feed. The grower and finisher diets in the negative control treatment contained no growth promoters, but the grower diet in the positive control treatment was supplemented with avilamycin (40 mg kg-1. The investigated acidifiers did not influence the performance of growing pigs (P > 0.05. In finishing pigs, all additions of the sorbate-coated formic acid improved daily weight gain compared to the negative control (P 0.05. The frequency of severe gastric alterations tended to be smaller when the diets contained 12 g kg-of the sorbate-coated formic acid (P = 0.07, but the results of the other acidifier treatments did not differ significantly from those in the negative control. In conclusion, both the sorbate-coated formic acid and the blend of formic and lactic acids have a growth-promoting effect in fattening pigs already in small dosages, but they do not influence carcass quality or cause gastric alterations.;

  19. Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace Pigs with Different Coat Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red. Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.

  20. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  1. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L.; Sales, Camila V.; de Oliveira, Carlos E. V.; Lopes, Laênia A. A.; da Conceição, Maria L.; Berger, Lúcia R. R.; Stamford, Thayza C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage. PMID:26257717

  2. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  3. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L; Sales, Camila V; de Oliveira, Carlos E V; Lopes, Laênia A A; da Conceição, Maria L; Berger, Lúcia R R; Stamford, Thayza C M

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  4. Improvement of Quality of Carica papaya L. with Clove Oil as Preservative in Edible Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied utilization of essential clove oil, extracted from clove buds by hydrodistillation, as preservative in edible packaging technology. Preservative of essential clove oil was applied on chopped papaya fruits by using two methods, namely spray and brush. The effects of concentration of clove oil from 0.05 to 0.20% on the preservation of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (25 °C were also evaluated. Physicochemical and in vitro microbiological activities on the papaya fruits that were stored at 25 oC and 85-90% relative humidity were investigated in details. The results indicate that the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% suppressed the decay time, 10% weight loss, 0.03 g citric acid/100 g in acidity titration test, and 20% pH value from those of control sample of papaya fruits kept in a storage. The population of fungi and bacteria were efficiently reduced by 90% when the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% was applied as preservative on papaya fruits. This finding suggested that the extracted essential clove oil acted as effective antifungal and antibacterial agents. Preservative by essential clove oil improved the quality of fruits to extend the product shelf life and to reduce the risk of microbial growth on fruits surface.

  5. Effect of cassava-starch coatings with ascorbic acidic and N-acetylcysteine on the quality of harton plantain (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coatings was evaluated on the quality ofharton plantain fruits (Musa paradisiaca in the postharvest stage.Solutions for three treatments were prepared from 50 g L-1 cassavastarch (Manihot esculenta with 30 g L-1 glycerol as the plasticizerand 6 g L-1 polyethylene glycol-600®; for anti-browning agents, 6g L-1 ascorbic acid (AA and 8 g L-1 N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC wereadded. The fruits were coated by immersion, stored at 18 ± 4°Cand 85% RH. Physicochemical properties were determined at 32days postharvest. The applied coatings decreased the physiologicalweight loss (%WL and resulted in a higher pulp firmness (PF; nosignificant difference was seen with a confidence level of 95% inthe concentration of total soluble solids (TSS, acidity or maturityindex. The skin color was measured by the CIE L*a*b* method, withan average L value of 70 for the fruits coated with the 6 g L-1 AAand 8 g L-1 NAC mixture, while the control fruits had a value of 57.Also, lower a* coordinate values and browning indices were foundfor the epidermis of the coated fruits. The enzymatic activity of thepolyphenol oxidase decreased with the number of postharvest daysfor all of the treatments, being lower for the fruits with the mixtureof anti-browning agents by 27%, as compared to the control. It wasconcluded that the coating mixture containing the anti-browningagents ascorbic acid, 6 g L-1, and N-acetyl-cysteine, 8 g L-1, showeda better effect as an alternative for storing fruits and prolongingthe shelf-life of harton plantain.

  6. Effects of Single and Blended Coating Pigments on the Inkjet Image Quality of Dye Sublimation Transfer Printed Paper: SiO2, CaCO3, Talc, and Sericite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ching Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects on the image quality of CaCO3, SiO2, talc, and sericite on coated inkjet paper. The papers serve as dye sublimation transfer paper for printing on fabrics. The brightness, smoothness, and contact angle of the coated papers were evaluated. The papers were then printed with a textile color image evaluation test form, and the imprinted images were evaluated with respect to six criteria of the solid ink density, tone value increase, print contrast, ink trapping, grayness, and hue error. The overall printed image quality was correlated with the smoothness and brightness of the coated paper but showed no correlation with the contact angle. For single-pigment-coated papers, CaCO3 produced paper with the best color difference performance and could be substituted for silica. On the other hand, SiO2 was found to be suitable for blending with talc, calcium carbonate, and sericite, and its combination with these materials generally produced better image qualities than silica alone. Talc and sericite, when blended with silica as composite coating pigments, produced better printed image qualities than those as single-pigment-coated papers. The overall image quality ranking suggests that the best performance was achieved with CaCO3-, SiO2/talc-, CaCO3/SiO2-, SiO2/sericite-, and SiO2-coated papers.

  7. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, G., E-mail: Gregor.Nowak@hzg.de; Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Lorenz, U.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Becker, H.-W. [RUBION-Zentrale Einrichtung für Ionenstrahlen und Radionuklide, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Außenstelle an der Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Randau, C. [Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, 37077 Göttingen, Germany and Außenstelle an der Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    Due to the present shortage of {sup 3}He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with {sup 3}He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid {sup 10}B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical {sup 10}B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black {sup 3}He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of {sup 3}He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative {sup 3}He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  8. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  9. A quality by design (QbD case study on enteric-coated pellets: Screening of critical variables and establishment of design space at laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuling Kan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to prepare naproxen enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs by fluid-bed coating using QbD principle. Risk assessment was firstly performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA methodology. A Plackett–Burman design was then used for assessment of the most important variables affecting enteric-coated pellets characteristics. A Box–Behnken design was subsequently used for investigating the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on the response. By FMEA we discovered that eight factors should be considered to be high/important risk variables as compared with others. The responses of acid resistance and cumulative drug release were taken as critical quality attributes (CQAs. Pareto ranking analyses indicated that the coating weight gain (X7, triethyl citrate percentage (X1 and glycerol monostearate percentage (X2 were the most significant factors affecting the selected responses out of the eight high-risk variables. Optimization with response surface method (RSM further fully clarified the relationship between X7, X1, X2 and CQAs, and design space was established based on the constraints set on the responses. Due to the extreme coincidence of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value, the accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed. It could be concluded that a promising NAP-ECPs was successfully designed using QbD approach in a laboratory scale.

  10. Surface quality improvement of B{sub 4}C particles for electroless copper coating by Cu activation and oxidation roughening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiyun [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Shu, Guogang [China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd., Shenzhen (China); Wang, Wei [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Qiulin, E-mail: liql@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu activation increases surface activity by depositing Cu nano-crystals on B{sub 4}C. • The best result of Cu activation comes out at pH 12. • Oxidation roughening improves wettability of B{sub 4}C by aqueous solution. • Oxidation roughening promotes Cu nucleation on B{sub 4}C surface. - Abstract: Surface quality improvement by Cu activation and oxidation roughening process was studied during electroless coating Cu on boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) particles. The surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the phase identification was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Two aspects concluding surface activation and surface roughening were investigated to understand the effect of each on Cu coating. Cu activation process increased surface activity of B{sub 4}C by pre-deposition Cu nano-crystals, which was effective and cost-saving when compared with conventional Pd activation method. The influence of activation pH on electroless Cu coating was discussed and a moderate pH 12 is suitable for Cu deposition. Surface roughening process availably promoted wettability of B{sub 4}C particles with aqueous solution. Etched pits were formed on B{sub 4}C surface and resulted in fresh surface exposed after oxidization roughening process, which was beneficial for Cu bonding and coating on B{sub 4}C surface.

  11. The use of electrochemical measurement techniques towards quality control and optimisation of corrosion properties of thermal spray coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreijling, M.P.W.; Hofman, R.; Westing, E.P.M. van; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Metal spray coatings are ever more recognised as a possible superior means of corrosion protection in many environments. Extended service life combined with little or no maintenance provides interesting opportunities for both environmentalists and corrosion engineers. Although many successful applic

  12. The use of electrochemical measurement techniques towards quality control and optimisation of corrosion properties of thermal spray coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreijling, M.P.W.; Hofman, R.; Westing, E.P.M. van; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Metal spray coatings are ever more recognised as a possible superior means of corrosion protection in many environments. Extended service life combined with little or no maintenance provides interesting opportunities for both environmentalists and corrosion engineers. Although many successful

  13. INK-JET PRINT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT THROUGH THE USE OF CATIONIC SMA RESIN ADDITIVE IN PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Sain; F. Correia; R. Farnood; Bill Dougherty

    2004-01-01

    Ink-jet printing technology is a prominent feature of any home office as it is more economical when compared with other printing technologies. The base paper for this study was a commercial fine paper, coated on one side with a typical formula of 100 pph pigment: 30 pph binder: ≤ 1 pph additive at 25% solids content. The focus of this paper was to evaluate a cationic resin additive in the coating formulation and its effect on print image sharpness. The print image sharpness was assessed based on the measured parameters of mean grey scale, area and perimeter of the image. Compared with a typical coating additive (i.e. Poly-dadmac), the coatings with SMA resin additives showed good grey scale ink density on the sheet. Compared to uncoated samples, the ink deposited on the SMA containing coated sheets was not absorbed into the paper, allowing for better print areas to be produced. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of further developing this cationic resin as a paper coating additive.

  14. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (Palginate coating solutions containing nisin, cinnamon, and rosemary EOs as natural preservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint (Mentha longifolia) essential oil on the quality of bighead carp fillets during storage at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ramin; Bavandi, Shahmir; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-05-01

    Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint essential oil (HEO) on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) was studied. Bighead carp fillets were coated with neat sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate containing 0.5 and 1% v/v of HEO and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and microbial counts were investigated. SA coating enriched with the essential oil could reduce the spoilage of the fillets and extend their shelf-life. Samples treated with SA-containing HEO showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower TVB-N content and lipid oxidation, as reflected by lower PV, FFA and TBA values during the storage period compared with the SA and control. The treatment also reduced the degree of microbial deterioration of the fillets (about 1.5 log10 CFU/g) more efficiently than the SA.

  17. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  18. High-Quality Hollow Closed-Pore Silica Antireflection Coatings Based on Styrene-Acrylate Emulsion @ Organic-Inorganic Silica Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaolong; Zhao, Haixin; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Kong, Depeng; Chen, Taojing; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-11

    Making use of a facile and low-cost way for the preparation of a hierarchically organized novel hollow closed-pore silica antireflective coating (CHAR) with tailored optical properties and a mechanical reliability is of great interest in the field of solar photovoltaic technology. The process mainly contains two aspects: (1) a styrene-acrylate emulsion @ organic-inorganic silica precursor (SA@OISP) core/shell hierarchical nanostructure, consisting of a sacrificial styrene-acrylate (SA) primary template, was fabricated using a sol-gel method; (2) the self-assembly of the nanostructures leads to SA@OISP nanospheres forming the high-quality hollow closed-pore silica antireflection coating (CHAR) by a dip-coating process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The resulting SA@OISP nanospheres have a mean diameter of 65.2 nm and contained a SA soft core with a mean diameter of approximately 54.8 nm and an organic-inorganic silica precursor (OISP) shell with a thickness of approximately 6-10 nm. Furthermore, the prepared CHAR film exhibited a high transmittance and good ruggedness. An average transmittance (TAV) of 97.64% was obtained, and the value is close to the ideal single-layered antireflection coating (98.09%) over a broad range of wavelengths (from 380 to 1100 nm). The CHAR film showed a stable TAV, with attenuation values of less than 0.8% and 0.43% after the abrasion test and the damp heat test, respectively. The conversion efficiency of the CHAR coating cover solar modules tends to be increased by 3.75%. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the CHAR film was considered as an essential component of the solar module and were expected to provide additional solar energy harvest under extreme outdoor climates.

  19. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  20. Effect of coating preservation on storage quality of edible fresh cassava%涂膜保鲜对食用鲜木薯品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢江; 查春月; 刘婷; 邓小顺; 古碧; 林莹

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of fresh cassava during stor age . the preservation effect of fresh cassavas, which was respectively coated with sodium alginate, chitosan, licjuid paraffin, was studied at normal atmospheric temperature. The moisture content, starch con-lent, reducing sugar content, respiration intensity- weight loss rate and decay rate of the fresh cassava were discussed during cassava storage. The results showed that, compared with control group, three kinds of coating pretreatment could reduce changes of quality of fresh cassava during storage at normal atmospheric temperature. A mo rig three kinds of coating pretrcatment, the liquid paraffin coating had the best effect for fresh-keeping of cassava. It could ohviousty inhibit the respiration, water loss, starch hydrolysis and reducing sugar produclion and reduce weight loss rate and decay rate of fresh cassava.%为了提高食用鲜木薯在贮藏期间的质量,研究海藻酸钠、壳聚糖和液体石蜡涂膜剂处理对鲜木薯常温下的贮藏保鲜效果的影响,探讨鲜木薯在贮藏过程中水分含量、淀粉含量、还原糖含量、呼吸强度、失重率和腐烂率的变化规律.结果表明:在常温条件下,和空白组相比3种涂膜剂均能减缓鲜木薯在贮藏期间的品质变化.3种涂膜剂中,液体石蜡的保鲜效果最佳,能明显抑制鲜木薯呼吸作用、水分的散失、淀粉的水解和还原糖的产生,减缓鲜木薯失重和腐烂.

  1. Evaluation of the Quality of Coatings Deposited on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using the Anodising Method / Ocena Jakości Powłok Wykonanych Na Stopie Magnezu Az31 Metodą Anodowania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on the quality of coatings deposited on surfaces of AZ31 magnesium alloy products. In order to obtain protective coatings (corrosion and erosive wear protection, the methods of anodising (specimens A, B and C and, for comparison, electroless plating (specimen D were applied. The assessment of coating quality was based on the scratch test results. The results were used for determination of critical loads resulting in coating rupture. The best result was obtained for the specimen B (sulphuric acid anodising in combination with sealing: the critical load was 7.5 N. The smallest value (5.5 N was observed for the specimen D, i.e. the coating produced using the electroless plating method. Moreover, erosion resistance of the coatings was assessed. In this case, a depth of the wear trace due to an erodent agent (SiC powder effects was investigated. The results are comparable to those obtained in the scratch test. The poorest erosion resistance is demonstrated by the coating D and the best resistance is observed for the coating B.

  2. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  3. The effect of electron and gamma irradiation on the quality of surface and reflection of silver mirror coated by TiO2 and Ta2O5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Khalouie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of gamma and electron radiation on reflectivity of silver mirrors coated by TiO2 and Ta2O5, in the wavelength range 250 to 1100 (nm has been investigated. The coatings are considered for space applications in LEO orbit at 500 (km from the earth surface for three-year mission in space. Electron and gamma dose absorbed within the three-year are respectively about 7.5 (KGy and 0.4 (KGy in this orbit. To measure the resistance of TiO2, gamma radiation with CO60 irradiation source was applied on the sample in the range from 0.2 to 20 (KGy including dose 400 (Gy at the desired height. At the highest dose, 20 (KGy, radiation effects on both samples were compared with each other. The atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the effect of radiation on the quality of samples surface after radiation, and an spectrophotometer was used to measure the samples reflection before and after radiation. The results showed that in spite of very minor surface changes, and color change of the mirror substrate, its reflection remains unchanged with TiO2 and Ta2O5 coatings.

  4. Fabrication of high quality carbonaceous coating on Cu nanoparticle using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and its application for oxidation prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Youngjun; Choi, Dahyun; Son, Yeon-Ho; Kang, Suhee; Yoon, Eric H.; Jung, Seung-Boo; Kim, Yongil; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    A novel method of carbonaceous coating on the surface of copper particles was developed through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to prevent the oxidation of copper nanoparticles (CNPs). The types of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) used were K-12 (M W 3,500) and K-30 (M W 45,000). The amounts of PVP used ranged from 10 to 50 wt %. Additionally, processing temperatures of 900 and 875 °C were tested and compared. The optimum CVD process conditions for the carbonaceous coating were as follows: 875 °C processing temperature, 50 wt % K12 PVP solution, and gas conditions of \\text{Ar}:\\text{H}2 = 1:1. The resistivity change in the fabricated copper pattern was confirmed that the initial resistivity value of the ink with a mixing ratio of carbonaceous-coated CNPs to 1-octanethiol-coated CNPs of 4:6 (w/w) maintained its initial resistivity value of 2.93 × 10-7 Ω·m for more than 210 days.

  5. 75 FR 59212 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... coated paper from Indonesia and the People's Republic of China: (1) Whether to clarify the scope of these... Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and Indonesia; Determinations, Investigation Nos. 701-TA-470... Whether Chinese Banks Are Authorities Comment 18 Whether the Policy Loan Program Is Specific...

  6. 75 FR 24892 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... status in non-market economy (``NME'') investigations. The process requires exporters and producers to... Investigations Involving Non-Market Economy Countries (April 5, 2005) (``Policy Bulletin 05.1''), available at... Prelim'') and Certain Coated Paper From Indonesia: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

  7. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Martinez, Diana; Perez, Priscilla; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP(Fe-surf)) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that ~8.7% of ENP(Fe-surf) applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP(Fe-surf) was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP(Fe-surf) deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP(Fe-surf) would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them.

  8. Magnetisation and field quality of a cosine-theta dipole magnet wound with coated conductors for rotating gantry for hadron cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Sogabe, Yusuke; Sakashita, Masaki; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Koji; Ogitsu, Toru; Ishii, Yusuke; Kurusu, Tsutomu

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic field analyses were carried out to study the influence of coated-conductor magnetisation, i.e. the screening (shielding) current, on the field quality of a dipole magnet in a rotating gantry for hadron cancer therapy. The analyses were made on the cross section of a cosine-theta dipole magnet in a rotating gantry for carbon ions, which generated 2.90 T of magnetic field. The temporal profile (temporal variation) of the magnet current was determined based on the actual excitation schemes of the magnets in the rotating gantry. The experimentally determined superconducting property of a coated conductor was considered, and we calculated the temporal evolutions of the current-density distributions in all the turns of coated conductors in the magnet. From the obtained current-density distributions, we calculated the multipole components of the magnetic field and evaluated the field quality of the magnet. The deviation in the dipole component from its designed value was up to approximately 25 mT, which was approximately 1% of the designed maximum dipole component. Its variation between repeated excitations was approximately 0.03%, and it drifted approximately 0.06% in 10 s. Some compensation schemes might be required to counteract such influence of magnetisation on the dipole component. Meanwhile, the higher multipole components were small, stable, and sufficiently reproducible for a magnet in rotating gantries, i.e. |b 3| ˜ 1.1 × 10-3 and |Δb 3| ˜ 0.2 × 10-3 in 10 s.

  9. Integrated Application of Quality-by-Design Principles to Drug Product Development: A Case Study of Brivanib Alaninate Film-Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif I F; Narang, Ajit S; LaMarche, Keirnan R; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar A; Varia, Sailesh A; Lin, Judy; Stevens, Tim; Shah, Pankaj A

    2016-01-01

    Modern drug product development is expected to follow quality-by-design (QbD) paradigm. At the same time, although there are several issue-specific examples in the literature that demonstrate the application of QbD principles, a holistic demonstration of the application of QbD principles to drug product development and control strategy, is lacking. This article provides an integrated case study on the systematic application of QbD to product development and demonstrates the implementation of QbD concepts in the different aspects of product and process design for brivanib alaninate film-coated tablets. Using a risk-based approach, the strategy for development entailed identification of product critical quality attributes (CQAs), assessment of risks to the CQAs, and performing experiments to understand and mitigate identified risks. Quality risk assessments and design of experiments were performed to understand the quality of the input raw materials required for a robust formulation and the impact of manufacturing process parameters on CQAs. In addition to the material property and process parameter controls, the proposed control strategy includes use of process analytical technology and conventional analytical tests to control in-process material attributes and ensure quality of the final product.

  10. Effect of a nano-silver coating on the quality of fresh turkey meat during storage after modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, D; Kehrenberg, C; Schaudien, D; Klein, G; Krischek, C

    2017-02-01

    Nano-silver is used in consumer products due to its antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nano-silver-coated film on the quality of turkey meat during vacuum-sealed and modified atmosphere packaging up to 12 days of storage. In the first part of the experiment, turkey breasts were packaged using either vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) and contained films with or without a nano-silver coating (control film). Parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, color (lightness L*, redness a*), myoglobin redox forms, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), biogenic amines (BAs), total viable bacterial counts, Pseudomonas species counts, and Enterobacteriaceae species counts were evaluated on storage days 4, 8, and 12. In the second part of the study, the antimicrobial effect of a nano-silver-coated film on turkey breast was evaluated after inoculation with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Turkey meat packaged with the nano-silver film exhibited lower a* values on days 1 (3.15 ± 0.62), 4 (3.90 ± 0.68), and 8 (4.27 ± 0.76) compared to the packaged meat with the control film (3.41 ± 0.73, 4.35 ± 0.94, 4.85 ± 0.89, respectively), indicating special optical properties of nanoparticles. Concerning the BAs, silver packaged meat showed higher values of tyramine on day 12 (1274 ± 392 ng/g meat) and cadaverine on day 4 (1224 ± 435 ng/g meat) compared to the normal packaged products (647 ± 576 and 508 ± 314 ng/g meat, respectively). MAP meat revealed higher L* and TBARS values and lower microbial counts than the vacuum packaged products on all days. The MAP meat also showed lower a* results on days 4 and 8 and higher metmyoglobin (metMb) values on days 8 and 12 compared to th E: vacuum products. In the inoculation study, the microbial counts of the turkey meat were comparable between the two film types. The study showed that the nano-silver coating did not exhibit any advantageous

  11. Fuzzy Control of the coating quality parameters Electrophoretic studies the economics of quality%基于模糊质量参数控制的涂装电泳质量经济性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培佑; 张敏; 刘坚

    2013-01-01

    In order to reasonable and effective control of automotive painting electrophoretic coating process on the impact of product quality, important process parameters on the electrophoresis process solids, proposed the concept of fuzzy quality characteristics. Monitoring model based on fuzzy quality characteristics, the quality characteristics of the fuzziness and randomness combined for electrophoresis bath solids content analysis, which gives quality characteristics of solids fuzzy conditional probability. And the use of Bayesian decision making and quality characteristics of this cost function for further analysis, the electrophoresis bath Solids quantitative fuzzy quality control and monitoring model. Monitoring the quality characteristics of fuzzy model economy in automotive coating applications on electrophoresis. Specific practical application show that the method in the field of automotive painting feasibility and applicability.%为合理并有效地控制汽车涂装电泳工艺对涂装产品质量的影响,对电泳过程重要工艺参数固体份,提出了模糊质量特性的概念。基于模糊质量特性监测模型,将质量特性的模糊性与随机性相结合对电泳槽液固体份含量进行分析,从而给出固体份质量特性的模糊条件概率。并运用贝叶斯决策与成本函数对这一质量特性进一步分析,提出电泳槽液固体份含量的量化模糊质量控制与监测模型。研究模糊质量特性监测模型在汽车涂装电泳经济性上的应用。具体的实际应用证明了该方法在汽车涂装领域的可行性与适用性。

  12. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  13. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, total sugar and malic acid content (by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method) were measured each week. Results showed that nano composite and Thyme oil significantly affect fruit's water retention and so decrease fruit weight loss and preserve anthocyanin (P < 0.05). None of applied treatments had any significant effects in comparison with control in regard to acidity while total sugar content and TSS significantly affected by treatment compared to control samples. Result of HPLC analysis showed that there was no significant difference between different treatment and control sample in term of malic acid concentrations during storage period but increase storage time lead to increase malic acid concentration in all treatments. For conclusion it can be Saied that fruits coating with nano-composite, lead to increase fruit shelf life, better appearance and prevents fungal growth that may be due to creation of an active packaging by these compounds.

  14. The Investigation of Coated Tools Tribological Characteristics Influence on the Cutting Process and the Quality Parameters of the Parts Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Bezjazychnyj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cutting tools nanostructured coatings on the parameters of machined parts surface layer has been researched. The interaction between friction characteristics of coated tools and shear plane angle during machining has been determined. The results of different materials cutting with coated carbide-tipped tools have been shown.

  15. Electrostatic and conventional spraying of alginate-based edible coating with natural antimicrobials for preserving fresh strawberry quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial contamination and mold growth are common causes of strawberries deterioration during storage. The growing need for extending shelf-life while enhancing the overall quality of perishable fruits has generated increasing interest in the development of novel storage technologies. This study us...

  16. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL(-1) nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg(-1) citric acid and 10 g kg(-1) calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of chitosan-carvacrol edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets stored in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraí CHAPARRO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fish consumption has increased in recent years. However, fish meat is highly perishable, which demonstrates the need for technologies to preserve its quality. Edible coatings (EC might provide an alternative to extend the shelf life of fish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC of chitosan (C in combination with carvacrol (CAR on the physical and microbiological changes of tilapia fillets. Fillets were submerged for two minutes in different treatments (T1: control; T2: C 2%; T3: C 2% + 0.125% CAR; T 4: C 2% + 0.25% CAR. At the end of storage, T1 and T2 showed the lowest values of total volatile bases (TVB. The color parameters L*, a* and b* varied from each treatment. The texture decreased and the different treatments reduced the microbial population in relation to the control; T3 and T4 were the most effective. These results show that the use of C with CAR might be an alternative method to preserve the quality and safety of tilapia fillets.

  19. Quality Control of High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Process and Coating%超音速火焰喷涂工艺及涂层质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春刚; 李博

    2014-01-01

    超音速火焰喷涂(HVOF)WC10Co4Cr 合金以其优良的耐磨性和耐蚀性及对环境的友好性等优点,在飞机起落架轴类零件上已有取代镀硬铬之势;但是,实际生产中,HVOF涂层常常出现起皮、剥落、隆起、裂纹、崩裂和有开口于表面的孔洞及不连续等缺陷,严重影响了喷涂质量,制约了产品的正常使用。通过加强对工艺辅助材料、设备及维护、制造过程、工艺和人员等环节的控制,使某型号超高强度钢轴类零件涂层质量问题的发生率从20%降低到1%以下,经过长期的实践检验,验证了其对指导生产具有一定的现实意义。%Owing to the excellent wear resistance,rust resistance and non-polluting to the environment,WC10Co4Cr al-loy used for HVOF has a tendency to substitute hard chromium plating in the application of axes parts used on aircraft land-ing gear.However,in the actual production,there are some defects on HVOF coatings such as peeling,spalling,upheaval, cracks,break,have a cavity on the surface and discontinuity,which have badly affected HVOF quality and restrict products delivery.Through enhancing control of process assistance materials,equipment and maintenance,manufacture processes, process control and personnel,the occurrence rate of coating quality problems for axes parts of Type X ultra high strength steel has reduced from 20% to less than 1%,and by long term practical inspection,it has practical value for the present production.

  20. Testing the efficacy and the potential effect on indoor air quality of a transparent self-cleaning TiO{sub 2}-coated glass through the degradation of a fluoranthene layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeas, V.; Pichat, P.; Guillard, C.; Chopin, T.; Lehaut, C.

    1999-10-01

    Self-cleaning glass can be obtained by coating glass with a transparent, thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. To test the self-cleaning properties, fluoranthene--the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the atmospheric particulate matter--was sprayed over the glass. Under solar-like UV light, not only was fluoranthene removed at a rate of ca. 0.73 nmol/h per cm{sup 2} of glass but also all fluoranthene degradation products were, and thus the coated-glass transparency was recovered, which did not occur with noncoated glass. The fluoranthene percentage converted to volatile carbonyl products released into ambient air was lower with than without TiO{sub 2} coating; i.e., the self-cleaning glass could have a positive influence on indoor air quality. Mechanisms are discussed to account for the main primary products among the 40 fluoranthene photocatalytic degradation intermediate products which the authors identified.

  1. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health.

  2. [Effect of blanching and hygroscopic coating on quality of fresh cut carrots (Daucus carota var. chantenay) during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uquiche Carrasco, Edgar; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2002-06-01

    The effect of blanching at low temperatures (solution 1% acid citric, 50 degrees C for 30 seconds) and the application of glycerol as humectant (3% p/p, 20 seconds) to preserve the quality of fresh-cut carrots (Daucus carota) were studied as individual or combined treatments. Four treatments were evaluated: a control by dipping samples for 30 seconds in distilled water (T1); blanching (T2); glycerol application (T3); and blanching plus glycerol application (T4). Total carotenoids content, color, soluble solids and weight loss were monitored during storage. Results showed no differences between treatments in carotenoids content (p > 0.10) and soluble solids (p > 0.05). However, differences were observed between treatments in weight loss (p Blanched samples (T2 and T4) showed small changes in orange color intensity compared to treatments T1 and T3 (p < 0.05).

  3. Effects on the Storage Quality on the Coating of Wallace with Antibacterial of Lagenaria Leucantha Rusby%瓠瓜抗菌剂涂膜保鲜处理对华莱士贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智敏; 李正英

    2012-01-01

    Wallace was treated with different coating preservation agents of lagenaria ieucantha rusby antibacterial. The changes of the storage quality were studied. The results showed that the chitosan coating with tween 20 as Wallace fresh coating materials and coating additives. The best chitosan coating solution concentration of 1.5%, lagenaria ieucantha rusby antimicrobial concentration 0.05%, tween 20 concentration 0.05%. In this condition after storage of 10 d Wallace hardness and soluble solids content change is minimal and no microbial infection.%以华莱士为试验材料,用不同的瓠瓜抗菌剂涂膜保鲜处理,研究华莱士贮藏品质的变化。结果表明壳聚糖与吐温20为华莱士涂膜保鲜的涂膜材料和涂膜助剂。华莱士涂膜液中壳聚糖的最佳浓度为1.5%,瓠瓜抗菌剂的最佳浓度为0.05%,吐温20浓度为0.05%,此条件下华莱士贮藏10 d后硬度与可溶性固形物含量变化最小,且无微生物侵染。

  4. Improved gas distributor for coating HTGR fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackey, W. J.; Stinton, D. P.; Sease, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A new and improved gas distributor was developed for use in coating fuel particles for the HTGR. The coating gas enters the coating furnace through multiple thin regions of a porous plate. This more uniformly disperses the gas and leads to improved coating properties. High-quality carbon and SiC coatings have been deposited with the new distributor in both 13- and 24-cm-diam coating furnaces.

  5. Morbus Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.

    2010-01-01

    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  6. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  7. Effects of Coated Controlled-release Blend Bulk Fertilizers on Yield,Quality and Nutrient Content of Scallion%包膜控释BB肥对大葱产量、品质及养分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮; 张玉凤; 李彦; 张英鹏; 孙明; 杨力; 陈广思; 于淑芳

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers and decreasing coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers on scallion's yield, quality and nutrient content were studied by field experiment. The results showed that fertilizers could increase the scallion's yield. In all the coated controlled-release fertilizers, controlled-release fertilizer Ⅱ was the best which could improve the scallion's yield by 2. 57% compared with traditional fertilizer. Scallion's quality was also improved after using coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers. Vc content was increased by 1.64%-14. 29% , nitrate content was decreased by 23. 18% -39. 71 % . The coated controlled-release fertilizer Ⅱ showed the best effect on Vc content improvement and nitrate content control. In all tested treatments of fertilizers, the highest contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in scallion were detected in the coated controlled-release fertilizer Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅱ , respectively. But there was no significant difference in three coated controlled-release fertilizers.%通过大田试验,探索了不同养分比例的包膜控释BB肥及控释BB肥减量化施用对章丘大葱产量、品质及养分含量的影响.结果表明,本试验条件下,施肥能明显增加大葱产量,而在所有包膜控释肥处理中,以包膜控释肥II处理的大葱产量最高,与习惯施肥相比,增幅为2.57%.施用包膜控释BB肥亦能显著提高大葱品质.包膜控释BB肥可以使大葱中Vc含量提高1.64%~14.29%,硝酸盐含量降低23.18% ~39.71%,其中,以包膜控释肥Ⅱ在提高大葱Vc、降低硝酸盐含量方面效果最佳.在大葱养分含量方面,包膜控释肥工处理的大葱吸氮量最高,包膜控释肥m处理的大葱吸磷量最高,包膜控释肥n处理的大葱吸钾量最高,但3种包膜控释肥处理之间差异不显著.

  8. 可食性涂膜对双孢蘑菇生理和品质的影响%Effect of Edible Coatings on Physiology and Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 闫聪聪; 刘战丽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose solution and their complex film on the physiology and quality of mushrooms stored at (2 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied. The minimum loss of weight was obtained in fruits coated with CMC coating, the minimum value of respiration rate, PPO activity, membrane permeability and the maximum hardness and L* value were obtained in mushrooms coated with carrageenan coating. Overall, the preservation effect of carrageenan film is the best, and it can extend the shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus to more than 12 d.%研究了卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠及其复配涂膜对(2±1)℃下贮藏的双孢菇生理和品质的影响.实验结果表明:羧甲基纤维素钠涂膜抑制双孢菇失重率的效果最好;卡拉胶涂膜在抑制呼吸速率、PPO活性、细胞膜通透性的上升和果实硬度、白度的下降方面效果最好,可以将双孢菇的货架期延长至12d以上.

  9. Effects of Residual Stress on Quality of (Ti, Al) N Coatings Deposited by PVD Method%PVD法制备(Ti,Al)N涂层中残余应力对其质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴化; 陈涛; 宋力

    2013-01-01

    The (Ti,Al)N coatings were deposited at different bias voltage by ion plating assisted with hollow cathode facility produced in China. X-ray diffraction method was used to study the composition and residual stress of the (Ti,Al)N coatings. There were macro-particles on surface of (Ti,Al)N coatings analyzed by SEM. The adhesion and hardness of (Ti,Al)N coatings were tested by universal nano/micro material tester. The research results show that the residual compressive stress existed in the (Ti,Al)N coatings. Following the augment of bias voltage, the residual stress value decreased first and then increased. The macro-particles on coatings became weaken notably, the adhesion and hardness of (Ti,Al)N coatings increased, the quality and mechanical properties of the coatings were improved when the value of bias voltage enhanced.%在国产离子镀和空心阴极离子镀复合镀膜机上,通过改变脉冲偏压值制备了(Ti,Al)N涂层.用X射线衍射仪对涂层的相组成进行了检测分析,并通过测得的衍射谱线计算了(Ti,Al)N涂层中的残余应力值;扫描电镜观察涂层表面微观形貌显示涂层表面存在“大颗粒”现象;用材料表面微纳米力学测试系统检测了涂层与基体间的结合力和涂层的硬度值.对涂层中残余应力与质量和性能之间关系的研究分析表明:(Ti,Al)N涂层中存在着残余压应力,且随脉冲偏压值的增加其值有先减小后增大的趋势;涂层中“大颗粒”现象随脉冲偏压值的提高能够显著得到减轻,涂层与基体间结合力得到提高,涂层的硬度值增大,涂层质量和力学性能均得到改善.

  10. Coating Quality Control and Management of Hydraulic Drill on Coal Mine%浅谈煤矿用液压钻机涂装质量的控制与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    煤矿用液压钻机是我国综采工作面及普采工作面的主要钻进设备,已成为矿井安全防爆、瓦斯抽排的主要钻孔设备,随着煤矿钻机市场的蓬勃发展,机械性能不再是产品推广与展示的唯一标准.对钻机涂装的外观质量和防护性能提出了更高的要求.一直以来,钻机涂装多采用刷涂或露天喷涂,涂装工艺水平落后,生产环境恶劣,缺乏有效管理,涂装质量无法得到保证.文章介绍通过对工艺体系、质量分级、原材料控制、人员培训等多方面实施有效地控制与管理,使得煤矿用液压钻机外观涂装质量上一个新的台阶.%Hydraulic drill on coal mine is the main drilling equipment used in fully mechanized working face and conventional mining face, and has become the main drilling equipment for mine anti-explosion safety and gas suction and emission. Along with the vigorous development of coal mine drill market, mechanical performance is no longer the only standard for product promotion and display. And put higher demand on drill coating quality and protective performance. Drill coating has been used painting brush or open coating, and coating process level lags behind, the production conditions is poor, and lacks of effective management, the quality of coating cannot be guaranteed. This paper puts the effective control and management in the process system, quality grading, raw materials control, and personnel training, making the coating level of hydraulic drill on coal mine upgrade.

  11. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  12. 可食性莲子淀粉涂膜对鲜切菠萝品质的影响%Effects of edible lotus seed starch coating on quality of fresh-cut pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鸳缘; 郑宝东; 曾绍校; 张帆; 吴树铮

    2011-01-01

    Influence of edible lotus seed starch coating on quality of fresh-cut pineapple was studied. Fresh-cut pineapple was coated with 1%, 2% or 3% lotus seed starch pasting incorporating nisin an a natural antimicrobial agent; placed into plastic trays, and o ver-wrapped with PE film and then stored at (5 ± 1) ℃. Changes in ripening index, juioe leakage, colour, firmness and microbial growth were evaluated over time. The results showed that lotus seed starch coating retarded senescence, browning and softening. It also inhibited the growth of microorganisms effectively. The total microbial count coated with 2%, 3% lotus seed starch could be controlled under 105 (less than 105 was in line with fresh-cut food hygiene requirements) during tea days due to the synergistic effect of lotus seed starch coating and nisin. The results revealed that lotus seed starch coating maintained the quality attributes of fresh-cut pineapple effectively.%分别采用1%、2%、3%不同浓度莲子淀粉膜液(含天然防腐剂nisin)对鲜切菠萝片进行涂膜处理,再装入塑料盒中,用PE薄膜密封,于(5±1)℃贮藏.在贮藏过程中,对鲜切菠萝的成熟度、流汁率、色泽、硬度和细菌菌落总数等相关指标进行评价,研究可食性莲子淀粉涂膜对鲜切菠萝品质的影响.结果表明,涂膜处理能延缓鲜切菠萝的衰老、褐变、软化,有效抑制微生物的生长.2%、3%涂膜处理组贮藏10 d内,莲子淀粉膜与nisin的协同作用可使菌落总数控制在105以下,符合鲜切果蔬的食品卫生要求.因此,采用莲子淀粉涂膜处理能有效保持鲜切菠萝的品质.

  13. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  14. Quality analysis of new buffy coat method preparation platelet concentrate%新白膜法制备浓缩血小板的质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仕清; 危燕芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To improve the quality of the platelets concentrate and ensure the clinic therapy by exploring the best way to prepare platelets concentrate as well as analyzing the factors on affecting its quality. Methods:Select 50 bags of whole blood with 400 ml within 6h at random which are respectively used to prepare the platelets concentrate by PRP and new BC. The platelets concentrate prepared by PRP comes from the control as Group A. The Buffy coat prepared and centrifuged by new BC for the first time are respectively placed and kept in the Platelet concussion instrument for 2h as Group B, 6h as Group C, 12h as Group D, and 26h as Group E. After that, they are centrifuged for the second time to prepare the platelets concentrate which came from experimental group. Testing the PLT, count the Residual Volume of white blood cells and red blood cells, pH and bacterial culture, observing different preparation or observing the effect of different periods of keeping Buffy coat to platelets concentrate.Results:The amount of platelets concentrate by new BC(except Group B) is more than the PRP, including Group D with the most platelets concentrate, Group C and Group E more than Group A. The difference is statistically significant. No bacteria grow up on every bacterial culture. Conclusions:The platelets concentrate prepared by new BC is superior to the one by PRP. In addition, the platelets concentrate by new BC can be done over 6-8h, even can reach certain quality over 24h.%目的:探讨浓缩血小板的最佳制备方法,同时,对影响浓缩血小板质量的因素进行分析,以提高浓缩血小板的质量,确保临床应用疗效。方法:随机抽取6h内采集的400ml全血200袋,分别采用富浆法(PRP)及新白膜法(BC)制备浓缩血小板,以PRP制备的浓缩血小板为对照组(A组),用新BC法第一次离心后制备的白膜层,分别放置在血小板震荡仪中保存2h(B组)、6h(C组)、12h(D组)、26h

  15. 高温条件下涂膜保存对禽蛋品质的影响%Influence of Coating on Eggs Quality Under High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉时; 张小燕; 葛庆联; 吴敏; 唐梦君; 蒲俊华; 徐菊琴

    2011-01-01

    Brown shell eggs within 12h after delivery were coated with preservative chitosan and sodium benzoate which had antibacterial effect to study their preservation in summer. The sensory evaluation, quality change and microbial changes were used as indicators to measure the fresh changes of eggs. Results showed that when saved for 32 days, the total number of bacterial colony on the surface of the eggshell of the control group is more than that of fresh eggs in health standards and green eggs standards and the colony count, E. coli, or Salmonella in egg contents of the control group and the chitosan group were not detected. When saved for 28 days,Harrington units of all eggs of the control group could not be detected while that of the chitosan group could not detect until saved for 40 days. In addition, the weight loss rate, the yolk coefficient, the air room height and other detective charaetenstics of the chitosan group were much better than those of the control group.%选用具有抑菌作用的保鲜剂壳聚糖和苯甲酸钠对产后12h内的褐壳鸡蛋进行涂膜处理,研究其在夏季的保鲜效果.将鸡蛋的感官评价、品质变化及部分微生物变化作为衡量鸡蛋新鲜度变化的各种指标.结果表明,保存32d,对照组蛋壳表面的菌落总数超过鲜蛋卫生标准和绿色鸡蛋标准,但对照组和壳聚糖组的蛋内容物中菌落总数、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌均未检出;保存28d时,对照组的哈氏单位仪器全部检测不出来,壳聚糖处理组在40d全部检测不出来,降为次鲜蛋.此外,蛋的失重率、蛋黄指数和气室高度及其它检测指标均好于对照组.

  16. A Novel Nonelectrolytic Process for Chromium and Nickel Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    layers of acceptable quality. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES), metal coating, chrome coating, nickel coating 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...for millions. Two of the most widely used metal finishing are arguably chromium ( chrome ) plating and nickel plating. These coating techniques create...current) coating in extremely low pH acid baths using highly toxic chrome precursors [3, 4]. For these and other reasons, there is a push to find

  17. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  18. 应用多功能包裹剂提高肥料品质%Application of multi-functional coated agent to fertilizers quality improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁宗; 阮自斌; 李淑华; 王金涛

    2012-01-01

    阐述多功能包裹剂的基本组成,介绍多功能包裹剂的使用范围及多功能包裹剂防止磷酸二铵结块、稳定色泽、提高缓释性能、防止粉化、增加流动性的原理及功效,展望多功能包裹剂的未来研发趋势。%The basic composition of multi-functional coated agent is described. The application fields of multi-functional coated agent, the principle and the effect of preventing DAP caking and pulverization,stabilizing color, improving slow release property, increasing liquidity are introduced, the development trend in future of multi-functional coated agent is prospected.

  19. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  20. 镀银锦纶针织面料的质量控制%Quality Control for Silver-coated Polyamide Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀芳; 柯华

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it points out that broken yarns, fabric hole and color difference due to oxidation often occur in the knitting of silver-coated polyamide fabric. The corresponding solutions are proposed, which are:handle with care for silver-coated polyamide fibers to reduce rub; try best to shorten the working distance of silver-coated polyamide fibers in knitting machines; soak silver-coated polyamide fibers in knitting oil rapidly and place for 24 h then using; classify silver-coated polyamide fibers with different color due to oxidation and use silver-coated polyamide fibers with the same color in one fabric; and so on. In dyeing and finishing process of silver-coated polyamide fabric, it should try best to treat this kind of fabrics under low temperature with shorten time, meanwhile, it is better to use nonionic detergents to washing. The results show that after dyeing and finishing in the proposed condition, silver-coated polyamide fabrics have high antibacterial property.%文中指出了锦纶镀银纤维在织造中存在断纱、坯布洞眼、氧化色差等问题,提出了相应的解决办法,包括轻拿轻放镀银丝,减少摩擦;尽量缩短其与织机的距离;使用前用针织油快速浸泡镀银丝并放置24 h后再使用;如若由于银的氧化而产生了色差,应对镀银丝再进行分色,同批布中应尽量使用无色差的镀银丝等等。在染整加工过程中,应尽量做到低温少时,并使用非离子性洗涤液对其进行洗涤。检测数据证明,经建议的织造和染整条件加工后,镀银丝针织面料具有较少的织造疵点和良好的抗菌效果。

  1. FTA法在提高冷轧板喷涂表面质量中的应用%The application of fault tree analysis to improveing the sheet steel surface quality of powder coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 贾文友

    2012-01-01

    冷轧板喷涂表面在生产过程中有许多表面质量缺陷,如表面缩孔缺陷,严重制约冷轧板喷涂的品质和制造成本.为了是提高冷轧板喷涂表面质量,本文运用FTA方法(故障树分析方法),分析某家电外箱体冷轧板喷涂生产过程中形成表面缩孔缺陷的原因,绘制故障树,进行布尔代数计算求出最小割集,提出部分优化措施,最终提升该系列产品的市场竞争力,并为进一步研究提供帮助.%During the sheet steel powder coating process,there are many surface quality defects,such as the surface of shrinkage cavity problem,which seriously affect the sheet steel surface quality of powder coating and manufacturing costs.The study aims to improve the sheet steel surface quality of powder coating.This paper employs FTA method to analyze the causes of the surface of shrinkage cavity problem about a household appliance sheet steel box,to draw fault tree,to compute the minimal cut-sets by Boolean algebra and to propose some optimized measures.Finally,the conclusions can be applied to enhance the products market competition,and to expand this future research.

  2. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... that graphene can still be a relevant candidate for thin coatings....

  3. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  5. Status of NEG Coating at ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The ESRF non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating facility is in operation since two years now. A large part of the insertion device straight sections of the electron storage ring has been equipped with in-house coated 5m long aluminum vacuum chambers with an inner vertical aperture of 8 mm. Operational experience with different coating parameters leading to different film thicknesses will be given and compared to bremsstrahlung data. The paper deals also with improvements of the coating production and chamber preparation, and describes some aspects of NEG coating data acquisition, visualization, and remote control. The R&D program leading to a more powerful DC solenoidal coating tool to further improve the NEG coating production throughput and quality aspects is also discussed.

  6. VALIDATION OF FILM COATED MULTIVITAMIN TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The validation is fundamental segment that supports to a commitment of company towards quality assurance. It also assures that product meets its predetermined quality specification and quality. Validation of each steps of manufacturing during multivitamin tablet formulation is called process validation of multivitamin tablets. During past film coating is not much favorable but now for multivitamin tablets film coating is used. The objective is to present a review and to discuss aspects of validation of film coated multivitamin tablets in terms of unit operations; that is, those individual technical operations that comprise the various steps involved in product design and evaluation.

  7. 前列宁肠溶胶囊的制备工艺及释放度研究%Reseach on preparation process, quality standard and the release of Qianliening Enteric-coated Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李煌; 徐伟; 洪振丰; 林久茂; 周建衡

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究前列宁肠溶胶囊的制剂工艺及质量标准,并考察复方中有效成分大黄素的体外释放度.方法:采用HPLC法测定前列宁肠溶胶囊中大黄素的含量,并进一步考察其在体外的释放度.结果:制备的3批前列宁肠溶胶囊在酸性介质中释放度小于10%,而在模拟胃肠道环境中可迅速释放药物,50min药物累积溶出量可达90%以上.结论:本品处方及制备工艺合理,制剂稳定、质量标准可靠,能达到肠溶目的,可作为其他肠溶中药胶囊剂的参考.%Objective: To reseach the preparation process and its quality standard of Qianliening Enteric-coated Capsules, meanwhile, inspect the release of emodin in vitro. Methods: HPLC was used for determining the content of emodin in compound, and further investigation of the in vitro release. Results: The drug release of the artificial gastric juice of Qianliening Enteric-coated Capsules would be lower than 10%, but in simulated human gastroenteric environment can rapidly release, accumulate more than 90% after 50min later. Conclusion: The parameters of technology and formulation are reasonable and stable. The quality standard is reliable. So it may be a good reference for the other enteric-coated capsules.

  8. Copper coating specification for the RHIC arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Copper coating specifications for the RHIC arcs are given. Various upgrade scenarios are considered and calculations of resistive wall losses in the arcs are used to constrain the necessary quality and surface thickness of a copper coating. We find that 10 {mu}m of high purity copper will suffice.

  9. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    in2 (Marginal Fail) 7 or more pits were seen in a total of 30 in2 (Fail) Aluminum CFCC Screening Test Results Conversion Coating Alloy OC-ALC... 6061 168+ Hours 7075 168+ Hours 2024 48 Hours 5052 48-72 Hours 72-168+ Hours (5 pits on one panel at 48 hours, but then no more ) 6061 72...Dichromate Sealer Test Results Sealer Substrate Quality Thickness Corrosion Primer Dry Tape Adhesion Wet Tape Adhesion Baseline 1 Al 2024-T3 PASS

  10. Effect of Composite Antimicrobial Coating on Quality of Bacon%复合抗菌膜对腊肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东; 曹泽虹; 孙月娥; 秦卫东

    2012-01-01

    采用羧甲基纤维素(CMC)与明胶制作复合型抗菌膜用于腊肉的防腐保鲜。以膜的水蒸气透过率、膜的厚度和透光度为主要指标,对膜液的组成进行优化,以此为基础加入适量的山梨酸钾,制备出具有良好性能的复合型抗菌膜。结果表明,将CMC与明胶以质量比1:2的比例配制成质量浓度10g/L的成膜液,添加质量分数0.4%的甘油和0.08%的山梨酸钾制成复合抗菌膜,对腊肉进行涂膜保鲜够延缓腊肉的腐败速度,延长贮藏时间。%A composite antimicrobial coating made by carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) and gelatin was used for preservation of bacon.Using water vapor permeability,transparency and thickness as indicators,the formula of antimicrobial film was optimized.Meanwhile,the composite antimicrobial coating was also added potassium sorbate during preparation process.The results showed the best composite antimicrobial coating was achieved by adding 0.4% glycerol and 0.08% potassium sorbate to 10 g/L film-forming solution composed of carboxymethylcellulose and gelatin at a ratio of 1:2.Bacon dipped in the composite antimicrobial film-forming solution revealed a slow decay rate and prolonged storage period.

  11. Development on Laser Cladding Ceramic Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The latest progress and research status of laser cladding ceramic coating was summarized. Technique characteristics and influence factors of laser cladding technique were introduced. Laser cladding technique includes the mixing method and laser irradiation. The mixing method can be classified as pre-coating method and synchronization method. The technique parameters include size of facula, scanning speed, cladding sector and times, adding quantity of powder, thickness of coating and quantity of joint coating. The results show that proper technique parameters can be controlled in order to acquire high quality laser cladding coating. Strengthened effect mechanism of rare earth additive is concluded, and the main effects of rare earth additive are micro-alloying, purifying boundary, fining crystal grains, improving crystal boundary, restraining columnar crystal growing. The development of laser cladding ceramic coating research was discussed.

  12. Droplet transfer behavior of the stainless steel coated electrode with double-layer coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙咸; 马成勇; 王宝; 张汉谦

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the droplet transfer behavior of the stainless steel coated electrode with double-layer coating is researched by means of those experimental methods, such as high speed camera, collecting droplet in water, surfacing on the steel plate et al. The results show that the droplet transfer indexes of coated electrode are mainly controlled by the size of droplet, which affects the transfer behavior of droplet. The distribution characteristic of the droplet size of the electrode affects the numerical relationship among droplet transfer indexes. The metallurgical process of the coated electrode with double-layer coating is carried out continuously in different zones. The main reason for the coated electrode with double-layer coating gaining excellent usability quality is that the droplets realize the "quasi flux wall guided transfer pattern".

  13. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-07-14

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  14. 高密度互连板盲孔镀层质量的影响因素研究%Study of factors affecting the quality of coating on blind via in HDI board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红喜; 厉小雯; 黄炳孟

    2013-01-01

    The main factors affecting the reliability of copper coating on blind via of high density interconnect (HDI) board were analyzed using a fishbone diagram. Some possible causes for the breaking of copper coating at the bottom corners of blind via, also called splayfoot problem, were studied by simulating the plating process in a Haring cell, such as high TOC (total organic carbon) content, improper brightener proportion, bad conduction, and poor backlight. It was found that poor neutralization after desmear is one of the most important reasons. Some measures for improving the coating quality of blind via were presented, such as performing activated carbon treatment in time, controlling the proportion of brighteners properly, using ultrasonic-assisted neutralizing, and immersing in diluted acid after electroless copper plating to prevent the oxidation of copper layer.%用鱼骨法分析了影响高密度互连(HDI)板盲孔镀铜层可靠性的主要因素.用哈林槽模拟电镀过程,考察了可能导致生产中出现“八字脚”(即盲孔底部孔角断裂)问题的原因,如TOC(总有机碳)含量偏高、光剂比例失调、导电不良和背光不良.发现除胶后中和不良是造成上述问题的重要原因之一.提出了改善盲孔镀铜层质量的措施,如及时对铜缸进行碳处理、按适当比例管控光剂、用超声波辅助中和、化学沉铜后浸稀酸以防止铜层氧化等.

  15. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...... images were pixel spectral values as well as using summary statistics such as the mean or median value of each pellet. Classification using LDA on pellet mean or median values showed overall good results. Multispectral imaging is a promising technique for noninvasive on-line quality food and feed...... products with optimal use of pigment and minimum amount of waste....

  16. Influence of the Discharge Voltage during Pulse-Plasma Process on the Durability of Edges coated with Superhard Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maciej Kupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality of thin, superhard coatings produced on cutting edges is described. Boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during steel machining. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coated edge durability an interfacial layers were applied. Presented investigations particularly pointed out to essential influence of the values of discharge voltage on the coating structure and durability of edges coated with boron nitride.

  17. Influence of the Discharge Voltage during Pulse-Plasma Process on the Durability of Edges coated with Superhard Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaciejKupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality of thin, superhard coatings produced on cutting edges is described. Boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during steel machining. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coated edge durability an interfacial layers were applied. Presented investigations particularly pointed out to essential influence of the values of discharge voltage on the coating structure and durability of edges coated with boron nitfide.

  18. Corrosion resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  19. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, t...

  20. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of a pullulan-caraway essential oil coating on reduction of food microorganisms and quality in fresh baby carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Woreta, Marcin; Kosakowska, Olga

    2013-08-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of pullulan films containing caraway essential oil (CEO). The films were prepared from a 10% of pullulan, containing from 0.12% to 10.0% of CEO. The composition of the CEO was analyzed with the use of gas chromatography. The antimicrobial activity of the CEO was evaluated with the method of serial microdilutions, and the films containing CEO-with the agar diffusion method against selected Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. The structure of the film surface and its cross-section were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analyses were also carried out to determine the efficacy of a pullulan coating with 10% CEO on baby carrots experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Aspergillus niger and stored at a room temperature for 7 d. At a concentration of 0.12%, CEO inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms. Pullulan films containing 8% to 10% of CEO were active against all tested microorganisms. Populations of S. aureus on carrot samples were reduced by approximately 3 log CFU/g, while those of A. niger and S. cerevisiae by, respectively, 5 and 4 log CFU/g, after 7 d of storage. S. enteritidis was the most resistant among the tested species, since it was not significantly reduced after 7 d of storage. At the end of storage, samples treated with pullulan-caraway oil coating maintained better visual acceptability than control samples. Results of this study suggest the feasibility of applying a pullulan film with incorporated CEO to extend the microbiological stability of minimally processed foods.

  2. Effect of chitosan/nano-ZnO coating on the quality of cherry tomato%壳聚糖/纳米ZnO涂膜对圣女果的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚娜

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mixing chitosan/nano-ZnO coating with different content of nano-ZnO on quality of cherry tomato was studied.The SEM pictures showed that the nanoparticles had a better dispersion in chitosan matrix at a relative low content of 1% and 2%.However, the aggregation of nanoparticles occurred when the content of nano-ZnO was up to 3wt%.The chitosan/nano-ZnO coating with 1% content of nano-ZnO had a better preservation effect on improving the sensory quality, decreasing the weight loss, Vc and acid content of cherry tomato.In contrast, the chitosan/nano-ZnO coating (2% and 3% content of nano-ZnO) showed little fresh-keeping effect on cherry tomato.%通过溶液共混制备得到不同纳米ZnO含量的壳聚糖/纳米ZnO涂液,观测了该涂膜的微观结构,并考察了其对圣女果的保鲜性.结果发现:当纳米ZnO含量较低(1%和2%)时,纳米粒子较均匀的分散于壳聚糖膜中.但当纳米ZnO含量增加到3%时,纳米ZnO出现了团聚.保鲜实验发现,纳米ZnO含量为1%的壳聚糖/纳米ZnO涂膜能够最大程度的提高圣女果的感官品质、降低其失重率,并减少其在贮藏过程中Vc及可滴定酸含量的损失.而纳米ZnO含量为2%和3%的壳聚糖/纳米ZnO涂膜的保鲜效果不明显.

  3. Physiological quality in coated seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II = Qualidade fisiológica de sementes revestidas de braquiária híbrida cv. Mulato II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria de Fátima Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fodder has driven development of the seed industry in Brazil, which seeks to provide value-added quality seeds by means of technology. The Mulato II cultivar is the first hybrid species of brachiaria to be marketed in Brazil. It was developed from the crossing of three species of Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis. Coating seeds is a pre-sowing technique, which is able to improve plant performance in the field. However, the coating can lead to problems of seed quality. Given the above, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed coating on physiological quality in seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II. The research was carried out at the Laboratory for Seed Analysis of the Federal University of Lavras, in the state of Minas Gerais, (MG, using a completely randomised design, in a 6 x 2 factorial, six seed batches, with and without incrustation. The physiological tests carried out were: germination, emergence, speed of emergence index, average time of emergence, tetrazolium, and α -amylase (enzyme analysis. Seed coating in the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II reduces viability, speed of germination, germination, speed of seedling emergence and the percentage of emerged seedlings, demonstrated by a reduced expression of the α -amylase enzyme = A crescente demanda por forrageiras tem impulsionado o desenvolvimento da indústria sementeira no Brasil que busca oferecer sementes de qualidade com valor agregado por meio de tecnologias. O cultivar Mulato II é a primeira espécie híbrida de braquiária comercializada no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido a partir do cruzamento de três espécies de Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis . O revestimento de sementes é uma técnica de tratamento na pré-semeadura capaz de melhorar o desempenho das plantas no campo. Porém, o revestimento pode acarretar problemas com relação à qualidade das sementes. Diante do exposto

  4. Electrocautery Devices With Feedback Mode and Teflon-Coated Blades Create Less Surgical Smoke for a Quality Improvement in the Operating Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Tobias; Liodaki, Eirini; Kraemer, Robert; Mailaender, Peter; Brandenburger, Matthias; Hellwig, Veronika; Stang, Felix H

    2015-07-01

    Monopolar electrocautery is a fast and elegant cutting option. However, as it creates surgical smoke containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it may be hazardous to the health of the surgical team. Although new technologies, such as feedback mode (FM) and Teflon-coated blades (TBs), reduce tissue damage, their impact on surgical smoke creation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the plume at its source.The aim of this study was to evaluate if electrocautery FM and TBs create less surgical smoke.Porcine tissue containing skin was cut in a standardized manner using sharp-edged Teflon-coated blades (SETBs), normal-shaped TBs, or stainless steel blades (SSBs). Experiments were performed using FM and pure-cut mode. Surgical smoke was sucked through filters or adsorption tubes. Subsequently, filters were scanned and analyzed using a spectrophotometer. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) was performed to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene as 2 of the most critical PAHs. Temperature changes at the cutting site were measured by an infrared thermometer.In FM, more surgical smoke was created using SSB compared with TBs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences between FM and pure-cut mode were found for SSB and TB (P < 0.001), but not for SETB (P = 0.911). Photometric analysis revealed differences in the peak heights of the PAH spectrum. In HLPC-UV, the amount of BaP and phenanthrene detected was lower for TB compared with SSB. Tissue temperature variations increased when SSB was used in FM and pure-cut mode. Furthermore, different modes revealed higher temperature variations with the use of SETB (P = 0.004) and TB (P = 0.005) during cutting, but not SSB (P = 0.789).We found that the use of both TBs and FM was associated with reduced amounts of surgical smoke created during cutting. Thus, the surgical team may benefit from the adoption of such new technologies, which could contribute to the primary

  5. Investigation of copper coating Pd wire properties and bonding quality%镀钯铜线性能对键合质量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军; 范俊玲; 薛铜龙

    2014-01-01

    The different mechanical properties of Pd coated copper wire were investigated, and the effects of Pd thickness, wire elongation/strength and wire HAZ on the strength of copper wire bonding were discussed. It is found that small Pd thickness can cause the Pd elements to distribute non-uniformly on Free Air Ball after Electronic Flame Off, lead to form a Golf ball, and the ball shape will be astable. Small elongation and high tensile strength may cause micro-crack at the bonding neck, thus resulting in insufficient bonding strength. High tensile strength and small elongation of copper coating Pd wire can decrease the temperature of re-crystal, increase the length of HAZ, and form excessive large grain on the neck, those can cause some crack on the neck and flat wire, then reduce the life of device.%研究了不同性能镀钯铜线对其键合质量的影响,分析了不同钯层厚度、不同延伸率和拉断力、镀钯铜线热影响区长短对铜线键合质量的作用机制。研究结果表明:镀钯铜线钯层厚度过小会造成Electronic-Flame-Off( EFO)过程中的Free Air Ball( FAB)偏球、第一焊点形状不稳定及钯层分布不均匀;延伸率过小和拉断力过大会造成焊点颈部应力集中,并产生微裂纹而造成焊点的拉力和球剪切力偏低;镀钯铜线的高强度和低延伸率降低其再结晶温度,造成长的热影响区和颈部晶粒粗大,降低其力学性能,焊接过程中产生颈部裂纹和塌丝。

  6. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  7. Ultra-fast gradient LC method for omeprazole analysis using a monolithic column: assay development, validation, and application to the quality control of omeprazole enteric-coated pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; Sánchez, Antonio José Macías; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli; Collado, Isidro González

    2010-01-01

    A method was optimized for the analysis of omeprazole (OMZ) by ultra-high speed LC with diode array detection using a monolithic Chromolith Fast Gradient RP 18 endcapped column (50 x 2.0 mm id). The analyses were performed at 30 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of 0.15% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water (solvent A) and 0.15% (v/v) TFA in acetonitrile (solvent B) under a linear gradient of 5 to 90% B in 1 min at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 220 nm. Under these conditions, OMZ retention time was approximately 0.74 min. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness, showed results within the acceptable criteria. The method developed was successfully applied to OMZ enteric-coated pellets, showing that this assay can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for routine QC analysis. Moreover, the analytical conditions established allow for the simultaneous analysis of OMZ metabolites, 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone, in the same run, showing that this method can be extended to other matrixes with adequate procedures for sample preparation.

  8. 白膜法少白细胞浓缩血小板的制备及质量分析%Preparation and Quality Analysis of Leucoreduced Platelet Concentrates by Buffy Coats Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党娥; 陈晨; 张蕾; 刘晶; 贾登; 穆士杰; 张献清

    2011-01-01

    目的 改进手工制备浓缩血小板方法,提高血小板制备质量.方法 ①全血经特定程序进行离心,利用全自动血液成分分离机分离白膜,白膜解聚后进行二次轻离心.②经白细胞滤器滤除血小板中的白细胞,然后进行细胞计数.结果 10份按该法制备的浓缩血小板(10U/袋),其血小板计数、残余红细胞数、白细胞数分别为(3.8±0.3)×1011/袋,(4.0±0.4)×108/袋,(0.5±0.3)×106/袋,容量250 ml~350 ml.结论 该法制备的手工浓缩血小板含量高,残余红细胞、白细胞数量低.质量指标达到国家质量要求,适宜血站推广应用.%Objective To improve the hand-made method of platelet concentrates and enhance the quality of platelet. Methods ①The whole blood were centrifuged according to definite programme,then the butty coat were separated with automatic blood cell separator. After the disaggregation of butty coats,the second mild centrifugation was done. ②The white cell in the platelet conccentrates were filtrated by white cell filter,then the cellcounts were tested. Results In 10 platelet concentrates prepared according to this methods ,the platelets count,residual red blood cell count and white cell were (3. 8 ± 0. 3) × 1011/bag, (4. 0± 0. 4) × 108/bag, (0. 5±0. 3) × 106/bag, respectively. The volume of platelet concentrates were about 250~350 ml. Conclusion The platelet concentrates prepared by this methods had high content platelet and low residual red blood cells, as well as white blood cells. The quality indexes could meet the national quality reguirement and could be used widely.

  9. Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassine, M; Henry, F; Guerin, P; Briand, X

    2002-08-21

    The conventional agriculture leads to some important pollution of ground water (particularly, by nitrates). The solution is the coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. In this work, we have studied the water vapour and liquid diffusion through polymer films detached from their support. Therefore, we may classify polymers as a function of their properties like water vapour and liquid barrier. We may choose the best polymer(s) for coating.coated fertilizers by chosen polymer(s) with mechanical techniques such as fluidised bed and pan coating. Moreover, the electron microscopy used to see the quality of the wall has showed the presence of pores due to the rapid evaporation of solvent. A drying in air current and an annealing could be done to avoid this problem.followed the ions release of fertilizers immersed in distilled water by conductimetry. The more interesting result was obtained with fertilizers coated by polylactic acid. In effect, the total release reached three weeks.

  10. Effect of Nano-chitosan Coating on Quality of Fresh-cut Zizania latifolia%纳米壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切茭白品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静峰; 罗海波; 王隽; 江凯; 郁志芳

    2013-01-01

    研究了纳米壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切茭白品质的影响.鲜切茭白分别在去离子水(对照)、10g/L壳聚糖或10g/L壳聚糖+1.5 g/L纳米壳聚糖溶液中浸泡3min,自然晾干包装后于1±0.5℃下贮藏12d.贮藏过程中每3d测定鲜切茭白的白色指数(WI)、硬度、失重率及木质素、还原糖、抗坏血酸含量,PAL、SOD、CAT和POD活力.结果显示,纳米壳聚糖涂膜显著抑制了鲜切茭白WI值的下降和木质素含量的增加,维持了相对高的硬度及还原糖和抗坏血酸含量;贮藏12d后失重率为1.12%; PAL和POD活性显著低于对照(P<0.05),SOD和CAT活性显著高于对照(P<0.05).以上结果表明,纳米壳聚糖涂膜能有效延缓鲜切茭白褐变和木质化,提高抗氧化酶类活性,提示纳米壳聚糖涂膜具有商业上控制鲜切茭白品质劣变的潜在价值.%The effect of nano-chitosan coating on the quality of fresh-cut Z.latifolia was investigated.Fresh-cut Z.latifolia slices were dipped into deionised water (the control),10 g/L chitosan or the mixture of 10 g/L chitosan and 1.5 g/L nano-chitosan for 3 min,and then dried,packaged and finally stored for 12 days at 1±0.5 ℃.Changes in whiteness index (WI),firmness,weight loss,lignin,reducing sugar and ascorbic acid contents,phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL),superoxide dismutase (SOD),eatalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were evaluated at intervals of two days.The results showed that the nano-chitosan coating significantly inhibited the decline of WI value and the increase of lignin content,maintained relatively high firmness,reducing sugars and ascorbic acid contents of fresh-cut Z.latifolia.After a 12-day storage at 1±0.5 ℃,the weight loss of the fresh-cut Z.latifolia slices was 1.12%.The treatment also inhibited the activities of PAL and POD but promoted SOD and CAT activities compared with the control.The present findings indicated that the nano-chitosan coating could inhibit browning and

  11. The effects of edible eggshell coatings on egg quality during room temperature storage%室温下不同可食涂膜剂对鸡蛋保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美玉; 司伟达; 崔建云; 任发政

    2011-01-01

    采用可食性的乳清分离蛋白、玉米醇溶蛋白、面筋蛋白、壳聚糖+乳酸、壳聚糖+苯甲酸钠和壳聚糖+柠檬酸钠作为涂膜材料分别对鸡蛋进行涂膜处理并室温贮藏( 25℃),通过对鸡蛋品质指标分析发现各涂膜材料均具有保鲜效果.面筋蛋白涂膜保鲜效果最优,玉米醇溶蛋白、壳聚糖+乳酸次之,乳清分离蛋白最差,但仍优于对照组.各涂膜剂成膜后,膜的水蒸汽透过性与其保鲜效果有一定的相关性,即面筋蛋白的水蒸汽透过率最小,乳清分离蛋白的最大.%The effects of fresh -keeping coating films on egg quality and water vapor permeability of different films were studied with whey protein isolate, corn zein, wheat gluten, lactic + chitosan, sodium benzoate + chitosan and Sodium citrate + chitosan stored at room temperature (25℃ ). The results showed that the preservation effect of wheat gluten was obviously better than others, corn zein and chitosan took the second place, and the effect of whey protein isolate was the worst, but it was still better than the control group. The effects of fresh - keeping coating films have certain correlation with their water vapor permeability. WVP of wheat gluten is the lowest. , and whey protein is highest

  12. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives.

  13. Novel ormocers and nanomers for coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Peter William de; Schmidt, Helmut K.; Sepeur, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Nanoparticles produced by a microemulsion for a controlled growth precipitation technique (ZrO2, AlOOH) have been surface modified and incorporated into inorganic/organic composite matrices made from epoxy or methacryloxy silanes. For this reason, the nanopowders have been surface modified with carboxylic acids in order to obtain full dispersibility necessary for high optical quality coatings. ZrO2 was used for obtaining high refractive index coatings. By adjusting an appropriate zeta-potenti...

  14. Polyurethane coating for ductile iron pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG En-qing

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A special polyurethane coating designed for ductile iron pipe was developed. The effects of the ingredients on properties, such as viscosity, flow leveling, solidification-rate, adhesion and hardness, were researched. It was then analyzed in what ways the technical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, influence the coat quality. The results showed that the molar ratio and synthesizing conditions must be strictly controlled to obtain suitable pre-polymer viscosity by adjusting the formula ratio of the B component, satisfactory mechanical properties and cure rate can be obtained and bubbles in the coat can be avoided.

  15. Antimicrobial food equipment coatings: applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Luis J; Denis-Rohr, Anna; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies in antimicrobial coatings can help improve the quality and safety of our food supply. The goal of this review is to survey the major classes of antimicrobial agents explored for use in coatings and to describe the principles behind coating processes. Technologies from a range of fields, including biomedical and textiles research, as well as current applications in food contact materials, are addressed, and the technical hurdles that must be overcome to enable commercial adaptation to food processing equipment are critically evaluated.

  16. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D. [Datec Coating Corp., Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  18. Process Optimization of a Novel Immediate Release Film Coating System using QbD Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200...

  19. Corrosion behavior of NiCrBSi coatings deposited by HVOF spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫民; 王勇; 吴开源; 薛锦

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited on steel substrate by HVOF was examined using electrochemical tests and immersion tests so as to offer an experimental basis to expand a promising applied field of HVOF in aqueous medium, comparing with those of coatings deposited by oxyacetylene flame spraying and flame cladding. The results show that the general corrosion rate of HVOF sprayed coatings is quite bigger than that of clad coatings, but it is less sensitive to local corrosion. There is less and smaller porosity in the coatings deposited by HVOF than that in flame sprayed coatings. The effects of porosity on the corrosion current density was indistinctive, but the existence of large amount of defects in the coatings damaged the cohesion of the coatings, causing the metallic particles drop off from the coatings under the influence of corrosive medium. Improving the quality and reducing the porosity of coatings is the key to get the coatings with high corrosion resistance.

  20. Coating of pumps; coating af pumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Hans; Moritzen, J.; Thoegersen, Jeanette

    2005-11-15

    Coating of pumps is a quite new activity. For many years pipes and containers have been coated inside in order to avoid corrosion, but the technology has only been used inside pumps for the last ten years. The technology comes from USA and is originally developed in the space technology industry as an exceptionally durable and corrosion constant coating. The project is a further development of results found in a previous R and D project in which measurements were performed before and after coating two different installations. Both installations showed large efficiency improvements. This project supplements the theory behind losses in pumps with measurements on more pumps. (BA)

  1. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DÉCOR PAPER AND RESIN TYPE ON THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL, AND SURFACE QUALITY PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARDS COATED WITH IMPREGNATED DÉCOR PAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Istek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of décor paper and resin type on physical properties such as density, moisture content, water absorption and thickness swelling; mechanic properties such as bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, and surface quality properties of the particleboards overlaid with non-impregnated and impregnated papers. As a result, specimens laminated with MF impregnated papers showed better performance than those laminated with UF impregnated papers. Resin type and décor papers affected the physical, mechanical (with exception of tension strength and surface properties of laminated particleboards. Physical and mechanical properties of laminated particleboard were significantly improved compared to un-laminated particleboards. It was found that décor paper affected the surface properties such as impact, scratch, and abrasion, resistance to staining and cigarette burn. However, it did not change the cracking and steaming properties of laminated samples.

  3. Effects of antimicrobial coating and vacuum packaging to maintain quality of drunken shrimp during storage%壳聚糖涂层结合真空包装对醉虾贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕飞; 张碧娜; 丁玉庭

    2013-01-01

    为延长醉虾货架期,保持其贮藏品质,研究了真空包装(M1)、空气包装(M2)、1.5%壳聚糖涂膜处理+真空包装(M3)和1.5%壳聚糖涂膜处理+空气包装(M4)对4℃冷藏条件下贮藏醉虾品质的影响.测定了醉虾的菌落总数(TBC)、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、pH、质构和色差.样品的TBC、TVB-N和pH均随着贮藏时间的增加而增加,其中M3样品的值最小,M2样品的值最大,M1和M4样品的值差别不大.剪切力随着贮藏时间的延长呈现减少趋势,其中M3样品的值最高,M2样品的值最低.M3组色差值L*、a*、b*在贮藏期间最稳定.综上,1.5%壳聚糖涂层结合真空包装(M3)对延长虾体的货架期具有一定的增强作用.%The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial coating made with chitosan combined with vacuum packaging on maintaining the quality of drunken shrimp during storage,and total bacterial counts (TBC),total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N),pH,texture and color were monitored. Samples were packaged with four methods,namely,vacuum packaging(M1),air packaging(M2),1.5% chitosan coating with vacuum packaging(M3) and 1.5% chitosan with air packaging(M4). With the extension of storage time, the values of TBC,TVB-N and pH of all treated samples increased,and these values of M3 were the lowest, those of M2 were the highest,and there was no significant difference between W1 and W4. Shear force of all samples decreased during storage,and that of M3 was highest,M2 was the lowest. Treatment of M3 showed the best efficiency on maintaining the color values of L*,a* and b*. Therefore,it could be concluded that 1.5% chitosan coating combined with vacuum packaging (M3) displayed more efficiency on maintaining the quality of drunken shrimps during storage.

  4. Qualidade pós-colheita de cerejas cv. Ambrunés utilizando coberturas comestíveis Post harvest quality of cherry cv. Ambrunés using edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Duarte Carvalho Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a qualidade de cerejas cv. Ambrunés ("picotas", cobertas com películas comestíveis à base de zeína e cera de carnaúba, aplicadas na forma de imersão e pulverização, e armazenadas em ambiente controlado a 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa de 90 - 95 %. Os parâmetros usados para avaliar a qualidade dos frutos foram: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, perda de peso, relação SST/ATT e deterioração fúngica. Os frutos foram avaliados até o 52º dia de conservação. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba mostrou-se superior em todos os parâmetros, quando comparados com os frutos-testemunha e os cobertos com zeína. A cobertura à base de zeína provocou a aceleração da maturação dos frutos e apresentou deterioração fúngica a partir do 24º dia de armazenamento. Foi observado que a forma de comercialização das cerejas sem o pedúnculo ("picotas" representa maior possibilidade de contaminação fúngica através da área lesionada. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba aplicada na forma de imersão retardou a podridão até o 45º dia de conservação, apresentando-se como o melhor tratamento.The objective of this study was evaluate the quality of cherries cv Ambrunés (cherries perforated covered with edible coatings based on zeina and carnaúba wax emulsion, appliied in the form of immersion and pulverization and storage in controlled environment with temperature 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC and humidity 90 - 95 %. The parameters used to evaluate the quality of the fruits were: soluble solid, titratable acidity, loss of weight, soluble solid relation / titratable total acidity and fungal deterioration. The fruits were evaluated until the 52nd day of conservation. The treatment that used the emulsion carnaúba wax was superior in all of the parameters when compared with the control fruits and the fruits coatings with zeina. The coating based on zeína provoked an acceleration

  5. Surfaces, Coatings and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. F.

    1982-08-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramics, sputter ion plating, and sol-gel ceramic protective coatings for nuclear reactors are discussed. The influence of such coatings on the behavior of reactor fuel elements is noted. The investigation of such coatings by diffraction methods is described. Laser and nuclear microprobes, scanning transmission electron microscopes, neutron scattering, and image analysis are summarized.

  6. Commercial Fastener Coatings Doerken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Phosphating* *partly recommended Dip Spinning Dipping Spraying Spin coating Conveyor oven box oven Inductive drying Pretreatment Coating Preheating...Curing Cooling Application Techniques - Dip Spin Coating Gurtbnd Cross BarTranspo" Band beiCifteiE Vo12one Vent llated Pre .Zone Cros~ Bar T ransrt

  7. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  8. Hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Univ. of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.

    2000-03-01

    This article reviews the development of hard coatings from a titanium nitride film through superlattice coatings to nanocomposite coatings. Significant attention is devoted to hard and superhard single layer nanocomposite coatings. A strong correlation between the hardness and structure of nanocomposite coatings is discussed in detail. Trends in development of hard nanocomposite coatings are also outlined. (orig.)

  9. Microstructural studies of thermal spray coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin

    2002-01-01

    This project aims to address two major concerns with the use of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, i.e., HA] coatings; i.e., (i) the resorption of the coating, and (ii) the resorption of bone. The objective is to optimize coating design through microstructural studies of two coating systems: a HA coating and a HA/polymer composite coating. For the HA coating, the HA powders were atmospherically plasma sprayed (APS) using various process parameters. The phase, structure and microstructure of the coatings were investigated and the mechanical property and dissolution behavior measured. Both crystallinity and hydroxyl contents decreased with increasing spray power and stand-off distance (SOD), and increased from the coating interface to surface. Impurity phase contents increased with increasing spray power. Crystallinity alone cannot reflect coating quality due to the existence of various HA, i.e., unmelted, recrystallized and dehydroxylated, and the gradient structure. Coating microstructure varied from a porous structure to a smooth glassy structure or a typical lamellar structure, and some newly formed nanocrystalline regions were revealed. These effects were associated with the temperature-time experiences of particles, their cooling rates and the heat and hydroxyl accumulation during coating buildup. Different coating properties and performance resulted from the characteristic differences. The coating with highest recrystallization displayed the highest microhardness. Dissolution of all coatings reached a saturation value much lower compared to their pulverized counterparts in a fresh solution despite a higher and similar dissolution in the initial immersion stage. The coating with higher recrystallization exhibited higher saturation value. Microstructural analysis indicated the complete and preferential dissolution of amorphous and impurity phases and some precipitation of apatite observable for coatings with higher recrystallization. For the composite coating, HA

  10. Effect of holding buffy coats before platelet preparation on the quality of platelet concentrates%白膜放置时间对制备手工浓缩血小板质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤君; 蒋秋容; 王泽蓉; 王世春; 张红; 陈敏; 贾睿平; 赵树铭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of platelet concentrates (PCs) prepared from buffy coats held for different time periods. Methods Buffy coats (BCs) ( n = 80) were prepared from 400 mL whole blood ( WB) units within 6 h of collection. Every 5 BCs were pooled and then each pool were divided into three equal bags. One bag was taken to prepare PCs immediately (0 h group) ,and the other two bags of BCs were agitated in platelet incubator, and agitated for 4 h (4 h group) ,and 16 h (16 h group) at 22℃ before PC preparation. The in vitro quality of platelets was investigated. Results Platelet, RBC counts showed little difference between these groups. In comparison to 0 h and 4 h groups, the decrease of WBC counts in the 16 h group was significant. Free hemoglobin increased as the agitation time extended. Conclusion The agitation time of BCs may affect the quality of platelet concentrates.%目的 评价金血当天分离的白膜(BC)在不同时间分离制备的浓缩血小板(PC)的质量,为手工制备PC 提供参考.方法 将80袋400 mL全血于采集6h内分离出BC,将5袋同血型BC由无菌接驳机对接合并成1袋(1个治疗量)后,再均分在3个血小板保存袋内,1袋即刻(Oh组)轻离心分离制备PC,另2袋在22℃血小板保存箱分别振摇4 h(4 h组)和16 h(16 h组)后再分离PC.对所有标本留样进行血小板质量检测,包括Plt、血小板回收率、CD62P、聚集率、RBC混入量、WBC混入量、FHb含量.结果 3组PC制剂RBC混入量、Plt、血小板回收率、CD62P、聚集率差异无统计学意义;WBC混入量:0 h(6.76±1.29)和4h组变化不明显,16 h(3.78±0.45)组降低明显(P <0.05);FHb含量:随BC处理时间延长有增高趋势,16 h(65.62土11.11)与0 h(33.45±6.95)比差异具统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 随BC放置时间延长对制备PC制剂的质量有一定影响.

  11. Qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'fuyu' com utilização de diferentes concentrações de cobertura comestível Postharvest quality of 'fuyu' persimmon using different concentrations of edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carvalho da Silva

    2011-02-01

    environmental contamination, in order to improve the visual aspect. Therefore, it is possible to increase shelf life, and decrease post harvest losses. Persimmon is a much appreciated fruit, with high potential for export, but sensitive to handling and storage. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying the edible coating Megh Wax ECF-124 (18% of active composts, consisting of emulsion of carnauba wax, anionic surfactant, preservative and water produced by Megh Industry and Commerce Ltda in three different concentrations (25, 50 and 100% on post harvest quality of 'Fuyu' persimmon stored for 14 days. The attributes evaluated for quality were: firmness, pH, acidity, soluble solids, weight loss and color. The results showed that application of carnauba wax in different concentrations was effective on decreasing weight loss of persimmon cv. Fuyu and maintenance of color aspects. Treatment at lower concentration, 25%, showed lower rate of discharge, but high concentrations showed lower values of mass loss. Carnauba wax application showed a high potential for use on postharvest conservation, and can be applied together with other technologies, helping to maintain quality for export.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coating on pretreated CoNiCrMo prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; A. Dorner-Reisel

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the bio-active coating on medical grade CoNiCrMo substrate, hydroxyapatite(HA) coatings were produced via low-temperature dip-coating route on substrates treated using various surface pre-treating methods. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of HA coatings were observed by SEM, as well as the bonding strength between coatings and substrates after different pre-treatments were characterized according to ASTM C633. The low-temperature HA dip-coating method with the substrate merely oxidized at 600℃ can provide a high quality HA coating for CoNiCrMo, of which the bonding strength reaches (58±5)MPa, higher than that of the clinically used HA coatings on Ti-alloys produced via plasma spray route, as well as a HA coating with full crystallinity and high phase-purity, which is more in-vivo stable than plasma sprayed HA coating.

  13. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  14. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  15. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  16. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars......, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing the emission...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...

  17. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  18. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  19. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  20. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  1. Process optimization of a novel immediate release film coating system using QbD principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2013-06-01

    This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a design of experiment protocol. The optimized process parameters were then confirmed by independent coating trials. Disintegration time of coated tablets was not affected by the coating process conditions used in this study, while tablet appearance, as determined by measurement of tablet color, coating defects and gloss was determined to be a CQA. Tablet gloss increased when low spray rate and low percent solids were used, as well as with increased coating pan speed. The study used QbD principles and experimental design models to provide a basis to identify ranges of coating process conditions which afford acceptable product quality. High productivity, color uniformity, and very low defect levels were obtained with Opadry 200 even when using a broad range of coating process conditions.

  2. Fabrication of nanogradient coatings for laser devices using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, N F; Volpyan, O D; Obod, Yu A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dronskii, R V [' Fotron-Auto' Scientific Manufacture Enterprise, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-30

    Significant advantages of the magnetron sputtering method for producing complex high-quality optical coatings for laser devices are shown. Technology aspects of efficient fabrication of such coatings are considered. The capabilities of the developed automated technological and control equipment are described. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  3. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  4. Mitigation of Corrosion in 5 Series Al-Mg Alloys in Marine Environments: Grain Boundary Engineering and Cold Spray Coating Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    effect of particle size on coating quality. These coatings were further tested using microhardness to show coating densification and coating adhesion...with the nitric acid metal loss test (NAMLT). The second approach was the deposition of AA5083 and pure zinc coatings to protect the underlying...AA5083 substrate. Coatings were characterized qualitatively with scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively with hardness and adhesion testing

  5. Electrospark deposition coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.

    1986-11-01

    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  6. Advanced Multifunctional Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    and UV durability of then current chrome free TT-P-2756 SPTC • Leverage APC technology into SPTC • Coating uses same fluoropolyurethane technology...as APC currently used on C-17 • Leverage recent advances in chrome free corrosion inhibitor technology • State of the art chrome free corrosion...coat exposed metal Aluminum Base Metal Original Finish System Aged APC Topcoat Conversion Coat Chromic Acid Anodize Aluminum Cladding Original Primer

  7. The application of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings on lift roller in float glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Oxide ceramic was sprayed via high-energy plasma spray using MCrAlY manufactured with special technique as bond coating and oxide ceramic as top coating in this article. Investigation showed that the dense and highly adhesive coating could be obtained with optimized technique. After grinding and polishing, coating roughness was lower than 0. 2μm, which could meet the requirements of lift roller. After one year serv ice, molten Tin could not adhere to the ceramic coating,well it greatly alleviated its corrosion to the roller , kept the surface of oxide ceramic coating smooth and the improve the quality of glass due to the strengthened lift roll.

  8. 浅谈路面透层、粘层施工工艺%Brief Discussion on Construction Technology of Prime Coat and Tack Coat in Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金涛

    2012-01-01

    Material quality requirement, construction technology, quality management and acceptance re- quirement of prime coat and tack coat in pavement are introduced.%介绍了路面透层及粘层的材料质量要求、施工工艺、质量管理和验收要求。

  9. Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

    1988-10-01

    Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to

  10. INNOVATIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asamatdinov Marat Orynbaevich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of monuments of architecture is a sphere of activity which places particularly high demands on technical specialists and experts. It is necessary, depending on the objectives of restoration and finishing of a monument of architecture and its damages and defects, to select appropriate technologies and materials. Mineral substances as fillers, and inorganic (mineral colouring pigments, along with liquid potassium glass form an ultrastrong combination of materials. It gives to paints made of these mineral substances, an extremely high weather resistance and durability.The functional concept of silicate paints is the ability to silicify with other mineral construction materials. Silicate paints are the only colouring system which enters into chemical compound with the base due to the liquid potassium silicate properties. Also, bonds between quartzitic elements in its fillers are formed. As a result, it provides yet greater wear resistance and resistance to chalking. In ICA MGSU bachelors-technologists are given the "Facade Materials in the Modern Architecture of Buildings” course, in which special attention is paid to decorative coatings of various types; also, scientific research for improvement of paintwork material application technologies is performed. Cooperation of the higher school entities with technical assistance centres of construction firms makes it possible to enhance the quality of training and competence of graduates, as well as create favorable conditions for development of modern domestic technologies including those in the sphere of execution of architectural facades using innovative systems.

  11. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  12. Oxide coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  13. Superhard Nanocomposite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The recent development in the field of nanocomposite coatings with good mechanical properties is critically reviewed in this paper. The design principle and materials selection for the nanocomposite coatings are introduced. Different methods for the preparation of superhard nanocomposite coatings are described with emphasis on the magnetron sputtering. Based on recent theoretical and experimental results regarding the appearance of superhardness in nanocomposite coating, lattice parameter changes, crystallite size, microstructure and morphology are reviewed in detail. Also emphasized are the mechanical properties (especially on hardness) and the ways by which the properties are derived.

  14. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  15. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  16. American Shipbuilding Quality Standards. Volume 3. Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    difficult to remove, use a hard brush. IV. Surface Preparation Standards No. Item Explanation 26 Solvent Cleaning Surface cleanliness is to be in accordance...accepted method for repair of immersion service substrates. To determine surface cleanliness , refer to the SSPC-VIS 3 photographic standard. To determine

  17. Study on Technology and Properties of Brush Plating Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Ping

    2004-01-01

    A new brush plating process with a soluble anode of nickel was introduced. TDY112 brush plating solution was used on the No.20 carbon steel substrate. It has the higher deposit velocity, better properties and lower cost. Scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), optical microscope, microhardness test and wear test were adopted to detect the surface quality and the properties of the coating, such as micrograph, microstructure, micro-hardness wear resistance and adherence between the coating and the substrate. The experimental results showed that the suitable technological parameters to be used, the coatings had better the surface quality, higher hardness and wear resistance.

  18. A combined histology and transcriptome analysis unravels novel questions on Medicago truncatula seed coat

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Jerome; Dessaint, Fabrice; Schneider, Charles; Abirached-Darmency, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The seed coat is involved in the determination of seed quality traits such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Understanding seed coat structure is therefore a prerequisite to deciphering the genetic mechanisms that govern seed coat functions. By combining histological and transcriptomic data analyses, cellular and molecular events occurring during Medicago truncatula seed coat development were dissected in order to relate structure to function and pinp...

  19. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Tapioka Dan Sorbitol Sebagai Zat Pemlastis Dalam Pembuatan Edible Coating Pada Penyimpanan Buah Melon.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Luthfi Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Coating a fruit with edible coating is used to delay the quality decrease because edible coating can be used as a barrier, for the diffusion of oxygen, carbondioxside and water vapor as well as vapor and flavor component. The aim of this research was to find the best tapioca concentration and sorbitol concentration as the plasticizer in the making of edible coating for melon storage. The research had been performed using factorial completely randomized design with two factors, i.e.: tapioca c...

  20. 咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜对脐橙果实采后品质的影响%Effect of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂青玉

    2012-01-01

    以脐橙为试材,果实采后以1%的壳寡糖为涂膜剂,分别与质量分数为0.01%,0.05%,0.10%浓度的咪鲜胺(有效成份450 g/L水乳剂)组合,浸泡处理后置于18~25℃,75%~85%RH环境中贮藏,比较与不涂膜处理及仅用1%的壳寡糖处理对脐橙贮藏品质、采后生理的影响.结果表明:不同浓度的咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜均能降低果实的失重率、腐烂率;延缓果实可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、还原性抗坏血酸含量的下降;抑制呼吸强度、丙二醛含量、相对电导率的上升;有效保持贮藏脐橙果实的感官品质、风味品质、营养品质,延长果实的贮藏期.其中,0.05%咪鲜胺与1%壳寡糖复合涂膜处理果实的各项品质、生理指标优于其它处理组,为有效延长脐橙果实贮藏时间的最经济、安全组合浓度.%Postharvest Citrus sinensis Osbeck has been stored after being soaked in 18 - 25 ℃ , 75% -85% RH environment,by the treatment of 1. 0% of Oligochitosan Combined with 0. 01 %, 0. 05% and 0. 1 % of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) respectively. The effects of 1 % Oligochitosan treatment and uncoating treatment on the postharvest physiology and storage quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck have been compared. The result illustrates that all kinds of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex coating could reduce rate of weight loss and decay, delay the decline of soluble solids, titratable acidity and the content of ascorbic acid in fruits, inhibit the increase of the respiration rate, MDA content and relative electrical conductivity, maintain effectively the sensory, flavor, nutritional quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck stored, and extend the storage period of Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Furthermore, the most economical and secure combination is 0.05% of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) and 1% of Oligochitosan, which can make all kinds of the quality, physiological indexes

  1. Qualidade pós-colheita de tomates 'Débora' com utilização de diferentes coberturas comestíveis e temperaturas de armazenamento Quality of 'Debora' tomato using different edible coatings and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chiumarelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas comestíveis sobre a qualidade pós-colheita do tomate de mesa cv. Débora. Foram utilizadas as seguintes coberturas: cera de carnaúba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsão de resinas Fruit Wax M-AC (18% e cera de carnaúba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomates sem cera serviram de controle. Foram utilizados 40 frutos por tratamento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após a limpeza e aplicação das ceras, os frutos foram armazenados a 12,5°C e 25°C e 90% de umidade relativa. Análises para perda de massa fresca (%, coloração e qualidade foram realizadas durante quinze dias. No final do período de armazenagem, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à firmeza, pH, concentração de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C e acidez. Foi realizada também análise sensorial para frutos armazenados nas duas diferentes temperaturas. O tratamento com Megh Wax ECF-124 proporcionou menor perda de massa e frutos mais firmes em ambas as temperaturas. Tomates tratados com Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 apresentaram maior porcentagem de frutos apropriados ao consumo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto à coloração e análises químicas, exceto para os frutos cobertos com Fruit Wax M-AC, que apresentaram menor teor de vitamina C em ambas as temperaturas e maior pH a 25°C. As ceras Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 não interferiram no sabor e no odor dos frutos. A aplicação de cera contribui para uma diminuição na perda de massa e decréscimo no número de frutos descartados devido a danos físicos e podridões, sendo que Megh Wax ECF-124 é mais eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de tomates de mesa.This study aimed at evaluating the effect of edible coatings on tomato cv. Debora post-harvest quality. The following waxing emulsions were used: wax of carnauba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsion of resins Fruit Wax M-AC (18% and wax of carnauba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomatoes without

  2. Protective metal matrix coating with nanocomponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Galevsky, S. G.; Efimova, K. A.

    2016-09-01

    Experience of nanocrystalline chromium, titanium, silicon carbides and borides components application as nickel, zinc, chromium based electrodeposited composite coating is generalized. Electrodepositing conditions are determined. Structure and physicochemical properties of coatings, namely micro-hardness, adhesion to steel base, inherent stresses, heat resistance, corrosion currents, en-during quality, and their change during isothermal annealing are studied. As is shown, nanocomponents act as metal matrix modifier. Technological and economic feasibility study to evaluate expediency of replacing high priced nano-diamonds with nanocrystalline borides and carbides is undertaken.

  3. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically...... invisible polymer coatings....

  4. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  5. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  6. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  7. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with tun

  8. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  9. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  10. Nanostructured Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    stresses induce strain fatigue with subsequent formation of cracks. Cracking in coatings leads to materials failure observed physically as spallation or...elevated temperatures. In this test a hole is drilled into the substrate before coating it. This allows a fixed amount of air to be trapped at the

  11. Studies on copper coating on carbon fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The weak interface bonding of metal matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is the central problem of fabricating such composites. Depositing copper coating on carbon fibers is regarded as a feasible method to solve the problem. In this paper, copper coating has been deposited on the fibers through both electroless deposition and electroplating methods. Two kinds of complexing agents and two stabilizing agents are taken during the electroless plating process. The solution is stable, and little extraneous component is absorbed on the surface. After adding additive agents and increasing the concentration of H2SO4 to the acid cupric sulfate electrolyte, the "black core" during usual electroplating process is avoided. The quality of copper coating is analyzed using SEM and XRD, etc.

  12. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  13. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  14. Improved atomic force microscopy cantilever performance by partial reflective coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Schumacher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical beam deflection systems are widely used in cantilever based atomic force microscopy (AFM. Most commercial cantilevers have a reflective metal coating on the detector side to increase the reflectivity in order to achieve a high signal on the photodiode. Although the reflective coating is usually much thinner than the cantilever, it can still significantly contribute to the damping of the cantilever, leading to a lower mechanical quality factor (Q-factor. In dynamic mode operation in high vacuum, a cantilever with a high Q-factor is desired in order to achieve a lower minimal detectable force. The reflective coating can also increase the low-frequency force noise. In contact mode and force spectroscopy, a cantilever with minimal low-frequency force noise is desirable. We present a study on cantilevers with a partial reflective coating on the detector side. For this study, soft (≈0.01 N/m and stiff (≈28 N/m rectangular cantilevers were used with a custom partial coating at the tip end of the cantilever. The Q-factor, the detection and the force noise of fully coated, partially coated and uncoated cantilevers are compared and force distance curves are shown. Our results show an improvement in low-frequency force noise and increased Q-factor for the partially coated cantilevers compared to fully coated ones while maintaining the same reflectivity, therefore making it possible to combine the best of both worlds.

  15. Coating of long span bridges; Chotaikyo no toso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanishi, H. [Nippon Paint Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-15

    A composite anti-corrosion coating method (zinc rich primer + epoxy resin primer + polyurethane resin primer) was used for the Seto Ohashi Bridge. The anti-corrosion coating system in the Akashi Ohashi Bridge is the same as described above. This paper mainly describes the coating in a Honshu-Shikoku linking bridge. In the coating system, product blasting is used as rough coating. In the whole process, coating is basically performed at the factory. The anti-corrosion against a friction junction plane and splice plate is also carried out. For example, a rustproof bolt is used in the easy-to-corrode part. Coating is performed to obtain a thick film of more than 200 {mu}m. The edge of a member is rounded. The zinc dust in a zinc rich primer performs sacrifice anti-corrosion. The outside-air isolation film uses an epoxy resin primer that is excellent in water resistance and chemical resistance. This film improves the anti-corrosion effect by isolating the moisture or corrosive substance that permeates through the coated film from the outside air. If the weather resistance of the fluoroethylene resin primer used instead of a polyurethane resin primer has final coating quality as expected, the maintenance cycle in an offshore bridge can be more extended than the current cycle of about 10 to 15 years. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  17. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of hydrophobic, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to decelerate frost propagation was investigated. Compared to a bare aluminum surface, the coatings do not significantly reduce the freezing probability of supercooled water drops. On both surfaces, the probability for ice nucleation...... at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...

  18. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  19. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  20. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  1. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  2. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  3. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc - nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is...effect of a non-chromate primer and zinc - nickel plating with non-chromate passivation as alternatives to the chromate primer and cadmium plating with...NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 COATED 4340 STEEL by E. U. Lee C. Lei M. Stanley B. Pregger C. Matzdorf 26 August 2013

  4. High-Thermal Conductive Coating Used on Metal Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 梁剧; 刘业明

    2014-01-01

    Based on modified silicon polyester resin in addition to several functional fillers such as corro-sion-resistant fillers, heat-resistant fillers and thermal conductive fillers, a high thermal conductive coating can be made. On the basis of boronnitride (BN) and aluminum nitride (AIN) used as thermal conductive fillers and by means of the testing system of hot disk and heat transfer experiment, researches on the varieties of thermal conduc-tive fillers and the effects of the contents of high-thermal conductive coating have been done, which shows that the thermal conductivity of coating increases with the increase of the quality fraction and the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the thermal conductive fillers of coating. With guaranteeing better heat resistance, stronger corro-sion resistance and adhesive force, the coefficient of coating can reach a level as high as 3 W·m-1·K-1.

  5. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  6. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  7. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  8. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  9. STUDY ON COATING MECHANISM OF DIAMOND FILM ON CUTTING TOOL AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The deposition mechanism of diamond film on cutting tools and the state of the interface between film and substrate are studied theoretically and experimentally. Methods for controlling diamond crystalline state and improving adhesion of diamond films to substrates are proposed to improve the quality of diamond-coated tools.Experiments are performed by cutting Al-Sil8% alloy and SiCp/Al composite with diamond coated tool. The results indicate that the life of coated tools is 90 times higher than that of non-coated tools. Wear mechanism of diamond-coated tools is also studied.

  10. Bioceramic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2003-11-02

    During the past century, man-made materials and devices have been developed to the point at which they have been used successfully to replace and/or restore function to diseased or damaged tissues. In the field of orthopaedics, the use of metal implants has significantly improved the quality of life for countless individuals. Critical factors for implant success include proper design, material selection, and biocompatibility. While early research focused on the understanding biomechanical properties of the metal device, recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has lead to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first calcium phosphate coatings where produced via vapor phase routes but more recently, there has been the emergence of solution based and biomimetic methods. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings have the promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coated on Stainless Steel Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu XiaoGang; Dai GuiMei; Huang JiaJing

    2009-01-01

    @@ With characteristics of specific selectivity,good chemical stability and easy preparation,molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been used as the recognition materials m various fields ~([1,2]).Recently,the application of MIP in the sample pre-treatment techniques such as SPME was attractive ~([3,4]).For analysis of complicated samples,the interference matrix would be reduced obviously with the MIP-coated SPME fiber~([5-7]).Because MIPs were coated on the surface of silica fiber through chemical bonding,those fibers could be used for over 80 times without obvious losing of surface quality and extraction performance of MIP coatings.

  12. Effect of Coated PHB on Properties of Abradable Seal Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xudong; XIANG Hongyu; YE Weiping; MENG Xiaoming; MIN Jie; LIU Minzhi; ZHANG Pu; LU Wei

    2014-01-01

    As pore-forming materials, the coated poly-p-hydroxybenzoate(short for PHB) and h-BN can be applied in the preparation of abradable seal coatings at high temperature. The characteristics of coating such as morphology, thermal stability and composition were studied by SEM, EDS and FTIR. The results show that the modified PHB will change the remained carbon amount, porosity and pore morphology of the coating, which can affect the properties of coatings. If the pore is small enough in uniform distribution, the coating with 5 MPa bond strength, 30-55 HR45Y superficial hardness and certain of carbon can be suitable to well abradability.

  13. Influence of sample composition and processing parameters on the UV cure of clear coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, C. S. B.; Machado, L. D. B.; Volponi, J. E.; Pino, E. S.

    2003-08-01

    Photocurable systems consist of functional macromolecules, which undergo polymerization and a photoinduced crosslinking reaction under UV irradiation. Radiation-curable coatings have gained importance because they are environmentally friendly and save more energy than conventional heat-curable processes. The performance of UV-curable coatings depends on their formulation and cure quality. The quality of UV radiation cure depends on lamp characteristics, photoinitiator (PI) content, film thickness, curing environment, substrate and temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of coating thickness and UV radiation dose, as well as coating characteristics such as PI content and stabilizer additive composition, on the curing process.

  14. [Observation of the ultrastructure of the tongue coating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the fine structure of the tongue coating, which is one of the main causes of halitosis. Tongue specimens from cadavers, whom dental students had practiced on for anatomy class, were used as materials to observe the surface structure. Tongue coatings were obtained from patients who were referred to the Fresh Breath Clinic, Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. After macroscopic observation of the tongue surface, tongue coating and examination of halitosis, the tongue coating was scraped carefully, following which it was observed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results obtained were as follows. The tongue coating consisted mainly of bacteria and desquamated keratinized epithelium which originated chiefly from the filiform papilla. The desquamated keratinized epithelium was also composed of degenerated epithelium of every level, from a comparatively normal epithelium to a fragmented altered epithelium. In addition, the level of degeneration of the keratinized epithelium differed according to the state of distribution and the revitalization of bacteria located in its surroundings. The intensity of halitosis increased with the amount of tongue coating. Increased amounts of tongue coating, however, did not necessarily correlate with increased halitosis in the patients. It was suggested that the severity of halitosis was probably associated with the level of bacterial invasion-related degeneration of the desquamated keratinized epithelium (tongue coating's quality).

  15. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  16. Coating of titanium implants with boron nitride by RF-magnetron sputtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEREN GÖKMENOGLU; NURDAN ÖZMERIÇ; GAYE ÇAKAL; NIHAN DÖKMETAS; CANSU ERGENE; BILGIN KAFTANOGLU

    2016-09-01

    Surface modification is necessary for titanium implants since it is unable to induce bone apposition. The beneficial effects of boron on bone formation, composition and physical properties make it suitable as a coating material. In the present study, surface properties of boron nitride (BN) coating on titanium implants were evaluated. Twenty-four implants and 12 abutments were coated with BN by RF-magnetron sputtering system. ATR–FTIR measurements were conducted to assess surface chemistry and morphology of BN-coated implants. Adhesion tests were performed by CSM nanoscratch test device to determine adhesion of BN to titanium surface. Surface profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate surface roughness.Mean roughness values were calculated. Contact angle measurements were done for evaluation of wettability. Surface characterization of coated implants was repeated after RF power of the system was increased and voltage values were changed to evaluate if these settings have an impact on coating quality. Three different voltage values were used for this purpose. Hexagonal-BN was determined in FTIR spectra. RF-coating technique provided adequate adherence of BN coatings to the titanium surface. A uniform BN coating layer was formed on the titanium implants with no deformation on the titanium surface. Similar roughness values were maintained after BN coating procedure. Before coating, the contact angles of the implants were in between 63$^{\\circ}$ and 79$^{\\circ}$, whereas BN coated implants’ contact angles ranged between 46$^{\\circ}$ and 67$^{\\circ}$. BN-coated implant surfaces still have hydrophilic characteristics. The change in voltage values seemed to affect the surface coating characteristics. Especially, the phase of the BN coating was different when different voltages were used. According to our results, BN coating can be sufficiently performed on pretreated implant surfaces and the characteristicsof BN coated surfaces can be

  17. Alternative RPC Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Jason

    2009-10-01

    The nuclear physics group at the University of Illinois is currently developing techniques to further improve the performance of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) for use as muon trigger detectors in experiments at hadron colliders. Muon trigger RPCs at LHC and RHIC typically use Bakelite plates coated with linseed oil. Both Bakelite and linseed oil, however, have high bulk and surface resistivity thus limiting the detection efficiency of the RPC at high rates. Experiments which dope the linseed oil with either carbon or copper are carried out with the goal to select targeted lower surface resistivity values for the coating applied to the Bakelite plates. Two doping procedures have been studied. In the first method a thin layer of graphite is deposited between the Bakelite and the linseed oil. For the second method the graphite or copper powder are deposited on top of the drying linseed oil coating. In this presentation the coating methods will be discussed and the effects of the coating on the RPC position resolution, cluster size and efficiencies will be discussed.

  18. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  19. Based Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2014-08-01

    A promising Ni(Al)-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 self-lubricating wear-resistant coating was deposited via atmospheric plasma spray of Ni(Al), nano Cr2O3, nano silver and nano WS2 powders, and CNTs. Feedstock powders with various compositions prepared by spray drying were plasma sprayed onto carbon steel substrates. The tribological properties of coatings were tested by a high temperature tribometer in a dry environment from room temperature to 400 °C, and in a natural humid environment at room temperature. It was found that all nanocomposite coatings have better frictional behavior compared with pure Ni(Al) and Ni(Al)-Cr2O3 coatings; the specimen containing aproximately 7 vol.% Ag, CNT, and WS2 had the best frictional performance. The average room temperature friction coefficient of this coating was 0.36 in humid atmosphere, 0.32 in dry atmosphere, and about 0.3 at high temperature.

  20. Crystallization Process of Heat-treated Amorphous Ni-P Alloy Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Shi-wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Ni-P alloy coatings were prepared on 45 carbon steel blocks using electrodeposition method. The thermal effect and quality change of Ni-P alloy coating under heating rate of 20℃/min were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry (TG. Coatings were heat-treated at 300℃ and 400℃ for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75min respectively, coating surface was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, microhardness tester. The result shows that the exothermic peak of Ni-P alloy coating appears at 284.8℃, coating quality and elemental composition are stable during the heat treatment. Crystallization process experiences a transformation of amorphous, metastable state NiP and Ni5P2, stable state Ni3P. The microhardness of coating can be improved remarkably after heat treatment, namely, the maximum value of heat-treated coating is 1036.56HV, which is nearly 2 times as hard as as-deposited coating. The corrosion resistance of heat-treated Ni-P alloy coating in NaCl solution is inferior to as-deposited coating, but they are both much better than 45 carbon steel substrate.

  1. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used for these des......We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...

  2. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Z Nadim; E Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating techn...

  3. Thin Film Coating Optimization For HIE-ISOLDE SRF Cavities: Coating Parameters Study and Film Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Sublet, A; Calatroni, S; Costa Pinto, P; Jecklin, N; Prunet, S; Sapountzis, A; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Vollenberg, W

    2013-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN requires the production of 32 superconducting Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs) in order to increase the energy of the beam up to 10 MeV/u. The cavities, of complex cylindrical geometry (0.3m diameter and 0.8m height), are made of copper and are coated with a thin superconducting layer of niobium. In the present phase of the project the aim is to obtain a niobium film, using the DC bias diode sputtering technique, providing adequate high quality factor of the cavities and to ensure reproducibility for the future series production. After an overview of the explored coating parameters (hardware and process), the resulting film characteristics, thickness profile along the cavity, structure and morphology and Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the Nb film will be shown. The effect of the sputtering gas process pressure and configuration of the coating setup will be highlighted.

  4. Incorporação de uréia encapsulada em suplementos protéicos fornecidos para novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Incorporation of coated urea in protein supplements supplied to steers fed with low quality hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da suplementação com uréia encapsulada ou normal sobre a utilização de volumoso de baixa qualidade em novilhos. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia comum; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 1; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62%, FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de digestibilidade, consumo e cinética digestiva. A relação entre o consumo de proteína degradável no rúmen e o consumo de matéria orgânica digestível foi maior (P0,05, ao comparar suplementados ou não suplementados com PDR, e da mesma forma ao comparar fontes de nitrogênio não-protéico. A suplementação de proteína degradável no rúmen não foi efetiva em alterar os parâmetros estudados, assim como as fontes de uréia encapsulada mostraram respostas semelhantes à uréia comum.A trial was accomplished with the objective to verify the effect of the coated or common urea supplementation on the utilization of low quality hay in steers. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62%, NDF: 83.46% was used. The measures were: digestibility, intake and digestive kinetics. The relation between degradable intake protein and digestible organic mater intake was highest (P0.05 when compared the supplemented or not supplemented diets with DIP and in the same way, when compared the non-protein nitrogen sources. The ruminal degradable protein supplementation was not effective for modifying the studied parameters, as well as, the coated urea sources showed to be similar to the common urea.

  5. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  6. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  7. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  8. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  9. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  10. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  11. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a pigmente

  12. Improving nanocrystalline diamond coatings for micro end mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Patrick J.

    A new method is presented for coating 300 mum diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills with diamond using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. This method has been developed to create uniform, conformal and continuous diamond coatings. Initial work is shown to prove the feasibility and concept of the project. This was the first work known to coat and evaluate the machining performance WC micro end mills. The performance of uncoated and coated micro end mills was evaluated by dry machining channels in 6061-T6 aluminum. The test results showed a 75% and 90% decrease in both cutting and trust forces for machining, respectfully. The coated tools produced a more predictable surface finish with no burring. These improved results are due to the superior tribological properties of diamond against aluminum. Initial results indicated severe problems with coating delamination causing complete tool failure. After proving the initial concept, new methods for optimizing the coating and improving performance were studied. Each optimization step is monitored through surface analysis techniques to monitor changes in coating morphology and diamond quality. Nucleation density was increased by improving the seed method, using ultra dispersed diamond (UDD) seed. The increase in nucleation density allowed the synthesis of coatings as thin as 60 nm. The adhesion of the coating to the tool was improved through carbon ion implantation (CII). CII is a different surface preparation technique that deactivates the effect of Co, while not weakening the tool. CII also creates a great nucleation layer which diamond can directly grow from, allowing the diamond coating to chemically bond to the substrate improving adhesion and eliminating the need for a seed layer. These thin coatings were shown to be of high quality sp3 trigonaly bonded diamond that resulted in lower machining forces with less delamination. The 90% reduction in machining forces that thin conformal

  13. Analysis of metal surfaces coated with europium-doped titanium dioxide by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głogocka, Daria; Noculak, Agnieszka; Pucińska, Joanna; Jopek, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina; Langner, Marek; Przybyło, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The surface passivation with titanium sol-gel coatings is a frequently used technique to control the adsorption of selected biological macromolecules and to reduce the exposure of the bulk material to biological matter. Due to the increasing number of new coating-preparation methods and new gel compositions with various types of additives, the quality and homogeneity determination of the surface covering is a critical factor affecting performance of any implanted material. While coating thickness is easy to determine, the homogeneity of the surface distribution of coating materials requires more elaborate methodologies. In the paper, the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based method, capable to quantitate the homogeneity and uniformity of the europium in titanium dioxide sol-gel coatings on stainless steel surfaces prepared with two different procedures: spin-coating and dip-coating, is presented. The emission intensity of titanium has been used to determine the coating thickness whereas the relative values of europium and titanium emission intensities provide data on the coating homogeneity. The obtained results show that the spin-coating technique provides better surface coverage with titanium dioxide. However, when the surface coating compositions were compared the dip-coating technique was more reliable.

  14. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in machining Al–11%Si alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahoo; A K Chattopadhyay; A B Chattopadhyay

    2002-11-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit CVD diamond coating on conventional carbide tool using hot filament CVD process. ISO grade K10 turning inserts with SPGN 120308 geometry were used to deposit diamond coating. This diamond coating well covering the rake surface, cutting edges and flank surfaces could be successfully deposited. The coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy for coating quality, morphology etc. Performance of diamond coated tool relative to that of uncoated carbide tool was evaluated in turning Al–11%Si alloy under dry environment. The diamond coated tool outperformed the uncoated carbide tool which severely suffered from sizeable built-up edge formation leading not only to escalation of cutting forces but also poorer surface finish. In contrast, the diamond coated tool, owing to chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any trace of edge built-up even in dry environment and could maintain low level of cutting forces and remarkably improved surface finish. It has been further revealed that success of the diamond coated tool depends primarily on adhesion of the diamond coating with the carbide substrate and this is strongly influenced by the pre-treatment of the carbide substrate surface before coating.

  15. In-line monitoring of pellet coating thickness growth by means of visual imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman Kadunc, Nika; Sibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Likar, Boštjan; Tomaževič, Dejan

    2014-08-15

    Coating thickness is the most important attribute of coated pharmaceutical pellets as it directly affects release profiles and stability of the drug. Quality control of the coating process of pharmaceutical pellets is thus of utmost importance for assuring the desired end product characteristics. A visual imaging technique is presented and examined as a process analytic technology (PAT) tool for noninvasive continuous in-line and real time monitoring of coating thickness of pharmaceutical pellets during the coating process. Images of pellets were acquired during the coating process through an observation window of a Wurster coating apparatus. Image analysis methods were developed for fast and accurate determination of pellets' coating thickness during a coating process. The accuracy of the results for pellet coating thickness growth obtained in real time was evaluated through comparison with an off-line reference method and a good agreement was found. Information about the inter-pellet coating uniformity was gained from further statistical analysis of the measured pellet size distributions. Accuracy and performance analysis of the proposed method showed that visual imaging is feasible as a PAT tool for in-line and real time monitoring of the coating process of pharmaceutical pellets.

  16. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  17. ADHESION OF BIOCOMPATIBLE TiNb COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kolegar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of a coating with a high quality requires good adhesion of the film to the substrate. The paper deals with the adhesion of biocompatible TiNb coating with different base materials. Several materials such as titanium CP grade 2, titanium alloys Ti6Al4V and stainless steel AISI 316L were measured. Testing samples were made in the shape of small discs. Those samples were coated with a TiNb layer by using the PVD method (magnetron sputtering. Onto the measured layer of TiNb an assistant cylinder was stuck using a high strength epoxy adhesive E1100S. The sample with the assistant cylinder was fixed into a special fixture and the whole assembly underwent pull-off testing for adhesion. The main result of this experiment was determining the strength needed to peel the layer and morphology and size of the breakaway. As a result, we will be able to determine the best base material and conditions where the coating will be remain intact with the base material.

  18. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  19. Optical coatings for fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Dong-mei; ZHU Zhen; YUE Wei

    2005-01-01

    Fiber laser is the future development direction for the high energy lasers. This paper describs two kinds of optical coatings for fiber laser, including long and short wave pass filters. The one characteristic of fiber laser coatings lies in that coatings should separate two closely wavelength light including laser pump wavelength (980 nm) and laser irradiation wavelength(1 050~1 100 nm). At the same time, the coatings should have high laser damage threshold.

  20. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Quality of Fresh-cut Pumpkin(Cucurbita Moschata) during Storage%壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 杨绍兰; 吴昊; 张宏斌; 王成荣

    2012-01-01

    Fresh "MiBen" pumpkins were subjected to coating with chitosan at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%)and subsequent storage at 4 ℃ in order to examine the fresh-keeping effect of chitosan coating on fresh-cut pumpkin. During the storage, changes in polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, ethylene production, weight loss rate, firmness and the activity of PAL and POD of fresh-cut pumpkin were measured. Results showed that chitosan coating could delay the reductions of firmness, polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, and also could delay the increase of ethylene production, obviously enhance PAL and POD activities, reduce weight loss rate, and substantially extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pumpkin, especially at a concentration of 1.0%.%以新鲜的“蜜本”南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)为试验材料,探讨不同质量分数(0.5%、1.0%、1.5%)壳聚糖涂膜液处理对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响.结果表明:采用壳聚糖涂膜液处理,不同程度地延缓了鲜切南瓜乙烯释放量的增加和硬度的下降,阻止了多糖和类胡萝卜素的减少,抑制了POD、PAL酶活性的下降和总酚含量的降低.其中以质量分数为1.0%壳聚糖涂膜液处理的效果最好,有效地保持了鲜切南瓜贮藏期间的品质.

  1. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-01-01

    Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic) materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1) Anti-reflection coatings, 2) Hard coatings, 3) Clean coat, 4) Mirror coatings, 5) Color tint coating (one of coloring processes), 6) Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes), and 7) Anti-fog...

  2. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  3. 涂膜和热处理对葡萄能量和贮藏生理及品质的影响%Effects of coating and heat treatments on energy levels and physiological indexes and qualities of grape fruits during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 周文化; 谭欢; 杨明之; 刘细霞

    2016-01-01

    energy synthesis. Changes of energy levels in grape fruit tissues during storage have not been reported. Effects of energy level on physiological quality of grape fruit tissues after coating and heat treatment with Ca2+ are not clear. In this paper, the effects of coating and heat treatments with Ca2+ on post-harvest energy levels and physiological deterioration of “Victoria” grape fruit during cold storage were explored through determining energy levels and physiological indices. Coating and heat treatments with Ca2+ were applied to post-harvest grape fruits (compared with untreated grape fruits, i.e. the CK treatment). Grape fruits after coating and heat treatments with Ca2+were stored at (4±0.5)℃. Respiratory rate, browning index, decay rate, hardness, contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), energy charge (EC), and enzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), lipoxygenase (LOX) and soperoxide dismutase (SOD) of grape fruits were tested every 10 days. Results showed that with the extension of storage time, energy levels were in a loss state for grape fruit tissue under the CK. Respiratory rate decreased, but cell membrane oxidation and permeability increased. Browning index and decay rate increased, and enzyme activities of POD, PPO and LOX increased too, but enzyme activities of SOD were decreased. Physiological qualities of grape fruits decreased, and fruits were softened. Calcium combined with heat and coating treatment reduced the loss of grape fruits by rotting during storage. In addition, treatment of heat and coating with Ca2+ could maintain higher energy status, energy charge, hardness and enzyme activities of SOD to keep qualities of grape fruit, delay grape fruit softening, inhibit respiratory intensity and accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation, slow down growth of cell membrane permeability, decrease MDA content, inhibit enzyme activities

  4. Rotatable fixture for spray coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvala, V.; Porter, E.; Smith, M.

    1979-01-01

    Fixture that rotates about two axes ensures uniform coating and minimizes handling of coated workpiece. Each side of tile is coated in sequence by moving turntables until surface is perpendicular to spray. Process is repeated until desired thickness has built up.

  5. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  6. Chitin-based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A chitosan starting material is combined with a dilute organic acid to produce a chitosonium ion complex. The chitosonium ion complex is then cast, sprayed, extruded, or otherwise processed to produce filaments, coatings, fibers, or the like. Heat is then used to convert the chitosonium ion complex into a N-(C.sub.1-30)acyl glucose amine polymer.

  7. Metallography of Aluminide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Aero-Space Technologies Australia, Systems Division Librarian Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited...Fink, R, W. Heakel. " Analysis of Microstructural Change due to Cyclic Oxidation in Aluminilde-coated NI-Al. NI-Cr and NI-Cr-Al Alloys". High Temperature

  8. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in ...

  9. Characterization of osseointegrative phosphatidylserine and cholesterol orthopaedic implant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, William Paul, III

    Total joint arthroplasties are one of the most successful surgeries available today for improving patients' quality of life. Increasing demand is driven largely by an ageing population and an increased occurrence of obesity. Current patient options have significant shortcomings. Nearly a third of patients require a revision surgery before the implant is 15 years old, and those who have revision surgeries are at an increased risk of requiring additional reoperations. A recent implant technology that has shown to be effective at improving bone to implant integration is the use of phosphatidylserine (DOPS) coatings. These coatings are challenging to analyze and measure due to their highly dynamic, soft, rough, thick, and optically diffractive properties. Previous work had difficulty investigating pertinent parameters for these coating's development due in large part to a lack of available analytical techniques and a dearth of understanding of the micro- and nano-structural configuration of the coatings. This work addresses the lack of techniques available for use with DOPS coatings through the development of original methods of measurement, including the use of scanning white light interferometry and nanoindentation. These techniques were then applied for the characterization of DOPS coatings and the study of effects from several factors: 1. influence of adding calcium and cholesterol to the coatings, 2. effects of composition and roughness on aqueous contact angles, and 3. impact of ageing and storage environment on the coatings. Using these newly developed, highly repeatable quantitative analysis methods, this study sheds light on the microstructural configuration of the DOPS coatings and elucidates previously unexplained phenomena of the coatings. Cholesterol was found to supersaturate in the coatings at high concentration and phase separate into an anhydrous crystalline form, while lower concentrations were found to significantly harden the coatings. Morphological

  10. Use of Coatings on Hydraulic Steel Structures: Part 2-Supplemental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    are typically applied to structures, are typically regulated at the state level and may have different VOC limits. In some situations, high- solvent ... Industrial maintenance coatings have a federal limit of 450 g/l, but state and local air-quality dis- tricts may have more stringent regulations than the...and coating materials. The handbook contains information on the composition of coat- ings, their mechanisms of curing, environmental and safety

  11. Development of Exterior Anti-corrosion Coating Production Line for Large Diameter Hot Bent Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoRuyi; ZhangYing

    2004-01-01

    The epoxy powder exterior anti-corrosion coating production line for bent pipes with a single (double) course production is a technologically advanced bent pipe anti-corrosion method with cost efficiency, environment friendliness and stable coating quality. The quality of the coating on the bent pipe fully meets the requirements of the current national and industrial standards. The application of the technology has filled the gap in the bent pipe anti-corrosion coating area of China, and leads the world technologically. With this technology the coating quality of the bent pipe has greatly improved, resulting in significant social and economic benefits. With the use of the technology in various large scale pipeline projects such as the “West to East Gas Pipeline Project”, it will exhibite a greater potential in the future pipeline projects with a broad application prospect.

  12. Explanation of the Wear Behaviour of NCD Coated Carbide Tools Facilitated by Appropriate Methods for Assessing the Coating Adhesion Deterioration at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-D. Bouzakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the temperature dependent interface fatigue strength of Nano-Crystalline Diamond (NCD coatings facilitates a thorough understanding of the NCD coated cutting tools wear mechanisms. In the present paper, the fatigue strength of the interface region between a NCD film and its hardmetal substrate was investigated by inclined impact tests at various temperatures. Depending upon the impact load and the applied temperature, after a certain number of impacts, damages in the film-substrate interface develop, resulting in coating detachment and lifting. These effects were attributed among others to the release of highly compressive residual stresses in the NCD coating structure. The attained inclined impact test’s results contributed to the explanation of the wear-evolution of NCD-coated tools with diverse film-substrate adhesion qualities. The related milling experiments using as work material AA 7075 T6 verified the dominant effect of the film adhesion on the NCD coated tool life.

  13. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.

    1989-01-01

    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  14. Infrared optical coatings in SITP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ding-quan; ZHANG Feng-shan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared optical coatings in SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics) mainly cover the spectrum range from 0.7 μm to 15 μm, and visible and near-UV range are also been included. The coatings are mainly used for metal-reflectance mirrors, Anti-reflection(AR) lens and windows, filters, and dichroic beam splitters. Coatings passed some dependability tests. These optical coated devices usually consist in a remote observing instrument. Most coating materials are commercial products. And one kind of special material PbTe is made by ourselves. Some main results of our research department are reported.

  15. Coatings for improved corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-05-01

    Several coating approaches are being developed to resist attack in coal-fired environments and thereby minimize corrosion of underlying substrate alloys and extend the time for onset of breakaway corrosion. In general, coating systems can be classified as either diffusion or overlay type, which are distinguished principally by the method of deposition and the structure of the resultant coating-substrate bond. The coating techniques examined are pack cementation, electrospark deposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spray, and ion implantation. In addition, ceramic coatings are used in some applications.

  16. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.

    1989-01-01

    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  17. Laser fabrication nanocrystalline coatings using simultaneous powders/wire feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Zhai, Tongguang; Zhang, Yuanbin; Shan, Feihu; Liu, Peng; Ren, Guocheng

    2016-07-01

    Laser melting deposition (LMD) fabrication is used to investigate feasibilty of simultaneously feeding TC17 wire and the Stellite 20-Si3N4-TiC-Sb mixed powders in order to increase the utilization ratio of materials and also quality of LMD composite coatings on the TA1 substrate. SEM images indicated that such LMD coating with metallurgical joint to substrate was formed free of the obvious defects. Lots of the ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) were produced, which distributed uniformly in some coating matrix location, retarding growth of the ceramics in a certain extent; UNs were intertwined with amorphous, leading the yarn-shape materials to be produced. Compared with substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was achieved for such LMD coating.

  18. Edible coatings as encapsulating matrices for bioactive compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós-Sauceda, Ana Elena; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-09-01

    Edible coatings can extend the shelf-life of many foods, controlling moisture and solute migration, gas exchange and oxidative reaction rates. Besides, edible coatings can be used as carriers of bioactive compounds to improve the quality of food products such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, flavors and probiotics. These approaches can be useful to extend shelf-life as well as provide a functional product. When edible coatings are used as a matrix holding bioactive compounds remarkable benefits arise; off odors and flavors can be masked, bioactive compounds are protected from the environment, and controlled release is allowed. In this sense, the present review will be focused on analyzing the potential use of encapsulation with edible coatings to incorporate bioactive compounds, solving the disadvantages of direct application.

  19. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his `Adiabatic Diesel Engine` in the late 70`s. Kamo`s concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo`s work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as `convection vive.` Woschni`s work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components.

  20. Optical deterioration of coated wrapping paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Itrić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the dependence of storage conditions on the optical deterioration of coated wrapping paper. Three methods of common storage conditions were applied for a period of three years: preservation in the dark and dry place, storage in the common office conditions, and keeping in room conditions that enabled stronger influence of natural light and atmosphere pollutants. In order to examine optical modifications due to accelerated ageing, the same sample of paper was exposed to UV/VIS lamp radiation. Visible and IR spectroscopy were used for the characterization and comparison of paper degradation with the emphasis on the colour alterations as the crucial quality component. This research provides a solid basis for further development of non-invasive methods for investigating and predicting shelf life of coated wrapping paper.

  1. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  2. BIODEGRADABLE COATING FROM AGATHIS ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORYAWATI MULYONO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  3. 硫膜和树脂膜控释尿素对小麦产量、品质及氮素利用率的影响%Effects of sulfur-and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马富亮; 宋付朋; 高杨; 邹朋

    2012-01-01

    通过田间试验,研究了硫膜和树脂膜控释尿素对小麦产量、品质和耕层土壤无机氮含量及氮素利用率的影响.结果表明:与普通尿素相比,硫膜和树脂膜控释尿素均能显著提高小麦籽粒产量和品质,增产幅度达10.4%~16.5%,小麦籽粒蛋白质和淀粉含量分别提高5.8%~18.9%和0.3%~1.4%;两种控释肥均能有效保持耕层土壤无机氮含量,且其氮素后移的功效满足了小麦生育后期对氮素的需求;有效提高了氮肥偏生产力,降低了土壤氮素依存率(降幅11.0% ~17.3%),提高了氮素利用率(增幅58.2%~101.2%).其中,树脂膜控释尿素比硫膜控释尿素表现出更好的增产效应,实现了氮素的高效利用.%A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4% -16. 5% , and the grain protein and starch contents by 5. 8% -18. 9% and 0. 3% -1. 4% , respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58. 2% —101. 2% . Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea.

  4. Effects of compound coating antistaling agent of Sophora gum and Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum treatment on storage quality of Chinese bayberry%槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂对杨梅贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永利; 叶文斌; 郭守军; 潘显辉; 何敏如; 黄小妹

    2011-01-01

    The effects of compound coating antistaling agent of polysaccharide treatment on storage quality of Chinese bayberry at 28~32℃ and 68%~86% relative humidity of room were investigated. The antistaling agent was composed of Sophora gum and Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum for the coating matrix, glycerin and sorbic acid as film- forming additives. The results showed that compared with the control group at room temperature,the rotten fruit rate and cracking fruit rate and weightloss rates of the Chinese bayberry preserved by the compound coating antistaling agent of edible polysaccharide were lowed obviously,inhibited the respiration rate and the content of total Vc and organic acids and other nutrients were maintained,and the MDA,anthocyanin content and the increase of relative conductivity effectively reduced. So that PPO, POD, PAL enzyme activity at a relatively low level,and the senescence process is restrained during storage and the shelf life was extended. In this study the compound coating antistaling agent of Sophora gum with xanthan gum treatment for Chinese bayberry storage effect was superiored Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum.%以槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶为涂膜基质,以山梨酸、甘油为成膜助剂,配制成复合涂膜保鲜剂,研究了常温(28~32℃,相对湿度68%~86%)下该复合涂膜保鲜剂对杨梅贮藏品质变化的影响.结果表明:常温下经槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂涂膜贮藏的杨梅与对照组相比,果实裂果率、霉烂率、失重率明显降低,抑制了果实的呼吸率;有机酸、Vc等营养成分转化、流失的速度减慢,有效地降低MDA、花青素含量和相对电导率的升高,使PPO、POD、PAL酶活性处于较低的水平,延缓了果实的衰老,从而延长了其货架期.综合考虑,槐豆胶与黄原胶涂膜保鲜剂的效果优于猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂.

  5. 75 FR 10761 - Certain Coated Paper from Indonesia: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...: Corporate and Spatial Distribution of Forest Resources in Indonesia; Implications of Forest Sustainability... International Trade Administration C-560-824 Certain Coated Paper from Indonesia: Preliminary Affirmative...- quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper or CCP) in Indonesia. For information...

  6. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  7. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  8. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  9. Wear behavior of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed Zr-based metallic glass composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugeswaran, S., E-mail: yugeswaran@gmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kobayashi, A., E-mail: kobayasi@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Suresh, K., E-mail: ksureshphy@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Rao, K.P., E-mail: mekprao@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com [CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zr-based metallic glass composite coatings are prepared by gas tunnel plasma torch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing plasma current increases crystallinity amount and hardness of coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating produced at 300 A plasma current gives minimum sliding wear rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating produced at higher plasma current gives lower erosive wear rate. - Abstract: Gas tunnel type plasma spraying is a prospective method to produce metallic glass composite coatings with high quality due to its noteworthy feature of process controllability. In this study, Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5} metallic glass composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimum spraying conditions with selected plasma currents. The formation mechanism, sliding, and erosive wear behaviors of the coatings with respect to plasma current was examined. The phase and thermal analyses as well as microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings produced at different plasma currents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. The sliding and erosive wear behaviors of the coatings were studied using a pin-on-disc and a specially designed erosive wear tester, respectively. The results showed that an increase in plasma current increased the crystalline content in the metallic glass composite coatings, which enhanced the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings.

  10. Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, G M; Saulson, P R; Penn, S D; Startin, W J; Kittelberger, S E; Crooks, D R M; Hough, J; Cagnoli, G; Nakagawa, N; Rowan, S; Fejer, M M; Harry, Gregory M.; Gretarsson, Andri M.; Saulson, Peter R.; Penn, Steven D.; Startin, William J.; Kittelberger, Scott; Hough, Jim; Cagnoli, Gianpietro; Nakagawa, Norio; Rowan, Sheila; Fejer, Martin M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on thermal noise from the internal friction of dielectric coatings made from alternating layers of Ta2O5 and SiO2 deposited on fused silica substrates. We present calculations of the thermal noise in gravitational wave interferometers due to optical coatings, when the material properties of the coating are different from those of the substrate and the mechanical loss angle in the coating is anisotropic. The loss angle in the coatings for strains parallel to the substrate surface was determined from ringdown experiments. We measured the mechanical quality factor of three fused silica samples with coatings deposited on them. The loss angle of the coating material for strains parallel to the coated surface was found to be (4.2 +- 0.3)*10^(-4) for coatings deposited on commercially polished slides and (1.0 +- 0.3)*10^{-4} for a coating deposited on a superpolished disk. Using these numbers, we estimate the effect of coatings on thermal noise in the initial LIGO and advanced LIGO interferometers. We also...

  11. Design of optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, Claus W.

    1990-08-01

    A highly sophisticated antireflection coating and a cut-on-filter - designed by the Leitz program "RDP" - will be pointed out. The program runs on a VAX 8530 and allows to calculate reflectance, transmittance and phase of randomly polarized light which interacts with marginal surfaces. The number of layers is not limited. Some or even all layers are allowed to be anistropic. Up to four layers may be inhomogeneous both in refractive indices and absorption constants. At a time two thicknesses, two refractive indices and absorption constants as well as the angles of incidence may be varied independently in each run. The calculated values will be compared with the results of measurements. The antireflection coating is evaporated in a Balzers high vacuum evaporation plant, controlled by the process unit BPU 420, whereas the cut-on filter is evaporated in a Leybold box coater with Leycom III and two electron-beam guns.

  12. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  13. Permeability of edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B; Khatkar, B S; Garg, M K; Wilson, L A

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m(2).day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m(2).day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm(3)cm cm(-2)s(-1)Pa(-1), with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrophilic (whey protein concentrate and carboxymethyl cellulose).

  14. Permeability of edible coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B Mishra; Khatkar, B. S.; Garg, M. K.; Wilson, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m2.day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m2.day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm3cm cm−2s−1Pa−1, with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrop...

  15. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  16. Selected Properties Of Thermally Sprayed Oxide Ceramic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupryński A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on exploitation properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings produced by oxide ceramic material in the form of powder on the aluminum oxide Al2O3 matrix with 3% titanium oxide TiO2 addition and also on the zirconium oxide (ZrO2 matrix with 30% calcium oxide (CaO on the substrate of unalloyed structural steel of S235JR grade. As a primer powder, metallic powder on the base of Ni-Al-Mo has been applied. Plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and also front surfaces of ∅40×50 mm cylinders have been flame sprayed. Spraying of primer coating has been done using RotoTec 80 torch and external specific coating has been done with CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Investigations of coating properties are based on metallography tests, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, coating adhesion to the ground research (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard, abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard and erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard and thermal stroke study. Performed tests have shown that the flame spraying with 97%Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 and also by the powder based on zirconium oxide (ZrO2 containing 30% calcium oxide (CaO performed in a wide range of technological parameters allow to obtain high quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 μm on a steel substrate. The primer coating sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coatings sprayed has the of mechanical bonding character. The coatings are characterized by high adhesion to the substrate and also high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance for cyclic thermal stroke.

  17. Self-Cleaning Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    vacuum suction flask was used to volatilize the extra thinner from the mixtures. 2.1.2.2 Procedures Removal of filler from PSX-700 The original PSX...employed in this research to activate and ensure proper dispersions of these functional particles into the coating system. It is anticipated that...clear part (the resin and solvent) of the tubes was poured into a vacuum flask, while the precipitate (filler) from the bottom of the tubes was

  18. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  19. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke

    2015-02-01

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50-200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10-50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs.

  20. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50–200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10–50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs.

  1. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  2. Decoding white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-03-16

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the "white coat" condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure.

  3. Innovation in the Process of Thermal Spraying Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczucka-Lasota B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hybrid method connects the ultrasonic spraying method with a injector of complex cooling micro-jet system is presented. The use of properly constructed injector allows for local and selective cooling of the coating structure immediately after spraying process. The construction of injector is the subject of patent in Polen. The presented new technology gives practical possibility of control of coatings structure. This is the kind of positive feedback between the technology process and obtained product (the quality of the process increases the quality of the final product. The initial experimental investigations, presented in this paper, show, that the obtained coatings structure is: fine-dispersion of the grain, with a lower porosity, good compactness and adhesion to the substrate.

  4. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余

    2002-01-01

    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  5. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  6. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-16

    TGA data for magnesium hydroxide content. TGA analysis of the as-coated powders is a reproducible and accurate method for the determination of... TGA analysis of the as-coated powder, there is approximately 3wt% magnesium hydroxide present in the material due to the process variation compared...11: Magnesium hydroxide content as measured by TGA analysis for the 1-lb batches of as-coated ground powder Figure 12: Nitrometer analysis of

  7. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcello Gelfi; Luigi Solazzi; Sandro Poli

    2017-01-01

    This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process...

  8. Thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings using multifrequency eddy current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dejun; Yu, Yating; Lai, Chao; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-07-01

    To ensure the key structural performance in high-temperature and high-stress environments, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often adopted in engineering. The thickness of these multi-layer conductive coatings is an important quality indicator. In order to measure the thickness of multi-layer conductive coatings, a new measurement approach is presented using eddy current testing techniques, and then, an inversion algorithm is proposed and proved efficient and applicable, of which the maximum experimental relative error is within 10%. Therefore, the new approach can be effectively applied to thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings such as TBCs.

  9. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    2015-12-29

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  10. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  11. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...

  12. Effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera coating on postharvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera coating on postharvest quality ... Data were recorded on weight loss, pH and total soluble solids (TSS) among others. ... soluble solids concentration and pH were also maintained for longer periods ...

  13. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  14. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  15. Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Berndt, C C; Gross, K A; Kucuk, A

    2001-01-01

    The clinical use of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants has aroused as many controversies as interests over the last decade. Although faster and stronger fixation and more bone growth have been revealed, the performance of HA-coated implants has been doubted. This article will initially address the fundamentals of the material selection, design, and processing of the HA coating and show how the coating microstructure and properties can be a good predictor of the expected behavior in the body. Further discussion will clarify the major concerns with the clinical use of HA coatings and introduce a comprehensive review concerning the outcomes experienced with respect to clinical practice over the past 5 years. A reflection on the results indicates that HA coatings can promote earlier and stronger fixation but exhibit a durability that can be related to the coating quality. Specific relationships between coating quality and clinical performance are being established as characterization methods disclose more information about the coating.

  16. Terahertz pulsed imaging as an advanced characterisation tool for film coatings--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Miriam; Gordon, Keith C; Strachan, Clare J; Rades, Thomas

    2013-12-05

    Solid dosage forms are the pharmaceutical drug delivery systems of choice for oral drug delivery. These solid dosage forms are often coated to modify the physico-chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular to alter release kinetics. Since the product performance of coated dosage forms is a function of their critical coating attributes, including coating thickness, uniformity, and density, more advanced quality control techniques than weight gain are required. A recently introduced non-destructive method to quantitatively characterise coating quality is terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). The ability of terahertz radiation to penetrate many pharmaceutical materials enables structural features of coated solid dosage forms to be probed at depth, which is not readily achievable with other established imaging techniques, e.g. near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy. In this review TPI is introduced and various applications of the technique in pharmaceutical coating analysis are discussed. These include evaluation of coating thickness, uniformity, surface morphology, density, defects and buried structures as well as correlation between TPI measurements and drug release performance, coating process monitoring and scale up. Furthermore, challenges and limitations of the technique are discussed.

  17. Investigations of Protective Coatings for Castings of High-manganese Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When cast steel castings are made in moulding sands on matrices of high-silica sand, which has a low fire resistance the problem of theso-called chemical penetration is distinctly visible. Whereas this effect appears to a small degree only when moulding sand matrices are of chromite, zircon or olivine sands. Therefore in case of making castings of high-manganese cast steel (e.g. Hadfield steel sands not containing free silica should be applied (e.g. olivine sand or in case of a high-silica matrix protective coatings for moulds and cores should be used. Two protective coatings, magnesite alcoholic (marked as coating 1 and coating 2 originated from different producers and intended for moulds for castings of the Hadfield steel, were selected for investigations. Examinations of the basic properties were performed for these coatings: viscosity, thermal analysis, sedimentation properties, wear resistance. In order to estimate the effectiveness of protective coatings the experimental castings were prepared. When applying coating 1, the surface quality of the casting was worse and traces of interaction between the casting material (cast steel and the coating were seen. When protective coating 2 was used none interactions were seen and the surface quality was better.

  18. Functional Coatings with Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    König, Meike

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this work is to fathom different possibilities to create functional coatings with polymer brushes. The immobilization of nanoparticles and enzymes is investigated, as well as the affection of their properties by the stimuli-responsiveness of the brushes. Another aspect is the coating of 3D-nanostructures by polymer brushes and the investigation of the resulting functional properties of the hybrid material. The polymer brush coatings are characterized by a variety of microscopic a...

  19. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Modeling of particles orientation in magnetic field in drying magnetic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potanin, Andrei A.; Reynolds, George; J. Hirko, Ronald

    2000-03-01

    Filament coating is studied as a model of magnetic tape manufacturing. Freshly coated filament is driven through a solenoid magnet which orients particles. After drying the coated filament, its squareness is measured as a function of the magnet position, field and the filament speed during coating. Production and model mixes are tested, which differ in dispersion quality and drying rate. A mean-field model is used to describe orientation of particles in the coating. The model fits experiments with two parameters: particles mobility and a mean-field interaction coefficient. Well dispersed kneaded mix has higher mobility and weaker interactions than non-kneaded mixes. The model well agrees with the data for squareness decay with magnet separation from the mix deposition point, thereby providing a theoretical tool for finding proper magnet position on the production coating lines.

  2. Influence of pH value on chromate-free conversion coating for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Wen-ping; CHEN Qi; ZHANG Hui; ZHONG Hao; YAN Yun-qi

    2006-01-01

    Many factors were found to have effects on the conversion coatings for AZ31 alloy, alloy the most important one in producing high quality conversion coatings is found to be the control of the pH value. The influence of pH value on the conversion coating including color, thickness, adhesion and surface morphology was studied. The performance of conversion coating was examined by cross cut test, SEM method and salt immersion. The results show that the variation of pH value causes surface treatment process unstably. The conversion coating can obtain as pH value ranging from 3.0 to 5.0, while it presents dark, thick and bad adhesion under lower pH value. The conversion coatings have good combination of thickness and adhesion when pH value ranging from 4.0 to 4.5, and it exhibits a good corrosion resistance.

  3. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  4. Studies on Nanocomposite Conducting Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite conducting coatings can impart stable surface electrical conductivity on the substrate. In this paper, carbon nanofiber (CNF and nanographite (NG are dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane matrix and coated on the surface of glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET film. The nanoparticles dispersion was studied under TEM. The coating thicknesses were estimated. Further, their resistance and impedance were measured. It has been observed that the 5 wt% CNF dispersed nanocomposite coatings show good conductivity. The use of NG can bring down the amount of CNF; however, NG alone has failed to show significant improvement in conductivity. The nanocomposite coating on PET film using 2.5 wt% of both CNF and NG gives frequency-independent impedance which indicates conducting network formation by the nanoparticles. The study was carried out at different test distances on nanocomposite coated PET films to observe the linearity and continuity of the conducting network, and the result shows reasonable linearity in impedance over total test length (from 0.5 cm to 4.5 cm. The impedance of nanocomposite coatings on glass is not frequency independent and also not following linear increase path with distance. This indicates that the dispersion uniformity is not maintained in the coating solution when it was coated on glass.

  5. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  6. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  7. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  8. Formation of Silicide Coating layer on U-Mo Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Min; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Kyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    High-density U-Mo alloys are regarded as promising candidates for advanced research reactor fuel as they have shown stable irradiation performance when compared to other uranium alloys and compounds. However, interaction layer formation between the U-Mo alloys and Al matrix degrades the irradiation performance of U-Mo Dispersion fuel. Therefore, the addition of Ti in U-Mo alloys, the addition of Si in a Al matrix, and silicide or nitride coating on the surface of U-Mo particles have been proposed to inhibit the interaction layer growth. In this study, U-Mo alloy powder was produced using a centrifugal atomization method. In addition, silicide coating layers were fabricated by several mixing process changes on the surface of the U-Mo particles. The coated powders were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Decreased annealing duration did not affect the forming of silicide coating layers on the surface of U-7wt%Mo powders. The variation in the mixing ratio between U-7wt%Mo and Si powders had an effect on the quality of silicide coating on the U-7wt%Mo powders. The weight of Si powders should be smaller than that of U-7wt%Mo powders for better silicide coating when it comes to the mixing ratio.

  9. Semifluorinated Alkylphosphonic Acids Form High-Quality Self-Assembled Monolayers on Ag-Coated Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide Tapes and Enable Filamentization of the Tapes by Microcontact Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Soon; Lee, Han Ju; Lee, Dahye; Jamison, Andrew C; Galstyan, Eduard; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda; Freyhardt, Herbert C; Jacobson, Allan J; Lee, T Randall

    2016-08-30

    A custom-designed semifluorinated phosphonic acid, (9,9,10,10,11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14,15,15,16,16,16-heptadecafluorohexadecyl)phosphonic acid (F8H8PA), and a normal hexadecylphosphonic acid (H16PA) were synthesized and used to generate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on commercially available yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) tapes. In this study, we wished to evaluate the effectiveness of these monolayer films as coatings for selectively etching YBCO. Initial films formed by solution deposition and manual stamping using a non-patterned polydimethylsiloxane stamp allowed for a comparison of the film-formation characteristics. The resulting monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). To prepare line-patterned (filamentized) YBCO tapes, standard microcontact printing (μ-CP) procedures were used. The stamped patterns on the YBCO tapes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after etching to confirm the effectiveness of the patterning process on the YBCO surface and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to obtain the atomic composition of the exposed interface.

  10. Suplementação nitrogenada com ureia comum ou encapsulada sobre parâmetros ruminais de novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Nitrogen supplement with common or coated urea on ruminal parameters of steers fed with low quality hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de suplementação com novilhos fistulados no rúmen com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de ureia encapsulada como fonte de nitrogênio de liberação mais lenta e uniforme ao longo do tempo, bem como seu efeito sobre a degradabilidade da parede celular do feno. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado (SM; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia comum (SU; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 1 (UE1; e Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 2 (UE2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62% e FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de pH e N-NH3 ruminais e parâmetros de degradação ruminal da FDN do volumoso. Verificou-se efeito (P0,05 da ureia comum. Os valores de pH e degradabilidade in situ não foram afetados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05, ao serem comparados os suplementados ou não suplementados com proteína degradável no rúmen e ao serem comparadas fontes de nitrogênio não proteico. A ureia encapsulada não demonstrou superioridade sobre a ureia comum, provavelmente pela baixa eficiência da sua proteção. A utilização de ureia encapsulada e a suplementação de proteína degradável não foram eficientes em aumentar a degradabilidade da parede celular do volumoso utilizado.A supplementation trial was accomplished with rumen fistulated steers with the objective of verifying the coated urea use as a source of nitrogen of slower and uniform release throughout the time, as well as its effect on cellular wall degradability. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. The forage used was Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62% and NDF: 83.46%. The measures were: ruminal pH and N-NH3, rumen degradability of NDF and ruminal degradation parameters

  11. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  12. Mold and Crucible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  13. Carbonaceous film coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Leon

    1989-01-01

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  14. Thermal Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    within 2 minutes for the No. 4. Sodiurn silicate was tested with alumnnunm hydroxide, nerlite, vermiculite and borax filler systems. None of the systems...1.27 cm) thick, 3/16 inch (0.48 cm) cell size, 5.5 lbs/ft 3 (88.1 kg/m 3 ) glass/phenolic honey - p comib set into the fire retardant maLerial. The sheets...COATING SPECIMEN PERCENT BY WEIGHT THICKNESS WEIGHT ANO. MATRIX FILLrR 1’fLS (CM) LBS/FT. (kg,’-), 26 50% Shell 828 Epoxy Resin Borax - 54 (.14) .39

  15. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    baseline including on- and off-axis effective area curves are presented. We find that the use of linear graded multilayers can increas by 37% the integraed effective area of ATHENA in the energy range between 0.1 keV and 15keV.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE......The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...

  16. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...panels • Third panel exhibited a single filament extending slightly beyond allowable tolerance Filiform Corrosion Resistance LTCPC on 2024 T-3 Clad ...LTCPC on 2024 T-3 Clad O G D E N A I R L O G I S T I C S C E N T E R BE AMERICA’S BEST JTP Results • LTCPC performance similar or better than wet

  17. Microstructure and micromechanical properties of electrodeposited Zn–Mo coatings on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierczak, Honorata, E-mail: h.kazimierczak@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Ozga, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Berent, Katarzyna [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland); Kot, Marcin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The conditions for electrodeposition of uniform and compact Zn–Mo coatings have been studied. • Zn–Mo coatings microstructure can be controlled by the molybdenum content. • Surface roughness can be controlled by the content of Mo in coatings. • The value of microhardness grows gradually with the increase of Mo content up to 3 wt.%. - Abstract: The aim of the work was to characterise the new coating material based on zinc with the addition of molybdenum, electrodeposited on steel substrate from nontoxic, citrate based electrolytes. The surface composition of deposits was ascertained by chemical analysis (WDXRF). The morphology of coatings was studied by SEM. The surface morphology and roughness of Zn–Mo coatings on steel was investigated by AFM. The microhardness and Young modulus were determined by indentation technique, whereas the coating adhesion to the substrate was examined by means of scratch test. The optimal ranges of electrodeposition parameters, enabling the preparation of good quality coatings (i.e. uniform, compact, with good adhesion to the substrate), was specified. The morphology of deposits depends significantly on the content of molybdenum and on the thickness of electrodeposited layer. The microhardness of Zn–Mo coating increases with the increase of molybdenum content up to 3 wt.% and then reaches about 3.5 GPa, which is almost five times that of the value of the microhardness of the Zn coating studied.

  18. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanfeng; Zhu, Jesse; Ma, Yingliang; Zhang, Hui

    2008-06-24

    Dry coating is a coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms derived from powder coating of metals. In this technology, powdered coating materials are directly coated onto solid dosage forms without using any solvent, and then heated and cured to form a coat. As a result, this technology can overcome such disadvantages caused by solvents in conventional liquid coating as serious air pollution, high time- and energy-consumption and expensive operation cost encountered by liquid coating. Several dry coating technologies, including plasticizer-dry-coating, electrostatic-dry-coating, heat-dry-coating and plasticizer-electrostatic-heat-dry-coating have been developed and extensively reported. This mini-review summarized the fundamental principles and coating processes of various dry coating technologies, and thoroughly analyzed their advantages and disadvantages as well as commercialization potentials.

  19. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  20. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G. [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica]|[INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce

    1996-09-01

    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  1. Surface coatings with soft rubber on large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnert, J.

    1987-03-01

    The paper first provides a review of polymers in use and distinguishes between factory and construction site quality. By means of a sample presentation, the effects of various components of mixtures and also the production of mixtures and of plates are briefly considered. Reference is made to the construction site specifically for the application of work to be carried out on the structure up to the acceptance tests on the completed rubber coatings. The second section deals with the kinds of stresses imposed on rubber coatings in general. A distinction is made between wear, corrosion and chemical attack. Examples describe these types of stresses under mechanical and thermal conditions.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN MACHINING HARDENED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Subramanyam,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the performance of coated tools in machining hardening steel under dry conditions. This paper involves of machining AISI 4340 hardened steel using coated carbide tools is studied using full factorial experiments. Many parameters influence the quality of the products in hard turning process. The objective of this study is on the effect of the cutting conditions such as cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut on the surface finish in machining AISI 4340 hardened steel. Machining of hardened steels has become an important manufacturing process, particularly in the automotive and bearing industries.

  3. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  4. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  5. Bright Prospects for Fluorine Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fluorine coatings are a category of new coatings with fluorine-containing resins as the major film forming substances.They have excellent weather resistance,solvent resistance, acid/alkali resistance, no toxicity and no hazards,and they contribute to film stability.

  6. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  7. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  8. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  9. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  10. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  11. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  12. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  13. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  14. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  15. THE PECULIARITIES OF PLASMA SPRAYING PROCESS WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL TREATING OF PLASMA COATING Особенности процесса плазменного напыления с электромеханической обработкой покрытий

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadyrmetov A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Some possible ways to control the quality of plasma coating are presented. An advanced method of plas-ma coating perfection is observed. It is characterized by combination of plasma spraying with simultaneous electromechanical treating of coating. The analysis of combined process factors is given. Besides, there are computer modeling results of process factors effects on coating quality parameters

  16. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Du, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Ji; Zhao, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC-Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 mixtures. Al0.6Cr0.4, Al0.6Cr0.3Si0.1, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiNx peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/MexN coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H3/E2 ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  17. Testing of Flame Sprayed Al2O3 Matrix Coatings Containing TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupryński A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3 matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2 applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard, erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard, and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.

  18. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    to steel substrates, and subjected to salt spray exposure and reverse impact testing. Neither of the tests revealed any drawbacks from addition of microcapsules to an epoxy coating in a concentration up to 50 vol %. On the contrary, the results of the impact test has shown that addition of microcapsules......Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... means of separation were investigated. Capsules with a mean diameter less than 150 µm were obtained using a steel sieve coated with a fluoropolymer coating. These smaller capsules were used in further investigation as model capsules. A range of microcapsule-containing coatings was formulated, applied...

  19. Dynamic residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiping; Yang Yuanyuan

    2005-01-01

    With the modified Almen method, the forming and development process of residual stress in a thermal sprayed coating has been obtained. The test results identify that the residual stress in a coating is depend on coating material properties, technique and coating thickness. The paper pays much attention to the hysteresis between the coating temperature and residual stress in the coating or between the applied stress and the strain of the coating, and confirms that the fact is resulted from the"Gas Fix" character of a thermal sprayed coating.

  20. Investigation of the Corrosion Behaviors of HVOF-Sprayed Carbide Cernet Coatings in Molten Al-Zn-Si Alloy Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhen-hua; TAN Xing-hai; ZHANG Yue-gang; SUN Jia-shu

    2004-01-01

    In continuous hot-dip galvanization process the corrosion and chemical stability of the sink roll in the galvanizing bath are important problem which effects on the quality and productivity. In order to protect the sink roll the carbide cermet and/or ceramic coatings were deposited on the surface of the sink roll. The WC-, Cr3 C2-cermet coatings were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray, respectively. The coating samples were immersed in molten Zn-alloy containing 50 wt % aluminum at 833 K for 24 hr and 144 hr, respectively. The inter-diffusion and inter-reaction of Zn, Al and elements in coating and corrosion behaviors of these coatings were investigated by XRD, SEM and EPMA etc. The corrosion mechanisms of the carbide cermet coatings and ceramic coatings in molten High Al-Zn-alloy were approached.

  1. PLASMA SPRAYED Ni-Al COATINGS FOR SAFE ENDING HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; OTTERSON,D.; BERNDT,C.C.

    1998-11-01

    the short standoff distance and is not a reflection of the normal quality of plasma sprayed coatings. Even if coating porosity could be reduced, the coupling of an alloy coating to a polymer-based barrier coating in the same electrolyte is not recommended. Therefore, polymer coatings that can be field applied to the tube ends after roller expansion should be sought.

  2. 不同pH值CMC涂膜对石榴果实采后生理指标及贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Different pH of CMC Coating on the Postharvest Physiological Index and Storage Quality of Pomegranate Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润光; 张有林; 田呈瑞; 赵蕾丹; 田玉婷

    2011-01-01

    以陕西临潼净皮甜石榴为试材,研究了不同pH值CMC涂膜对石榴果实采后生理指标及贮藏品质的影响。结果表明:石榴在(4.0±0.5)℃条件下贮藏,采用pH值5.0、0.5%CMC溶液涂膜,能有效保持石榴籽粒可溶性固形物含量、总糖含量和可滴定酸含量,减缓果皮相对电导率和褐变指数升高速率,降低果实呼吸速率和腐烂率,抑制果皮抗坏血酸氧化酶(AAO)和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,保持果皮过氧化物酶(POD)活性相对较高水平。贮藏120d果实外观色泽鲜艳,籽粒感官品质良好,保鲜效果理想。%Effects of different pH of CMC coating on postharvest physiological index and storage quality of Shaanxi Lintong sweet pomegranate fruit were studied. The results showed that pomegranate fruit stored at (4.0 ± 0.5) ℃ with treatment of pH 5.0, 0.5% CMC coating could maintain the soluble solids content, total sugar content and titratable acidity of arils effectively. It could also slow down the rise of the relative conductive rate and browning index of skin, reduce the fruit respiration intensity and rotten rate, inhibit the activities of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) and polypenoloxidase (PPO), keep peroxidase (POD) activity at a relative high level. After 120 days of storage, pomegranate fruit still had a good appearance. Its sensory quality was favorable and is idea for fresh-keeping.

  3. The effect of specifi c relationship between material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, parts and tools are increasingly made of composite materials. Realization of specifi c connection between basic material and coating is very important. The quality of coating on products, in terms of wear and resistance to destruction, has a large impact on productivity and reliability of production processes, in particular their life. In this paper, based on experimental investigations, the effect of specific relationship between the base material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product is analyzed.

  4. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    Molding Compound (SMC) compression molded parts, as an environmentally friendly approach to improve its surface quality and provide the required conductivity for electrostatic painting using carbon black (CB). Such process can also be applied to injection molding for creating a top conductive layer. Increasing the amount of CB will increase the surface conductivity of the coated part, thus improving the paint transfer efficiency. However the CB levels needed to achieve the conductivity levels required for achieving EMI shielding would make the coating viscosity too large for proper coating. Nanopaper based composites are excellent candidates for EMI shielding because of the nanopaper's high concentration of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (~2 wt% to 10 wt% depending on nanopaper/thermoplastic thickness and 71wt.% to 79wt.% in the nanopaper itself after resin infusion) and high conductivity of the nanopaper. Instead of premixing nanoparticles with IMC coating, nanopapers enable the use of low viscosity IMC without CB coating to impregnate the CNF network in order to reach high electrical conductivity and EMI shielding values. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. In line NIR quantification of film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets during a fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Seo, Da-Young; Lee, Hea-Eun; Wang, In-Chun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Choi, Guang J

    2011-01-17

    Along with the risk-based approach, process analytical technology (PAT) has emerged as one of the key elements to fully implement QbD (quality-by-design). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied as an in-line/on-line analytical tool in biomedical and chemical industries. In this study, the film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets was examined for quantification using in-line NIR spectroscopy during a fluid-bed coating process. A precise monitoring of coating thickness and its prediction with a suitable control strategy is crucial to the quality assurance of solid dosage forms including dissolution characteristics. Pellets of a test formulation were manufactured and coated in a fluid-bed by spraying a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating solution. NIR spectra were acquired via a fiber-optic probe during the coating process, followed by multivariate analysis utilizing partial least squares (PLS) calibration models. The actual coating thickness of pellets was measured by two separate methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser diffraction particle size analysis (LD-PSA). Both characterization methods gave superb correlation results, and all determination coefficient (R(2)) values exceeded 0.995. In addition, a prediction coating experiment for 70min demonstrated that the end-point can be accurately designated via NIR in-line monitoring with appropriate calibration models. In conclusion, our approach combining in-line NIR monitoring with CLSM and LD-PSA can be applied as an effective PAT tool for fluid-bed pellet coating processes.

  6. The study of quality and stability on pantoprazole sodium enteric -coated capsules%泮托拉唑钠肠溶胶囊的质量控制及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹美艳; 高蓉

    2016-01-01

    Objective An HPLC method was established for determination of the content of Pantoprazole Sodium Enteric -Coated Cap-sules and Its Related Substances,and study the stability .Methods The chromatographic separation was performed on Agilent C18 (250 nm ×4.6 nm,5 μm),Sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer(dissolved 1.20 g sodium dihydrogen phosphate in 1 000 mL water, and ajust pH 7.0 with phosphoric acid)—acetonitrile =68∶32,the flow rate was 1.0 mL・ min-1 ,the detection wavelength was 288 nm,and detective the related substances and the content .The acceleration test was carried out at temperature (40 ±2)℃,relative humidity of (75 ±5)%,and test the result.Results The linear of Pantoprazole Sodium of atorvastatin calcium was (1.0 ~10.0) × 10 -3 g・ L-1 ,the limits of detection was 0.20 ng,the limit of quantitation was 0.60 ng,the average recovery was 100.57%(RSD =0.41%),Determination of the sample average content was 100.67%,and the related substance was less than 0.2%.The result of sta-bility test that the content was 99.70% ~101.16%,the related substance was less than 0.2%.Coneclusion The method was quick, simple,stable,good repeatability,and it could be used as the content of pantoprazole sodium enteric -coated capsules and its related substances.The stability results conform to the requirement.%目的:建立泮托拉唑钠肠溶胶囊含量及有关物质的质量控制方法,并对上市品进行稳定性研究。方法以 Agilent C18柱(250 nm ×4.6 nm,5μm)为色谱柱,流动相为磷酸二氢钠缓冲(1.20 g 的磷酸二氢钠溶解于1000 mL 的水中,用磷酸调节pH 至7.0)—乙腈(68∶32),流速1 mL・ min-1,检测波长288 nm,对胶囊进行有关物质及含量的检测;采用加速试验,在温度(40±2)℃、相对湿度(75±5)%的条件下放置6个月,考察其稳定性。结果泮托拉唑钠在(1.0~10.0)×10-3 g・ L-1浓度范围内线性关系良好,检测限为0

  7. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life.

  8. Tropical Weather Resistant Galvanized Steel Coated and Uncoated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Corrales Xenia Isbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated galvanized steel products is determined by exposing them to accelerated and natural climatic test. Accelerated tests were carried out in climatic chambers and natural atmospheric test in a marine-coastal station (Cojimar. The influence of tropical humid climate on these products is determined. Adhesion is an important property for a good performance, from the decorative point of view or as an additional protection. The evaluation indicates that 95% of the galvanized steel products show a good corrosion resistance; although 71% of coated galvanized products and 100% of painted galvanized products do not cover the requirements with respect to the mechanical and corrosion protection aspects. For a good efficiency and economic performance of metal mechanical industry, a correct surface treatment and coating application is required. A key point is to increase the quality by improving a better corrosion protective performance respecting uncoated galvanized steel.

  9. Failure of multi-layer graphene coatings in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Feng; Stoot, Adam Carsten; Bøggild, Peter

    2016-01-01

    with thick, high-quality chemical vapor deposited multilayered graphene is exposed to acidic solutions, a dramatic evolution of gas is observed at the coating–substrate interface. The gas bubbles grow and merge, eventually rupturing and delaminating the coating. This behavior, attributed to cathodic hydrogen...... evolution, can also occur spontaneously on a range of other technologically important metals and alloys based on iron, zinc, aluminum and manganese; this makes these findings relevant for practical applications of graphene-based coatings.Being impermeable to all gases, graphene has been proposed...... is exposed to acidic solutions, a dramatic evolution of gas is observed at the coating–substrate interface. The gas bubbles grow and merge, eventually rupturing and delaminating the coating. This behavior, attributed to cathodic hydrogen evolution, can also occur spontaneously on a range of other...

  10. Replication of optical microlens arrays using photoresist coated molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Stubager, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    A cost reduced method of producing injection molding tools is reported and demonstrated for the fabrication of optical microlens arrays. A standard computer-numerical-control (CNC) milling machine was used to make a rough mold in steel. Surface treatment of the steel mold by spray coating...... the light engine. Polymer injection molded microlens arrays were produced from both the rough and coated molds and have been characterized for lenslet parameters, surface quality, light scattering, and acceptance angle. The surface roughness (Ra) is improved approximately by a factor of two after...... the coating process and the light scattering is reduced so that the molded microlens array can be used for the color mixing application. The measured accepted angle of the microlens array is 40° which is in agreement with simulations....

  11. Coating induced phase shift and impact on Euclid imaging performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Carminati, Lionel; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Bonino, Luciana; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Vavrek, Roland; Laureijs, René; Short, Alex; Boenke, Tobias; Strada, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    The challenging constraints imposed on the Euclid telescope imaging performances have driven the design, manufacturing and characterisation of the multi-layers coatings of the dichroic. Indeed it was found that the coatings layers thickness inhomogeneity will introduce a wavelength dependent phase-shift resulting in degradation of the image quality of the telescope. Such changes must be characterized and/or simulated since they could be non-negligible contributors to the scientific performance accuracy. Several papers on this topic can be found in literature, however the results can not be applied directly to Euclid's dichroic coatings. In particular an applicable model of the phase-shift variation with the wavelength could not be found and was developed. The results achieved with the mathematical model are compared to experimental results of tests performed on a development prototype of the Euclid's dichroic.

  12. Influence of Hard Tool Coatings on Process of Stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajec, Bostjan; Podgornik, Bojan; Bay, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    materials and possible hard coatings as alternative tool materials. For this purpose the blanking/punching process was first analyzed by a numerical model and based on the results four different tool materials and three hard coatings were included in the investigation and tested in a model test rig as well......Blanking/punching is a process which enables mass production of very demanding products, such as lamellas for electrical engines, generators and similar devices. Tool wear in the blanking/punching process has large influence on the product surface quality as well as on tool life. Improvement...... of tool life can be achieved by proper selection of tool materials and possible coatings. In mass production the tools are usually made of WC, which however, results in expensive tools and long time of delivery. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of different tool...

  13. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating...... to thickness, roughness (profilometer), and morphology (optical microscopy). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used to do a full factorial design of experiments with selected process parameters such as temperature, distance between spray nozzle and substrate, and speed of the spray nozzle. A mathematical model...

  14. Titania coated hollow glass microspheres for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Mark C.

    The potential applicability of titania coated hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) to the photocatalytic degradation of microbiological and organic chemical water pollutants could have dramatic positive effects on improving the quality of industrial wastewaters that empty into rivers and streams, as well as potential use in economically improving the quality of drinking water. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titania has been extensively studied since the 1990's because of its non-toxic nature, its high quantum yield of electrons and photo-holes, and its ability to use ambient solar radiation as a power source. Although titania embodies extraordinarily attractive properties for a range of environmental applications, a viable substrate or method of using the material effectively has not been recognized. HGMs are particularly attractive as a support for titania because of their low density and high surface area to volume ratio, but details of how they react to imposed loading, wear, and impact have not been addressed, nor have materials engineering analyses that could maximize their utility been made. In this study we have examined the microstructure, morphology and micro-compression properties of two types of titania coated hollow microspheres, a commercially produced HGM and cenospheres, a derivative of fly ash. Comparisons of uncoated and titania coated hollow microspheres showed improved failure loads and facture energies for the titania coated materials over the uncoated hollow microspheres. Also, the relationship between failure load and hollow microsphere diameter was characterized and the function employed to explain part of the gain in average failure load for the HGMs. Microscopic examination of titania coated HGMs that were subjected to various turbulent conditions, as well as intentional fracture, indicated good interfacial integrity, which supports the viability of both types of HGMs for potential applications. The photocatalytic reactivity of the titania

  15. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...... that there will be coating only between the ribs and not in the area where bonding takes place. The paper includes description of the mounting jig and how to align the mask on top of the plate. We will also present energy scans from Si plates coated through a mask....

  16. Tribological Performance of Coated Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of coating tribology is presented in a generalised holistic approach to friction and wear mechanisms of coated surfaces in dry sliding contacts. It is based on a classification of the tribological contact process into macromechanical, micromechanical, tribochemical contact mechanisms and material transfer. The tribological contact process is dominated by the macromechanical mechanisms, which have been systematically analysed by using four main parameters: the coating-to-substrate hardness relationship, the film thickness, the surface roughness and the debris in the contact. In this paper special attention is given to the microlevel mechanisms, and in particular new techniques for modelling the elastic, plastic and brittle behaviour of the surface by finite element (FEM) computer simulations. The contact condition with a sphere sliding over a plate coated with a very thin hard coating is analysed. A three dimensional FEM model has been developed for calculating the first principal stress distribution in the scratch tester contact of a diamond spherical tip moving with increased load on a 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coated steel surface. The model is comprehensive in that sense that it considers elastic, plastic and fracture behaviour of the contact surfaces. By identifying from a scratch experiment the location of the first crack and using this as input data can the fracture toughness of the coating be determined.

  17. Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

  18. Investigation on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 thermal barrier coating on nickel alloy substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢安贤; 常鹰; 蔡小梅

    2002-01-01

    The thermal barrier coatings with NiCrAlY alloy bonding layer, NiCrAlY-Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 transition layer and Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 ceramic layer are prepared on nickel alloy substrates using the plasma spray technique. The relationship among the composition, structure and property of the coatings are investiga-ted by means of optical microscope, scanning electronic microscope and the experiments of thermal shock resistance cycling and high temperature oxidation resistance. The results show that the structure design of introdu-cing a transition layer between Ni alloy substrate and ZrO2 ceramic coating guarantees the high quality and properties of the coatings; ZrO2 coatings doped with a little SiO2 possesses better thermal shock resistance and more excellent hot corrosion resistance as compared with ZrO2 coating materials without SiO2 ;the improvement in performance of ZrO2 coating doped with SiO2 is due to forming more dense coating structure by self- closing effects of the flaws and pores in the ZrO2 coatings.

  19. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  20. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  1. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  2. Qualidade fisiológica e teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes de soja convencional e transgênica RR submetidas a diferentes épocas de colheita Physiological quality and lignin content in the coat seeds of conventional and RR transgenic soybean submitted to different harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Têm-se levantado à hipótese de que cultivares de soja RR possuem teores de lignina superiores aos convencionais, o que proporciona maior resistência a danos mecânicos e maior impermeabilidade do tegumento das sementes. Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e o teor de lignina no tegumento das sementes de soja convencional e RR colhidas em três épocas, em Lavras-MG. Para tanto, as sementes colhidas nos estádios R7, R8 e após 20 dias de retardamento da colheita (R8+20, foram submetidas aos testes para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica e teor de lignina. As cultivares convencionais e RR avaliadas foram: BRS 133 vs BRS 245 RR, BRS 134 vs BRS 247 RR, Conquista vs Valiosa RR, Celeste vs Baliza RR e Jataí vs Silvânia RR. Foram realizados os testes de peso de mil sementes, germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, dano mecânico, índice de velocidade de emergência, germinação após a imersão das sementes em água e teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes. Com exceção do teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes para o contraste Jataí vs Silvânia RR, não foram observadas diferenças entre os materiais RR e convencional, tendo, neste caso, a cv Silvânia RR apresentado resultados superiores aos da convencional. No entanto, houve diferença de comportamento entre os cultivares quanto à tolerância ao retardamento da colheita. Observou-se redução significativa na porcentagem de germinação e vigor das sementes avaliadas com o retardamento da colheita.One has raised the hypothesis that the RR soybean cultivars posses lignin contents higher than those of the conventional ones. The present work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the physiological quality and lignin content in the coat of the conventional and RR soybean seeds collected in three times in Lavras-MG. To that end, the seeds collected at stages R7, R8 and after 20 days of collection delay (R8+20 were submitted to the tests for

  3. Characterization of the wear resistant aluminum oxide - 40% titaniumdioxide coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spray coatings play an important role in the design of surface properties of engineering components in order to increase their durability and performance under different operating conditions. Coatings are the most often used for wear resistance. This paper presents the microstructure and mechanical properties Al2O3_­40wt.%TiO2 coating resistant to dry friction slide, grain abrasion and erosion of particles at operating temperatures up to 540°C. In order to obtain the optimal characteristics of coating was performed  optimization  of deposition parameters. The powder Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 is deposited atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process with a plasma current of 700, 800 and 900A. Evaluate the quality of the coating Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 were made on the basis of their hardness, tensile bond strength and microstructure. The best performance showed the deposited layers with 900A. The morphology of the powder particles Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 was examined with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Microstructure of the coatings was examined by light microscopy. Analysis of the deposited layers was performed in accordance with standard Pratt & Whitney. Evaluation of mechanical properties of the layers was done by examining HV0.3 microhardness and tensile strength of the tensile testing. Studies have shown that plasma currents significantly affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of coatings which are of crucial importance for the protection for components subjected to wear       

  4. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  5. Coating of SiC Powder with Nano YAG Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ning; Cai Qingkui; Ru Hongqiang; Li Ying; Qiu Guanming; Sun Xudong

    2005-01-01

    SiC-YAG(Y3Al5O12) ceramic composite powders were prepared by co-precipitation coating method. Mechanism of co-precipitation coating of SiC powders with Y3+ and Al3+ precursors was investigated. If the concentration of [OH-] ion in the solution is controlled within the range between critical values for heterogeneous nucleation and homogeneous nucleation, Y3+ and Al3+ precipitation precursors can be coated on the surface of SiC particles. Y3+ and Al3+ precipitation precursors transform into YAG phase after calcining at 1000 ℃ without the formation of YAM and YAP phases. The formation temperature of YAG phase is about 600 ℃ lower than that of conventional powder mixing method. The effect of pH value of the solution and precipitant titration rate on coating quality of SiC-YAG composite powders was also studied. The results show that co-precipitation coating can be realized at a final pH of 9 and a precipitant titration rate of 5 ml·min-1.

  6. Preparation of highly preferred orientation TiB2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preparation of titanium diboride (TiB2) coatings on the graphite substrate by continuous current plating (CCP) and pulse current plating (PIC) electrochemical techniques in fluoride electrolytes (LiF-NaF-KF)containing K2TiF6 and KBF4 as the electrochemically-active components at 700℃. Thick leveled and uniform coatings were obtained and were composed of relatively pure TiB2. The effect of the experimental parameters on the microstructure of the coatings was studied. The results showed the electrodeposition with PIC produced coatings with better quality, when compared with those obtained by CCP, under the conditions of the current density i = 0.6 A/cm2, frequency = 100 Hz, and ton/toff = 4/1. XRD analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of coatings is (110) plane, which is in accordance with the prediction of the two-dimensional crystal nuclei theory. The effect of a ratio of ton/toff and frequency on the crystal size, texture coefficient and microstress was also investigated.

  7. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  8. Vacuum tribological behaviour of self lubricant quasicrystalline composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí de Blas, F. J.; Román, A.; de Miguel, C.; Longo, F.; Muelas, R.; Agüero, A.

    2003-09-01

    High temperature resistant self-lubricant coatings are needed in space vehicles for components that operate at high temperatures and/or under vacuum. Thick composite lubricant coatings containing quasicrystalline alloys (QC) as the hard phase for wear resistance, have been deposited by thermal spray. The coatings also comprise lubricating materials (silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic) and NiCr as the tough component. This paper describes the vacuum tribological properties of TH103, a coating belonging to this family, with excellent microstructural quality. The coating was deposited by HVOF and tested under vacuum on a pin-on-disc tribometer. Different loads, linear speeds and pin materials were studied. The pin scars and disc wear tracks were characterized by EDS-SEM. A minimum mean steady friction coefficient of 0.32 was obtained employing a X-750 Ni superalloy pin in vacuum conditions under 10 N load and 15 cm/s linear speed, showing moderate wear of the disc and low wear of the pin.

  9. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  10. Optimizing the fabrication of aluminum-coated fiber probes and their application to optical near-field lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S; Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, PS

    1998-01-01

    We report on routine fabrication of fiber probes suitable for metal coating. We have investigated how aperture sizes ranging from 75 to 300 nm can be produced using an appropriate set of pulling parameters in a combined heating/pulling process. The quality of the metal coating has been investigat...

  11. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu

    2011-01-01

    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  12. 不同包膜控释肥对烤烟小苗膜下移栽生长发育及产质量的影响%Effects of Different Coated Controlled-release Fertilizers on Growth,Development,Yield and Quality of Transplanting Flue-cured Tobacco Seedlings Under Plastic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爱生; 孟凡真; 高强; 张文慧

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different coated controlled-release fertilizers on growth ,development,yield and quality of transplanting flue-cured tobacco seedlings under plastic film were studied.The results showed that treatment of applied fertilizers of 105 kg/hm 2 pure nitrogen performed the best. The agronomic characters of tobacco were the best ,incidence rate of plant disease was low ,the chemical compositions tended to be coordinative ,and the tobacco had high economic benefits.%不同包膜控释肥对烤烟小苗膜下移栽生长发育及产质量的影响研究结果表明,以施用纯氮量为105 kg/hm2的包膜控释肥烟株农艺性状最好,烟株叶部病害发生率低,化学成分趋于协调,经济效益高。

  13. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  14. 包膜控释尿素及硝化抑制剂结合尿素对大白菜产量和品质的影响%Effect of Coated Control-Release-Urea and Nitrification Inhibitor On Yield and Quality of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文静; 林海涛; 刘兆辉; 江丽华; 张玉凤; 沈玉文

    2015-01-01

    以“北京新3号”大白菜为试材,在露地生产条件下,研究了两种聚合物包膜尿素( CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ)及硝化抑制剂结合尿素( DCD)对大白菜产量及品质的影响。结果表明,与习惯施肥( FP)相比, CRF-Ⅰ处理下大白菜产量提高了6.40%,CRF-Ⅱ、DCD处理下大白菜产量分别降低了1.48%、2.09%;CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ及DCD处理均能显著降低大白菜叶片中硝酸盐含量并提高 VC、还原糖、粗纤维含量。%Taking Chinese cabbage variety “Beijing New No.3” as material, the effects of coated control -release-urea and nitrification inhibitor on its yield and quality were studied under open -field condition.The results showed that, compared with conventional fertilization (FP), the self -made control -release-urea ( CRF-Ⅰ) could significantly increase the yield of Chinese cabbage by 6 .4%.The sold control-release-urea (CRF-Ⅱ) and nitrification inhibitor (DCD) decreased the yield of Chinese cabbage slightly by 1.48%and 2.09%respectively, and there was no significant difference .Compared with FP, CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱand DCD could improve nutritional quality , such as the contents of vitamin C , amino acid , reductive sugar and crude protein , and decrease the nitrate content in Chinese cabbage leaves .

  15. Bonding characteristics of the Al2O3-metal composite coating fabricated onto carbon steel by combustion synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-feng Xue; Ze-hua Wang; Ze-hua Zhou; Shao-qun Jiang; Jiang-bo Cheng; Chang-hao Wang; Jia Shao

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of an alumina-metal composite coating onto a carbon steel substrate by using a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique was demonstrated. The effects of the type and thickness of the pre-coated layer on the binding structure and surface qual-ity of the coating were systematically investigated. The macrostructure, phase composition, and bonding interface between the coating and the substrate were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrome-try (EDS). The diffraction patterns indicated that the coating essentially consisted ofα-Al2O3, Fe(Cr), and FeO⋅Al2O3. With an increase in the thickness of the pre-coated working layer, the coating became more smooth and compact. The transition layer played an important role in enhancing the binding between the coating and the substrate. When the pre-coated working layer was 10 mm and the pre-coated transition layer was 1 mm, a compact structure and metallurgical bonding with the substrate were obtained. Thermal shock test results indicated that the ceramic coating exhibited good thermal shock resistance when the sample was rapidly quenched from 800°C to room temperature by plung-ing into water.

  16. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  17. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  18. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Presuel-Moreno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic inhibitors to protect defects in the coating, by formation of an optimized barrier to local corrosion in Cl− containing environments, as well as by sacrificial cathodic prevention. Further progress in this field could lead to the design of the next generation of adaptive or tunable coatings that inhibit corrosion of underlying substrates.

  19. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  20. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    F. Presuel-Moreno; M.A. Jakab; N. Tailleart; Goldman, M.; J. R. Scully

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned) to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic i...

  1. Hermetic Coating of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    of 450A/min. A number of bulk samples were coated with a-C:H including microscope slides, NaCl plates, ZBLAN fluoride glass and sapphire blanks. IR...deposition were identified. Bulk NaCl, sapphire and glass samples coated with - 1 micron thick films were tested analytically. With the information gathered...1.0 INTRODUCTION: The surface of a freshly drawn glass fiber while seemingly smooth has many imperfections which when under stress, can grow and

  2. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  3. Automated coating procedures to produce poly(ethylene glycol) brushes in fused-silica capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N.; Østergaard, Jesper; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2017-01-01

    . Flexible and reliable approaches for preventing unwanted protein adsorption in separation science are thus in high demand. We therefore present new coating approaches based on an automated in-capillary surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization process (covalent coating) as well...... as by electrostatically adsorbing a pre-synthesized polymer leading to functionalized molecular brushes. The electroosmotic flow was measured following each step of the covalent coating procedure providing a detailed characterization and quality control. Both approaches resulted in good fouling resistance against...... the four model proteins cytochrome c, myoglobin, ovalbumin and human serum albumin in the pH range 3.4-8.4. Further, even samples containing 10% v/v plasma derived from human blood did not show signs of adsorbing to the coated capillaries. The covalent as well as the electrostatically adsorbed coating were...

  4. Effects of Beeswax Coating on the Oxidative Stability of Long-Ripened Italian Salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Trevisani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax coating of foods put a barrier to oxygen, light, and vapour that can help to prevent oxidation of fat and pigments and water loss. The amounts of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and water activity (Aw were assessed in Italian salami coated with beeswax at 55 days of ripening and compared with controls at 5, 6, and 7 months of shelf life. The results were correlated with sensory quality. TBARS levels were below 0.8 mg kg−1 in the beeswax-coated salami until 6 months of aging (median 0.697, max 0.795 and significantly higher in the uncoated salami (median 1.176, max 1.227. A slight correlation between the amount of TBARS and Aw was observed in beeswax-coated salamis, whereas this effect was masked in controls by the large Aw variability observed at 7 months. Beeswax coating prevents case hardening and facilitated the peeling.

  5. Fatigue behavior of press hardened Al-Si coated high strength steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zijian; Gui Zhongxiang; Zhang Yisheng

    2014-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of press hardened Al-Si coated high strength steel has been investigated,and the fatigue strength turns out to be about 1 000 MPa. Surface morphology of fractured and non-fractured speci-men has been observed,and the coating shows significant influence on the fatigue behavior. The difference of elastic modulus between coating and substrate led to the main cracks perpendicular to the loading direction. The coating close to fracture exfoliated thinly,while the coating far away from the fracture kept integrated. Though the specimen was polished to obtain high surface quality,3 types of cracks occurred during the fatigue test. What’s more,inclusion particles were proved to play a crucial role in causing these cracks.

  6. Ceramic-coated components for the combustion zone of natural gas engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, L.; Levy, A. V.

    1992-03-01

    The use of ceramic coatings on the combustion zone surfaces of large,natural gas-fueled,internal com-bustion engines is discussed. Unique handling and quality control systems are required for plasma spray-ing thin (0.25 mm,0.0010) in.coatings on up to 48.25(cm19)-in.diameter piston crowns and cylinder heads weighing up to(1200 lb).The in-service performance characteristics of two types of natural gas-fu-eled combustion engines powering natural gas compressors that had thin zirconia ceramic coatings ap-plied to their combustion zone surfaces are presented. Their performance was measured in the field be-fore and after coating. It was determined that the durability,power output,fuel consumption,exhaust emissions,and other operating characteristics all improved due to ceramic coating of the flame side sur-faces of cylinder heads,power pistons,and valves.

  7. Maintaining high-Q in an optical microresonator coated with high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Dale, E. B.; Rosenberger, A. T.

    2013-10-01

    We report methods to coat fused-silica microresonators with solution-grown high-aspect-ratio (AR) gold nanorods (NRs). Microresonators coated using our method maintain an optical quality factor (Q) greater than 107 after coating. The more successful method involves silanization of the surface of the microresonator with 3-mercaptopropylmethyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS), to enable the adhesion of gold NRs. The high-AR NR-coated microresonator combines the field enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonances with the cavity-enhanced evanescent components of high-Q whispering-gallery modes, making it useful for plasmonic sensing applications in the infrared. By coating with NRs having a different aspect ratio, the enhancement regime can be selected within a wide range of wavelengths.

  8. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  9. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  10. TiN coating on wall of holes and stitches by pulsed DC plasma enhanced CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜利; 徐可为; 介万奇

    2003-01-01

    TiN coating samples with narrow-stitch or deep-hole of different sizes and real dies with complex shape were processed by a larger-scale pulsed plasma enhanced CVD(PECVD) reactor. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, Vicker's hardness and interfacial adhesion tests were conducted to find the relation between the microstructure and properties of TiN coating on a flat and an inner surface. The results indicate that the inner-wall of holes (d>2 mm) and inner surface of narrow-stitches (d>3 mm) can be coated with the aid of pulsed DC plasma in an industrial-scale reactor. The quality of coatings on different surfaces is almost the same. The coating was applied to aluminum extrusion mould, and the mould life was increased at least by one time.

  11. The effect of time on optical coating mechanical loss and implications for LIGO-India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley-Hanlon, Maya; Fair, Hannah M.; Jiffar, Isaac; Newport, Jonathan; Gitelman, Louis; Harry, Gregory; Billingsley, Garilynn; Penn, Steve

    2016-07-01

    We report on the persistence of mechanical loss with time of ion beam sputtered dielectric coatings made from alternating layers of Ta2O5 and SiO2 deposited onto fused silica substrates. From this, we predict the coating thermal noise in gravitational wave interferometers, after the coated optics have been stored for years. We measured the modal mechanical quality factor, Q, of two coated fused silica samples in 2015. These samples also had their modal Q's measured in 2002. We conclude that storing the coated silica disks for 13 years does not change their mechanical loss and thus the storage of Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector optics until their future installation in India will not degrade their achievable thermal noise.

  12. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  13. Coating, Titanium Dioxide and Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Aohan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor’s thesis is to get basic ideas about coating and a deep understanding of properties of titanium dioxide pigments as well as their application and performance in solar electricity energy technology. This thesis consists of three main parts, eight chapters. The first part is about basic knowledge of coating and tests of coated paper. Coating pigments are generally introduced in the part. In the second part, coating additives are introduced in details from ...

  14. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  15. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  16. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  17. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  18. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  19. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  20. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate