WorldWideScience

Sample records for quality anti-relaxation coating

  1. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kimball, D.F.; Kitching, J.; Pustclny, S.; Robinson, H.G.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between the components of the ground-state hyperfine structure for 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, which may be useful for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  2. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Hollberg, Leo; Kimball, Derek F.; Kitching, J.; Pustelny, Szymon; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  3. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  4. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells using Surface Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    addition to the inside surface of the cells. In order to avoid exposure to air, the cells were broken open inside a glovebag containing an argon ...unsaturated bonds increase the polar- izability of the surface, and effective coatings have long been assumed to require low polarizability to enable

  5. Quality control of fireproof coatings for reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravit, Marina; Dmitriev, Ivan; Ishkov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes methods of quality inspection of fireproof coatings (work flow, measuring, laboratory, etc.). In modern construction there is a problem of lack of distinct monitoring for the fire protection testing. There is a description of this testing for reinforced concrete structures. The article shows the results of calculation quality control of hatches as an example of fireproof coating for reinforced concrete structures.

  6. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Development and application of a process window for achieving high-quality coating in a fluidized bed coating process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van Der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    Next to the coating formulation, process conditions play important roles in determining coating quality. This study aims to develop an operational window that separates layering from agglomeration regimes and, furthermore, the one that leads to the best coating quality in a fluidized bed coater. The

  8. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here

  9. THERMAL COMPOSITE COATINGS IMPROVING QUALITY OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej POSMYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the thermal properties of composite insulating material designed for producing of technical means of transport. This material can be coated on most of engineering materials. The matrix of this material is an acrylic resin ant non porous ceramic microspheres made of alumina are the reinforcing phase. Thanks to that into the spheres almost vacuum (0,13 Pa dominants and a big amount of spheres pro thickness unit is it possible to achieve low thermal conductivity. Usage of these coatings for producing of cooling cabins on vehicles let us to reduce of fuel for maintain of given temperature. Usage of these coatings in planes flying on high altitudes (temperature up to -60 allows to reduce of fuel consumption for heating. It has an important influence on transport quality and quality costs.

  10. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. The influence of nanocellulose coating on saffron quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Bahrami, Iman; Dehnad, Danial; Shahidi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Since saffron is an added-value product, and the most expensive agricultural product, it is necessary to increase its shelf life, prevent its quality loss during storage, and maintain its organoleptic properties, enabling producers to export saffron with higher quality and better consumer acceptability. So, in this research, saffron samples were coated through applying different carbohydrate biopolymers: maltodextrin with DE=4 or DE=20 (MD4 and MD20) or their combination with nanocellulose fibres (MDC4 and MDC20). Finally, the experiments were carried out to measure rehydration ratio, water activity, crocin content, color values, and sensory properties of saffron samples coated by different materials. MDC4 resulted in the lowest rehydration ratio among coated samples since, first, lower DE degrees of biopolymer complexes decreased moisture adsorption and solubility of maltodextrin and second, crystalline nanocellulose fibres increased tortuous and bended pathways in materials and reduced penetration possibilities of water molecules. MDC4 was the most effective treatment in preventing crocin decrease. Indeed, film forming characteristic of maltodextrin with low hydrolysis degree and special structure of nanocellulose led to the maintenance of crocin bioactive ingredient. SEM observations revealed coating on saffron surfaces as a thin clear and brilliant layer which enhanced saffron acceptability for our panelists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chitosan coatings on postharvest green asparagus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Jiang, Hengjun; Ren, Gerui; Huang, Jianying; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-02-15

    Fresh postharvest green asparagus rapidly deteriorate due to its high respiration rate. The main benefits of edible active coatings are their edible characteristics, biodegradability and increase in food safety. In this study, the quality of the edible coatings based on 0.50%, 0.25% high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), and 0.50%, 0.25% low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) on postharvest green asparagus was investigated. On the basis of the results obtained, 0.25% H-chitosan and 0.50% L-chitosan treatments ensured lower color variation, less weight loss and less ascorbic acid, decrease presenting better quality of asparagus than other concentrations of chitosan treatments and the control during the cold storage, and prolonging a shelf life of postharvest green asparagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of coating quality on the service life of land-based gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The land-based gas turbine blades operate at severe operating conditions: higher metal temperatures and stresses, and severe duty cycles. Metallic coatings with or without a top ceramic coating have been used to protect the turbine blades. The durability of the coating system is one of the prime life-limiting factors of modem gas turbine blades. The quality of the coating plays a critical role on the coating life. This paper discusses the failure mechanisms of the coatings and describes how the quality of the coating affects the service life of a gas turbine blade. A few case studies are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  14. Quality control of thermal spray coatings in diesel engines; Qualitaetskontrolle an thermisch gespritzten Beschichtungen in Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejloe [MAN Diesel and Turbo, Copenhagen (Denmark). Material Technology and Research Dept.; Lindegren, Maria [Struers A/S, Ballerup (Denmark). Application Dept.

    2013-06-01

    Thermal spraying is a method, which is suitable for coating of large components. The coatings can e.g. improve the wear, friction and/or corrosion properties of components so that they can withstand the increased loads. The quality of the coatings is essential to ensure reliable operation of the components. However, quality control of thermally sprayed coatings is indeed nontrivial and sample preparation is a key issue. This paper shows examples of thermal spray coated components in large diesel engines and provides insight into the methods used in preparing samples for quality control. (orig.)

  15. Quality of Coated Particles : Physical - Mechanical Characterization of Polymeric Film Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, G.

    2012-01-01

    All coated particle producers, when applying the coating layer(s) would like to know precisely what is the best coating system to use in order to answer customer’s requests. It is, therefore, of very high relevance for many industries, to have a clear understanding of what are the parameters I need

  16. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings...

  17. Effectiveness of incorporating citric acid in cassava starch edible coatings to preserve quality of Martha tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Oktaningrum, G. N.; Endrasari, R.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato as an agricultural product is extremely perishable. Coatings of tomatoes with edible starch extend quality and storage life of the fruits. Incorporation of citric acid as antimicrobial agent in the edible starch coatings is expected to preserve the quality of tomatoes during storage. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of citric acid incorporated in cassava starch coating to preserve quality of tomatoes. The edible coatings formula consisted of cassava starch solutions (1; 2; 3%), citric acid (0.5; 1.0%) and glycerol (10%). Tomatoes were dipped to the coating solution for 10 seconds, then air-dried and stored at room temperature during 18 days. All the treatments were carried out in triplicates. Experimental data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The results showed that coating treatments did not affect the weight loss, moisture content, color characteristic, carotene and vitamin C content on Martha tomatoes. The low concentration of starch coating on Martha tomatoes are indicated to be the reason why there was no significant difference between coated and coated tomatoes for some parameters. However, incorporating citric acid in cassava starch-based coatings could prevent tomato fruits from firmness reduction and spoilage during storage.

  18. 75 FR 70205 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-560-823] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... duty investigation of certain coated paper from Indonesia. See Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High...

  19. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  20. Influence of gas detonation spraying conditions on the quality of Fe-Al intermetallic protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senderowski C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present generalized research results and analyses of the quality of coatings produced with self decomposing Fe-Al intermetallic powders deposited on 1045 steel in the gas detonation spraying (GDS. A number of GDS experiments has been carried out with significantly changed operational spraying parameters (the volume of the fuel gas, carrier gas, distance and the frequency of spraying which define the process energy level directly influencing the quality of the coating. On the basis of the initial results the choice of the process parameters has been made to obtain the most advantageous set of geometrical and physical-mechanical properties of the coating material and substrate. The quality of the coatings was considered by taking into account the grain morphology, chemical content, phase inhomogeneity, cohesive porosity, as well as adhesive porosity in the substrate coating joint. The coating roughness was also considered. It was found that all GDS coatings produced are built with lamellar splats which result from the GDS process transformed (changed plasticity and geometry powder particles forming the deposit. The result of the GDS spraying parameters optimization is the lack of signs of melting of the material (even in microareas while the geometry of the deposited grains is considerably changed. This phenomenon has been considered as a proof of high plasticity of the GDS formed Fe-Al intermetallic coatings.

  1. New method for evaluating high-quality fog protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeremuszkin, Grzegorz; Latreche, Mohamed; Mendoza-Suarez, Guillermo

    2011-05-01

    Fogging is commonly observed when humid-warm air contacts the cold surface of a transparent substrate, i.e. eyewear lenses, making the observed image blurred and hazy. To protect from fogging, the lens inner surfaces are protected with Anti-Fog coatings, which render them hydrophilic and induce water vapor condensation as a smooth, thin and invisible film, which uniformly flows down on the lens as the condensation progresses. Coatings differ in protection level, aging kinetics, and susceptibility to contamination. Some perform acceptably in limited conditions, beyond which the condensing water film becomes unstable, nonuniform, and scatters light or shows refractory distortions, both affecting the observed image. Quantifying the performance of Anti-Fog coated lenses is difficult: they may not show classical fogging and the existing testing methods, based on fog detection, are therefore inapplicable. The presented method for evaluating and quantifying AF properties is based on characterizing light scattering on lenses exposed to controlled humidity and temperature. Changes in intensity of laser light scattered at low angles (1, 2 4 and 8 degrees), observed during condensation of water on lenses, provide information on the swelling of Anti-Fog coatings, formation of uniform water film, going from an unstable to a steady state, and on the coalescence of discontinuous films. Real time observations/measurements allow for better understanding of factors controlling fogging and fog preventing phenomena. The method is especially useful in the development of new coatings for military-, sport-, and industrial protective eyewear as well as for medical and automotive applications. It allows for differentiating between coatings showing acceptable, good, and excellent performance.

  2. High quality aluminide and thermal barrier coatings deposition for new and service exposed parts by CVD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, F.; Tuohy, C.; Whelan, L.; Kennedy, A.D. [SIFCO Turbine Components, Carrigtwohill, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the performance of CVD aluminide coatings is compared to that of coatings deposited by the classical pack cementation technique using standard SIFCO procedures. The CVD coatings always seem to behave better upon exposure to isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. This is explained by a longer term stability of CVD coatings, with higher Al amounts in the diffusion zone and less refractory element precipitation in the additive layer. The qualities of Pt/Al coatings by out-of-pack and CVD are also compared as a previous step for further thermal barrier coating deposition. As an example, YSZ thermal barrier coatings are deposited by MO-CVD on Pt/Al CVD bond coats rendering adherent and thick coatings around the surface of turbine blades. This process under development does not require complex manipulation of the component to be coated. (orig.)

  3. High-quality substrate for fluorescence enhancement using agarose-coated silica opal film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Li, Juan; Sun, Liguo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Lv, Linli; Zhao, Xiangwei; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Jing; Lv, Mei; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-08-01

    To improve the sensitivity of fluorescence detection in biochip, a new kind of substrates was developed by agarose coating on silica opal film. In this study, silica opal film was fabricated on glass substrate using the vertical deposition technique. It can provide stronger fluorescence signals and thus improve the detection sensitivity. After coating with agarose, the hybrid film could provide a 3D support for immobilizing sample. Comparing with agarose-coated glass substrate, the agarose-coated opal substrates could selectively enhance particular fluorescence signals with high sensitivity when the stop band of the silica opal film in the agarose-coated opal substrate overlapped the fluorescence emission wavelength. A DNA hybridization experiment demonstrated that fluorescence intensity of special type of agarose-coated opal substrates was about four times that of agarose-coated glass substrate. These results indicate that the optimized agarose-coated opal substrate can be used for improving the sensitivity of fluorescence detection with high quality and selectivity.

  4. A preferential coating technique for fabricating large, high quality optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, S.G.; Cockerton, S.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge facing optic manufacturers is the fabrication of large mirrors (>1 m) with minimal residual slope errors (<0.5 μrad rms). We present a differential coating method with the potential to satisfy such exacting technical demands. Iterative cycles of measurement using the Diamond-NOM, followed by preferential deposition, were performed on a 1200 mm long, silicon mirror. The applied coatings were observed to reduce the optical slope and figure errors from 1.62 to 0.44 μrad rms, and from 208 to 13 nm rms, respectively. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercially available products, of direct benefit to the Synchrotron, Free Electron Laser, Astronomy, Space, and Laser communities, who all require state-of-the-art optics.

  5. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  6. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. 75 FR 70206 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-560-824] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... Department published its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of certain coated paper...

  8. Evaluation of the coat quality of sustained release pellets by individual pellet dissolution methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-15

    This study explored the application of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 for individual pellet dissolution methodology by a design of experiment approach and compared its capability with that of the USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 for differentiating the coat quality of sustained release pellets. Drug loaded pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization from powder blends comprising 50%, w/w metformin, 25%, w/w microcrystalline cellulose and 25%, w/w lactose, and then coated with ethyl cellulose to produce sustained release pellets with 8% and 10%, w/w coat weight gains. Various pellet properties were investigated, including cumulative drug release behaviours of ensemble and individual pellets. When USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 were used for drug release study of the sustained release pellets prepared, floating and clumping of pellets were observed and confounded the release profiles of the ensemble pellets. Hence, the release profiles obtained did not characterize the actual drug release from individual pellet and the applicability of USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 to evaluate the coat quality of sustained release pellets was limited. The cumulative release profile of individual pellet using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 was found to be more precise at distinguishing differences in the applied coat quality. The dip speed and dip interval of the reciprocating holder were critical operational parameters of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 that affected the drug release rate of a sustained release pellet during the individual dissolution study. The individual dissolution methodology using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 is a promising technique to evaluate the individual pellet coat quality without the influence of confounding factors such as pellet floating and clumping observed during drug release test with dissolution apparatus 1 and 2, as well as to facilitate the elucidation of the actual drug release mechanism conferred by the applied sustained

  9. Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eddin, Abdulhakim; Tahergorabi, Reza

    2017-09-05

    Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC ( p coating with MMT to the shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  10. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...)] Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper'') from... paper industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise from China and...

  11. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coa......Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined......–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercial coatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling...

  12. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow...

  13. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  15. Quality control of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of the coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors is characterized by the fact that the size of the target product to be controlled is very small, and the quantity is very large. Accordingly, the sampling plan and the method of evaluating the population through satisfically treating the measured data of the samples are the important subjects to see and evaluate the quality of a batch or a lot. This paper shows the fabrication process and the quality control procedure for the coated fuel particles. The development work of a HTGR was started by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1969, and as for the production technology for coated fuel particles, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. has continued the development work. The pilot plan with the capacity of about 40 kg/year was established in 1972. The fuel product fabricated in this plant was put to the irradiation experiment and out-of-pile evaluation test. In 1983, the production capacity was expanded to 200 kg/year, and the fuel compacts for the VHTRC in JAERI were produced for two years. The basic fuel design, the fabrication process, the quality control, the process control and the quality assurance are reported. For the commercial product, the studies from the viewpoint of production and quality control costs are required. (Kako, I.)

  16. Effect of gallic acid/chitosan coating on fresh pork quality in modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Lin, Daniel; Warner, Robyn Dorothy; Ha, Minh

    2018-09-15

    Fresh meat safety and quality is a major concern of consumers in the current food market. The objective of this research was to investigate a newly developed gallic acid/chitosan edible coating on the preservation of fresh pork quality in modified atmosphere package (MAP) stored at 4 °C. The pork loins were coated with 2% chitosan (CHI), 0.2% gallic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/0.2G), or 0.4% gallic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/0.4G). Results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the chitosan coating was increased with the incorporation of gallic acid. The CHI/0.2G and CHI/0.4G pork loins also had lower lipid oxidation and myoglobin oxidation. However, the CHI/0.4G sample exhibited a pro-protein oxidation effect, suggesting an optimal concentration of gallic acid should be incorporated. This research provides a practical method in application of gallic acid/chitosan coatings on preservation of fresh pork to improve the safety and quality in MAP environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  18. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  19. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: → Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. → Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. → SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. → Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  20. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon-nanotubes-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizi, T.; Frioni, A.; Passeri, D.; Pantanella, F.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new nanotechnologies involves the spreading of nanoparticles in various fields of human life. Nanoparticles in general and, more specifically, carbon nanotubes have been adopted for many practical approaches i.e.: coatings for medical devices, food process industry and drug delivery. Humans will be increasingly exposed to nanoparticles but the susceptibility of nanostructured materials to microbial colonization in process of manufacturing and storage has not been thoroughly considered. Therefore, the microbiological quality control of nanoparticles plays a pivotal role. Different analytical methods have been attempted for detecting bacterial population contaminating a surface, but no one can be considered fully appropriate. Here, BioTimer Assay (BTA) and conventional sonication followed by colony forming units method (S-CFU) were applied for microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that S-CFU is unreliable to actually determine the number of bacteria, contaminating abiotic surfaces, as it does not detach all adherent bacteria and kills part of the bacterial population. Instead, BTA is a reliable method to enumerate bacteria colonizing SWCNTs-coated surfaces and can be considered a useful tool for microbiological quality control of nanomaterials for human use.

  3. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  4. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  5. Effects of chitosan-essential oil coatings on safety and quality of fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Narciso, Jan; Wang, Zhe; Ference, Christopher; Bai, Jinhe; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries in order to find more natural treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were 1st performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia coli and Penicillium digitatum were grown in suitable media, and then subjected to 6 essential oils. Three compounds, carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (ECIN) had high antimicrobial capacity and were selected for an in vivo study for postharvest storage of blueberries. The selected essential oils, 0.5% each, were added into a chitosan solution and coated on fresh blueberries. After storage at 5, 10, and 20 °C for various days, fruit firmness and microbial populations were evaluated. The chitosan coating substantially decreased bacteria and yeasts/molds on the fruit, and all 3 essential oils added to the antimicrobial activities. Further dosage experiments showed that the antimicrobial activity remained even when lowering CAR concentration to 0.1% and ECIN to 0.2%. Chitosan, CAR, and ECIN also maintained fruit firmness. Our results suggest that chitosan coatings containing essential oils are effective in extending the shelf life of fresh blueberries. Blueberries are high-value fruit with strong antioxidant capacity and other health-promoting benefits. However, microbial food safety is an increasing concern, and decay and softening limits their storability. A combination of ≥ 0.1% CAR or ≥ 0.2% ECIN with a chitosan coating effectively reduced softening of fresh berries and decay by inhibiting microbial growth. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  7. Effects of mesquite gum-candelilla wax based edible coatings on the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, S. A.; Bosquez-Molina, E.; Stolik, S.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-06-01

    The ability of composite edible coatings to preserve the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) at 20ºC was studied for a period of 15 days. The edible coatings were formulated with candelilla wax blended with white mineral oil as the lipid phase and mesquite gum as the structural material. The use of edible coatings prolonged the shelf life of treated fruits by retarding ethylene emission and enhancing texture as compared to control samples. At the sixth day, the ethylene produced by the control samples was fivefold higher than the ethylene produced by the coated samples. In addition, the physiological weight loss of coated fruits was nearly 30% lower than the control samples.

  8. Alginate coating as carrier of oligofructose and inulin and to maintain the quality of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Christian; Brunton, Nigel; Gormley, Ronan T; Wouters, Rudy; Butler, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply an edible coating containing prebiotics such as oligofructose and inulin to fresh-cut apple wedges. An assessment of the quality, sensory, polyphenol, and volatile attributes of coated and uncoated fresh-cut apple wedges was also undertaken. Fructan analysis showed that all prebiotics remained stable over the 14-d storage period and an intake of 100 g of apple supplies 1 to 3 g of prebiotics. Browning index, firmness, acidity remained stable throughout the 14 d compared to the control while applying prebiotic coatings resulted in an increase in soluble solids. Sensory and visual assessment indicated acceptable quality of apple wedges coated with prebiotics. HPLC analysis showed that levels of polyphenolic compounds were more stable in coated apple wedges (without prebiotic inclusions) than in uncoated control apples. No difference was found between O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentration of coated and uncoated samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found for headspace volatile production between the samples. Most coated samples showed lower volatile production in the headspace than uncoated samples.

  9. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  11. Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaser, Miriam; Naelapaa, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating fo...

  12. Quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange grown in semiarid climate and stored under refrigeration after coating with wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlândia da Silva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carnauba-based wax on the quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange produced in Ceará state, Brazil, were studied. The fruits were coated with carnauba-based wax and refrigerated (7 ± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% R.H. for 28 days. The quality attribute parameters assessed were weight loss, peel color (brightness, hue angle, and chromaticity, peel moisture, pH, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols. The results showed that 'Delta Valencia' oranges grown in the dry climate of Ceará state has excellent quality. The coated fruits lost mass at a lower rate than the the control fruits. No significant loss of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and SS/TA ratio was observed, while ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols increased during storage in both the coated and control fruits. Carnauba-based wax coated fruits showed no signal of dehydration keeping their shiny green peel up to the end of the storage. The use of coating was crucial for the maintenance of visual quality by reducing mass loss, as well as keeping peel moisture.

  13. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality.

  14. Quality Assessment of Refractory Protective Coatings Using Multi-Frequency Eddy Current MWM-Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberstein, Vladimir; Evans, Leslie; Huguenin, Carolene; Grundy, David; Lyons, Robert; Goldfine, Neil; Mulligan, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Demands for increased range, rate of fire, and muzzle velocity have prompted development of new refractory metal coatings. Nondestructive measurement of coating electrical conductivity and thickness is crucial to the process development and statistical process control. This paper presents absolute property coating characterization results for Ta coatings obtained with a Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM registered ) eddy-current sensor and MWM-Array sensor. The measured coating conductivity indicates the ratio of the intended α-Ta to the undesirable β-Ta

  15. Quality Analysis of DNA from Cord Blood Buffy Coat: The Best Neonatal DNA Source for Epidemiological Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangdi; Li, Qin; Huang, Lisu; Wu, Yuhang; Wu, Meiqin; Wang, Weiye C

    2016-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood is an economical and easy to obtain source of high-quality neonatal genomic DNA. However, although large numbers of cord blood samples have been collected, information on the yield and quality of the DNA extracted from cord blood is scarce. Moreover, considerable doubt still exists on the utility of the buffy coat instead of whole blood as a DNA source. We compared the sample storage and DNA extraction costs for whole blood, buffy coat, and all-cell pellet. We evaluated three different DNA purification kits and selected the most suitable one to purify 1011 buffy coat samples. We determined the DNA yield and optical density (OD) ratios and analyzed 48 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). We also analyzed eight possible preanalytical variables that may correlate with DNA yield or quality. Buffy coat was the most economical and least labor-intensive source for sample storage and DNA extraction. The average yield of genomic DNA from 200 μL of buffy coat sample was 16.01 ± 8.00 μg, which is sufficient for analytic experiments. The mean A260/A280 ratio and the mean A260/A230 ratio were 1.89 ± 0.09 and 1.95 ± 0.66, respectively. More than 99.5% of DNA samples passed the TOF MS test. Only hemolysis showed a strong correlation with OD ratios of DNA, but not with yield. Our findings show that cord blood buffy coat yields high-quality DNA in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements of experiments. Buffy coat was also found to be the most economic, efficient, and stable source of genomic DNA.

  16. Effect of Chitosan Coating Treatments and Calcium Dips on Quality and Shelf-life of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberries are a highly perishable fruit and storage life may be less than a week. In these investigations strawberries were treated with one of the following treatments: I) 1 % calcium chloride dips (1 % CaCl 2 ), II) 2 % irradiated (150 kGy in the solid state) chitosan (CS) (2 % Irr. CS) and III) with a coating formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 . They were then stored at 6 degree C for up to 24 days. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed by evaluating the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries during the storage period. Results indicated that no sign of strawberries decay were observed in the fruits treated with CS formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 up to 20 days, where 6.1 % wt loss was detected. This treatment slowed the ripening of strawberries as shown by their retention of firmness and delayed changes in their external colour anthocyanin. To a lesser extent titratable acidity and ph were also affected by coatings. This treatment decreased the initial log counts of total aerobic bacteria, mould and yeast, coliform and E. coli. After 20 days of cold storage, the log counts of these micro organisms were lower than the log count of uncoated strawberries. Thus, CS can be used as a natural antimicrobial coating on fresh strawberries to improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life. CS formulation contains 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 extended the shelf-life of strawberries to 20 days in cold storage at 6 degree C with acceptable appearance, firmness, flavour and colour, while uncoated strawberries only lasted for 4 days as a result of mould growth and loss of surface appearance

  17. Implementation of quality by design approach in manufacturing process optimization of dry granulated, immediate release, coated tablets - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the process of tablets compression and identification of film-coating critical process parameters (CPPs) affecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) using quality by design (QbD) approach. Design of experiment (DOE) and regression methods were employed to investigate hardness, disintegration time, and thickness of uncoated tablets depending on slugging and tableting compression force (CPPs). Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied to identify critical coating process parameters among selected ones that is: drying and preheating time, atomization air pressure, spray rate, air volume, inlet air temperature, and drum pressure that may influence the hardness and disintegration time of coated tablets. As a result of the research, design space was established to facilitate an in-depth understanding of existing relationship between CPPs and CQAs of intermediate product (uncoated tablets). Screening revealed that spray rate and inlet air temperature are two most important factors that affect the hardness of coated tablets. Simultaneously, none of the tested coating factors have influence on disintegration time. The observation was confirmed by conducting film coating of pilot size batches.

  18. A Scale-up Approach for Film Coating Process Based on Surface Roughness as the Critical Quality Attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Yuko; Dohi, Masafumi; Yamashita, Kazunari; Hakomori, Tadashi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-01

    Scale-up approaches for film coating process have been established for each type of film coating equipment from thermodynamic and mechanical analyses for several decades. The objective of the present study was to establish a versatile scale-up approach for film coating process applicable to commercial production that is based on critical quality attribute (CQA) using the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and is independent of the equipment used. Experiments on a pilot scale using the Design of Experiment (DoE) approach were performed to find a suitable CQA from surface roughness, contact angle, color difference, and coating film properties by terahertz spectroscopy. Surface roughness was determined to be a suitable CQA from a quantitative appearance evaluation. When surface roughness was fixed as the CQA, the water content of the film-coated tablets was determined to be the critical material attribute (CMA), a parameter that does not depend on scale or equipment. Finally, to verify the scale-up approach determined from the pilot scale, experiments on a commercial scale were performed. The good correlation between the surface roughness (CQA) and the water content (CMA) identified at the pilot scale was also retained at the commercial scale, indicating that our proposed method should be useful as a scale-up approach for film coating process.

  19. Applying quality by design (QbD) concept for fabrication of chitosan coated nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhijeet P; Karande, Kiran P; Sonawane, Raju O; Deshmukh, Prashant K

    2014-03-01

    In the present investigation, a quality by design (QbD) strategy was successfully applied to the fabrication of chitosan-coated nanoliposomes (CH-NLPs) encapsulating a hydrophilic drug. The effects of the processing variables on the particle size, encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and coating efficiency (%CE) of CH-NLPs (prepared using a modified ethanol injection method) were investigated. The concentrations of lipid, cholesterol, drug and chitosan; stirring speed, sonication time; organic:aqueous phase ratio; and temperature were identified as the key factors after risk analysis for conducting a screening design study. A separate study was designed to investigate the robustness of the predicted design space. The particle size, %EE and %CE of the optimized CH-NLPs were 111.3 nm, 33.4% and 35.2%, respectively. The observed responses were in accordance with the predicted response, which confirms the suitability and robustness of the design space for CH-NLP formulation. In conclusion, optimization of the selected key variables will help minimize the problems related to size, %EE and %CE that are generally encountered when scaling up processes for NLP formulations. The robustness of the design space will help minimize both intra-batch and inter-batch variations, which are quite common in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  1. The influence of prefabricated pipe cement coatings and those made during pipe renovation on drinking water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Młyńska Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cement coatings are often used as an anticorrosion protection of the internal surfaces of manufactured ductile iron water pipes. The protective cement linings are also commonly used for old water pipe renovation. In both cases, the cement lining is an excellent anticorrosion protection of the pipelines, effectively separating the pipe wall from the flowing water. Moreover, cement linings protect the pipelines not only by a mechanical barrier, but also by a chemical barrier creating a highly alkaline environment in water contact with the metal pipe wall. In addition, cement coatings have an ability for so-called self-regeneration and provide the improvement of hydraulic conditions inside the pipelines. In turn, the differences between the analysed cement coatings mainly depend on the types of cements used and techniques of cement mortar spraying. As was expected, they influence the quality of water having contact with the coating. A comparison of the impact of cement coatings manufactured in factories and sprayed on building sites during the renovation on drinking water quality parameters was performed in the study. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions, using the test stands prepared for this purpose. The results include analysis of selected water quality parameters for the samples contacting with cement mortar and collected during the investigation.

  2. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  3. Chitosan-limonene coating in combination with modified atmosphere packaging preserve postharvest quality of cucumber during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, Gisoo; Sedaghat, Naser; Woltering, Ernst J.; Farhoodi, Mehdi; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2018-01-01

    Since cucumbers suffer from a short postharvest life, applying different technologies is increasingly used as effective ways to increase their shelf life and quality. In this study a combination of chitosan-limonene coating and MAP storage has been used as a postharvest treatment to maintain

  4. 75 FR 70203 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Error Memo. In addition, one of the ministerial errors affected the calculation of the labor rate, which... quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (china or other...; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish; whether or not...

  5. 75 FR 75663 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... suitable for high quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin... square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish... distinguish it from `text.' \\2\\ One of the key measurements of any grade of paper is brightness. Generally...

  6. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    and coated with a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer using a pan coater. It was demonstrated that the coating intactness can be assessed accurately and fast by UV imaging. The different types of coating defects could be differentiated and localized based on multivariate image analysis...

  7. Improvement of the galvanized coating quality of high strength dual phase steels by pre-electroplating nickel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N. [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Zhang, K. [Institute of Concrete Pumps Machinery R and D, Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. 410100 (China); Li, J. [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Hu, W.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Galvanized dual phase steel sheets are used extensively in the industrial applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and superior corrosion resistance, but the segregation of alloying elements and the formation of oxides on the steel surface often have a deleterious effect on coating adhesion during the galvanizing process. In order to improve the coating quality, a nickel layer was pre-electroplated on the steel substrate before galvanizing and it's found that there is an improvement in the coating quality. The coating microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, glow discharge optical emission spectroscope and X-ray diffractions. The experimental results show that the compact Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22} intermetallic layer formed at the zinc/nickel interface during the galvanizing process, prohibiting the nucleation and the growth of the {zeta}-Zn phase layer and resulting in the improvement of the zinc coating adhesion. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Electrohydrodynamics in nanochannels coated by mixed polymer brushes: effects of electric field strength and solvent quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qianqian; Tian, Xiu; You, Hao

    2018-04-01

    We examine the electrohydrodynamics in mixed polymer brush-coated nanochannels and the conformational dynamics of grafted polymers using molecular dynamics simulations. Charged (A) and neutral polymers (B) are alternately grafted on the channel surfaces. The effects of the electric field strength and solvent quality are addressed in detail. The dependence of electroosmotic flow characteristics and polymer conformational behavior on the solvent quality is influenced due to the change of the electric field strength. The enhanced electric field induces a collapse of the neutral polymer chains which adopt a highly extended conformation along the flow direction. However, the thickness of the charged polymer layer is affected weakly by the electric field, and even a slight swelling is identified for the A-B attraction case, implying the conformational coupling between two polymer species. Furthermore, the charged polymer chains incline entirely towards the electric field direction oppositely to the flow direction. More importantly, unlike the neutral polymer chains, the shape factor of the charged polymer chains, which is used to describe the overall shape of polymer chains, is reduced significantly with increasing the electric field strength, corresponding to a more coiled structure.

  9. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part I – Moulding technologies vs. zinc coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczęsny A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that in the process of hot dip galvanizing the decisive influence on the mechanism of zinc coating formation and properties has the quality of the mechanically untreated (raw surface layer of the galvanized product. The terms “casting surface layer” denote various parameters of the microstructure, including the type of metal matrix, the number of grains and the size of graphite nodules, possible presence of hard spots (the precipitates of eutectic cementite and parameters of the surface condition. The completed research has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing.

  10. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  11. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  12. [Quality of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared using automated system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Agnieszka; Lipska, Alina; Rogowska, Anna; Bujno, Magdalena; Nedzi, Marta; Radziwon, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    Platelet recovery, and viability, and function is strongly dependent on the method of the preparation of platelet concentrate (PC). The glucose consumption, decrease of pH, release of alpha granules during storage in platelet concentrate impair their clinical effectiveness. To compare of the quality of buffy-coat-derieved platelet concentrates prepared using automatic system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI) and stored over 7 days. PCs were prepared from buffy coats using manual method (group I), or automatic system TACSI (group II). Fifteen PCs prepared from the 5 buffy coats each were stored over 7 days in 22-24 degrees C and tested. Samples were taken from the PCs container on days 1 and 7. The following laboratory tests were performed: number of platelets, platelets derived microparticles, CD62P expression, platelet adhesion, pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase activity. We have observed higher expression of CD62P in PCs prepared using manual method compared to the PCs produced automatically Platelet recovery was significantly higher in PCs prepared using automatic systems compare to manual method. Compared to manual methods, automatic system for preparation of buffy coats, is more efficient and enable production of platelets concentrates of higher quality.

  13. Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible coating on the storage quality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Huijun; Jin, Wengang; Li, Lirong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5, 10 and 15 g kg -1 ) combined with nisin and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated. TBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent compared to the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC and sensory scores, the shelf life of the control tilapia fillets was 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8-10 days. Edible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. PENGARUH MINYAK ATSIRI JAHE MERAH DAN LENGKUAS MERAH PADA EDIBLE COATING TERHADAP KUALITAS FILLET IKAN PATIN (Effect of Edible Coating Enriched with Red Ginger and Red Galangal Essential Oil on the Quality of Patin Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohula Utami

    2014-02-01

    edible coating will retain the patin fillets quality. In terms of microbial quality and TVB value, 1% essential oil of red ginger and red galangal enrichment in edible coating could extend shelf life of patin fillets for 2-4 days. Keywords: Edible coating, essential oil, patin, red ginger, red galangal   ABSTRAK Penentuan pengaruh penambahan minyak atsiri jahe merah dan lengkuas merah dalam edible coating terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin dilakukan pada periode waktu 8 hari. Parameter kualitas ikan yang dianalisis adalah kualitas mikrobiologis (Total Plate Count/TPc, dan kualitas fisikokimia (Total Volatile Bases/TVB, Thiobarbituricacid/TBa, pH, dan warna. Variasi perlakuan fillet ikan patin yaitu konsentrasi minyak atsiri (0 %; 0,1%; 1% yang ditambahkan dalam edible coating. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa penambahan minyak atsiri baik jahe merah maupun lengkuas merah berpengaruh terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin. Penambahan minyak atsiri dalam edible coating mampu mempertahankan kualitas fillet ikan patin lebih baik dibandingkan perlakuan edible coating tanpa minyak atsiri. Berdasarkan kualitas mikrobiologis dan nilai TVB, perlakuan minyak atsiri jahe merah 1% dan minyak atsiri lengkuas merah 1% mampu meningkatkan umur simpan fillet ikan patin selama 2-4 hari. Kata kunci: Edible coating, jahe merah, lengkuas merah, minyak atsiri, patin

  15. Microfilms packaging and coating: effects on shelf life and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on storage potential of African pear fruits (APFs) were conducted using three packaging microfilms (low density polyethylene, low density polypropylene and highdensity polypropylene) and three coating materials (sheanut butter, palm oil and paraffin wax). The packaged and coated APFs were separately stored at ...

  16. Effects of rice batter on oil uptake and sensory quality coated fried okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...

  17. Development and application of edible skin coatings to improve the quality of kinnow during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and investigate the effect of application of indigenous skin coating materials for kinnow fruit, which surely would have superior effect on shelf stability and an attractive alternate for inedible coatings. Economical and underutilized sources were explored for this purpose. Eight different formulations were developed to check their suitability through various physico-chemical analyses. It was concluded that edible coating prepared from corn starch, stearic acid, jojoba oil and monoglycerides (T8 was observed best in terms of physico-chemical properties of fruits and significantly increased the shelf life.

  18. Assessment of the pharmaceutical quality of marketed enteric coated pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Haitham F; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Mahrous, Gamal M; Sakr, Adel

    2011-04-01

    Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS) is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux. Increasing the number of pantoprazole containing products in the market, raises questions of its efficacy and generic substitution. The pharmaceutical quality of 6 generic PSS enteric coated tablets in 2 local markets was assessed relative to the innovator product (pantozol®). Uniformity of dosage unit, disintegration and in vitro drug release were determined using United States pharmacopeia for delayed release tablets. The similarity factor (f2) was assessed using the FDA recommended approach (f2 similarity factor). The content uniformity of the innovator product was 98.39% of the labeled claim with RSD value of 1.08%, while the content of generic products ranged from 96.98% to 98.80% with RSD values of 1.24-2.19%. All the products showed no disintegration, cracks or swelling in 0.1 N HCl, except product 1, which showed complete disintegration after 20 min. However, the disintegration of all the products in phosphate buffer met USP requirements. Dissolution of tablets in 0.1 N HCl showed no drug release after 2 h except product 1 in which one tablet showed a drug release more than 10% at acid stage level A1. In addition, three tablets of this product showed dissolution of 45%, 48% and 69% at acid stage level A2. The similarity factor f2 of the products was between 71 and 74 indicating the similarity in dissolution profiles of all the products in accordance to FDA requirements, except product 1 in which f2 value was 18.67.

  19. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  20. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... was comparatively protected against degradation. Furthermore, the initial concentrations of astaxanthin influenced the degradation per se, signifying self-protective properties of astaxanthin....

  1. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2018-03-04

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O 2 and high CO 2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and nonconventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O 2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  2. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  3. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  4. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  5. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Chlorite and Edible Coating on Quality Maintenance of Minimally Processed Citrus grandis under Passive and Active MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Zhaojun; Feng, Jianhua; Wei, Wenwen; Yang, Xiangzheng; Li, Jilan; Guan, Junfeng; Li, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Edible coating has been an innovation within the bioactive packaging concept. The comparative analysis upon the effect of edible coating, sodium chlorite (SC) and their combined application on quality maintenance of minimally processed pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits during storage at 4 °C was conducted. Results showed that the combination of edible coating and SC dipping delayed the microbial development whereas the sole coating or dipping treatment was less efficient. The synergetic application of edible coating and SC treatment under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 10% O2 , 10% CO2 ) was able to maintain the total soluble solids level and ascorbic acid content, while reduce the weight loss as well as development of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Nonetheless, the N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan solely coated samples showed significantly higher level of weight loss during storage with comparison to the untreated sample. Furthermore, the combined application of edible coating and SC dipping under active MAP best maintained the sensory quality of minimally processed pomelo fruit during storage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation and Coating on the Quality and Marketing Ability of Cold-Stored Wonderful Arils Pomegranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.M; Naweto, M.A; Salem, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation either alone and in combination with jojoba oil was tested consecutively for 2011 and 2012 seasons for extending the shelf life of arils «Wonderful» pomegranates. Fruits harvested from a commercial orchard, Giza Governorate. Arils fruits were irradiated by doses 0.25 and 0.50 and 0.75 KGy and coated of 5% jojoba oil then stored at 2±1°C and RH 90% for 21 days and under ambient temperature (20±2°C and RH 80%) for 7 days. Arils quality characteristics (weight loss, fungal decay percentage caused by Aspergillus sp. and Alternaria sp., general appearance, total soluble solids, acidity, L-ascorbic acid and total anthocyanin) were evaluated periodically at removal from cold stor- age and after holding at 20°C. Results showed irradiation at 0.25 KGy in combination with 5% jojoba oil minimized fungal decay of pomegranates arils and obtained the highest significant values of quality character - istics. Whereas jojoba oil treatments were markedly reduced weight loss than control and other treatments. Although total anthocyanin showed insignificant differences among all treatments but arils coated exhibited a slight increase than other

  7. Effect of thyme oil-alginate-based coating on quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarengaowa; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xiu, Zhilong; Feng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Food preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, 15 essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples was investigated. Results showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil and oregano oil were more effective in inhibiting the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibit the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples. The edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. N-Doped TiO₂-Coated Ceramic Membrane for Carbamazepine Degradation in Different Water Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Enbal; Avisar, Dror; Horovitz, Inna; Lozzi, Luca; Baker, Mark A; Grilli, Rossana; Mamane, Hadas

    2017-07-31

    The photocatalytic degradation of the model pollutant carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated under simulated solar irradiation with an N-doped TiO₂-coated Al₂O₃ photocatalytic membrane, using different water types. The photocatalytic membrane combines photocatalysis and membrane filtration in a single step. The impact of each individual constituent such as acidity, alkalinity, dissolved organic matter (DOM), divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ), and Cl - on the degradation of CBZ was examined. CBZ in water was efficiently degraded by an N-doped TiO₂-coated Al₂O₃ membrane. However, elements added to the water, which simulate the constituents of natural water, had an impact on the CBZ degradation. Water alkalinity inhibited CBZ degradation mostly due to increase in pH while radical scavenging by carbonate was more dominant at higher values (>200 mg/L as CaCO₃). A negative effect of Ca 2+ addition on photocatalytic degradation was found only in combination with phosphate buffer, probably caused by deposition of CaHPO₄ or CaHPO₄·2H₂O on the catalyst surface. The presence of Cl - and Mg 2+ ions had no effect on CBZ degradation. DOM significantly inhibited CBZ degradation for all tested background organic compounds. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO₂-coated Al₂O₃ membranes gradually decreased after continuous use; however, it was successfully regenerated by 0.1% HCl chemical cleaning. Nevertheless, dissolution of metals like Al and Ti should be monitored following acid cleaning.

  10. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2017-03-02

    The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (a w ), total number of microorganisms (TNM), psychrotrophs (P), number of yeast and molds (NYM), colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The pH and a w values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  11. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (aw, total number of microorganisms (TNM, psychrotrophs (P, number of yeast and molds (NYM, colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The pH and aw values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  12. Effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating on the quality of Pacific white shrimp during iced storage as affected by caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyun; Lei, Jun; Ma, Junjie; Yuan, Gaofeng; Sun, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating with or without caprylic acid (CAP) on the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during 10days of iced storage. The result showed that chitosan-carvacrol coating significantly inhibited the increase in total aerobic plate count (TPC), pH and total volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N) of shrimp in comparison with the control. Chitosan-carvacrol coating also delayed the melanosis formation and changes of ΔE values, and improved the texture and sensory properties of shrimp. Moreover, incorporation of CAP potentiated the efficacy of chitosan-carvacrol coating in retarding the increase of TPC and TVB-N. Incorporation of CAP into chitosan-carvacrol coating also enabled the texture characteristics of shrimp to be retained greater degrees. These results suggested that chitosan-carvacrol coating may be promising to be used as active packaging for extending the shelf life, and incorporation of CAP may enhance the efficacy of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of edible coatings combined with mild heat shocks on microbial spoilage and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, María del R; Ponce, Alejandra; Ansorena, R; Roura, Sara I

    2011-08-01

    The use of edible coatings and mild heat shocks is proposed as postharvest treatments to prevent microbial deterioration of refrigerated broccoli. Minimally processed broccoli was coated with either chitosan or carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) combined or not with a previous application of a mild heat shock. The evolution of microbial populations (mesophilic, psycrotrophic, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeast, and lactic acid bacteria) was studied during 20 d of storage and fitted to Gompertz and logistic models. Results revealed that, at the end of the storage, chitosan coating significantly reduced all microbiological population counts, except lactic acid bacteria; while higher reduction was observed with chitosan coating combined with a heat shock treatment. A significant delay at the beginning of the exponential phase was observed for all the bacterial populations analyzed. On the other hand, CMC coating, with and without a previous thermal treatment, did not exert any antibacterial effect. Excellent agreement was found between experimental microbial counts and predicted values obtained from Gompertz and logistic models. Kinetic modeling was found to be valuable for prediction of microbiological shelf life of broccoli during storage. Results showed that the application of chitosan coating effectively maintained microbiological quality and extended shelf life of minimally processed broccoli. According to these results, the use of the edible chitosan coating alone or in combination with a heat mild shock appear to be a viable alternative for controlling microbiological growth and sensory attributes in minimally processed broccoli. The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concern has induced to the development and study of edible coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. The edible coatings, formed from generally recognized as safe materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and

  14. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  15. Application of Tragacanth gum impregnated with Satureja khuzistanica essential oil as a natural coating for enhancement of postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, M; Barzegar, M; Sahari, M A; Niakousari, M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Tragacanth gum (TG) coating incorporated with 100, 500 and 1000ppm Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SEO) on the postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 4±1°C for 16days was investigated. Weight loss, firmness, browning index (BI), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial and sensory quality were measured. The results indicated that treatment with TG containing SEO (TGSEO) maintained 92.4% tissue firmness, and reduced microorganism counts, such as yeasts and molds and Pseudomonas, compared to uncoated samples. Furthermore, mushrooms treated with TGSEO coating exhibited up to 57.1% decreased in BI, significantly higher levels of total phenolics (85.6%) and ascorbic acid accumulation (71.8%) than control and its efficiency was better than that TG coating alone. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the capability of TGSEO coating for preserving the quality of mushroom during the storage. The results obtained endorse that application of TGSEO coating might be a simple and effective technique for prolonging their postharvest shelf life of mushroom by up to 16days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R

    2018-05-01

    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g -1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Quality of red cell concentrates in relation to the volume of the buffy coat removed by automated processing in a top and bottom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N; Dekker, W J; Reesink, H A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of automated removal of increasing volumes of buffy coat in a 'top and bottom' system on the composition of red cell concentrates (RCC) was investigated. The volume of the buffy coat was adjusted to group 1:50 ml (n = 31), group 2: 70 ml (n = 31) and group 3: 100 ml (n = 31), respectively. The numbers of platelets and leukocytes in the buffy coats were comparable between the groups, whereas the red cell volumes in the buffy coats showed a significant difference (17 +/- 3.6 ml group 1, versus 22 +/- 4.1 ml group 2 and 26 +/- 3.88 ml group 3; p less than 0.001). The volumes, hematocrits and cell counts of the RCC were not significantly different. The plasma volumes were inversely correlated with the volume of buffy coat removed, i.e. 268 +/- 19 ml group 1, versus 257 +/- 15 ml group 2 and 233 +/- 20 ml group 3 (p less than 0.001). We conclude that in the 'top and bottom' system an increase of the volume of the buffy coat from 50 to 100 ml did not improve the quality of the RCC regarding contamination with leukocytes and platelets.

  18. Analysis of risk of nonconformities and applied quality inspection methods in the process of aluminium profiles coating based on FMEA results

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Knop

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of risk analysis associated with nonconformities of aluminium profiles in the process of coating and quality inspection methods used to their detection. Analysis of risk was done based on results of FMEA method. Evaluated quality inspection methods were distinguished based on the term of inspection in the ISO 9000:2005 norm. Manufacturing process of aluminium profile in micro-technological approach was presented. Triple quantification of nonconformities risk b...

  19. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  20. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  1. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  2. Friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming: Influence of lubrication amount, tool roughness and sheet coating on product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Carleer, B.

    2017-09-01

    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. This paper presents a selection of results considering friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming simulations of a front fender product. For varying lubrication conditions, the front fender can either show wrinkling or fractures. The front fender is modelled using different lubrication amounts, tool roughness’s and sheet coatings to show the strong influence of friction on both part quality and the overall production stability. For this purpose, the TriboForm software is used in combination with the AutoForm software. The results demonstrate that the TriboForm software enables the simulation of friction behaviour for varying lubrication conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  3. Effect of chitosan and alginate based coatings enriched with pomegranate peel extract to extend the postharvest quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M Sneha; Saxena, Alok; Kaur, Charanjit

    2018-02-01

    The influence of chitosan (1% w/v) and alginate (2% w/v) coatings in combination with pomegranate peel extract (PPE; 1% w/v) on quality of guavas (cv Allahabad safeda) were studied. Restricted changes were recorded in respiration rate, ripening index, and instrumental colour values in case of the coated samples as compared to the control for 20days at 10°C. Samples coated with chitosan enriched with PPE (CHE) proved to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the overall fruit quality. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity were recorded with restricted losses of 29%, 8%, 12%, 12% (DPPH) and 9% (FRAP), respectively for CHE samples at the end of storage. A higher degree of correlation (r>0.918) was established between various phytochemicals and AOA. PPE enriched coatings was proved efficient in maintaining the quality of guavas during 20days of low temperature storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Teng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a “top grade” herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM.

  5. Image analysis for maintenance of coating quality in nickel electroplating baths--real time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; van den Berg, F; Ostra, M; Ubide, C

    2011-11-07

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to extract analytical information from images acquired with a flatbed scanner and make use of this information for real time control of a nickel plating process. Digital images of plated steel sheets in a nickel bath are used to follow the process under degradation of specific additives. Dedicated software has been developed for making the obtained results accessible to process operators. This includes obtaining the RGB image, to select the red channel data exclusively, to calculate the histogram of the red channel data and to calculate the mean colour value (MCV) and the standard deviation of the red channel data. MCV is then used by the software to determine the concentration of the additives Supreme Plus Brightner (SPB) and SA-1 (for confidentiality reasons, the chemical contents cannot be further detailed) present in the bath (these two additives degrade and their concentration changes during the process). Finally, the software informs the operator when the bath is generating unsuitable quality plating and suggests the amount of SPB and SA-1 to be added in order to recover the original plating quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace Pigs with Different Coat Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red. Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.

  7. Mathematical modeling of the gas and powder flow in the (HVOF) systems to optimize their coatings quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hazem H.

    1996-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings have been extensively used to enhance materials properties and provide surface protection against their working environments in a number of industrial applications. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the thermal conductivity of aerospace turbine blades and improve the turbine overall thermal efficiency. TBC allows higher gas operating temperatures and lower blade material temperatures due to the thermal insulation provided by these ceramic coatings. In the automotive industry, coatings are currently applied to a number of moving parts that are subjected to friction and wear inside the engine such as pistons, cylinder liners, valves and crankshafts to enhance their wear resistance and prolong their useful operation and lifetime.

  8. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  9. Effects of coating chitosan inhibition to quality of fish fillet Oreochromis niloticus at room temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Eka; Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Patmawati

    2017-02-01

    Fresh fish shelf life can be extended by adding antibacterial compounds such as synthetic chemicals or natural materials. One of the natural ingredients that are safe to use to prolong the freshness of the fish is chitosan. Chitosan is able to provide quality deterioration inhibitory effect of fillet of tilapia. The rate of decline in the value of organoleptic fillet of tilapia treated chitosan solution is slower when compared to no treatment tilapia fillet chitosan solution. In the organoleptic test until the 18 hours of storage, 2% chitosan solution capable of maintaining the highest organoleptic value for the parameter sightings meat, texture, and smell fillet. The use of 2% chitosan solution provided the best results based on the parameters of the appearance of meat, the texture, the smell, the pH value and the value of TVB fillet.

  10. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  11. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Martinez, Diana; Perez, Priscilla; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP Fe-surf ) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that ∼8.7% of ENP Fe-surf applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP Fe-surf was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP Fe-surf deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p Fe-surf would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them. - Highlights: → Surfactant-coated engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (ENP Fe-surf ) were assessed. → Effluent quality was analyzed from a sequencing batch reactor with ENP Fe-surf . → ∼8.7% of ENP Fe-surf applied was present in the effluent. → ENP Fe-surf significantly (p Fe-surf will be introduced into environmental receptors. - Stable presence of surfactant-coated engineered iron oxides nanoparticles deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

  12. EFFECT OF DEW POINT OF ATMOSPHERE OF CGL’S ANNEALING FURNACES ON THE QUALITY OF GA COATING ON BAKE HARDENABLE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Porto Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The strip steel surface condition after continuous annealing of strip is extremely important to the quality of galvannealed coating (GA. The presence of oxides or precipitated can affect the reactions at the coating/substrate interface and decrease the zinc wettability on the steel surface, leading to various defects in the final product. To avoid oxidation of the material during continuous annealing, a protective atmosphere is used in the furnaces. Despite this atmosphere, it is possible the selective oxidation or precipitation of second phase particles, being the dew point of atmosphere one of the leading factors to reduce this occurrence. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the dew point on the quality of GA coatings applied to a bake hardenable steel. The continuous annealing under dew points of –60°C, 30°C and 0°C, as well as hot dip galvanizing, were performed in a Hot Dip Process Simulator. It is found that the dew point has a decisive influence on the amount, distribution and type of oxides formed, and the condition of –30°C provided the coating with less failures and better adhesion.

  13. Modification of cassava starch using combination process lactic acid hydrolysis and micro wave heating to increase coated peanut expansion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Jos, Bakti; Taufani, Muhammad; Yahya, Faad

    2017-05-01

    Modified cassava starch is very prospective products in the food industry. The main consideration of this study is the increasing volume of imported wheat and the demand for modified cassava starch industry. The purpose of this study is the assessing of lactic acid hydrolysis and microwave heating impact to the physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch, and test applications of modified cassava starch to coated peanut expansion quality. Experimental variables include the concentration of lactic acid (0.5% w/w, 1% w/w; 2% w/w), a time of hydrolysis (15, 30, 45 minutes), a time of microwave heating (1, 2, 3 hours). The research step is by dissolving lactic acid using aquadest in the stirred tank reactor, then added cassava starch. Hydrolysed cassava starch was then heated by microwave. Physicochemical properties and rheology of the modified cassava starch is determined by the solubility, swelling power, and test congestion. The optimum obtained results indicate that solubility, swelling power, congestion test, respectively for 19.75%; 24.25% and 826.10% in the hydrolysis treatment for 15 minutes, 1% w lactic acid and microwave heating 3 hours. The physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch have changed significantly when compared to the native cassava starch. Furthermore, these modified cassava starch are expected to be used for the substitution of food products.

  14. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  15. Effect of cassava-starch coatings with ascorbic acidic and N-acetylcysteine on the quality of harton plantain (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coatings was evaluated on the quality ofharton plantain fruits (Musa paradisiaca in the postharvest stage.Solutions for three treatments were prepared from 50 g L-1 cassavastarch (Manihot esculenta with 30 g L-1 glycerol as the plasticizerand 6 g L-1 polyethylene glycol-600®; for anti-browning agents, 6g L-1 ascorbic acid (AA and 8 g L-1 N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC wereadded. The fruits were coated by immersion, stored at 18 ± 4°Cand 85% RH. Physicochemical properties were determined at 32days postharvest. The applied coatings decreased the physiologicalweight loss (%WL and resulted in a higher pulp firmness (PF; nosignificant difference was seen with a confidence level of 95% inthe concentration of total soluble solids (TSS, acidity or maturityindex. The skin color was measured by the CIE L*a*b* method, withan average L value of 70 for the fruits coated with the 6 g L-1 AAand 8 g L-1 NAC mixture, while the control fruits had a value of 57.Also, lower a* coordinate values and browning indices were foundfor the epidermis of the coated fruits. The enzymatic activity of thepolyphenol oxidase decreased with the number of postharvest daysfor all of the treatments, being lower for the fruits with the mixtureof anti-browning agents by 27%, as compared to the control. It wasconcluded that the coating mixture containing the anti-browningagents ascorbic acid, 6 g L-1, and N-acetyl-cysteine, 8 g L-1, showeda better effect as an alternative for storing fruits and prolongingthe shelf-life of harton plantain.

  16. Predictive Model for the Meniscus-Guided Coating of High-Quality Organic Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    A model that describes solvent evaporation dynamics in meniscus-guided coating techniques is developed. In combination with a single fitting parameter, it is shown that this formula can accurately predict a processing window for various coating conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), fabricated by a zone-casting setup, indeed show the best performance at the predicted coating speeds with mobilities reaching 7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A quality by design (QbD case study on enteric-coated pellets: Screening of critical variables and establishment of design space at laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuling Kan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to prepare naproxen enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs by fluid-bed coating using QbD principle. Risk assessment was firstly performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA methodology. A Plackett–Burman design was then used for assessment of the most important variables affecting enteric-coated pellets characteristics. A Box–Behnken design was subsequently used for investigating the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on the response. By FMEA we discovered that eight factors should be considered to be high/important risk variables as compared with others. The responses of acid resistance and cumulative drug release were taken as critical quality attributes (CQAs. Pareto ranking analyses indicated that the coating weight gain (X7, triethyl citrate percentage (X1 and glycerol monostearate percentage (X2 were the most significant factors affecting the selected responses out of the eight high-risk variables. Optimization with response surface method (RSM further fully clarified the relationship between X7, X1, X2 and CQAs, and design space was established based on the constraints set on the responses. Due to the extreme coincidence of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value, the accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed. It could be concluded that a promising NAP-ECPs was successfully designed using QbD approach in a laboratory scale.

  18. The use of electrochemical measurement techniques towards quality control and optimisation of corrosion properties of thermal spray coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreijling, M.P.W.; Hofman, R.; Westing, E.P.M. van; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Metal spray coatings are ever more recognised as a possible superior means of corrosion protection in many environments. Extended service life combined with little or no maintenance provides interesting opportunities for both environmentalists and corrosion engineers. Although many successful

  19. 75 FR 29364 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium carbonate... of 80 or higher; weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade...

  20. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Analysis of risk of nonconformities and applied quality inspection methods in the process of aluminium profiles coating based on FMEA results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Knop

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of risk analysis associated with nonconformities of aluminium profiles in the process of coating and quality inspection methods used to their detection. Analysis of risk was done based on results of FMEA method. Evaluated quality inspection methods were distinguished based on the term of inspection in the ISO 9000:2005 norm. Manufacturing process of aluminium profile in micro-technological approach was presented. Triple quantification of nonconformities risk based on the FMEA method by using three different approaches was conducted. Analysis of nonconformities risks associated with the use of specific quality inspection methods was done. In the last part the analysis of causes of critical nonconformities, proposals for improvement actions reducing the risk of the critical nonconformities and applied critical quality inspection method were showed.

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  3. EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL HYDROPHILIC VERSUS HYDROPHOBIC COAT ON THE QUALITY OF DENTINAL SEALING PROVIDED BY TWO-STEP ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Safira Marques de Andrade; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. Material and Methods: full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. Results: None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (padhesives. Conclusions: The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent. PMID:19466248

  4. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  5. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  6. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhouri, F M; Casari, A C A; Martelli, S M; Mariano, M; Soldi, V; Yamashita, F; Mei, L H Innocnentini

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits

  7. Formulation and evaluation of the use of edible coatings based on gellan chunks of fresh pineapple cut to minimize deterioration of quality attributes and mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saborio Marin, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The result of the use of edible coatings on special based of gellan in various formulations applied on pieces of fresh cut pineapple is evaluated to reduce the degradation of the quality characteristics and mass loss, as a plan to increase the usefulness. The effect of storage time of the fruit before processing (TAP), the application of vacuum pressure and concentration has been studied of the active components (gellan (0,50-1,00%), oil (0,00 -0,20%), glycerol and sorbitol (1,5-2,5%), CaCl 2 (1.0-10,0%)) of the forming solutions of coating. Several parameters are evaluated: the loss of juice, weight and composition of O 2 and CO 2 in the headspace, content of soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) color, darkening and appearance of pineapple chunks. The effect of forming solutions is measured on the adhesion, uniformity, coverage and determination of the water vapor resistance (RVA) coating and the presence of molds and yeasts during refrigerated storage at 5 degrees Celsius and 80% relative humidity. Another finding was that the loss of juice of the pieces uncoated increased (p≤0,05) as the increase TAP of 1 to 3 weeks, still higher than those of the coated pieces (0,50-0,75% gellan ), which have been minimal, while weight loss has decreased. The application of a vacuum pressure of 0,08 MPa before coating the pieces has favored the juice loss after the first two weeks of storage and reduced weight loss of uncoated pieces along the storage. The formulation comprised of 0,75% gellan, 1,5% glycerol, 0,10% oil and 1,0% of CaCl 2 has been which allows further reduction of juice loss and weight of pineapple chunks stored at 5 degrees Celsius and 80% RH [es

  8. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  9. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  10. Effect of thinning on flower and fruit and of edible coatings on postharvest quality of jaboticaba fruit stored at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pimenta do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a Brazilian fruit, native to the Atlantic forest, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In this work we describe the effect of the thinning of "flower", "fruit" and "flower & fruit" compared to non-thinned fruit (control and of edible coatings with respect on nutritional composition, overall acceptability and shelf-life of jaboticaba ‘Sabara’, grown in an irrigated commercial orchard. "Flower and fruit" thinning allows fruit with higher quality as diameter, volume and mass. Non-thinned fruit shows higher yield, however fruit have lower quality. As a result of the improving quality at harvest, the shelf life was twice (~8 days for thinned fruit. The lack of change in concentration of soluble sugar and absence of formation of volatile compounds during storage indicate that there was no natural fermentation of the jaboticaba pulp after harvest. Treatments with wax and calcium did not improve the jaboticaba shelf life.

  11. 75 FR 30370 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium... brightness level of 80 or higher;\\2\\ weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade... typically is referred to as [revaps]cover,' to distinguish it from [revaps]text.''' \\2\\ One of the key...

  12. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (tota...

  13. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (Ppreservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The influence of prefabricated pipe cement coatings and those made during pipe renovation on drinking water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Młyńska Anna; Zielina Michał

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cement coatings are often used as an anticorrosion protection of the internal surfaces of manufactured ductile iron water pipes. The protective cement linings are also commonly used for old water pipe renovation. In both cases, the cement lining is an excellent anticorrosion protection of the pipelines, effectively separating the pipe wall from the flowing water. Moreover, cement linings protect the pipelines not only by a mechanical barrier, but also by a chemical barrier creating ...

  15. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Integrated Application of Quality-by-Design Principles to Drug Product Development: A Case Study of Brivanib Alaninate Film-Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif I F; Narang, Ajit S; LaMarche, Keirnan R; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar A; Varia, Sailesh A; Lin, Judy; Stevens, Tim; Shah, Pankaj A

    2016-01-01

    Modern drug product development is expected to follow quality-by-design (QbD) paradigm. At the same time, although there are several issue-specific examples in the literature that demonstrate the application of QbD principles, a holistic demonstration of the application of QbD principles to drug product development and control strategy, is lacking. This article provides an integrated case study on the systematic application of QbD to product development and demonstrates the implementation of QbD concepts in the different aspects of product and process design for brivanib alaninate film-coated tablets. Using a risk-based approach, the strategy for development entailed identification of product critical quality attributes (CQAs), assessment of risks to the CQAs, and performing experiments to understand and mitigate identified risks. Quality risk assessments and design of experiments were performed to understand the quality of the input raw materials required for a robust formulation and the impact of manufacturing process parameters on CQAs. In addition to the material property and process parameter controls, the proposed control strategy includes use of process analytical technology and conventional analytical tests to control in-process material attributes and ensure quality of the final product. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. N-Doped TiO2-Coated Ceramic Membrane for Carbamazepine Degradation in Different Water Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Enbal; Avisar, Dror; Horovitz, Inna; Lozzi, Luca; Baker, Mark A.; Grilli, Rossana; Mamane, Hadas

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the model pollutant carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated under simulated solar irradiation with an N-doped TiO2-coated Al2O3 photocatalytic membrane, using different water types. The photocatalytic membrane combines photocatalysis and membrane filtration in a single step. The impact of each individual constituent such as acidity, alkalinity, dissolved organic matter (DOM), divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+), and Cl− on the degradation of CBZ was examined. CBZ in water was efficiently degraded by an N-doped TiO2-coated Al2O3 membrane. However, elements added to the water, which simulate the constituents of natural water, had an impact on the CBZ degradation. Water alkalinity inhibited CBZ degradation mostly due to increase in pH while radical scavenging by carbonate was more dominant at higher values (>200 mg/L as CaCO3). A negative effect of Ca2+ addition on photocatalytic degradation was found only in combination with phosphate buffer, probably caused by deposition of CaHPO4 or CaHPO4·2H2O on the catalyst surface. The presence of Cl− and Mg2+ ions had no effect on CBZ degradation. DOM significantly inhibited CBZ degradation for all tested background organic compounds. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2-coated Al2O3 membranes gradually decreased after continuous use; however, it was successfully regenerated by 0.1% HCl chemical cleaning. Nevertheless, dissolution of metals like Al and Ti should be monitored following acid cleaning. PMID:28758982

  18. Implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates for internal quality control of light transmission aggregometry: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüller, F; Rosskopf, K; Mangge, H; Mahla, E; von Lewinski, D; Weiss, E C; Riegler, A; Enko, D

    2017-12-01

    Essentials In platelet function testing, standardized internal controls (IQC) are not commercially provided. Platelet function testing was performed daily on aliquoted pooled platelet concentrates. Pooled platelet concentrates showed stability for control purposes from Monday to Friday. Pooled platelet concentrates provide the necessary steadiness to serve as IQC material. Background Standardized commercially available control material for internal quality control (IQC) of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is still lacking. Moreover, the availability of normal blood donors to provide fresh platelets is difficult in small laboratories, where 'volunteers' may be in short supply. Objectives To evaluate the implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) for IQC material for LTA. Methods We used buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs from the blood bank as IQC material for LTA. On each weekend one PC was prepared (> 200 mL) and aliquoted from the original storage bag on a daily basis in four baby bags (40-50 mL), which were delivered from Monday to Friday to our laboratory. The IQC measurements of at least 85 work-weeks (from Monday to Friday) were evaluated with this new IQC material. LTA was performed on a four-channel Chronolog 700 Aggregometer (Chronolog Corporation, Havertown, PA, USA) (agonists: collagen, adenosine diphosphate [ADP], arachidonic acid [AA] and thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 [TRAP-6]). Results The medians of platelet aggregation from IQC measurements with collagen, ADP and AA from Monday to Friday were 68.0-59.5, 3.0-2.0 and 51.0-50.0%, respectively, and the mean of platelet aggregation with TRAP-6 was 71.2-66.4%. Conclusions Buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs serve as a reliable and robust IQC material for LTA measurements and would be beneficial for the whole laboratory procedure and employees' safety. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL -1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg -1 citric acid and 10 g kg -1 calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O 2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO 2 emission and O 2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...

  1. Study on nano-coating on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbin; Xian Xiaobin; Lu Xuechao; Lang Dingmu; Li Kexue; Tang Kai

    2002-01-01

    The SiO 2 , TiO 2 coatings on uranium have been prepared by sol-gel method under different processes. By evaluating the coating quality with SEM, the optimal process parameters have been determined. Corrosion test shows that the coatings have anticorrosion property

  2. Research into properties of wear resistant ceramic metal plasma coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancivsky, V. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Zverev, E. A.; Vakhrushev, N. V.; Parts, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    The study considers one of the promising ways to improve the quality of wear resistant plasma ceramic coatings by implementing various powder mixtures. The authors present the study results of the nickel-ceramic and cobalt-ceramic coating properties and describe the specific character of the investigated coatings composition. The paper presents the results of the coating microhardness, chemical and adhesive strength studies. The authors conducted wear resistance tests of composite coatings in comparison with the plasma coatings of initial powder components.

  3. Testing the efficacy and the potential effect on indoor air quality of a transparent self-cleaning TiO{sub 2}-coated glass through the degradation of a fluoranthene layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeas, V.; Pichat, P.; Guillard, C.; Chopin, T.; Lehaut, C.

    1999-10-01

    Self-cleaning glass can be obtained by coating glass with a transparent, thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. To test the self-cleaning properties, fluoranthene--the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the atmospheric particulate matter--was sprayed over the glass. Under solar-like UV light, not only was fluoranthene removed at a rate of ca. 0.73 nmol/h per cm{sup 2} of glass but also all fluoranthene degradation products were, and thus the coated-glass transparency was recovered, which did not occur with noncoated glass. The fluoranthene percentage converted to volatile carbonyl products released into ambient air was lower with than without TiO{sub 2} coating; i.e., the self-cleaning glass could have a positive influence on indoor air quality. Mechanisms are discussed to account for the main primary products among the 40 fluoranthene photocatalytic degradation intermediate products which the authors identified.

  4. The Effect of Edible Coating Enriched With Kaffir Lime Leaf Essential Oil (Citrus hystrix DC) on Beef Sausage Quality During Frozen Storage (-18°±2°C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, R.; Kawiji; Khasanah, L. U.; Solikhah, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.

  5. Nutritional quality assessment of tomato fruits after exposure to uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Dominguez, Osvaldo E; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface modification on the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were cultivated in potting soil amended with bare and citric acid coated nanoceria (nCeO 2, nCeO 2 +CA), cerium acetate (CeAc), bulk cerium oxide (bCeO 2 ) and citric acid (CA) at 0-500 mg kg -1 . Fruits were collected year-round until the harvesting time (210 days). Results showed that nCeO 2 +CA at 62.5, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 reduced dry weight by 54, 57, and 64% and total sugar by 84, 78, and 81%. At 62.5, 125, and 500 mg kg -1 nCeO 2 +CA decreased reducing sugar by 63, 75, and 52%, respectively and at 125 mg kg -1 reduced starch by 78%, compared to control. The bCeO 2 at 250 and 500 mg kg -1 , increased reducing sugar by 67 and 58%. In addition, when compared to controls, nCeO 2 at 500 mg kg -1 reduced B (28%), Fe (78%), Mn (33%), and Ca (59%). At 125 mg kg -1 decreased Al by 24%; while nCeO 2 +CA at 125 and 500 mg kg -1 increased B by 33%. On the other hand, bCeO 2 at 62.5 mg kg -1 increased Ca (267%), but at 250 mg kg -1 reduced Cu (52%), Mn (33%), and Mg (58%). Fruit macromolecules were mainly affected by nCeO 2 +CA, while nutritional elements by nCeO 2 ; however, all Ce treatments altered, in some way, the nutritional quality of tomato fruit. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing effects of uncoated and coated nanoceria on tomato fruit quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  7. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effect of tuna skin gelatin-based coating enriched with seaweed extracts on the quality of tuna fillets during storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Vala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers demand high quality food products with an extended shelf-life without chemical additives. Edible coatings (EC containing natural compounds are a promising preservation technology for raw seafood without compromising fresh-like appeal and nutritional content.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Thunnus obesus skin gelatin-based EC containing Codium spp. or Fucus vesiculosus extracts on raw tuna preservation. Three gelatin-based EC (gelatin (5 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Codium spp. (1 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Fucus vesiculosus (1 % + glycerol (25 % were applied directly on the surface of tuna fillets. Functional properties of gelatin and gelatin-based EC containing seaweed extracts were also studied. The gelatin was extracted by an acid-swelling process in the presence/absence of pepsin, followed by subsequent heating/refrigeration, after a pre-treatment with NaOH. The type of acid, temperature and concentration of NaOH greatly influence the process yield. The higher extraction yield was achieved using acetic acid in the presence of pepsin by subsequent refrigeration, especially when skins were previously treated with NaOH (0.2 M. Tuna quality was assessed over 12 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C in terms of chemical and microbial indices. Results showed that tuna skin gelatin-based EC avoids tuna deterioration. Microbial growth, assessed by total viable counts, and total volatile basic nitrogen were maintained below the maximum limits recommended, contrarily to the control. Additionally, the use of EC increased the stability of red colour during storage. 

  9. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  10. Demonstration and Validation of Two Coat High Performance Coating System for Steel Structures in Corrosive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Many of these steel buildings and equipment are tradi- tionally painted with an alkyd enamel or waterborne coating for a top coat. These paint systems...bridging minor cracks or for surfaces that have vi- bration and/or movement. These qualities are necessary in a barrier coat- ing primer for it to remain

  11. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  12. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-05-30

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 h, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  14. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  15. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  16. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part II – Technological formula and value of diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The completed research presented in the first part of the article has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing. On the basis of these data simulations were carried out to examine the behaviour of zinc diffusion coefficient D in the galvanized coating. The adopted model of zinc coating growth helped to explain the cases of excessive growth of the intermetallic phases in this type of coating. The paper analyzes covered the relationship between the roughness and phase composition of the top layer of product and the thickness and kinetics of zinc coating growth referred to individual sub-layers of the intermetallic phases.Roughness and phase composition in the surface layer of product were next related to the diffusion coefficient D examined in respective sublayers of the intermetallic phases.

  17. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  18. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  19. Evaluation of an edible coating based whey protein and beeswax on the physical and chemical quality of gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Osorio Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It was developed and optimized an edible coating based whey protein concentrate and beeswax. An experimental design 32 was used, this was evaluated by response surface methodology, it was obtained that the optimal formulation with a concentration of 15% beeswax and 10% whey protein, reduced by 35.49% weight loss of the fruit with respect to weight loss of control treatments. The optimal treatment was characterized and evaluated on the physicochemical properties of the gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. in two storage conditions: environment (17- 2 ºC y HR: 69% and cooling (4 -2 ºC y HR: 66%. The results for the 15th day evaluation indicated a decrease in the percentage of weight loss, in storage environment and cooling (36.20% and 41.50% respectively. Control treatments decreased acidity in storage environment and cooling 3.88% and 4.92% respectively, compared to coating treatments. pH have not significantly change with any treatment. The coating prevent reduction of soluble solids 3.76% to environmental conditions and 2.27% to cooling conditions. For maturity index were not any significant changes between control treatments and coating treatments, in both conditions. The firmness remained without any significant changes except treatment environment uncoated, this presented a loss of firmness of 12.04% compared to the treatment environment coated. The respiration rate indicates a climacteric peak at day 8th for environment and at day 10th for cooling. For some properties, the cooling treatment uncoated and environment treatment coated have not any significant changes whereby the coating application can be an alternative to the cooling.

  20. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  1. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  2. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  3. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products.

  4. Fluidization control in the wurster coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    el Mafadi Samira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paniculate coating process in a fluidized bed involves different sub processes including particle wetting, spreading and also consolidation or drying of the coating applied. These sub processes are done simultaneously to particle fluidization and motion. All the parameters of fluidization are known to affect the coating quality. That is why the motion of particles in the Wurster coating process has been observed and described step by step. These observations have achieved a general understanding of phenomena which take place inside the bed during fluidization and have allowed the development of an easy method for optimizing all the parameters affecting this operation.

  5. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  6. Composition superconductive plumbous coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Tuleushev, Yu.Zh.; Lisizin, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    Independent dispersion of two or more targets, precipitation of pulverized material on substrate and possibility of composition change in wide range of component concentrations made possible ion-plasma forming of film composition materials from materials with different chemical and physical qualities, particularly in lead-aluminum, lead-beryllium and lead-graphite systems. Named systems are characterized in wide sphere of immiscibility in solid and liquid state and absence of intermediate compounds. It is impossible to receive materials from them in traditional method in conditions of gravitational field. In lead-aluminum system there was received a number of film coatings with aluminum content up to 95 at. % at coating thickness up to 2 μm. Owing to X-ray investigations it is fixed that lead and aluminum have been performed by separate phases. Lead in sprayed layer represents well-crystallized phase with grain size more than 100 nm; texturing is not found. Study of physical qualities has shown that materials with lead base 21.6 at. % Al) have enough high crystalline current in comparison with compact lead, which reaches (2.5-3.0)·10 5 A)·cm 2 , while materials with aluminum base (21.6 at. % Al) loose this effect and critical temperature of transition is reduced from 7.1 to 5.8 K. It was impossible to carry out X-rayed analysis for lead-beryllium film because of weak intensity of beryllium lines against a background of lead owing to a quite large difference of atomic balance. Cryogen tests have shown the increase of critical current strength up to (3.1-3.6)·10 4 A)·cm 2 or composition coating of lead-beryllium (56.99 at. % or 5,45 mas. % Be), at that the critical temperature of transition does not differ from lead temperature. Samples of lead edge of state diagram have been received in the lead-graphite system. X-ray investigation subjected coating contained 6.81 at. % (55.82 mas. %) of lead. Choice of the composition is conditioned on possibilities of

  7. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  9. Development of Coated Particle Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kim, B. G.; Kim, Y. K.

    2009-04-01

    UO 2 kernel fabrication technology was developed at the lab sacle(20∼30g-UO 2 /batch). The GSP technique, modified method of sol-gel process, was used in the preparation of spherical ADU gel particle and these particles were converted to UO 3 and UO 2 phases in calcination furnace and sintering furnace respectively. Based on the process variables optimized using simulant kernels in 1-2 inch beds, SiC TRISO-coated particles were fabricated using UO 2 kernel. Power densities of TRISO coated particle fuels and gamma heat of the tubes are calculated as functions of vertical location of the fuel specimen in the irradiation holes by using core physics codes, MCNP and Helios. A finite model was developed for the calculations of temperatures and stresses of the specimen and the irradiation tubes. Dimensions of the test tubes are determined based on the temperatures and stresses as well as the gamma heat generated at the given condition. 9 modules of the COPA code (MECH, FAIL, TEMTR, TEMBL, TEMPEB, FPREL, MPRO, BURN, ABAQ), the MECH, FAIL, TEMTR, TEMBL, TEMPEB, and FPREL were developed. The COPA-FPREL was verified through IAEA CRP-6 accident benchmarking problems. KAERI participated in the round robin test of IAEA CRP-6 program to characterize the diameter, sphericity, coating thickness, density and anisotropy of coated particles provided by Korea, USA and South Africa. The inspection and test plan describing specifications and inspection method of coated particles was developed to confirm the quality standard of coated particles. The quality inspection instructions were developed for the inspection of coated particles by particle size analyzer, density inspection of coating layers by density gradient column, coating thickness inspection by X-ray, and inspection of optical anistropy factor of PyC layer. The quality control system for the TRISO-coated particle fuel was derived based on the status of quality control systems of other countries

  10. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  11. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  13. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  14. Application of a tablet film coating model to define a process-imposed transition boundary for robust film coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ban, Sander; Pitt, Kendal G; Whiteman, Marshall

    2018-02-01

    A scientific understanding of interaction of product, film coat, film coating process, and equipment is important to enable design and operation of industrial scale pharmaceutical film coating processes that are robust and provide the level of control required to consistently deliver quality film coated product. Thermodynamic film coating conditions provided in the tablet film coating process impact film coat formation and subsequent product quality. A thermodynamic film coating model was used to evaluate film coating process performance over a wide range of film coating equipment from pilot to industrial scale (2.5-400 kg). An approximate process-imposed transition boundary, from operating in a dry to a wet environment, was derived, for relative humidity and exhaust temperature, and used to understand the impact of the film coating process on product formulation and process control requirements. This approximate transition boundary may aid in an enhanced understanding of risk to product quality, application of modern Quality by Design (QbD) based product development, technology transfer and scale-up, and support the science-based justification of critical process parameters (CPPs).

  15. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  16. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  17. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of ethnic South African foods. Part I: Combined edible coating and irradiation treatment on sensory and microbiological quality of moist beef biltong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.; Nortje, K.; Parry-Hanson, A.M.A.; Buys, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    South Africa is a multicultural country with different eating habits and food preferences. Traditional African foods such as bovine tripe form a part of the diet of black South Africans. These foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially, and have a limited shelf life. Other popular ethnic foods in South Africa include meat products such as biltong, an intermediate moisture dried raw meat product. Moist beef biltong has the potential to cause food poisoning. The application of irradiation alone or in combination with other technologies can help solve these problems. Lean moist beef biltong (47% moisture, 3.7% NaCl, 1.5% crude fat, water activity 0.92) can be irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy without adversely affecting sensory acceptability, provided that the irradiation is performed under vacuum conditions and that the biltong is exposed to aerobic conditions after irradiation to dissipate off odour volatiles. However, low dose irradiation (≤4 kGy) was perceived to be more acceptable and preferable by consumers. Gamma irradiation of moist beef biltong (53.6% moisture, 1.91% NaCl, water activity 0.979) at doses between 4 and 5 kGy was adequate to ensure safety from Staphylococcus aureus even if contamination levels as high as 10 7 CFU/g were initially present. However, doses up to 5 kGy were insufficient to prevent yeast and mould spoilage if initial fungal contamination levels were high (>10 3 CFU/g). Casein-whey protein edible coatings did not inhibit microbial growth on moist beef biltong, probably owing to diminished oxygen barrier properties resulting from the very high moisture content of the biltong. Ready-to-eat bovine tripe can be irradiated up to 9.3 kGy without affecting the consumer acceptance adversely. Gamma irradiation at a target dose of 9 kGy significantly reduced total bacteria counts and aerobic spore counts and extended the shelf life of ready-to-eat bovine tripe to at least 14 d at both 5 and 15 deg. C when aerobic

  18. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  19. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  1. Electrocautery Devices With Feedback Mode and Teflon-Coated Blades Create Less Surgical Smoke for a Quality Improvement in the Operating Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Tobias; Liodaki, Eirini; Kraemer, Robert; Mailaender, Peter; Brandenburger, Matthias; Hellwig, Veronika; Stang, Felix H

    2015-07-01

    Monopolar electrocautery is a fast and elegant cutting option. However, as it creates surgical smoke containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it may be hazardous to the health of the surgical team. Although new technologies, such as feedback mode (FM) and Teflon-coated blades (TBs), reduce tissue damage, their impact on surgical smoke creation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the plume at its source.The aim of this study was to evaluate if electrocautery FM and TBs create less surgical smoke.Porcine tissue containing skin was cut in a standardized manner using sharp-edged Teflon-coated blades (SETBs), normal-shaped TBs, or stainless steel blades (SSBs). Experiments were performed using FM and pure-cut mode. Surgical smoke was sucked through filters or adsorption tubes. Subsequently, filters were scanned and analyzed using a spectrophotometer. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) was performed to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene as 2 of the most critical PAHs. Temperature changes at the cutting site were measured by an infrared thermometer.In FM, more surgical smoke was created using SSB compared with TBs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences between FM and pure-cut mode were found for SSB and TB (P < 0.001), but not for SETB (P = 0.911). Photometric analysis revealed differences in the peak heights of the PAH spectrum. In HLPC-UV, the amount of BaP and phenanthrene detected was lower for TB compared with SSB. Tissue temperature variations increased when SSB was used in FM and pure-cut mode. Furthermore, different modes revealed higher temperature variations with the use of SETB (P = 0.004) and TB (P = 0.005) during cutting, but not SSB (P = 0.789).We found that the use of both TBs and FM was associated with reduced amounts of surgical smoke created during cutting. Thus, the surgical team may benefit from the adoption of such new technologies, which could contribute to the primary

  2. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  3. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  4. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  5. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  6. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  7. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  8. Waterborne UV coating for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    (Full Text): Solvent borne industrial coatings are being replaced by environment friendly coatings like Ultra Violet (UV) or Electron Beam (Eb) cured coatings, Powder coatings and Waterborne coatings. Waterborne systems enjoy the biggest share from this shift. UV and EB coatings provide the advantages of instant cure at room temperature, high scratch and abrasion resistance combined with excellent chemical resistance. Polyurethane (PU) chemistry is the dominant chemistry in Industrial coatings as they provide a very high level of performance. Most PU coatings are solvent based 2-component systems comprising of a resin and a cross linker. Polyurethane dispersions (PUD) in water in single pack are available but mainly addresses the Do It Yourself (DIY) market because of their slow drying speeds. Performance of PUD in most cases is inferior to solvent borne 2-component PU systems.Therefore the combination of PU dispersion and UV/EB curable technology has led to new innovative waterborne polymers called UV curable polyurethane dispersions (UVPUD). UVPUD are zero VOC systems as they are coalescent free. They are higher in molecular weight than standard UV curable products resulting in lower shrinkage coatings and provide good adhesion to substrates. Their low-viscosity makes them suitable for application by spray, curtain coater and even roller coater, without having to use monomers. UVPUD display superior chemical and mechanical properties necessary to protect high quality surface from the challenging usage conditions. UVPUD resins are therefore tailor-made to address performance needs like excellence in outdoor durability, scratch resistance, stain resistance, adhesion etc. UVPUD technology is now growing rapidly in industrial coatings for applications such as resilient flooring, wooden parquet flooring, automotive interior plastics, mobile phones etc. (Author)

  9. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Bi, Q.; Ziegele, H.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, thicknesses, and surface roughnesses, by changing the N 2 flow rate, applying multilayering techniques and changing the substrate finish prior to coating. The microstructure of such coatings is investigated by various analytical techniques such as glancing angle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which are also correlated with the corrosion performance of the coated steel. Both dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of Cr-N coated steel in a 0.5N NaCl solution. It has been found that the N 2 flow rate during reactive deposition strongly determines the microstructure of Cr-N coatings (due to the changing nitrogen content in the film) and can thus affect the corrosion resistance of coated systems. The surface finish of the steel substrate also affects the uniformity and coverage of PVD coatings; grooves and inclusions on the original substrate can raise the susceptibility of coated

  11. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  12. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  13. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  14. Corrosion performance of epoxy-coated reinforcement in aggressive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca Cortes, Enrique

    coating adhesion after production. An adhesion test procedure was developed and is recommended for quality control. A set of recommendations for proper quality control, design, and construction practice of structures with epoxy-coated reinforcement was proposed.

  15. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  16. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  17. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  18. Vacuum-plasma-sprayed silicon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Bancke, G.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Romanoski, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying produces well-bonded dense stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this study, silicon metal was deposited on graphite to study the feasibility of preventing corrosion and oxidation of graphite components for nuclear reactors. Operating parameters were varied in a Taguchi design of experiments to display the range of the plasma processing conditions and their effect on the measured coating characteristics. The coating attributes evaluated were thickness, porosity, microhardness and phase content. This paper discusses the influence of the processing parameters on as-sprayed coating qualities. The paper also discusses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere. The diffraction spectrum for a sample that experienced a 1600degC temperature cycle indicated that more than 99% of the coating transformed to β-SiC. The silicon coatings protected the graphite substrates from oxidation in one experiment. (orig.)

  19. Ion beam sputter coatings for laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Detlev; Gross, Tobias

    2005-09-01

    The initial motivation for the development of Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) processes was the need for optical coatings with extremely low optical scatter losses for laser gyros. Especially, backscattering of the gyro-mirrors couples the directional modes in the ring resonator leading to the lock in effect which limits the sensitivity of the gyro. Accordingly, the first patent on IBS was approved for an aircraft company (Litton) in 1978. In the course of the rapid development of the IBS-concept during the last two decades, an extremely high optical quality could be achieved for laser coatings in the VIS- and NIR-spectral region. For example, high reflecting coatings with total optical losses below 1 ppm were demonstrated for specific precision measurement applications with the Nd:YAG-laser operating at 1.064 μm. Even though the high quality level of IBS-coatings had been confirmed in many applications, the process has not found its way into the production environment of most optical companies. Major restrictions are the relatively low rate of the deposition process and the poor lateral homogeneity of the coatings, which are related to the output characteristics of the currently available ion sources. In the present contribution, the basic principles of IBS will be discussed in the context of the demands of modern laser technology. Besides selected examples for special applications of IBS, aspects will be presented for approaches towards rapid manufacturing of coatings and the production of rugate filters on the basis of IBS-techniques.

  20. Plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeper, T.J.; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.; Riggs, W.L. II; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the air plasma spraying (APS) of alumina-titania powder using argon-hydrogen working gases. This powder system is being used in the fabrication of heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coatings. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, surface profilometry, image analysis, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. attempts are made to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters

  1. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  2. Coated fuel particles: requirements and status of fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Vygen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel cycle, design, and irradiation performance requirements impose restraints on the fabrication processes. Both kernel and coating fabrication processes are flexible enough to adapt to the needs of the various existing and proposed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Extensive experience has demonstrated that fuel kernels with excellent sphericity and uniformity can be produced by wet chemical processes. Similarly experience has shown that the various multilayer coatings can be produced to fully meet design and specification requirements. Quality reliability of coated fuel particles is ensured by quality control and quality assurance programs operated by an aduiting system that includes licensing officials and the customer

  3. Qualidade pós-colheita de cerejas cv. Ambrunés utilizando coberturas comestíveis Post harvest quality of cherry cv. Ambrunés using edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Duarte Carvalho Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a qualidade de cerejas cv. Ambrunés ("picotas", cobertas com películas comestíveis à base de zeína e cera de carnaúba, aplicadas na forma de imersão e pulverização, e armazenadas em ambiente controlado a 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa de 90 - 95 %. Os parâmetros usados para avaliar a qualidade dos frutos foram: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, perda de peso, relação SST/ATT e deterioração fúngica. Os frutos foram avaliados até o 52º dia de conservação. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba mostrou-se superior em todos os parâmetros, quando comparados com os frutos-testemunha e os cobertos com zeína. A cobertura à base de zeína provocou a aceleração da maturação dos frutos e apresentou deterioração fúngica a partir do 24º dia de armazenamento. Foi observado que a forma de comercialização das cerejas sem o pedúnculo ("picotas" representa maior possibilidade de contaminação fúngica através da área lesionada. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba aplicada na forma de imersão retardou a podridão até o 45º dia de conservação, apresentando-se como o melhor tratamento.The objective of this study was evaluate the quality of cherries cv Ambrunés (cherries perforated covered with edible coatings based on zeina and carnaúba wax emulsion, appliied in the form of immersion and pulverization and storage in controlled environment with temperature 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC and humidity 90 - 95 %. The parameters used to evaluate the quality of the fruits were: soluble solid, titratable acidity, loss of weight, soluble solid relation / titratable total acidity and fungal deterioration. The fruits were evaluated until the 52nd day of conservation. The treatment that used the emulsion carnaúba wax was superior in all of the parameters when compared with the control fruits and the fruits coatings with zeina. The coating based on zeína provoked an acceleration

  4. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Gao Peng; Gao Ya; Yang Zhirong; Sun Qun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 10 4 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  5. Effect of Coating Parameters of the Buffer Layer on the Shape Ratio of TRISO-Coated Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Weon Ju; Park, Jong Hoon; Park, Ji Yeon; Lee, Young Woo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Fuel for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR's) consists of TRISO-coated particles. Fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) has been applied to fabricate the TRISO-coated fuel particles. The TRISO particles consist of UO 2 microspheres coated with layers of porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC), inner dense PyC (IPyC), SiC, and outer dense PyC (OPyC). The porous PyC coating layer, called the buffer layer, attenuates fission recoils and provides void volume for gaseous fission products and carbon monoxide. The buffer layer, which has the highest coating rate among the coating layers, shows the largest variation of the coating thickness within a particle and a batch. This could be the most plausible source of an asphericity in the TRISO particles. The aspherical particles are expected to have an inferior fuel performance. Miller et al. have predicted that a larger stress is developed within the coating layers and thus the failure probability increases in the particles with high aspect ratios. Therefore, the shape of the TRISO-coated particles should be controlled properly and has been one of the important inspection items for the quality control of the fabrication process. In this paper, we investigated the effect of coating parameters of the buffer layer on the shape of the TRISO particles. The flow rate of coating gas and the coating temperature were varied to control the buffer layer. The asphericity of the TRISO-coated particles was evaluated for the various coating conditions of the buffer layer, but at constant coating parameters for the IPyC/SiC/OPyC layers

  6. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  7. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the physical and physiological quality of mahogany seeds that are coated with fertilizer and fungicide. The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of fertilizers. The seeds were evaluated in the laboratory and in a greenhouse.

  8. Cooper coatings on stainless steel by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, M.; Estanislau, S.; Cabral, A.; Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    Copper laser cladding was performed on AISI 304L stainless steel. Some process parameters like process speed and focal point were analysed and it was established its influence on the quality of the coating. Simple track coating were achieved with good aspect, good adherence and good surface finishing. Therefore a reference basis for further developments related to industrial application, was created. (Author) 14 refs

  9. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  10. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  11. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  12. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion

  13. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  14. Qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'fuyu' com utilização de diferentes concentrações de cobertura comestível Postharvest quality of 'fuyu' persimmon using different concentrations of edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carvalho da Silva

    2011-02-01

    environmental contamination, in order to improve the visual aspect. Therefore, it is possible to increase shelf life, and decrease post harvest losses. Persimmon is a much appreciated fruit, with high potential for export, but sensitive to handling and storage. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying the edible coating Megh Wax ECF-124 (18% of active composts, consisting of emulsion of carnauba wax, anionic surfactant, preservative and water produced by Megh Industry and Commerce Ltda in three different concentrations (25, 50 and 100% on post harvest quality of 'Fuyu' persimmon stored for 14 days. The attributes evaluated for quality were: firmness, pH, acidity, soluble solids, weight loss and color. The results showed that application of carnauba wax in different concentrations was effective on decreasing weight loss of persimmon cv. Fuyu and maintenance of color aspects. Treatment at lower concentration, 25%, showed lower rate of discharge, but high concentrations showed lower values of mass loss. Carnauba wax application showed a high potential for use on postharvest conservation, and can be applied together with other technologies, helping to maintain quality for export.

  15. Phase Transition Control for High-Performance Blade-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo; Munir, Rahim; Fan, Yuanyuan; Niu, Tianqi; Liu, Yucheng; Zhong, Yufei; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Yuansi; Liu, Bo; Sun, Jie; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2018-01-01

    with high crystal quality and photophysical properties can be obtained only via direct crystallization for both spin-coating and blade-coating processes. As a result, the blade-coated MAPbI3 films deliver excellent charge-collection efficiency at both short

  16. Design and performance evaluation of the functional coating for air purification under indoor conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorencik, S.; Yu, Q.L.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to develop a photocatalytic coating for the improvement of indoor air quality. Two types of visible-light responsive photocatalysts (powder and suspension form) were applied into a water-based acrylic coating. The applied materials were characterized and the developed coatings

  17. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  18. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  19. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  20. Coated electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  1. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  2. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  3. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  4. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  5. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  6. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  7. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  8. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  9. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  10. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  11. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.

    1969-01-01

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors) [fr

  12. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  13. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of hydrophobic, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to decelerate frost propagation was investigated. Compared to a bare aluminum surface, the coatings do not significantly reduce the freezing probability of supercooled water drops. On both surfaces, the probability for ice nucleation...... at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...

  14. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600 0 C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles ( 2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000 0 C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500 0 C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO) 4 as the catalyst, C 2 H 2 as the carbon source gas, and H 2 as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530 0 C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 μm/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters

  15. Effect of negative bias on TiAlSiN coating deposited on nitrided Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Zhou; Zhendong, Feng; Xiangfang, Fan; Yanhong, Liu; Huanlin, Li

    2018-01-01

    TiAlSiN coatings were deposited on the nitrided Zircaloy-4 by multi-arc ion plating at -100 V, -200 V and -300 V. In this study, the high temperature oxidation behavior of coatings was tested by a box-type resistance furnace in air for 3 h at 800 °C; the macro-morphology of coatings was observed and analyzed by a zoom-stereo microscope; the micro-morphology of coatings was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical elements of samples were analyzed by an energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS); the adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate was measured by an automatic scratch tester; and the phases of coatings were analyzed by an X-ray diffractometer(XRD). Results show that the coating deposited at -100 V shows better high temperature oxidation resistance behavior, at the same time, Al elements contained in the coating is of the highest amount, meanwhile, the adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate is the highest, which is 33N. As the bias increases, high temperature oxidation resistance behavior of the coating weakens first and then increases, the amount of large particles on the surface of the coating increases first and then decreases whereas the density of the coating decreases first and then increases, and adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate increases first and then weakens. The coating's quality is relatively poor when the bias is -200 V.

  16. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  17. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  18. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  19. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  20. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  1. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  2. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  3. Optimizing the coating process for double-coated, wood-containing papers. Double toko chushitsushi no toko process no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T [Sumitomo Jukikai Valmet Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-01

    Medium weight coat (MWC) paper is judged to be optimum for the heating setting offsetting rotary press and appropriate also for the offset printing. Representative printed matters to use MWC paper comprise, among others, sales promotion and high grade propagation purpose documents, and specialized magazines. Judging from the viewpoint of comparison between the one-layer coating and two-layer coating, effect of different coating methods, optimization in drying, etc., the two-layer coating is more advantageous than the one-layer coating in quality to keep the homogeneity also even after the printing. There are cases that the two-layer coating lowers the total cost for necessary constituent elements for the coating. The drying method of precoating, if made by an applicator roll, hardly influences the brightness and smoothness. For the precoating, the use of roll applicator gives a better brightness than that of short dwell. It was also known that the use of roll applicator solves problems raised by the increase in coated quantity due to the use of short dwell. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Qualidade pós-colheita de tomates 'Débora' com utilização de diferentes coberturas comestíveis e temperaturas de armazenamento Quality of 'Debora' tomato using different edible coatings and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chiumarelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas comestíveis sobre a qualidade pós-colheita do tomate de mesa cv. Débora. Foram utilizadas as seguintes coberturas: cera de carnaúba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsão de resinas Fruit Wax M-AC (18% e cera de carnaúba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomates sem cera serviram de controle. Foram utilizados 40 frutos por tratamento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após a limpeza e aplicação das ceras, os frutos foram armazenados a 12,5°C e 25°C e 90% de umidade relativa. Análises para perda de massa fresca (%, coloração e qualidade foram realizadas durante quinze dias. No final do período de armazenagem, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à firmeza, pH, concentração de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C e acidez. Foi realizada também análise sensorial para frutos armazenados nas duas diferentes temperaturas. O tratamento com Megh Wax ECF-124 proporcionou menor perda de massa e frutos mais firmes em ambas as temperaturas. Tomates tratados com Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 apresentaram maior porcentagem de frutos apropriados ao consumo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto à coloração e análises químicas, exceto para os frutos cobertos com Fruit Wax M-AC, que apresentaram menor teor de vitamina C em ambas as temperaturas e maior pH a 25°C. As ceras Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 não interferiram no sabor e no odor dos frutos. A aplicação de cera contribui para uma diminuição na perda de massa e decréscimo no número de frutos descartados devido a danos físicos e podridões, sendo que Megh Wax ECF-124 é mais eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de tomates de mesa.This study aimed at evaluating the effect of edible coatings on tomato cv. Debora post-harvest quality. The following waxing emulsions were used: wax of carnauba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsion of resins Fruit Wax M-AC (18% and wax of carnauba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomatoes without

  5. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  6. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  7. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-6, Protective Coating Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes the duties of the nuclear quality assurance/quality control technician that are associated with protective coatings, and the national standards that govern the selection, application, and inspection of protective coatings for the reactor containment…

  9. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  10. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  11. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  12. Yellowing of coated papers under the action of heat, daylight radiation, and nitrogen oxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailly, V.; Le Nest, J.F.; Tosio, J.M.S.; Silvy, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the area of coated papers, a high degree of whiteness is often required to carry a quality image. Coated papers however are sensitive to the environment where they are stored and have tendency to yellow. The aim of this work was to study the influence of(i) daylight radiation and (ii) nitrogen oxide gas (NO2 ) on the yellowing of coated papers. In a previous study (l), we had established the presence of NO2 in the environment of some coating machines because of the transformation of ammonium hydroxide (NH4 OH, a component of some coating colors) into nitrogen oxide through the burners of hot air supplier-systems

  13. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  14. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  15. Optimizing the fabrication of aluminum-coated fiber probes and their application to optical near-field lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S; Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, PS

    1998-01-01

    in terms of roughness and the presence of leaking holes in the coating. We report on how the quality of the coating depends on parameters such as deposition rate and background pressure during evaporation. We have used aluminum-coated fiber probes in lithographical studies of different materials, like side...

  16. METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

  17. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    microns can obliterate small features. The nanoimprint lithography community extensively uses functional monolayer coatings on silicon/SiO2 lithographic stamps [7–11]. This treatment dramatically reduces stiction, and improves yield and quality of replicated nanostructures. Here we report on a fluorinated...... trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. We have tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ◦C...

  18. Development of high-index optical coating for security holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadir A. G.

    2000-10-01

    Over the past few years security holograms have grown into a complex business to prevent counterfeiting of security cards, banknotes and the like. Rapid advances in holographic technology have led to a growing requirement for optical materials and coating methods to produce such holograms at reasonable costs. These materials have specific refractive indices and are used to fabricate semi- transparent holograms. The present paper describes a coating process to deposit optical coating on flexible films inside a vacuum web metallizer for the production of high quality semi-transparent holograms.

  19. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  20. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  1. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  2. Fluidization bed coating of copper bars with epoxy powder

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Chiaw Min

    2014-01-01

    Fluidized bed coating (FBC) is a process where preheated material is dipped into a flowing liquid bed of powder. Although FBC has existed for more than half a century, however there is little knowledge about the fluidized bed design that gives excellent fluidization quality as well as reducing powder entrainment. The objectives of this thesis are to investigate the effect of two different types of distributor with different pressure drop on powder coating, hydrodynamics of fluidized bed coati...

  3. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  4. Nanophase hardfaced coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisgen, U.; Stein, L.; Balashov, B.; Geffers, C. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). ISF - Welding and Joining Institute

    2009-08-15

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of producing iron or chromium-based nanophase hardfaced coatings by means of common arc welding methods (TIG, PTA). The appropriate composition of the alloys to be deposited allows to control the structural properties and thus also the coating properties of the weld metal. Specific variations of the alloying elements allow also the realisation of a nanostructured solidification of the carbides and borides with cooling rates that are common for arc surfacing processes. The hardfaced coatings, which had been thus produced, showed phase dimensions of approximately 100-300 nm. Based on the results it is established that the influence of the surfacing parameters and of the coating thickness and thus the influence of the heat control on the nanostructuring process is, compared with the influence of the alloy composition, of secondary importance. The generation of nanoscale structures in hardfaced coatings allows the improvement of mechanical properties, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Potential applications for these types of hardfaced coatings lie, in particular, in the field of cutting tools that are exposed to corrosion and wear. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diese Arbeit demonstriert die Moeglichkeit zur Herstellung Eisen- und Chrom-basierter nanophasiger Hartauftragschweissschichten mithilfe ueblicher Lichtbogenschweissverfahren (WIG-, Plasma-Pulver-Auftragschweissen - PPA). Eine geeignete Zusammensetzung der aufzutragenden Legierungen ermoeglicht es, die Gefuegeeigenschaften und damit die Schichteigenschaften des Schweissgutes zu kontrollieren. Gezielte Variationen der Legierungselemente erlauben die Realisierung einer nanostrukturierten Erstarrung der Karbide und Boride bei fuer Lichtbogen-Auftragschweissprozessen ueblichen Abkuehlgeschwindigkeiten. In den so erzeugten Hartschichten werden Phasengroessen von ca. 100-300 nm erreicht. Auf Basis der gewonnenen Ergebnisse kann

  5. On the Cutting Performance of Coated HSS Taps When Machining of Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwkova, Petra; Piska, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with a quality of the PVD coated HSS taps when cutting the stainless austenitic chromiumnickel non-stabilized steel DIN 1.4301 (X5CrNi 18-10). The main attention is focused on the analysis of loading (cutting moment, specific energy) of the HSS taps by means of pieso-electrical dynamometer Kistler 9272 and the relation between the quality of duplex and triplex PVD coatings and their effects on the quality of machined thread surfaces and tool life of the taps. The results showed a safe and stabilized cutting with acceptable quality of threads for HSSE with the TiN+TiCN+DLC coating.

  6. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  7. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  8. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  9. Pulse current electrodeposition of tungsten coatings on V–4Cr–4Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Yingchun; Li, Xuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on vanadium alloy substrate. • Tungsten coatings consisted of two sub-layers. • Tungsten coatings plated at lower duty cycle has a better surface quality. • High heat flux property of tungsten coatings was investigated. • Helium ion irradiation property of tungsten coatings was investigated. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings with high (2 2 0)-orientation were formed on V alloy substrate by pulse current electrodeposition in air atmosphere. The coatings’ microstructure, crystal structure and adhesive strength between coatings and substrates were investigated. It could be observed the tungsten coatings consisted of two sub-layers with the inner tooth-like layer, and the outer columnar layer. The tungsten coatings deposited at lower duty cycle have a better surface quality with a little change in the adhesive strength. The tungsten coating was exposed to electron beam with power density of 200 MW/m 2 in the thermal shock test, the tungsten crystal grain surface melt, the microcracks are found among the crystal grains. Exfoliation, flaking and dense needle-like holes were observed on the tungsten coating after irradiation with helium ions at an energy of 65 keV and an implanted dose of 22.67 × 10 18 cm −2

  10. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  11. A combined histology and transcriptome analysis unravels novel questions on Medicago truncatula seed coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirached-Darmency, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The seed coat is involved in the determination of seed quality traits such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Understanding seed coat structure is therefore a prerequisite to deciphering the genetic mechanisms that govern seed coat functions. By combining histological and transcriptomic data analyses, cellular and molecular events occurring during Medicago truncatula seed coat development were dissected in order to relate structure to function and pinpoint target genes potentially involved in seed coat traits controlling final seed quality traits. The analyses revealed the complexity of the seed coat transcriptome, which contains >30 000 genes. In parallel, a set of genes showing a preferential expression in seed coat that may be involved in more specific functions was identified. The study describes how seed coat anatomy and morphological changes affect final seed quality such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Putative regulator genes of different processes have been identified as potential candidates for further functional genomic studies to improve agronomical seed traits. The study also raises new questions concerning the implication of seed coat endopolyploidy in cell expansion and the participation of the seed coat in de novo abscisic acid biosynthesis at early seed filling. PMID:23125357

  12. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  13. Corrosion protection by organic coatings in gas and oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    The drive to improve performance of coatings as protection against corrosion for automotive, aerospace and oil and gas industries is a never-ending story. Surface preparation is the most important single factor when a substrate surface e.g. steel is to be protected with a coating. This implies an extremely accurate and reliable characterisation of the substrate-surface prior to coating process and the investigation of polymeric coating materials. In order to have a durable adhesive bonding between the polymeric coating materials and the substrate i.e. to ensure prolonged life time and fewer maintenance intervals of coated products, a pre-treatment of the substrate is required in many cases. Sand blasting, corona /plasma pre.treatment of the substrate and the use of coupling agents like organo silanes are well accepted recent methods. Advanced surface analytical techniques like ESCA and TOFSIMS are proving to be extremely helpful in the chemical characterisation of the substrate surface. Contamination e.g. fat residues, tensides etc. on the substrate is one of the most serious enemies of adhesive bonding and the above mentioned techniques are playing a vital role in combating the enemy. Modern thermal analytical methods have made tremendous contribution to the development and quality control of high-performance polymeric coatings. MDSC, DMA and DETA are proving to be very useful tools for the characterisation of high-performance coating materials. An in-depth understanding of the structure-property relationship of these materials, predominantly epoxy and polyurethane coating systems, is a pre-requisite for their successful application and subsequent Quality Control. (author)

  14. Advances in edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K

    2013-01-01

    Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed.

  15. ADHESION OF BIOCOMPATIBLE TiNb COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kolegar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of a coating with a high quality requires good adhesion of the film to the substrate. The paper deals with the adhesion of biocompatible TiNb coating with different base materials. Several materials such as titanium CP grade 2, titanium alloys Ti6Al4V and stainless steel AISI 316L were measured. Testing samples were made in the shape of small discs. Those samples were coated with a TiNb layer by using the PVD method (magnetron sputtering. Onto the measured layer of TiNb an assistant cylinder was stuck using a high strength epoxy adhesive E1100S. The sample with the assistant cylinder was fixed into a special fixture and the whole assembly underwent pull-off testing for adhesion. The main result of this experiment was determining the strength needed to peel the layer and morphology and size of the breakaway. As a result, we will be able to determine the best base material and conditions where the coating will be remain intact with the base material.

  16. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  17. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  18. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  19. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  20. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  1. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  2. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2013-05-15

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF LASER CLADDING WEAR-RESISTANT COATING ON TITANIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    RUILIANG BAO; HUIJUN YU; CHUANZHONG CHEN; BIAO QI; LIJIAN ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advanced surface modification technology with broad prospect in making wear-resistant coating on titanium alloys. In this paper, the influences of laser cladding processing parameters on the quality of coating are generalized as well as the selection of cladding materials on titanium alloys. The microstructure characteristics and strengthening mechanism of coating are also analyzed. In addition, the problems and precaution measures in the laser cladding are pointed out.

  4. Automated coating procedures to produce poly(ethylene glycol) brushes in fused-silica capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N.; Østergaard, Jesper; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2017-01-01

    . Flexible and reliable approaches for preventing unwanted protein adsorption in separation science are thus in high demand. We therefore present new coating approaches based on an automated in-capillary surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization process (covalent coating) as well...... as by electrostatically adsorbing a pre-synthesized polymer leading to functionalized molecular brushes. The electroosmotic flow was measured following each step of the covalent coating procedure providing a detailed characterization and quality control. Both approaches resulted in good fouling resistance against...

  5. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  6. Improved bonding strength of bioactive cermet Cold Gas Spray coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, M; Concustell, A; Dosta, S; Cinca, N; Cano, I G; Guilemany, J M

    2014-12-01

    The fabrication of cermet biocompatible coatings by means Cold Gas Spray (CGS) provides prosthesis with outstanding mechanical properties and the required composition for enhancing the bioactivity of prosthetic materials. In this study, hydroxyapatite/Titanium coatings were deposited by means of CGS technology onto titanium alloy substrates with the aim of building-up well-bonded homogeneous coatings. Powders were blended in different percentages and sprayed; as long as the amount of hydroxyapatite in the feedstock increased, the quality of the coating was reduced. Besides, the relation between the particle size distribution of ceramic and metallic particles is of significant consideration. Plastic deformation of titanium particles at the impact eased the anchoring of hard hydroxyapatite particles present at the top surface of the coating, which assures the looked-for interaction with the cells. Coatings were immersed in Hank's solution for 1, 4 and 7 days; bonding strength value was above 60 MPa even after 7 days, which enhances common results of HAp coatings obtained by conventional thermal spray technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plural coated article and process for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, R.A.; Cassatta, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation polymerizable protective coating composition or paint, coated articles bearing such a protective radiation polymerizable paint, which on a non-polymerizable solvent, pigment, initiator and particulate fillerfree basis consists essentially of a binder solution of: (1) between about 90 and about 10 parts of a thermoplastic vinyl polymer free of olefinic unsaturation and prepared from at least about 85 weight percent of monofunctional vinyl monomers: (2) between about 10 and about 90 parts of vinyl solvent monomers for said vinyl polymer, at least about 10 weight percent, preferably at least about 30 weight percent, of said solvent monomers being selected from the group consisting of divinyl monomers, trivinyl monomers, tetravinyl monomers and mixtures thereof; and (3) between about 0.05 and about 1.0 parts per 100 parts of the total of said thermoplastic vinyl polymer and said vinyl solvent monomers of a mono- or diester of phosphoric acid bearing one or more sites of vinyl unsaturation. The composition exhibits excellent quality and good adhesion to a variety of substrated, in particular metals, including vapor deposited metals. Preferred articles bearing such a coating are prepared by: applying a base coat to a substrate and curing the same; vapor depositing a coating of a metal over the surface of the base coat; and applying to and curing on the surface of the base coat; and applying to and curing on the surface of the deposited metal the radiation polymerizable topcoat, preferably with little or no pigment contained therein

  8. Research progress of fabricating polyvinyl alcohol coating on plastic microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Lin; Chen Sufen; Liu Meifang; Zhang Zhanwen; Yao Hong; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the procedures of designing polystyrene-polyvinyl alcohol-CH (carbon and hydrogen elements) (PS-PVA-CH) triple-layer microspheres, there are many methods such as drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation, dip (spin) coating, interfacial polycondensation, and spraying technique to prepare the PVA coating. Drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation and dip (spin) coating are most-commonly used. The advantages, disadvantages and the research progress of the three methods are summarized in this paper. Emulsion micro-encapsulation is suitable for preparing double-layer microspheres of sizes smaller then 500 μm, with high survival ratio and good quality. However, the preparation process is easily influenced by artificial factors. Small-sized double-layer microspheres can also be prepared by the drop-tower technique, and the preparation period is short. But there are still some problems such as the difficulty in designing the droplet generator, uneven PVA coating and the difficulty in preparing large-sized microspheres. Dip (spin) coating technique can be used to prepare PS-PVA microspheres with sizes larger than 1000 μm, but the spread of PVA coating is affected by many factors in this method, and the prepared PVA coating is too thin and not uniform. (authors)

  9. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  10. Effect of Chitosan Coating Containing Active Agents on Microbial Growth, Rancidity and Moisture Loss of Meatball During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto, Yudi; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Edible coatings based on chitosan were applied on meatball product in order to preserve quality during storages atambient and refrigeration temperatures. To improve its efficacy, chitosan coatings were incorporated with garlic oil0.2%, potassium sorbate 0.1 % and nisin 51,000 IU. The qualities of meatball assessed were total microbial growth, TBA value and percentage of moisture loss. All chitosan coatings suppressed microbial growth in meatball and strong- ly revealed when stored at refriger...

  11. Stannate conversion coatings on Mg-8Li alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihui; Zhang Milin; Li Junqing; Yu Xiang; Niu Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    The stannate conversion coatings (SnCC) on Mg-8Li alloy were investigated by simple immersion method. The surface morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) techniques. The corrosion resistance was assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The effects of time of a stannate bath on the quality of stannate conversion coatings were investigated by SEM and EIS. It was found that the coating particles were mainly composed of hemispherical particles MgSnO 3 .3H 2 O. A comparison of results revealed the coating treated for 60 min exhibited the most uniform, dense and corrosion-resistant

  12. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid leaching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  13. Laser fabrication nanocrystalline coatings using simultaneous powders/wire feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Zhai, Tongguang; Zhang, Yuanbin; Shan, Feihu; Liu, Peng; Ren, Guocheng

    2016-07-01

    Laser melting deposition (LMD) fabrication is used to investigate feasibilty of simultaneously feeding TC17 wire and the Stellite 20-Si3N4-TiC-Sb mixed powders in order to increase the utilization ratio of materials and also quality of LMD composite coatings on the TA1 substrate. SEM images indicated that such LMD coating with metallurgical joint to substrate was formed free of the obvious defects. Lots of the ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) were produced, which distributed uniformly in some coating matrix location, retarding growth of the ceramics in a certain extent; UNs were intertwined with amorphous, leading the yarn-shape materials to be produced. Compared with substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was achieved for such LMD coating.

  14. Development and Application of Coating Weight Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyoung [Dongbu Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Precise coating weight control is very important issue on quality and minimizing operating costs on continuous galvanizing line. These days, many steel making companies are having a new understanding of cost importance by rise raw material prices and customers requirement for cost reduction. Dongbu steel also meets these situations and decided to develop the technologies. Dongbu Steel developed Integrated coating weight control system jointly with Objective Control Ltd. and installed 2CGL and 4CGL. Several technological functions were developed and realized to achieve true hands-off operation and maximum cost benefit by combining model-based preset and dynamic prediction models. We also installed it on 1 CGL on April, 2008. This paper will present the interface, functions and application result of the integrated coating weight control system including Zn saving and coating weight uniformity.

  15. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Coating of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for coating the surface of an article of Ti, Zr or Ta, or an alloy thereof, with a tinning metal or alloy, the article having a shape other than that of a sheet. The method comprises contacting the surface of the article at an elevated temperature with the molten tinning metal and moving an ultrasonically excited probe over the surface to be coated, the probe being in contact with the surface of the article and with the tinning metal. The tinning metal may be Sn or Zn or a binary alloy of Sn with Zn, Cd or Bi at a temperature of 300 0 to 450 0 C. The head of the probe may be shaped to conform with the surface of the article. The method may be used to form composite articles, and may be applied to a pre-tinned steel article. (U.K.)

  17. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  18. Scientific coats of arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist.

  19. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  1. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  2. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  3. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  4. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50–200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10–50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs

  5. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50–200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10–50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs.

  6. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  7. Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Krauss, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The project examined the effectiveness of studying the creep behavior of thermal barrier coating system through the use of a general purpose, large strain finite element program, NIKE2D. Constitutive models implemented in this code were applied to simulate thermal-elastic and creep behavior. Four separate ceramic-bond coat interface geometries were examined in combination with a variety of constitutive models and material properties. The reason for focusing attention on the ceramic-bond coat interface is that prior studies have shown that cracking occurs in the ceramic near interface features which act as stress concentration points. The model conditions examined include: (1) two bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion curves; (2) the creep coefficient and creep exponent of the bond coat for steady state creep; (3) the interface geometry; and (4) the material model employed to represent the bond coat, ceramic, and superalloy base.

  8. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  10. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  11. Properties of radiation cured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.G.; Spencer, D.S.; Boettcher, T.E.; Melbauer, M.A.; Skarjune, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Coatings were prepared from acrylate or methacrylate functionalized resins to study the effect of end group functionality on the physical properties of u.v. and electron beam cured coatings. Cure response was measured by solid state NMR and gel extraction, as expected, methacrylate resins cured much slower. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) revealed acrylate coatings have greater thermal stability. Properties such as tensile strength and hardness showed little effect of end group functionality or curing method. The O 2 and H 2 O permeabilities of the coating were correlated with the processing conditions. (author)

  12. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Bush, S.P.; Lyon, C.E.; Walker, V.

    1988-01-01

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  13. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  14. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  16. SPS: scrubbing or coating ?

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: mitigation of the electron cloud using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing runs. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed.

  17. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  18. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  19. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...

  20. Keyhole behaviour during laser welding of zinc-coated steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Y.; Richardson, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The production of consistent, high-quality laser welds on zinc-coated steels for the automotive industry remains a challenge. A simple overlap joint geometry is desirable in these applications but has been shown to be extremely detrimental to laser welding because the zinc vapour formed at the

  1. Silver release from coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.E.; Nabielek, H.

    1977-03-01

    The fission product Ag-110 m released from coated particles can be the dominant source of radioactivity from the core of a high temperature reactor in the early stages of the reactor life and possibly limits the accessability of primary circuit components. It can be shown that silver is retained in oxide fuel by a diffusion process (but not in carbide or carbon-diluted fuel) and that silver is released through all types of pyrocarbon layers. The retention in TRISO particles is variable and seems to be mainly connected with operating temperature and silicon carbide quality. (orig.) [de

  2. Wetting of polymer melts on coated and uncoated steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Contraires, Elise; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Larochette, Mathieu; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the wetting of three different commercial polymer melts on various coated and uncoated steel surfaces is described in this report. The wettability of steel and coatings (three different titanium nitride coatings, TiN, TiNOx, TiNOy, a chromium coating, CrN, and a diamond-like carbon coating, DLC) used for mold in polymer processing is determined at different temperatures between 25 °C and 120 °C. Contact angle measurements of melted polypropylene (PP), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) on steel and on the different coatings were performed to investigate the wetting behavior under closer-to-processing conditions. Recommendations for good measurement conditions were proposed. Moreover, the surface free energy of each melt polymer was determined. The works of adhesion between all polymers and all substrates were established. Among all tested polymers, the lowest value of the works of adhesion is calculated for ABS and for PC thereafter, and the highest value is calculated for PP. These results will be particularly important for such applications as determining the extent to which these polymers can contribute to the replication quality in injection molding.

  3. Novel selenium-doped hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valencia, C; López-Álvarez, M; Cochón-Cores, B; Pereiro, I; Serra, J; González, P

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays there is a short-term need of investigating in orthopedic implants with a greater functionality, including an improved osseointegration and also antibacterial properties. The coating of metallic implants with hydroxyapatite (HA) remains to be the main proposal, but superior quality HA coatings with compositions closer to natural bone apatites, including carbonates, trace elements are required. Selenium is an essential nutrient in biological tissues and, at the same time, it also presents antibacterial properties. A pioneering study on the fabrication of selenium-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite (iHA:Se) coatings by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is presented. Different proportions of selenium were incorporated to obtain the iHA:Se coatings. Their physicochemical characterization, performed by SEM/EDS, FTIR, FT-Raman, Interferometric Profilometry and XPS, revealed typical columnar growth of HA in globular aggregates and the efficient incorporation of selenium into the HA coatings by the, most probably, substitution of SeO(3)(2-) groups in the CO(3)(2-) sites. Biological evaluation illustrated the absence of cytotoxicity when an amount of 0.6 at.% of Se was added to the iHA:Se coatings and excellent proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Antibacterial properties were also proved with the inhibition of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus from establishing bacterial biofilms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Study progression in application of process analytical technologies on film coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Film coating is an important unit operation to produce solid dosage forms, thereby, the monitoring of this process is helpful to find problems in time and improve the quality of coated products. Traditional methods adopted to monitor this process include measurement of coating weight gain, performance of disintegration and dissolution test, etc. However, not only do these methods cause destruction to the samples, but also consume time and energy. There have recently emerged the applications of process analytical technologies (PAT on film coating, especially some novel spectroscopic and imaging technologies, which have the potential to real-time track the progress in film coating and optimize production efficiency. This article gives an overview on the application of such technologies for film coating, with the goal to provide a reference for the further researches.

  5. Surface coating of jeungjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN) with acrylate resins by using radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariyono, Gatot

    1998-01-01

    An experiment on surface coating with acrylate resins has been done by using radiation technique to improve the quality and added value of jeunjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN). Doses used in Electron Beam (BE) radiation were 20, 40, and 60 kGy. Epoxy acrylate and ester acrylate resins were used as coating materials after added with tripropylene glycol diacylate (TPGDA) monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-2hidroxy acetophenone (Darocur 1173) photoinitiator and talc as base coat. Top coat consists of este acrylate Setacure AM 548, after added with titanium dioxide OK 412 as additive respectively. Titanium dioxides in the mixture were varied at the concentration level of 0, 2, 4 and 6 % by weight. Conventional coating as comparison was carried out by using varnish as coating material. The results showed that the properties of film on jeunjing wood by EB curing are better than that of conventional one. (authors)

  6. Effects of surface coatings on the light collection in plastic scintillators used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L; Klintenberg, M; Sjöstrand, H; Ringbom, A

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition coatings are under investigation to reduce the diffusion of radioxenon into plastic scintillators. This paper investigates the impact of such surface coating on the light collection efficiency in a cylindrical geometry. A high and uniform light collection efficiency is important to preserve detector resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements have been carried out to study the influence of coating thickness, refractive index and surface quality. It was found that it is important to achieve a smooth coating and good optical match between the refractive indices of the coating and the plastic scintillator. Taking into account these considerations, the detector under study could be coated without a significant degradation of its resolution.

  7. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  8. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  9. Automated pharmaceutical tablet coating layer evaluation of optical coherence tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, Daniel; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G; Hannesschläger, Günther; Leitner, Michael; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Film coating of pharmaceutical tablets is often applied to influence the drug release behaviour. The coating characteristics such as thickness and uniformity are critical quality parameters, which need to be precisely controlled. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows not only high potential for off-line quality control of film-coated tablets but also for in-line monitoring of coating processes. However, an in-line quality control tool must be able to determine coating thickness measurements automatically and in real-time. This study proposes an automatic thickness evaluation algorithm for bi-convex tables, which provides about 1000 thickness measurements within 1 s. Beside the segmentation of the coating layer, optical distortions due to refraction of the beam by the air/coating interface are corrected. Moreover, during in-line monitoring the tablets might be in oblique orientation, which needs to be considered in the algorithm design. Experiments were conducted where the tablet was rotated to specified angles. Manual and automatic thickness measurements were compared for varying coating thicknesses, angles of rotations, and beam displacements (i.e. lateral displacement between successive depth scans). The automatic thickness determination algorithm provides highly accurate results up to an angle of rotation of 30°. The computation time was reduced to 0.53 s for 700 thickness measurements by introducing feasibility constraints in the algorithm. (paper)

  10. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  11. Microstructure and micromechanical properties of electrodeposited Zn–Mo coatings on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierczak, Honorata, E-mail: h.kazimierczak@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Ozga, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Berent, Katarzyna [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland); Kot, Marcin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The conditions for electrodeposition of uniform and compact Zn–Mo coatings have been studied. • Zn–Mo coatings microstructure can be controlled by the molybdenum content. • Surface roughness can be controlled by the content of Mo in coatings. • The value of microhardness grows gradually with the increase of Mo content up to 3 wt.%. - Abstract: The aim of the work was to characterise the new coating material based on zinc with the addition of molybdenum, electrodeposited on steel substrate from nontoxic, citrate based electrolytes. The surface composition of deposits was ascertained by chemical analysis (WDXRF). The morphology of coatings was studied by SEM. The surface morphology and roughness of Zn–Mo coatings on steel was investigated by AFM. The microhardness and Young modulus were determined by indentation technique, whereas the coating adhesion to the substrate was examined by means of scratch test. The optimal ranges of electrodeposition parameters, enabling the preparation of good quality coatings (i.e. uniform, compact, with good adhesion to the substrate), was specified. The morphology of deposits depends significantly on the content of molybdenum and on the thickness of electrodeposited layer. The microhardness of Zn–Mo coating increases with the increase of molybdenum content up to 3 wt.% and then reaches about 3.5 GPa, which is almost five times that of the value of the microhardness of the Zn coating studied.

  12. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  13. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  14. Ceramic protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbach, F.; Nicoll, A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic material of the above-mentioned layer consists of pure aluminium oxide or essentially aluminium oxide. To improve this protective layer metal oxides from the groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the periodic system are added to its basic material before the said protective coating is applied. In this way a corundum structure is formed in the case of aluminium oxide. Gallium oxide, vanadium oxide, chromium oxide or iron oxide are particularly suited for the correlation of such a corundum structure. The formation of the corundum structure increases the resistance of the protective coating to the corrosive effects of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. By the addition of a specific quantity of magnesium oxide it is possible not only to stimulate the formation of corundum but also to reduce the increase in grain size in the case of the aluminium oxide. The other metallic oxides are especially favorable to the formation of the corundum structure, so that preferably magnesium oxide is to be added to these metallic oxides in order to reduce the increase in grain size. (author)

  15. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite coatings offer multiple functions simultaneously to improve the interfacial properties of magnesium (Mg) alloys for skeletal implant applications, e.g., controlling the degradation rate of Mg substrates, improving bone cell functions, and providing drug delivery capability. However, the effective service time of nanocomposite coatings may be limited due to their early delamination from the Mg-based substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to address the delamination issue of nanocomposite coatings, improve the coating properties for reducing the degradation of Mg-based substrates, and thus improve their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The surface conditions of the substrates, polymer component type of the nanocomposite coatings, and post-deposition processing are the key parameters that contribute to the efficacy of the nanocomposite coatings in regulating substrate degradation and bone cell responses. Specifically, the effects of metallic surface versus alkaline heat-treated hydroxide surface of the substrates on coating quality were investigated. For the nanocomposite coatings, nanophase hydroxyapatite (nHA) was dispersed in three types of biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) to determine which polymer component could provide integrated properties for slowest Mg degradation. The nanocomposite coatings with or without post-deposition processing, i.e., melting, annealing, were compared to determine which processing route improved the properties of the nanocomposite coatings most significantly. The results showed that optimizing the coating processes addressed the delamination issue. The melted then annealed nHA/PCL coating on the metallic Mg substrates showed the slowest degradation and the best coating adhesion, among all the combinations of conditions studied; and, it improved the adhesion density of BMSCs

  16. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  17. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  18. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  19. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  20. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  1. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  2. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  3. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  4. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites. ...

  5. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  6. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  7. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    %. The number is lower than anticipated and needs to be confirmed. Finally, a 3-D model, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, has been developed for prediction of healing efficiency of a microcapsule-based anticorrosive coating. Two kinds of cracks were considered: cracks accommodated within the bulk coating...... associated with development and testing of this type of coating. A laboratory investigation, to identify the most suitable method for production of mechanically stable (filled with industrially relevant core materials) and forming a free-flowing powder upon drying microcapsules, has been performed. Four...... reduces the intensity of crack formation (both in number and length) compared to filler-containing coatings and prevents the coating from flaking upon damage. Based on specular gloss measurements, a preliminary critical pigment (microcapsule) concentration (CPVC) value was estimated to about 30 vol...

  8. Alternative waste form development: low-temperature pyrolytic-carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Large simulted waste-forms can be coated with PyC in screw-agitated coater (SAC) at low temperatures. Higher coating rates are obtained using Ni(CO) 4 as a catalyst rather than Fe(CO) 5 or Co(AcAc) 2 ; coating quality and deposition rates are improved when C 2 H 2 is used as carbon-source gas rather than methane, propane, heptane and toluene; H 2 is a better carrier gas than Ar or N 2 . Improved coating quality and deposition rates are obtained with H 2 ; deposition rates increase with Ni(CO) 4 concentration, C 2 H 2 concentration and reaction temperature. Increasing the Ni(CO) 4 and C 2 H 2 concentrations reduces the quality of the coatings; however, better adhesion of the coating to the substrate is obtained as temperature is increased; highest quality catalyzed PyC coatings have been obtained using 0.001 and 0.01 mole % Ni(CO) 4 , 1.5 to 3.0 mole % C 2 H 2 , and the balance H 2 at 425 and 525 0 C; and deposition rates are higher in the fluidized bed coater than the SAC

  9. Testing of Flame Sprayed Al2O3 Matrix Coatings Containing TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupryński A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3 matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2 applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard, erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard, and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.

  10. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica; [INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce

    1996-09-01

    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  11. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  12. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. How PE tape performs under concrete coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The program objectives were to evaluate the performance of polyethylene tape plant coating and fusion bonded epoxy powder systems with particular respect to the following: 1. Concrete coating application procedures; 2. The shear resistance during laying and retrieving operations of the coating at the various interfaces (a) Pipe and anti-corrosion coating; (b) Anti-corrosion coating and outerwrap; (c) Overlap areas of the anti-corrosion and outerwrap layers; (d) Between concrete and the various corrosion coatings during laying and retrieving operations. 3. Resistance to damage of the coating as a consequence of cracking or slippage of the concrete weight coating. 4. Ability of various coatings to withstand the damage during concrete application by both impact and compression methods; 5. Evaluation of tape and shrink sleeve joint coatings at the cut-back area as well as performance of tape under hot asphalt coating

  14. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  15. Tests on coatings made of plastic wraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomil, M; Boubela, L

    1980-01-01

    Testing is a necessity to evaluate the quality of plastic wrappings used as pipe coatings. Many foreign producers indicate the quality of their products by specifying the physical properties of either insulating wraps (their fracture propagation, water-vapor penetrability, electrical resistance, etc.) or the primer with reference to a relevant foreign standard. In principle, therefore none of the insulating materials available are proved with regard to the actual operating properties of the entire insulating system - the corresponding primer and the laminated polyethylene wrap. Because of the need for total system testing, the Fuel Research Institute cooperated with Transitni Plynovod in determining the optimum system to recommend for insulation mechanically applied in the field.

  16. Properties and performance of spin-on-glass coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steels in chloride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Jensen, Annemette H.; Din, Rameez U.

    2018-01-01

    Spin-on-glass deposition was investigated as viable alternative to increase the durability and performance of 316L steel in chloride environment. The buildup of a detrimental interface oxide was prevented by non-oxidative thermal curing of the coatings, which leads to a transformation...... silica. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic polarization indicated that the coatings behave as imperfect barrier coatings, which may enhance the passive properties of the substrates; however, there is still some statistical scatter in the quality of the coatings. While there is a tendency for an increase...... of the upper limit of the breakdown potential, there is also a decrease of the lower limit. It was found that such lower quality coatings showed, in association with substrate defects, unevenly distributed coating flaws, which may act as initiation points of pitting corrosion and decrease the corrosion...

  17. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  18. Development and evaluation of a dimensionless mechanistic pan coating model for the prediction of coated tablet appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Daniel; Porter, Stuart; Reynolds, Gavin; Morgan, Tomos; Greenamoyer, Jennifer; Hach, Ronald; Sido, Stephanie; Karan, Kapish; Gabbott, Ian

    2017-08-07

    A mathematical, mechanistic tablet film-coating model has been developed for pharmaceutical pan coating systems based on the mechanisms of atomisation, tablet bed movement and droplet drying with the main purpose of predicting tablet appearance quality. Two dimensionless quantities were used to characterise the product properties and operating parameters: the dimensionless Spray Flux (relating to area coverage of the spray droplets) and the Niblett Number (relating to the time available for drying of coating droplets). The Niblett Number is the ratio between the time a droplet needs to dry under given thermodynamic conditions and the time available for the droplet while on the surface of the tablet bed. The time available for drying on the tablet bed surface is critical for appearance quality. These two dimensionless quantities were used to select process parameters for a set of 22 coating experiments, performed over a wide range of multivariate process parameters. The dimensionless Regime Map created can be used to visualise the effect of interacting process parameters on overall tablet appearance quality and defects such as picking and logo bridging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hard and soft x-ray study of the correlation between substrate quality and multilayer performance for Co/C coating produced by electron beam evaporation using ion polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, S.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Spiller, E.

    1995-01-01

    as the transverse scan have demonstrated different qualities, influenced by the different substrates. The investigations were performed with both hard x-ray (8.05 keV) as well as soft x-ray (0.25 keV). The reflectivity varies up to factor 3 between the best and the worst of these substrates. The results...

  20. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  1. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings

  2. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  3. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  4. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  5. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Pan, Szu-Jung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Tai, Chen-Yi; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test

  6. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  7. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Pan, Szu-Jung [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wen-Ta, E-mail: wttsai@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tai, Chen-Yi [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test.

  8. The effect of specifi c relationship between material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, parts and tools are increasingly made of composite materials. Realization of specifi c connection between basic material and coating is very important. The quality of coating on products, in terms of wear and resistance to destruction, has a large impact on productivity and reliability of production processes, in particular their life. In this paper, based on experimental investigations, the effect of specific relationship between the base material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product is analyzed.

  9. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  10. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byoen, Sang Doek [HA Digital Engineering Gr., Seongsan Gu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soen Bong [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications.

  11. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  12. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshilin, A A [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Semenov, D V [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nippolainen, E [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Miridonov, S [Optics Department, CICESE, Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada km 107, C.P. 22860, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements.

  13. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamshilin, A A; Semenov, D V; Nippolainen, E; Miridonov, S

    2007-01-01

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements

  14. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    is developed for statistical analysis which identifies the distance between nozzle and substrate as the most significant parameter. Depending on the drying of the sprayed droplets on the substrate, we define two broad regimes, "dry" and "wet". The optimum condition of spraying lies in a narrow window between...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating......In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...

  15. Optimization of process parameters for a quasi-continuous tablet coating system using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Christine; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the critical process parameters of the newly developed Supercell quasi-continuous coater for optimal tablet coat quality. Design of experiments, aided by multivariate analysis techniques, was used to quantify the effects of various coating process conditions and their interactions on the quality of film-coated tablets. The process parameters varied included batch size, inlet temperature, atomizing pressure, plenum pressure, spray rate and coating level. An initial screening stage was carried out using a 2(6-1(IV)) fractional factorial design. Following these preliminary experiments, optimization study was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. Main response variables measured included drug-loading efficiency, coat thickness variation, and the extent of tablet damage. Apparent optimum conditions were determined by using response surface plots. The process parameters exerted various effects on the different response variables. Hence, trade-offs between individual optima were necessary to obtain the best compromised set of conditions. The adequacy of the optimized process conditions in meeting the combined goals for all responses was indicated by the composite desirability value. By using response surface methodology and optimization, coating conditions which produced coated tablets of high drug-loading efficiency, low incidences of tablet damage and low coat thickness variation were defined. Optimal conditions were found to vary over a large spectrum when different responses were considered. Changes in processing parameters across the design space did not result in drastic changes to coat quality, thereby demonstrating robustness in the Supercell coating process. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  16. Impedance study on the corrosion of PVD and CVD titanium nitride coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsener, B.; Rota, A.; Boehni, H.

    1989-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, produced by physical (PVD) or chemical (CVD) vapor deposition techniques are used routinely to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of a surface. The main problem in using TiN as a protective coating in aggressive environements are pores and pinholes in the coating where the substrate is exposed to the electrolyte. In this work, the electrochemical and corrosion behaviour of TiN films on quartz glass, carbon steel, 304 and 316 stainless steel is studied by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in hydrochloric acid. It is shown that the TiN coating can be used successfully only on substrates that passivate easily. On mild steel rapid corrosion takes place at pores in the coating due to the very noble steady state potential of the TiN coating. The interaction of the metallic substrate with the TiN coating is discussed for the two limiting cases mild steel (active) and 316SS (passive). It is shown that the determination of the coating porosity is possible for the active substrate only. On the passive substrate the occurence of an additional time constant in the high frequency region of the spectrum qualitatively indicates the presence of pores. A quality control of the coatings based on this fact might be possible. (author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  18. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketley, A.D.; Morgan, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous protective coating is formed on a fiber optic by coating the fiber optic in a bath of a liquid radiation curable composition at a temperature up to 90 0 C and exposing the coated conductor to ultraviolet or high energy ionizing radiation to cure the coating

  19. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  20. Comparison of additive amount used in spin-coated and roll-coated organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Pei; Lin, Yuze; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All-polymer and polymer/fullerene inverted solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and roll-coating processes. The spin-coated small-area (0.04 cm(2)) devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in nitrogen. The roll-coated large-area (1.0 cm(2)) devices were...

  1. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

  2. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  3. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakupi, P. [Western University, Dept. of Chemistry, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Keech, P.G. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Toronto Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Barker, I. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R.L. [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Moser, D.E. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  4. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupi, P.; Keech, P. G.; Barker, I.; Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R. L.; Shoesmith, D. W.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  5. In vitro analysis of biopolymer coating with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane on hernia meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Steffen; Zankovych, Sergiy; Rauchfuß, Falk; Dittmar, Yves; Jandt, Karin; Jandt, Klaus D; Settmacher, Utz; Scheuerlein, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    Certain coatings may improve the biocompatibility of hernia meshes. The coating with self-assembled monolayers, such as glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) can also improve the materials characteristics of implants. This approach was not yet explored in hernia meshes. It was the aim of this work to clarify if and how hernia meshes with their three-dimensional structure can be coated with GOPS and with which technique this coating can be best characterized. Commercially available meshes made from polypropylene (PP), polyester (PE), and expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) have been coated with GOPS. The coatings were analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and cell proliferation test (mouse fibroblasts). Cell viability and cytotoxicity were tested by MTT test. With the GOPS surface modification, the adherence of mouse fibroblasts on polyester meshes and the proliferation on ePTFE meshes were increased compared to noncoated meshes. Both XPS and CLSM are limited in their applicability and validity due to the three-dimensional mesh structure while CLSM was overall more suitable. In the MTT test, no negative effects of the GOPS coating on the cells were detected after 24 h. The present results show that GOPS coating of hernia meshes is feasible and effective. GOPS coating can be achieved in a fast and cost-efficient way. Further investigations are necessary with respect to coating quality and adverse effects before such a coating may be used in the clinical routine. In conclusion, GOPS is a promising material that warrants further research as coating of medical implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1083-1090, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  7. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  8. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  9. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  10. Self-stratifying antimicrobial coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, antimicrobial polymers/coatings are widely used in various areas, such as biomedical devices, pharmaceuticals, hospital buildings, textiles, food processing, and contact lenses, where sanitation is needed. Such wide application facilities have made antimicrobial materials very attractive for

  11. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  12. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  13. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  14. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  15. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  16. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  17. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  18. Radiation polymerizable coating composition containing an unsaturated phosphoric ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, R.A.; Cassatta, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation polymerizable protective coating composition or paint consists essentially of a binder solution of: (1) between about 90 and about 10 parts of a saturated, thermoplastic vinyl polymer prepared from at least about 85 weight percent of monofunctional vinyl monomers; (2) between about 10 and about 90 parts of vinyl solvent monomers for the vinyl polymer, at least about 10 weight percent, preferably at least about 30 weight percent, of the solvent monomers being selected from the group consisting of divinyl monomers, trivinyl monomers, tetravinyl monomers and mixtures of these; and (3) between about 1.0 and about 15.0 parts per 100 parts of the total of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer and the vinyl solvent monomers of a triester of phosphoric acid bearing one or more sites of vinyl unsaturation. The composition exhibits excellent quality and good adhesion to a variety of substrates, in particular metals, including vapor deposited metals. Preferred articles bearing such a coating are prepared by applying a base coat to a substrate and curing the same; vapor depositing a coating of metal over the surface of the base coat; and applying to and curing on the surface of the deposited metal the radiation polymerizable topcoat, preferably with little or no pigment contained therein. 7 claims, no drawings

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt’s solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5 constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  20. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  1. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  2. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  3. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  4. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  5. Damage-resistant brittle coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawn, B.R.; Lee, K.S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Mater. Sci. and Eng. Lab.; Chai, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Pajares, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Kim, D.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technolgy, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wuttiphan, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Peterson, I.M. [Corning Inc., NY (United States); Hu Xiaozhi [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2000-11-01

    Laminate structures consisting of hard, brittle coatings and soft, tough substrates are important in a wide variety of engineering applications, biological structures, and traditional pottery. In this study the authors introduce a new approach to the design of damage-resistant brittle coatings, based on a combination of new and existing relations for crack initiation in well-defined contact-induced stress fields. (orig.)

  6. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  7. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  8. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  9. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  10. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  11. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  12. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  14. Porous SiO2/HAp Coatings on Cp-Titanium Grade 1 Surfaces Produced by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous hydroxyapatite doped SiO2 coatings were electrophoretically deposited (EPD on commercially pure titanium. The influence of EPD parameters on coatings quality was investigated. Microstructural observation was done using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffractometry.

  15. An electrothermal chemical technology for thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Alimi, R.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D.; Zhitomirsky, V.; Factor, M.; Roman, I.

    1998-01-01

    A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, has been developed at the SOREQ Nuclear Research Center. The concept is based on the extensive experience accumulated at SOREQ in the course of the development of Electrothermal (ET), Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) and Solid-Propellant Electrothermal-Chemical (SPETC) guns(r). High quality coatings may be obtained by thermal spraying powder particles onto a variety of substrates. Mature state-of-the-art technologies such as plasma spray, high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) and detonation gun (D-Gun) are widely used for many applications. As each method has its own drawbacks there is a need for a combination of several parameters which cannot be achieved by any existing individual commercial technology. The method presented is oriented toward a high-quality, multi-step, high-throughput, easily programmable continuous coating process and relatively inexpensive technology. The combustion products of a solid or liquid propellant accelerate the powder particles of the coating material. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities over 1000 m/s. Due to the very high carrier gas density, high velocity, high throughput and high powder consumption efficiency are obtained. The plasma jet enables control of the gas temperature and consequently influences the powder temperature

  16. Evaluation of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke, a traditional cheese of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka, R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional soft cheese from Enrekang, South Sulawesi Indonesia which is produced through heat denaturation at 85°C and enzymatic coagulation using papaya latex. The quality, microstructure and storage life of the cheese are affected by several factors such as denaturation temperature, enzyme concentration, moulding pressure, coating, and ripening. The objective of this study was to evaluated of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke cheese. The experiment was conducting using factorial design with five replications. The experimental variables were the type of edible coating used (agar, CMC and bee wax and the length of ripening (10, 20 and 30 days. Parameter was measured hardness, microstructure, and sensory evaluation. The overall result indicated that the use of edible coating can extend the shelf life, increase hardness, and more compact microstructure. Sensory evaluation also indicated that the cheese coated with film forming edible materials had had white color, more milk like smell (smelly milk, and smoother texture.

  17. Effect of oxidation on the wear behavior of a ZrN coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, E. [Gebze Inst. of Tech., Material Science and Engineering Dept., Kocaeli (Turkey); Cimenoglu, H.; Kayali, E.S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Azazaga, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    In the present study tribological performance of ZrN coatings deposited on hardened AISI D2 quality cold work tool steel by arc-physical vapor deposition technique has been examined in as-deposited and oxidized conditions. ZrN coatings were oxidized at 400 C for various times up to 12 h. Reciprocating wear tests carried out by rubbing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls on the coatings, revealed significant improvement in wear resistance of ZrN coating upon oxidation. Oxidation treatment at 400 C for 12 h yielded seven times higher wear resistance than as-deposited ZrN coating, beside significant reduction in the wear of counterface (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball). (orig.)

  18. Effect of oxidation on the wear behavior of a ZrN coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, E.; Cimenoglu, H.; Kayali, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study tribological performance of ZrN coatings deposited on hardened AISI D2 quality cold work tool steel by arc-physical vapor deposition technique has been examined in as-deposited and oxidized conditions. ZrN coatings were oxidized at 400 C for various times up to 12 h. Reciprocating wear tests carried out by rubbing Al 2 O 3 balls on the coatings, revealed significant improvement in wear resistance of ZrN coating upon oxidation. Oxidation treatment at 400 C for 12 h yielded seven times higher wear resistance than as-deposited ZrN coating, beside significant reduction in the wear of counterface (Al 2 O 3 ball). (orig.)

  19. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  20. Development of silver coating process and facilities for ITER thermal shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D.K. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, R.G. [COTEC Corp., Changwon 641-846 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, K., E-mail: kwnam@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, C.H.; Chung, W. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, D.C. [COTEC Corp., Changwon 641-846 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, K.; Baek, J.P. [SFA Engineering Corp., Asan 336-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes both the test results of the bath type silver coating and the design of the bath to construct the silver coating plant for ITER thermal shield. The tests of small specimens made of SS304L and SS304LN were carried out to investigate the effect of the nitrogen content in SS304LN on the silver coating quality. The effect of different degreasing agents was also investigated to improve silver coating process. Small mock-up was tested to find a proper dipping direction during the electroplating process. Finally, noble bath design was conceived and structurally validated. Overall layout of silver coating plant is also shown in this paper.

  1. The kinetics of zinc coating growth on hyper-sandelin steels and ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at an analysis of the formation and growth kinetics of zinc coating on reactive silicon-killed steels in a zinc bath. The growth kinetics of the produced zinc coatings was evaluated basing on the power-law growth equation. As regards galvanizing of the surface of products, investigation was done for various steel grades and ductile iron taking into account the quality and thickness of coating. It has been proved that the chemical constitution of basis significantly influences the kinetics of growth of the individual phases in a zinc coating. This relationship was evaluated basing on the, so called, silicon and phosphorus equivalent E = (Si+2.5P.103, and coating thickness dependences were obtained.

  2. The shaping of zinc coating on surface steels and ductile iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at an analysis of the formation and growth kinetics of zinc coating on reactive silicon-killed steels in a zinc bath. The growth kinetics of the produced zinc coatings was evaluated basing on the power-law growth equation. As regards galvanizing of the surface of products, investigation was done for various steel grades and ductile iron (DI taking into account the quality and thickness of coating. It has been proved that the chemical constitution of basis significantly influences the kinetics of growth of the individual phases in a zinc coating. This relationship was evaluated basing on the, so called, silicon and phosphorus equivalent ESi,P and coating thickness dependences were obtained.

  3. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  4. Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungjin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while ...

  5. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Du, Hao [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: mchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Jun [Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Xiong, Ji [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhao, Haibo [The Analysis and Testing Centre, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AlCrSiN based coating showed amorphous structure. • AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings obtained better wear resistance. • Molybdenum and niobium increased the coating hardness and wear resistance. - Abstract: AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC–Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N{sub 2} mixtures. Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.4}, Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.1}, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiN{sub x} peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  6. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  7. Electro-chemical deposition of nano hydroxyapatite-zinc coating on titanium metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wassefy, N A; Reicha, F M; Aref, N S

    2017-08-13

    Titanium is an inert metal that does not induce osteogenesis and has no antibacterial properties; it is proposed that hydroxyapatite coating can enhance its bioactivity, while zinc can contribute to antibacterial properties and improve osseointegration. A nano-sized hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was deposited on commercially pure titanium using an electro-chemical process, in order to increase its surface roughness and enhance adhesion properties. The hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was attained using an electro-chemical deposition in a solution composed of a naturally derived calcium carbonate, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate, with a pure zinc metal as the anode and titanium as the cathode. The applied voltage was -2.5 for 2 h at a temperature of 85 °C. The resultant coating was characterized for its surface morphology and chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. The coated specimens were also evaluated for their surface roughness and adhesion quality. Hydroxyapatite-zinc coating had shown rosette-shaped, homogenous structure with nano-size distribution, as confirmed by SEM analysis. FT-IR and EDS proved that coatings are composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and zinc. The surface roughness assessment revealed that the coating procedure had significantly increased average roughness (Ra) than the control, while the adhesive tape test demonstrated a high-quality adhesive coat with no laceration on tape removal. The developed in vitro electro-chemical method can be employed for the deposition of an even thickness of nano HA-Zn adhered coatings on titanium substrate and increases its surface roughness significantly.

  8. coating layers under the UV loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavý Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For individual components as well as for the final products is need to determine their resistance and other mechanical properties, which can be changing due to the various conditions and simultaneously we try to get still closer to the real operating conditions.Currently, given the need to guarantee a perfect quality of the product throughout its entire life cycle, it is necessary to assess the protective layers that are in direct contact with the material itself or with the future products.This article presents the results of testing individual components of the selected materials and their resistance to the UV rays. These were some samples of a prelacquered sheet and a powder coated plate after their forming, next by pigment colored concrete cubes, artificial wood and a prototype sample of the translucent material Licrete. Compared to a conventional climate tests such as heat, cold, humidity or the salt chambers, the colored protection layers were subjected to a strong UV rays. Subsequently was evaluated the change of the colors, brightness and where it was possible also the adhesion parameters and thickness of the coated layer. The measurement wasn’t focused only on the adhesion and color stability, but also to a violation of microstructure due to high temperatures caused by the UV ray. The selected specimens were tested in a device which simulates solar radiation and then were them evaluated the changes of a colors and on the surface structure.

  9. Qualidade fisiológica e teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes de soja convencional e transgênica RR submetidas a diferentes épocas de colheita Physiological quality and lignin content in the coat seeds of conventional and RR transgenic soybean submitted to different harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Têm-se levantado à hipótese de que cultivares de soja RR possuem teores de lignina superiores aos convencionais, o que proporciona maior resistência a danos mecânicos e maior impermeabilidade do tegumento das sementes. Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e o teor de lignina no tegumento das sementes de soja convencional e RR colhidas em três épocas, em Lavras-MG. Para tanto, as sementes colhidas nos estádios R7, R8 e após 20 dias de retardamento da colheita (R8+20, foram submetidas aos testes para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica e teor de lignina. As cultivares convencionais e RR avaliadas foram: BRS 133 vs BRS 245 RR, BRS 134 vs BRS 247 RR, Conquista vs Valiosa RR, Celeste vs Baliza RR e Jataí vs Silvânia RR. Foram realizados os testes de peso de mil sementes, germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, dano mecânico, índice de velocidade de emergência, germinação após a imersão das sementes em água e teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes. Com exceção do teor de lignina no tegumento de sementes para o contraste Jataí vs Silvânia RR, não foram observadas diferenças entre os materiais RR e convencional, tendo, neste caso, a cv Silvânia RR apresentado resultados superiores aos da convencional. No entanto, houve diferença de comportamento entre os cultivares quanto à tolerância ao retardamento da colheita. Observou-se redução significativa na porcentagem de germinação e vigor das sementes avaliadas com o retardamento da colheita.One has raised the hypothesis that the RR soybean cultivars posses lignin contents higher than those of the conventional ones. The present work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the physiological quality and lignin content in the coat of the conventional and RR soybean seeds collected in three times in Lavras-MG. To that end, the seeds collected at stages R7, R8 and after 20 days of collection delay (R8+20 were submitted to the tests for

  10. Implementation of TiAIN and CrN coatings and ion implantation in the modern plastics moulding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienk, E.J.; Mikkelsen, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods of surface improvement widely used in the modern plastics industry are compared, with a view to improving productivity and product quality. Ion implantation of plastics and physical vapour deposition coatings both offer surface engineering advantages. Each method is described and evaluated with reference to plastics moulding. TiAIN coatings are used to protect hard bulk materials, subjected to evenly distributed loads. The more ductile CrN coatings are used for softer materials which give less support to the coatings. (UK)

  11. Influence of Al-Si alloy microstructure on the corrosion resistance of coatings formed by the microarc oxidation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudareva Natalia.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the high-silicon aluminum alloy initial microstructure on the quality of the coating formed by microarc oxidation (MAO has been studied. The MAO treatment is applied to AK12D samples in the initial coarse-grained state and after high pressure torsion. The following coating properties are studied: thickness, microhardness, porosity and corrosion resistance. It is established that the MAO layers properties depend on the base microstructure much. High pressure torsion applied to AK12D samples before MAO results in increase of the coating thickness by ∼ 2 times. The microhardness of coatings reduces and their corrosion resistance degrades by ∼ 10 times.

  12. Advanced Marine Coatings for Naval Vessels - Phase 1. Antifouling and Fouling Release Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    ... in combinatorial materials chemistry high-throughput discovery and evaluation methodology. The protective coatings application being addressed is environmentally compliant antifouling and fouling release coating for Navy ships...

  13. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  14. Laser-fusion target fabrication: application of organic coatings to metallic and nonmetallic micropellets by the glow-discharge polymerization of p-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-fusion targets require thin, uniform organic-film coatings. A coating technique involving glow-discharge polymerization is described for applying highly adherent, extremely uniform, thin films of a high-temperature polymer to a variety of microsubstrates. Polymeric coatings as thick as 10 μm have been successfully deposited on hollow, spherical, 40- to 250-μm-diam micropellets of glass, metal-coated glass, and nickel/manganese alloy. Experimental yields of coatings of a quality acceptable for laser-fusion targets are typically greater than 90 percent

  15. ZIF-8 Membranes with Improved Reproducibility Fabricated from Sputter-Coated ZnO/Alumina Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jian; Pan, Yichang; Wang, Chongqing; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    for reproducible fabrication of high-quality membranes. In this study, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis under the partial self-conversion of sputter-coated ZnO layer on porous α-alumina supports. The reproducibility

  16. Process for preparing coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoke, Hideyasu; Kobayashi, Juichi; Kobayashi, Kei.

    1972-01-01

    A coating material curable with ionizing radiations or ultraviolet radiation can be prepared by reacting a compound (A) having one OH group and at least one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group with a polyisocyanate. (A) is a diester of a dicarboxylic acid. One of the ester groups may have a terminal α,β-ethylenic or allyl group and the other contains one OH and one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group. (A) is reacted with a polyisocyanate to yield an urethane. The latter may be diluted with a vinyl monomer. When exposed to a radiation, the coating material cures to give a film excellent in adhesion, impact strength and resistances to pollution, water and solvents. Dose of the ionizing radiation (α-, β-, γ-rays, electron beams) is 0.2-20 Mrad. In one example, 116 parts of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate was reacted with 148 parts of phthalic anhydride and 142 parts of glycidyl methacrylate to give (A). (A) was reacted with 87 parts of tolylenediisocyanate. A metallic panel was coated with the coating material and cured with electron beams (5 Mrad). Pencil hardness was H, and gel fraction measured in acetone was above 97%. The coating was excellent in resistances to solvent and chemicals, impact strength and adhesion. (Kaichi, S.)

  17. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  19. Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, W.H.; Nagy, F.A.; Guarino, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface

  20. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA-coated...... PDMS microspheres react around 20 times slower than the uncoated ones, and that the PMMA shell significantly hinders the reaction between the PDMS microsphere and cross-linker. Thus the thin PMMA shells are very efficient in protecting the reactive PDMS microspheres, since the PMMA shell forms...

  1. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi; Haga, Kei-ichi; Matsumura, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  2. Corrosion of chromatic conversion coatings on Aluminium Alloys in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.Sh.; Shahrabi, T.; Mozafarnia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Chromate conversion coating is applied on aluminum 6061. The optimum conditions for chromate bath composition and immersion time are also obtained for standard requirements provision such as corrosion resistance in salt spray test, electrical resistance and coating quality. The applied coatings are electrochemically tested in sea and distilled water. According to Tafel and cyclic polarization curves, the protection mechanism are evaluated in said environments. This evaluation has shown the formation of passive film layer, contains chromate and alumina on the base. The proper behavior of corrosion and electrical conductivity is probably due to this mechanism

  3. A comparative tribological study of chromium coatings with different specific hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Barthole, M.; Belliard, P.; Lelait, L.

    1995-06-01

    The wear resistance in dry friction of two electrolytic and two pVD hard chromium coatings deposited on construction steel substrates is studied by means of standard pin on disc multi-pass, unidirectional operation. For both of these friction modes low cycle high load operation with cemented carbide pins leads to essentially coatings hardness controlled, abrasive wear. For these well adhering commercial coatings (both for through thickness cracking and for spalling failure) assessed by standard testing, are inadequate for quality ranking with respect to wear resistance. Steady state friction corresponds to a stabilised third body essentially composed of chromium oxide. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Synthesis of hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of we54-ae magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Barrios, C A; Peña, D Y; Coy, A E; Duarte, N Z; Hernández, L M; Viejo, F

    2013-01-01

    The present work shows some preliminary results related to the synthesis, characterization and corrosion evaluation of different hybrid sol-gel coatings applied on the WE54-AE magnesium alloy attending to the two experimental variables, i.e. the precursors ratio and the aging time, which may affect the quality and the electrochemical properties of the coatings resultant. The experimental results confirmed that, under some specific experimental conditions, it was possible to obtain homogeneous and uniform, porous coatings with good corrosion resistance that also permit to accommodate corrosion inhibitors

  5. Validation of HVOF WC/Co Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Aircraft Landing Gear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to quality high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray WC/Co coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on landing gear components...

  6. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlach, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  7. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  8. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  9. Phase Transition Control for High-Performance Blade-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2018-05-07

    Summary Here, we have identified that the key issue for rational transitioning from spin-coating to blade-coating processes of perovskite films arises from whether intermediate phases participate in the phase transition. In situ characterizations were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of structural evolution and crystal growth mechanisms. These findings present opportunities for designing an effective process for blade-coating perovskite film: a large-grained dense perovskite film with high crystal quality and photophysical properties can be obtained only via direct crystallization for both spin-coating and blade-coating processes. As a result, the blade-coated MAPbI3 films deliver excellent charge-collection efficiency at both short circuit and open circuit, and photovoltaic properties with efficiencies of 18.74% (0.09 cm2) and 17.06% (1 cm2) in planar solar cells. The significant advances in understanding how the phase transition links spin-coating and blade-coating processes should provide a path toward high-performance printed perovskite devices.

  10. Improving composition of protective coatings for steel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'kina, N.N.; Pegov, V.G.; Bogatenkov, V.F.; Shub, L.G.; Raspopova, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    A radically new fuel-free slag-forming mixture used as protective coating for steel casting is introduced. The lack of combustible powders precludes explosion and fire Lazard in mixture preparation. Usage of the new mixture in stainless steel casting of Kh18N10T type permitted to improve the ingot surface quality and reduce spoilage from 1.16 to 0.66%

  11. Ultrasonic Coating and Holographic Exposure Technology. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Docmnents: Follow the procedures in DoD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security Manual, Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation...water vapor shine some light on the required quality of the intended product – eyewear lenses. The top surface of the lens having the waveplate must be...barrier coating industry and has a significant impact on the design of plastic organic light emitting diode displays and flexible photovoltaic devices

  12. New complex-dryers with RE for coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The complex coating dryers are produced with good 2-Ethylhexanoic acid, rare earths and other metals. Simply using such a complex drier can get the total effect instead of the traditional dryers such as Co, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca etc. It has advantages of saving quantity, decreasing cost, simplifying process, making the operation convenient, good quality, good stability and without Pb. Invention patent of China requisition number is 95119867.X

  13. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  14. Development of advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel. Reduction of coating failure fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Tobita, Tsutomu; Yoshimuta, Sigeharu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Tomimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Oda, Takafumi

    1998-11-01

    The advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel has been developed to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel particles, which leads to an improvement of the reactor safety. The present report reviews the results of the relevant work. The mechanisms of the coating failure of the fuel particles during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the fuel was improved outstandingly. (author)

  15. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic

  16. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: treccani@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  17. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  18. Radiation-curable coating composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mibae, Jiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masao.

    1970-01-01

    A radiation-curable coating composition, suitable for metal precoating, is provided. The composition is prepared by mixing 50 to 90 parts of a long chain fatty acid ester (A) with 10 to 50 parts of monomer (B) which is copolymerizable with (A). (A) is prepared by reacting a dimer acid (particularly the dimer of linolenic acid) with hydroxyalkyl methacrylate or glycidyl methacrylate. Upon irradiation with electron beams (0.1 to 3 MeV) the composition cures to yield a coating of high adhesion, impact resistance and bending resistance. In one example, 100 g of dimer acid (Versadime 216, manufactured by General Mills) was esterified with 50 g of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. A zinc plated iron plate was coated with the product and irradiated with electron beams (2 Mrad). Pencil hardness was F; adhesion 0: impact resistance (Du Pont) 1 kg x 30 cm; bending resistance 2T. (Kaichi, S.)

  19. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  20. Edible films and coatings in seafood preservation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Samira; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-02-01

    Seafood is highly perishable and has a short shelf-life. During storage many reactions occur leading to changes in quality such as endogenous chemical and enzymatic reactions. The safety and shelf-life are related to the presence of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Despite improved manufacturing facilities and implementation of effective process control procedures such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system by seafood companies, the number of seafood-related foodborne illnesses has increased. Edible coatings can improve the quality of fresh and frozen products by retarding microbial growth, reducing lipid oxidation and moisture loss, and functioning as a carrier of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Biodegradable edible coatings have various advantages over synthetic coatings such as being edible and generally being more environmentally friendly. This paper reviews the application of various types of natural bio-polymer and different active ingredients incorporated into the films and their effects on seafood quality attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  2. Pectin-honey coating as novel dehydrating bioactive agent for cut fruit: Enhancement of the functional properties of coated dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Gabriella; Mallardo, Salvatore; Fasulo, Gabriella; Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Di Stasio, Michele; Malinconico, Mario; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2018-08-30

    In this paper, a novel and sustainable process for the fruit dehydration was described. Specifically, edible coatings based on pectin and honey were prepared and used as dehydrating and antimicrobial agents of cut fruit samples, in this way promoting the fruit preservation from irreversible deteriorative processes. Pectin-honey coating was tested on apple, cantaloupe melon, mango and pineapple. The analysis were performed also on uncoated dehydrated fruits (control). The coated fruit evidenced enhanced dehydration percentage, enriched polyphenol and vitamin C contents, improved antioxidant activity and volatile molecules profile. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli was assessed. Finally, morphological analysis performed on fruit fractured surface, highlighted the formation of a non-sticky and homogeneous thin layer. These outcomes suggested that the novel fruit dehydration process, performed by using pectin-honey coating, was able to both preserve the safety and quality of dehydrated fruits, and enhance their authenticity and naturalness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On niobium sputter coated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Kaufmann, U.; Downar, H.

    1988-01-01

    To coat copper cavities with a thin film of niobium, facilities for electropolishing and sputter deposition have been installed at Dornier. Experiments have been performed on samples to optimize electropolishing and deposition parameters. In this paper, characteristics concerning surface properties, adhesion of the niobium film to the copper substrate, and film properties were studied on planar samples. A 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper was sputter coated twice. First rf measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 2 K

  4. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  5. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  6. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  7. Hybrid Perovskite Thin Film Formation: From Lab Scale Spin Coating to Large Area Blade Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2017-11-22

    understand the key scientific insights through spin coating. We observe high-quality film formation for T > 100oC, namely in conditions which inhibit the formation of the crystalline intermediate complex phases. In doing so, we achieve fast and direct formation of the perovskite phase with solar cells yielding PCE > 17%.

  8. Aesthetic coatings for concrete bridge components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriha, Brent R.

    This thesis evaluated the durability and aesthetic performance of coating systems for utilization in concrete bridge applications. The principle objectives of this thesis were: 1) Identify aesthetic coating systems appropriate for concrete bridge applications; 2) Evaluate the performance of the selected systems through a laboratory testing regimen; 3) Develop guidelines for coating selection, surface preparation, and application. A series of site visits to various bridges throughout the State of Wisconsin provided insight into the performance of common coating systems and allowed problematic structural details to be identified. To aid in the selection of appropriate coating systems, questionnaires were distributed to coating manufacturers, bridge contractors, and various DOT offices to identify high performing coating systems and best practices for surface preparation and application. These efforts supplemented a literature review investigating recent publications related to formulation, selection, surface preparation, application, and performance evaluation of coating materials.

  9. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  10. Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

  11. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong [Farmington Hills, MI; Milner, Robert [Warren, MI; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim [Troy, MI

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  12. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  13. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  14. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd 3+ :YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  15. Magnesium Diboride thin Films, multilayers, and coatings for SRF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities currently use low-temperature superconductor niobium, and the Nb SRF cavities have approached the performance levels predicted theoretically. Compared to Nb, MgB2 becomes superconducting at a much higher temperature and promises a better RF performance in terms of higher quality factor Q and higher acceleration capability. An MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. This project aimed to advance the development of an MgB2 SRF technology. It had two main objectives: (1) materials issues of MgB2 thin films and multilayers related to their applications in SRF cavities; and (2) coating single-cell cavities for testing at RF frequencies. The key technical thrust of the project is the deposition of high quality clean MgB2 films and coatings by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique, which was developed in my group. We have achieved technical progress in each of the two areas. For the first objective, we have confirmed that MgB2 thin film coatings can be used to effectively enhance the vortex penetration field of an SRF cavity. A vortex is a normal region in the shape of spaghetti that threads through a superconductor. Its existence is due to an applied magnetic field that is greater than a so-called lower critical field, Hc1. Once a vortex enters the superconductor, its movement leads to loss. This has been shown to be the reason for an SRF cavity to break down. Thus, enhancing the magnetic field for a vortex to enter the superconductor that forms the SRF cavity has be a goal of intense research. To this end, Gurevich proposed that a coating of thin superconductor layer can impede the vortex entrance. In this project, we have done two important experiment to test this concept. One, we showed that the enhancement of Hc1 can be

  16. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Künniger, Tina; Hischier, Roland; Cervellati, Dario; Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products

  17. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapié, Ingrid [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Künniger, Tina [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Applied Wood Materials Laboratory (Switzerland); Hischier, Roland [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Cervellati, Dario [GFC Chimica S.r.l (Italy); Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.som@empa.ch [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products.

  18. PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone)-coated nitinol wire: Film stability for biocompatibility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheiko, Nataliia [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kékicheff, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.kekicheff@ics-cnrs.unistra.fr [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Marie, Pascal; Schmutz, Marc; Jacomine, Leandro [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne [Faculté de Médecine, INSERM, UMR-S 1121, “Biomaterials and Bioengineering”, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A thin (12 μm) homogeneous PEEK film without any defects or voids is deposited on NiTi wires. • The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release and no cytotoxicity. • Large pressure (>2 GPa) can only disrupt the coating film as shown by nanoscratch tests. • Coated spring wires sustain mechanical stress in continuous cycles of axial compression/stretching for >7 million cycles. - Abstract: High quality biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) coatings were produced on NiTi shape memory alloy wires using dipping deposition from colloidal aqueous PEEK dispersions after substrate surface treatment. The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy at every step of the process from the as-received Nitinol substrate to the ultimate PEEK-coated NiTi wire. Nanoscratch tests were carried out to access the adhesive behavior of the polymer coated film to the NiTi. The results indicate that the optimum process conditions in cleaning, chemical etching, and electropolishing the NiTi, were the most important and determining parameters to be achieved. Thus, high quality PEEK coatings were obtained on NiTi wires, straight or curved (even with a U-shape) with a homogeneous microstructure along the wire length and a uniform thickness of 12 μm without any development of cracks or the presence of large voids. The biocompatibility of the PEEK coating film was checked in fibrobast cultured cells. The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release, no cytotoxicity, and no delamination observed with time.

  19. PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone)-coated nitinol wire: Film stability for biocompatibility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheiko, Nataliia; Kékicheff, Patrick; Marie, Pascal; Schmutz, Marc; Jacomine, Leandro; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thin (12 μm) homogeneous PEEK film without any defects or voids is deposited on NiTi wires. • The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release and no cytotoxicity. • Large pressure (>2 GPa) can only disrupt the coating film as shown by nanoscratch tests. • Coated spring wires sustain mechanical stress in continuous cycles of axial compression/stretching for >7 million cycles. - Abstract: High quality biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) coatings were produced on NiTi shape memory alloy wires using dipping deposition from colloidal aqueous PEEK dispersions after substrate surface treatment. The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy at every step of the process from the as-received Nitinol substrate to the ultimate PEEK-coated NiTi wire. Nanoscratch tests were carried out to access the adhesive behavior of the polymer coated film to the NiTi. The results indicate that the optimum process conditions in cleaning, chemical etching, and electropolishing the NiTi, were the most important and determining parameters to be achieved. Thus, high quality PEEK coatings were obtained on NiTi wires, straight or curved (even with a U-shape) with a homogeneous microstructure along the wire length and a uniform thickness of 12 μm without any development of cracks or the presence of large voids. The biocompatibility of the PEEK coating film was checked in fibrobast cultured cells. The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release, no cytotoxicity, and no delamination observed with time.

  20. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  1. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  2. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  3. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  4. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  5. Sonochemical coating of magnetite nanoparticles with silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica through the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under ultrasonic irradiation. The ultrasonic irradiation was used to prevent the agglomeration of the magnetite particles and accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS. TEM, DLS, XRF, VSM, TG and sedimentation test were used to characterize the silica-coated magnetite particles. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles in aqueous solution was improved significantly and the agglomerate particle size was decreased to 110 nm. It was found that the agglomerate particle size of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the coating temperature and the pH value in the silica-coating process. The weight ratio of silica in silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the pH value in the silica-coating process. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the agglomerate particle size of the suspension. The oxidation of magnetite particles in air was limited through the coated silica. The magnetism of silica-coated magnetite particles decreased slightly after silica-coating.

  6. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  7. Modifications of optical properties with ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.; Abdel-Latif, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Coatings of ceramic materials that exhibited high thermal absorptivities and emissivities were chemical vapor deposited on graphite and refractory metals. In this paper the coatings prepared were SiC and B 4 C, and the substrates used were graphite, molybdenum, titanium, and Nb-1Zr. The coatings are characterized with regard to adherence, optical properties, and response to potential harsh environments

  8. Coat Hangers across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways in which wire coat hangers can be used other than for suspending clothes. The author has been making use of them in his teaching for many years--copying ideas from colleagues and creating some for himself. In this article, he shares five examples that can enrich learning about science. (Contains 6 figures.)

  9. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  10. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of

  11. Industrial Coatings at Extreme Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Srinath; Pérez Hornero, Clara; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund

    With the gradual depletion of oil wells operable at relatively lower temperatures and pressures, the upstream oil industry relies on High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells to source crude oil and gas. HPHT well extraction and processing require anticorrosive coatings applied on substrates...

  12. Water transport in multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.

    2012-01-01

    Coatings form the interface between structures and the environment in many application domains. They play a crucial role in providing protection, e.g. against corrosion, they form a barrier against an aggressive environment and they create the aesthetic appearance. To fulfill such functionalities,

  13. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mario Paiva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,AlN deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC and one central rotating cathode (CERC. The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  14. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose Mario; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Locks Junior, Edinei; Stolf, Pietro; Seid Ahmed, Yassmin; Matos Martins, Marcelo; Bork, Carlos; Veldhuis, Stephen

    2018-02-28

    In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,Al)N deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel) by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC) and one central rotating cathode (CERC). The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si₃N₄ nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  15. Effects of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process during counter-rotating electrochemical machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengyong; Zhu, Zengwei; Wang, Ningfeng; Zhu, Di

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been widely used in the aerospace, automotive, defense and medical industries for its many advantages over traditional machining methods. However, the machining accuracy in ECM is to a great extent limited by the stray corrosion of the unwanted material removal. Many attempts have been made to improve the ECM accuracy, such as the use of a pulse power, passivating electrolytes and auxiliary electrodes. However, they are sometimes insufficient for the reduction of the stray removal and have their limitations in many cases. To solve the stray corrosion problem in CRECM, insulating and conductive coatings are respectively used. The different implement processes of the two kinds of coatings are introduced. The effects of the two kinds of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process are investigated. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted for the comparison of the two coatings. The simulation and experimental results show that both the two kinds of coatings are valid for the reduction of stray corrosion on the top surface of the convex structure. However, for insulating coating, the convex sidewall becomes concave when the height of the convex structure is over 1.26 mm. In addition, it is easy to peel off by the high-speed electrolyte. In contrast, the conductive coating has a strong adhesion, and can be well reserved during the whole machining process. The convex structure fabricated by using a conductive iron coating layer presents a favorable sidewall profile. It is concluded that the conductive coating is more effective for the improvement of the machining quality in CRECM. The proposed shielding coatings can also be employed to reduce the stray corrosion in other schemes of ECM.

  16. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  17. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. Effect of deposition conditions on the properties of pyrolytic silicon carbide coatings for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.; Lackey, W.J.

    1977-10-01

    Silicon carbide coatings on HTGR microsphere fuel act as the barrier to contain metallic fission products. Silicon carbide coatings were applied by the decomposition of CH 3 SiCl 3 in a 13-cm-diam (5-in.) fluidized-bed coating furnace. The effects of temperature, CH 3 SiCl 3 supply rate and the H 2 :CH 3 SiCl 3 ratio on coating properties were studied. Deposition temperature was found to control coating density, whole particle crushing strength, coating efficiency, and microstructure. Coating density and microstructure were also partially determined by the H 2 :CH 3 SiCl 3 ratio. From this work, it appears that the rate at which high quality SiC can be deposited can be increased from 0.2 to 0.5 μm/min

  20. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.