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Sample records for qualitative study comparing

  1. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  2. Flexibility and working conditions : a qualitive and comparative study in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Nanteuil, M. de

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of profound transformations in work and employment, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has undertaken a qualitative and comparative study concerning the impact of flexibility on working conditions in the European Union. Complementing other

  3. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  4. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  5. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  6. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  7. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels.Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages.For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture.Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness.The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral characteristics

  8. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Instruction on Vectors between a Physics Course and a Trigonometry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Wendy Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student…

  9. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Instruction on Vectors between a Physics Course and a Trigonometry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Wendy Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student…

  10. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  11. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs with married community members were carried out. Community Health Officers, Community Health Volunteers, and Health Care Managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

  12. Discovering successful strategies for diabetic self-management: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta; Nash, Anita; Perez, Noe

    2017-01-01

    This project explored lifestyles of patients in good and poor control to identify naturally occurring practices and strategies that result in successful diabetes management. Semistructured interviews with adult patients with type 2 diabetes explored diet, food preparation, physical activity, medication use and glucose monitoring. Patients (n=56) were classified into good (A1C 8.0%) control groups and matched across groups on diabetes duration (±5 years) and medication modality (none, oral, insulin±oral) to control for non-lifestyle factors. A qualitative comparative analysis identified practices that distinguished glycemic groups. Good control patients were more likely to test their glucose two or more times a day and reduce their sodium intake, as well as increase fruits and vegetables and limit portion sizes, some attaining good control without exercise. Fair control patients discussed several dietary strategies including limiting sweets, drinking non-caloric beverages, reducing carbs, 'cheating' (eating only a few sweets/limiting carbs in one meal to have more in another meal) and tested their glucose once a day. Poor control patients were more likely to skip antidiabetic medications and not test their glucose. Although clinical trials indicate most self-management practices have limited effectiveness over time, increased glucose monitoring is a valuable component in daily management. Research is needed on effectiveness of dietary strategies that emphasize sodium monitoring and allow some degree of cheating. Reoffering diabetes education classes and providing pill boxes as memory aids may help improve poor control.

  13. Patients’ views about treatment with combination therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: a comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempp Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinations of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs are increasingly used to control active rheumatoid arthritis (RA; however there is little information about patients’ perspectives, their expectations, concerns and experiences of this intensive treatment. Method We interviewed a quota sample of 18 patients from a single tertiary outpatient clinic, stratified by gender, ethnicity and age, based on the outpatient clinic population. Patients with early RA (2 years received combined conventional DMARDs or DMARDs with biologics. Results Four main themes emerged from the analytical framework: (i patients’ expectations about the combined treatment focuses mainly on physical symptoms; (ii the impact of the treatment on quality of life varied with the new medication in both groups (iii concerns about new interventions concentrated mainly on potential side effects; and (iv combination therapy can be self-managed in close collaboration with clinic staff, but this requires individualised management approaches. These themes resonate with von Korff’s collaborative management of chronic illness model. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study that examined systematically in patients with early and established RA their expectations, impact on quality of life, concerns about side effects and the management of the treatment when taking combined medication with DMARDs or DMARDs and biologics. Patients have generally positive views of combination DMARDs. Within routine practice settings, achieving medication concordance with complex combined DMARD regimens is challenging, and the concerns vary between patients; careful individual assessments are essential to successfully deliver such intensive treatment.

  14. The Lesser of Two Evils? A Qualitative Study of Offenders' Preferences for Prison Compared to Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alisha; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many offenders will choose to serve prison rather than any amount of a community-based sanction. This primarily quantitative research has found that offender-generated exchange rates are influenced by a wide variety of experiences and characteristics. Missing from this literature is a qualitative evaluation of…

  15. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....

  16. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...

  17. A qualitative phytochemical analysis and a comparative study of the antibactrial activity of Retama stalks (raetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed mainly to investigate and compare the antibacterial activities of methanolic, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of retama on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureu using well difusion method.The results of study showed a significant effect on all bacterial species except Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary test of retama constituents revealed the presence of active material : Resins, Volatil oils, Coumarins, Terpenes, Phenols, Tannins, Alkaloids, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, and Flavons. The highest Inhibition rate of Salmonella is 16 mm at the concentration 100 mg/ml, while the lowest inhibition rate was 8 mm for Escherichia coli at concentration 1 mg/ ml in methanolic extract. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the retama stalks (broom broom can be used in treating deseases caused by the tested organisms. Further chemical and pharmacological investigations may be carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituents in the selected plants responsible for the antimicrobial activity.

  18. Comparative study of contrast-enhanced ultrasound qualitative and quantitative analysis for identifying benign and malignant breast tumor lumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Gao, Yun-Hua; Li, Ding-Dong; Gao, Yan-Chun; Hou, Ling-Mi; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    To compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) qualitative and quantitative analysis in the identification of breast tumor lumps. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of CEUS for 73 cases of breast tumor lumps were retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate approaches. Logistic regression was applied and ROC curves were drawn for evaluation and comparison. The CEUS qualitative indicator-generated regression equation contained three indicators, namely enhanced homogeneity, diameter line expansion and peak intensity grading, which demonstrated prediction accuracy for benign and malignant breast tumor lumps of 91.8%; the quantitative indicator-generated regression equation only contained one indicator, namely the relative peak intensity, and its prediction accuracy was 61.5%. The corresponding areas under the ROC curve for qualitative and quantitative analyses were 91.3% and 75.7%, respectively, which exhibited a statistically significant difference by the Z test (Pqualitative analysis to identify breast tumor lumps is better than with quantitative analysis.

  19. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds- a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  20. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  1. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions.

  2. Exploring Self-Directed Learning in the Online Learning Environment: Comparing Traditional versus Nontraditional Learner Populations a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Rachel Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore self-directed learning in the online learning context. A sample of traditional and nontraditional learners, who were considered above average in their level of self-direction, participated in qualitative interviews to discuss their learning while engaged in an online course. The findings suggested no major…

  3. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Durazzo; Paolo Gabrielli; Pamela Manzi

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional ...

  4. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Hybrid practices as a means to implement quality improvement: A comparative qualitative study in a Dutch and Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz-Topp, Julia; Sanne, Johan M; Pöstges, Heide

    2016-11-15

    Managers and scholars commonly perceive resistance from professionals as hampering the implementation of quality improvement (QI) and refer to the incompatibility of clinical and managerial approaches to QI as a reason. Yet a growing body of research indicates that, in practice, these two approaches rather blend into hybrid practices that embody different types of QI-related knowledge and values. This opens up a new perspective on implementation challenges that moves attention away from resistance against managerial QI toward difficulties for clinicians to draw together different types of knowledge and values within their clinical work. So far, little is known about how managers can support clinicians to generate hybrid QI practices. The aim of this study was to deepen our understanding of how managers can support the generation of hybrid practices that help clinicians to integrate QI into their everyday work. We draw on comparative qualitative research including 21 semistructured interviews, documentary analysis, and participant observation that we conducted in one Dutch and one Swedish hospital over a period of 8 months in 2011/2012. Hospital managers designed hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles in order to facilitate the integration of different QI practices, knowledge, and values. This integration generated new hybrid practices and an infrastructure for QI that has potential to support clinicians in their efforts to align different demands. New opportunities to implement QI emerge when we change the implementation problem from clinical resistance to the need of support for clinicians to develop hybrid QI practices. Hospital managers then have to intentionally organize for the generation of hybrid practices by designing, for example, hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles that integrate different knowledge and values in a nonhierarchical way.

  6. Public Relations Management in Large & Innovative Multinational Corporations : A qualitative & comparative study of Shell, Coloplast & Company A

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:       The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that affect PR in multinational corporations (MNCs) today, and to explore how the factors affect PR management in the selected MNCs. Method:       A qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with PR managers at three multinational corporations. In addition to the primary data, a secondary data search was conducted. Conclusion: Both internal and external factors affect the PR management in large mult...

  7. Naturally-Emerging Technology-Based Leadership Roles in Three Independent Schools: A Social Network-Based Case Study Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velastegui, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating case study investigates the naturally emerging roles of technology brokers and technology leaders in three independent schools in New York involving 92 school educators. A multiple and mixed method design utilizing Social Network Analysis (SNA) and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FSQCA) involved gathering…

  8. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Key Informant Interviews in Health Services Research: Enhancing a Study of Adjuvant Therapy Use in Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel; Moss, Alexandra D; Bickell, Nina A

    2016-04-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a methodology created to address causal complexity in social sciences research by preserving the objectivity of quantitative data analysis without losing detail inherent in qualitative research. However, its use in health services research (HSR) is limited, and questions remain about its application in this context. To explore the strengths and weaknesses of using QCA for HSR. Using data from semistructured interviews conducted as part of a multiple case study about adjuvant treatment underuse among underserved breast cancer patients, findings were compared using qualitative approaches with and without QCA to identify strengths, challenges, and opportunities presented by QCA. Ninety administrative and clinical key informants interviewed across 10 NYC area safety net hospitals. Transcribed interviews were coded by 3 investigators using an iterative and interactive approach. Codes were calibrated for QCA, as well as examined using qualitative analysis without QCA. Relative to traditional qualitative analysis, QCA strengths include: (1) addressing causal complexity, (2) results presentation as pathways as opposed to a list, (3) identification of necessary conditions, (4) the option of fuzzy-set calibrations, and (5) QCA-specific parameters of fit that allow researchers to compare outcome pathways. Weaknesses include: (1) few guidelines and examples exist for calibrating interview data, (2) not designed to create predictive models, and (3) unidirectionality. Through its presentation of results as pathways, QCA can highlight factors most important for production of an outcome. This strength can yield unique benefits for HSR not available through other methods.

  9. Prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy: findings from a comparative qualitative study in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Afrah, Nana A; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Hamel, Mary J; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-11-20

    In endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is a major preventable cause of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommended MiP prevention and control includes intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and appropriate case management. This article explores the social and cultural context to the uptake of these interventions at four sites across Africa. A comparative qualitative study was conducted at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. Observations, which focused on behaviours linked to MiP prevention and treatment, were also undertaken at health facilities and in local communities. ITNs were generally recognized as important for malaria prevention. However, their availability and use differed across the sites. In Malawi and Kenya, ITNs were sought-after items, but there were complaints about availability. In central Ghana, women saved ITNs until the birth of the child and they were used seasonally in northern Ghana. In Kenya and central Ghana, pregnant women did not associate IPTp with malaria, whereas, in Malawi and northern Ghana, IPTp was linked to malaria, but not always with prevention. Although IPTp adherence was common at all sites, whether delivered with directly observed treatment or not, a few women did not comply with IPTp often citing previous side effects. Although generally viewed as positive, experiences of malaria testing varied across the four sites: treatment was sometimes administered in spite of a negative diagnosis in Ghana (observed) and Malawi (reported). Despite generally following the advice of healthcare staff, particularly in Kenya, personal experience, and the availability and accessibility of medication--including anti-malarials--influenced MiP treatment. Although ITNs were

  10. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  11. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-07-15

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  12. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  13. Bridging the Qualitative and Quantitative Divide in Comparative Migration Studies : Newspaper Data and Political Ethnography in Mixed Method Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newspaper data are popular in Comparative Migration Studies as they allow diachronic and cross-national comparison and are relatively easy and inexpensive to acquire. Critics, however, warn that newspaper data are hampered by selection, description and researcher bias. This article argues that

  14. Bridging the Qualitative and Quantitative Divide in Comparative Migration Studies : Newspaper Data and Political Ethnography in Mixed Method Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newspaper data are popular in Comparative Migration Studies as they allow diachronic and cross-national comparison and are relatively easy and inexpensive to acquire. Critics, however, warn that newspaper data are hampered by selection, description and researcher bias. This article argues that resea

  15. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Qualitative, Comparative Study of the Use of Electronic Information and Other Services at Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Crawford

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, (ULB Münster, has a substantial background of research and publication in performance measurement and evaluation of library and information services (Poll and te Boekhorst and has conducted and published internal studies of various aspects of its services.(Obst 1995; Buch 1996. My contact with the Library goes back to late 1996 when I spent two weeks at ULB on a British Council exchange scheme with North Rhine Westphalia which gave me some understanding of how the Library operates and some knowledge of the technical vocabulary of German academic librarianship. In 1998 I directed a qualitative study of the use being made of Glasgow Caledonian University Library’s recently opened Electronic Information Floor (Crawford 1999. A literature review undertaken prior to the study showed that surprisingly little research had been done in this area and that one of the earliest studies was that undertaken by Dr Oliver Obst at Münster (1995. Coincidentally ULB is a partner in the EQUINOX Project, led by CERLIM, which aims to develop a set of standardised performance measures for the electronic library and was interested in collecting some qualitative data as a background to the Project. After email discussions with ULB it was decided that I should visit the Library again to undertake a qualitative study of the use of electronic information services there which would act both as a comparative study with Glasgow Caledonian University and a background study to the much larger, CERLIM led, EQUINOX Project.

  17. Microprocessor-controlled vs. "dump-freezing" platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation: A quantitative and qualitative comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thermodynamical and cryobiological parameters responsible for cell damages during cryopreservation (cryoinjuries have not yet been completely explained. Thus, freezing procedures should be revised, exactly optimized to obtain an enhanced structural and functional recovery of frozen- thawed cells. The aim of this study was to compare microprocessor- controlled (controlled-rate with the compensation of the released fusion heat and “dump-freezing” (uncontrolled- rate of the platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation efficacy. Methods. Platelet quantitative recovery (post-thaw vs. unfrozen cell count, viability (using hypotonic shock response - HSR, morphological score (PMS, ultrastructural (electron microscopy properties and expression of different surface antigens were investigated. In lymphocyte setting, cell recovery and viability (using trypan blue exclusion test as well as functionality (by plant mitogens were determined. Controlled- rate freezing and uncontrolled-rate cryopreservation were combined with 6% (platelets and 10% (lymphocytes dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Results. Platelet recovery and functionality were superior in the controlled-rate system. The majority of surface antigen expression was reduced in both freezing groups vs. unfrozen cells, but GP140/CD62p was significantly higher in controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate setting. Controlled- rate freezing resulted with better lymphocyte recovery and viability (trypan blue-negative cell percentage. In mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative response no significant intergroup difference (controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate were found. Conclusion. The data obtained in this study showned the dependence of cell response on the cryopreservation type. Controlled-rate freezing provided a superior platelet quantitative and functional recovery. Lymphocyte recovery and viability were better in the controlled-rate group, although only a minor intergroup difference for cell

  18. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  19. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  20. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  1. ' Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine : A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Dornan, Tim

    Purpose Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. Method In fall 2014, the authors

  2. Experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain in the ED or acute surgical ward --a qualitative comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    was that the ED included a multidisciplinary team with nurses, who mainly had interactions with the patients before surgical assessment. In all, it resulted in fragmentation of care and a patient experience of repetition. In ASW, focus was on assessment by a senior physician, only, and the nurses' interaction......The Danish health care system is currently establishing emergency departments (EDs) with an observation unit nationwide. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with acute abdominal pain and their experiences upon arrival and stay in an acute surgical ward (ASW) versus an ED...... with the patients took place after surgical assessment. In all, patients experienced long waiting times. The study shows a need to define the roles of the professionals in units receiving patients with acute abdominal pain in order to fulfil the medical as well as the experienced needs of the acute patient....

  3. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  4. Assessing the Comparability of Paper and Electronic Versions of the EORTC QOL Module for Head and Neck Cancer: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, Josephine; Chirovsky, Diana; Munshi, Teja; Tolley, Chloe; Panter, Charlotte; Gater, Adam

    2017-05-12

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are important tools for monitoring disease activity and response to treatment in clinical trials and clinical practice. In recent years, there have been movements away from traditional pen-and-paper PROs towards electronic administration. When using electronic PROs (ePROs), evidence that respondents complete ePROs in a similar way to their paper counterparts provides assurance that the two modes of administration are comparable or equivalent. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 item (EORTC QLQ-C30) and associated disease-specific modules are among the most widely used PROs in oncology. Although studies have evaluated the comparability and equivalence of electronic and original paper versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30, no such studies have been conducted to date for the head and neck cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35). This study aimed to qualitatively assess the comparability of paper and electronic versions of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35. Ten head and neck cancer patients in the United States underwent structured cognitive debriefing and usability interviews. An open randomized crossover design was used in which participants completed the two modes of administration allocated in a randomized order. Using a "think-aloud" process, participants were asked to speak their thoughts aloud while completing the EORTC QLQ-H&N35. They were thoroughly debriefed on their responses to determine consistency in interpretation and cognitive process when completing the instrument in both paper and electronic format. Participants reported that the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 demonstrated excellent qualitative comparability between modes of administration. The proportion of noncomparable responses (ie, where the thought process used by participants for selecting responses appeared to be different) observed in the study was low (11/350 response pairs [35 items x 10 participants]; 3

  5. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  6. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  7. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...... of clinical language for IT-development of clinical documents is a well-known challenge to health care authorities and to clinical users. The theoretical foundation of the method is the critical hermeneutic of Paul Ricoeur (1978, 1981, 1988, 2002), Don Ihde (1996) Inger Lytje (2000), and Joseph Dunne (1993...

  8. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaca, Arantza; Pell, Christopher; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Afrah, Nana A; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Ouma, Peter; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-07-22

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into account when designing and promoting Mi

  9. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  10. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  11. Comparing the meanings of living with advanced breast cancer between women resilient to distress and women with persistent distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W W T; Yoon, S W; Sze, W K; Ng, A W Y; Soong, I; Kwong, A; Suen, D; Tsang, J; Yeo, W; Wong, K Y; Fielding, R

    2017-02-01

    Most women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) show little distress, but about one in ten show persistent distress over time. It remains unclear if meanings ascribed by patients to ABC differentiate these distress trajectories. This qualitative study (a) compared illness meanings of ABC between women with persistent psychological distress and those with low/transient distress, and (b) examined how illness meanings might influence coping strategies. The sample was drawn from a prior quantitative study exploring psychological distress trajectories following ABC diagnosis. Overall, 42 Cantonese- or Mandarin-speaking Chinese women diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ABC were recruited based on their distress trajectory status (low-stable, transient, or persistent distress). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed following grounded theory approach using simultaneous analysis. Women with persistent distress viewed their diagnosis as another blow in life, the illness was global, permeating every aspect of their life. Maladaptive rumination and thought suppression were common responses to illness demands. These women had poor social support. A sense of demoralization stood out in their narratives. In contrast, women with transient/low-stable distress encapsulated the illness, with minimum impacts of their life. They did not evidence dysfunctional repetitive thoughts. Living in a supportive environment, they were able to accept and/or live in the present-moment. Rumination, thought suppression, social constraints, and pre-existing exposure to life stress may be potential risks for chronic distress in response to advanced breast cancer. Persistent and transient distress responses to cancer may have different underpinnings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: qualitative comparative case study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Huby, Guro; Pinnock, Hilary; Gillies, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-06-04

    Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff's knowledge or increased clinical resource and time, which are

  13. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: Qualitative comparative case study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies John

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Methods Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. Results There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. Conclusion In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff

  14. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochefort Christian M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b preferred approach to hypertension management and, c perceptions about

  15. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a) perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b) preferred approach to hypertension management and, c) perceptions about hypertension guidelines

  16. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  17. An example of qualitative comparative analysis in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Frank; Wiechula, Richard

    2013-07-01

    To describe an example of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a study about the role of clinical placement, nursing education and patient outcomes. Clinical placement is often considered an essential aspect of nursing education and an invaluable way to prepare students for the reality of nursing. However, many questions about the role of clinical placement remain unanswered, such as duration, style and learning outcomes. QCA is a novel approach to data analysis, which has been used for some time in social science research, and may be useful in tackling such questions. Participants (n= 16) involved in a case study using questionnaire, in-depth interview and document analysis. Few examples of QCA exist in nursing-related research. Examination of approaches to social sciences and educational research, and the conditions that influence nursing education and clinical placement were conducted via a number of online database searches. The paper presents an example of how QCA was used to consider whether there is any causal relationship between certain features of clinical placement, such as duration, level of preparation, level of benefit, and the capacity of recently graduated registered nurses to provide a range of nursing interventions for pneumonia, falls and pressure-area care. Effective and contemporary curriculum design requires examination of the components of clinical placement that influence graduates and their learning, particularly important at a time when access to the clinical placement setting is becoming increasingly difficult. This paper should stimulate nurse researchers to consider the potential for QCA and case study in addressing many of the complex questions that lend themselves to research designs with small numbers of participants. This paper will be of interest to nurse researchers looking for innovative approaches to data analysis and educators responsible for curriculum design and the delivery of clinical placement experience. A greater

  18. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  19. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Method Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation ... KEYWORDS: qualitative, interpretive, case study, systems theory, methodology. INTRODUCTION ..... Maidenhead: Open University Press. Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, ...

  20. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThe current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums.AimsTo explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities.MethodA two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar.ResultsThemes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness.ConclusionsThese results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  1. Barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use among Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809

  2. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  3. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  4. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is oft...

  5. A comparative analysis of three online appraisal instruments' ability to assess validity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Karin; Lockwood, Craig; Pearson, Alan

    2010-12-01

    The concept of validity has been a central component in critical appraisal exercises evaluating the methodological quality of quantitative studies. Reactions by qualitative researchers have been mixed in relation to whether or not validity should be applied to qualitative research and if so, what criteria should be used to distinguish high-quality articles from others. We compared three online critical appraisal instruments' ability to facilitate an assessment of validity. Many reviewers have used the critical appraisal skills program (CASP) tool to complete their critical appraisal exercise; however, CASP appears to be less sensitive to aspects of validity than the evaluation tool for qualitative studies (ETQS) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool. The ETQS provides detailed instructions on how to interpret criteria; however, it is the JBI tool, with its focus on congruity, that appears to be the most coherent.

  6. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  7. Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, K.; Czabanowska, K.; Brand, H.

    2015-01-01

    [PDF] Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study K Sørensen, K Czabanowska, H Brand - Occup Med Health Aff, 2015 ... Corresponding author: Kristine Sørensen, Assistant Professor, Department of International Health/CAPHRI, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.Tel: +31433881717; Fax

  8. Qualitative criteria of urbanism and brands: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pompe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactivity, multidisciplinarity, synergy and interdependence are all concepts that are clearly intertwined with managing every responsible city and its leaders. Urbanism plays a significant role among the disciplines that affect the uniqueness and competitive position of a city. None of the cities that are successful in a competitive environment would be a noteworthy and powerful brand if they did not possess recognisable, singular and distinctive elements of urbanism that made them unique. This article proceeds from the hypothesis that urbanism with qualitative solutions helps shape a city’s brand and that the criteria that demonstrate this are in agreement with the qualitative criteria of a brand. In reviewing the scholarly literature on urbanism as brands and branding itself, it is shown that qualitative urbanism criteria show great similarity with qualitative brand criteria, and therefore have a decisive effect on a city brand and its placement in a competitive urban market. Qualitative urbanism and brand criteria are closely linked and tend to be cast in the same mould, although they differ in formulation and level of implementation. These acknowledged similarities represent a step forward in integral operation, management, communication and urban marketing. They also enable more or less unconnected areas of urbanism and marketing to connect. The positive consequences of understanding the connection of both fields will be long term and will build a recognisable, consistent and stakeholder friendly reputation for a city. These findings are a golden opportunity for urban management and confirm the need for a comprehensive approach to urban management.

  9. Corneal oedema after phacoemulsification in the early postoperative period: A qualitative comparative case-control study between diabetics and non-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T. Tsaousis

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The existence of diabetes mellitus type 2 appears to be a significant risk factor for the development of persistent corneal oedema. The results of our study led to the modification of the algorithm for postoperative follow-up of patients of this remote area of Greece.

  10. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

     Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Characterization of Solid Waste Generated in Chitrakoot (India) and Its Management: A Comparative Study of Karwi and Chitrakoot Nagar Panchayat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aparna; Gupta, Ganshyam; Singh, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Chitrakoot is a religious place in India and on a major festival day over 1,00,000-12, 00,000 people visit this place. Therefore, a study on solid waste generation was carried out. During the study, the MSW composition in Karwi was found as polythene (6.73%), plastic (5.14%), rubber (3.17%), metals (4.43%), glass (4.98%), wood (3.75%), cotton & cloths (6.37%), paper & cardboards (9.53%), vegetable wastes (13.52%), soil & constructional wastes (30.71%), garden waste (6.03%), rags (2.90%) and meat waste (2.72%) and in Chitrakoot the MSW composition was found as polythene (10.12%), plastic (4.78%), rubber (3.70%), metals (2.84%), glass (4.08%), wood (5.55%), cotton & cloths (4.29%), paper & cardboards (7.77%), vegetable wastes (11.66%), soil & constructional wastes (29.87%), garden waste (9.73%), rags (2.29%) and ash (3.32%). The waste management options provided by municipality are very poor and ineffective. No landfills, incineration and composting functions are performed. Chitrakoot municipality primarily has no function to reduce the size of waste including separation and recovery of valuable material. Community participation in solid waste management may be a better option.

  12. Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.

  13. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the...

  14. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  15. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  16. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohlbacher

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  17. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Clare; Lewis, Rebecca; Hall, Emma; Jones, Emma; Birtle, Alison; Huddart, Robert

    2012-11-29

    Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient 'deficit' model - an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) (SPARE, CRUK/07/011) in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. The qualitative study used a 'Framework Analysis' that included 'constant comparison' in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment.The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding 'informed consent', as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel.Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the 'deficit' model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients feel fully included in the trial enterprise and potentially consider alternatives to

  18. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Clare

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient ‘deficit’ model – an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT (SPARE, CRUK/07/011 in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. Methods The qualitative study used a ‘Framework Analysis’ that included ‘constant comparison’ in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Results Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment. The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding ‘informed consent’, as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel. Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. Conclusions These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the ‘deficit’ model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients

  19. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  20. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  1. Qualitative longitudinal study of micro-entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rövekamp, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative longitudinal study 30 founders from small companies – small busi-nesses, liberal professions and self-employed – were examined. Types of successful and less successful founders are constructed, which are posed with factors of suc-cess. On the one hand the typology is based on material and immaterial personal goals that are pursued with the start up, on the other hand on biographical striv-ings: (1A) conventional enterpriser or persons who are (1B) double- and multio-riented, ...

  2. Comparing the Experience of Mature-Aged and Traditional Medical Students in the Clinical Setting: A Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jurjus, RA; Butera, G; ABDELNABI, M; Krapf, JM

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although the mean age of first year medical students is 24, an increasing number of “mature-aged” students, defined as over age 30, are entering medical school in the United States. Few studies have employed qualitative methodology to determine the experience of mature-aged medical students, especially in the clinical setting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to employ a qualitative design to compare the experience of mature-aged and traditional medical students on clinic...

  3. Interaction between international trade and economic growth: evidence from qualitative comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Seda Bilman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between international trade and growth is one of the most popular debates in international economics literature. Although there are numerous theoretical approaches and empirical studies about the issue, the direction of the causality and the magnitude of the interaction still remain unclear. In this study, qualitative comparative analysis introduced by Ragin (1987 is applied, different from the previous empirical studies on the topic. The results present the conditions for growth in the country groups involved. The findings imply that trade policy is still of great importance in terms of stimulating growth in developing countries, while it has little importance in developed countries.

  4. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  5. Qualitative Comparative Analysis: A Hybrid Method for Identifying Factors Associated with Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Baldwin, Julie; Hampel, Heather; DeBate, Rita D

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed over 25 years ago to bridge the qualitative and quantitative research gap. Upon searching PubMed and the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, this review identified 30 original research studies that utilized QCA. Perceptions that QCA is complex and provides few relative advantages over other methods may be limiting QCA adoption. Thus, to overcome these perceptions, this article demonstrates how to perform QCA using data from fifteen institutions that implemented universal tumor screening (UTS) programs to identify patients at high risk for hereditary colorectal cancer. In this example, QCA revealed a combination of conditions unique to effective UTS programs. Results informed additional research and provided a model for improving patient follow-through after a positive screen.

  6. QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOOSPHERE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the total problems of formation and development of the knowledge economy, we highlighted the environmental aspect and the comparative analysis of the fundamental ideas of the knowledge economy and the noosphere concept development in terms of their complementarity

  7. Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, M M; Läng, M; Aujesky, D; Marschall, J

    2016-07-01

    Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is widespread and may result in antibiotic side-effects, excess costs to the healthcare system, and may potentially trigger antimicrobial resistance. According to international management guidelines, ASB is not an indication for antibiotic treatment (with few exceptions). To determine reasons for using antibiotics to treat ASB in the absence of a treatment indication. A qualitative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland during 2011. We interviewed 21 internal medicine residents and attending physicians selected by purposive sampling, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Responses were analysed in an inductive thematic content approach using dedicated software (MAXQDA(®)). In the 21 interviews, the following thematic rationales for antibiotic overtreatment of ASB were reported (in order of reporting frequency): (i) treating laboratory findings without taking the clinical picture into account (N = 17); (ii) psychological factors such as anxiety, overcautiousness, or anticipated positive impact on patient outcomes (N = 13); (iii) external pressors such as institutional culture, peer pressure, patient expectation, and excessive workload that interferes with proper decision-making (N = 9); (iv) difficulty with interpreting clinical signs and symptoms (N = 8). In this qualitative study we identified both physician-centred factors (e.g. overcautiousness) and external pressors (e.g. excessive workload) as motivators for prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Also, we interpreted the frequently cited practice of treating asymptomatic patients based on laboratory findings alone as lack of awareness of evidence-based best practices. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  10. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-03-18

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses' experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses' familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses' occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system.

  11. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  12. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  13. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  14. CAQDAS and Qualitative Syllogism Logic—NVivo 8 and MAXQDA 10 Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Schönfelder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is a heterogeneous field comprised of different and sometimes competing analytical strategies. A growing number of researchers use computer programs to assist in the analysis of qualitative data. Some analytical tasks are common ground and will be performed by most researchers regardless of their methodological approach. Software vendors try to accommodate an increasing demand for common and specific analytical needs and include an ever growing number of features in their products. Depending on the methodological point of departure, some functions provided in the current generation of CAQDAS packages may appear controversial because they invite the user to exceed the limits for the conclusions which can be drawn from qualitative analysis. In this article the limits for drawing conclusions from qualitative data are discussed from a social constructivist, discourse analytical perspective. This is described with the concept of qualitative syllogism logic. Some tools provided by CAQDAS packages are used in most qualitative methodological frameworks. These are discussed before two CAQDAS packages, NVivo 8 and MAXQDA 10, are compared with regard to how intuitively they provide these basic tools along with those that appear controversial because they exceed the limits of qualitative syllogism logic. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101218

  15. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  16. Driving lean and green project outcomes using BIM: A qualitative comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Ahuja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by a plethora of external and internal influences, the construction industry has independently embraced lean principles and green initiatives. Prima facie significant synergies have been reported between these two paradigms. It is foreseen that when tapped and adopted in unison, these paradigms may yield additional benefits for the construction projects. This synergy is investigated in this research. Further this study identifies and proposes Building Information Modelling (BIM as an enabler for gaining lean and green project outcomes. The study uses crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA method for exploring the causal combinations of different BIM capabilities and asserts that causal combinations of four BIM capabilities: MEP system modelling, energy and environment analysis, constructability analysis and structural analysis, when implemented on construction projects can lead to lean and green outcomes. With the help of sixteen cases it is shown that adoption of BIM leads to improved project outcomes especially ones targeting lean and green aspects.

  17. Staging mammography nonadherent women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelle, Nancy; Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger; Rosal, Milagros C; White, Mary Jo; Stark, Jennifer Rider

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have related stages of mammography screening nonadherence with the rationale used by overdue women. We used a grounded theory approach to obtain and analyze data from focus groups, telephone interviews, and surveys. Emergent specific themes were compared with emerging decision levels of nonadherence. Each decision level was then compared with the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Transtheoretical Model. A total of 6 key themes influencing mammogram nonadherence emerged as did 6 decision levels. Variability within themes was associated with specific decision levels. The decision levels were not adequately classified by either stage model. Stage-based educational strategies may benefit by tailoring interventions to these 6 decision levels.

  18. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Oana DUMITRASCU; Constantin Manuel HILA

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms...

  19. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  20. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  1. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  2. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  3. Reproductive Health Matters among Indian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Hegde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Qualitative perspectives of the reproductive health (RH facilities and Adolescent Friendly Health Services (AFHS are still unexplored issues among the Indian adolescents. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions and awareness about the RH and its facilities among the adolescents in two districts in India. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on 197 individuals (i.e., 102 boys and 95 girls within the age of 15-19 years, selected from two Indian districts through stratified purposeful sampling method. For the purpose of the study, 16 focus group discussions (FGD were held using pre-tested FGD guide. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and thematic analysis was performed using inductive coding. Results: As the results indicated, a set of four themes, 12 subthemes, 52 open codes, and 12 categories was developed. The boys had lower parent-child proximity for discussing puberty changes, compared to the girls. They were totally unaware of the state sponsored RH services. On the other hand, the girls had better access to health care schemes provided by the government. Conclusion: According to the findings,the utilization of the RH services was poor among the adolescents in the two districts investigated in this study. It would be advisable to carry out more studies addressing the RH-related concerns of the adolescents, especially the boys.

  4. Developing optimal search strategies for retrieving clinically relevant qualitative studies in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leslie A; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative researchers address many issues relevant to patient health care. Their studies appear in an array of journals, making literature searching difficult. Large databases such as EMBASE provide a means of retrieving qualitative research, but these studies represent only a minuscule fraction of published articles, making electronic retrieval problematic. Little work has been done on developing search strategies for the detection of qualitative studies. The objective of this study was to develop optimal search strategies to retrieve qualitative studies in EMBASE for the 2000 publishing year. The authors conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. Search strategies reached peak sensitivities at 94.2% and peak specificities of 99.7%. Combining search terms to optimize the combination of sensitivity and specificity resulted in values over 89% for both. The authors identified search strategies with high performance for retrieving qualitative studies in EMBASE.

  5. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  6. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  7. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  8. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    ... seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16...

  9. Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study. ... Forming relationships based on trust and receiving feedback was also important. ... reported that meaning leads to the experience of happiness and personal satisfaction.

  10. Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural women seek healthcare ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... as each has some unique features such as herbal concoctions for traditional, ultrasound and ...

  11. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study. ... Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known ... guide individual expatriate physicians who hope to optimise their roles abroad.

  12. A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses offering primary ... These measures increased public access to healthcare centres, leading to an ... and the effectiveness of these groups plays a major role in determining the ...

  13. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... can be adapted to the study of policy diffusion. Second, a combination of these methods is the best practice, since they are largely complementary in terms of the twin challenge of diffusion. The discussion draws on numerous illustrations from recent qualitative policy diffusion studies. The article...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods....

  14. Fatigue in osteoarthritis: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Melissa R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is recognized as a disabling symptom in many chronic conditions including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA and lupus. Fatigue in osteoarthritis (OA is not routinely evaluated and has only been considered in a very limited number of studies. To date, these studies have focused primarily on patients with OA under rheumatological care, which represent the minority of people living with OA. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the fatigue experience in community dwelling people with OA. Methods In 2004, 8 focus groups were conducted with 28 men and 18 women (mean age 72.3 with symptomatic hip or knee OA recruited from a population-based cohort. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographics, measures of OA severity (WOMAC, depression (CES-D and fatigue (FACIT. Sessions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts to identify themes. Findings were compared and consensus reached. Results Mean pain, disability, depression and fatigue scores were 8.7/20, 27.8/68, 15.4/60, and 30.9/52, respectively. Participants described their fatigue as exhaustion, being tired and "coming up against a brick wall". Participants generally perceived fatigue as different from sleepiness and distinguished physical from mental fatigue. Factors believed to increase fatigue included OA pain and pain medications, aging, various types of weather and poor sleep. Mental health was identified as both affecting fatigue and being affected by fatigue. Participants described fatigue as impacting physical function, and their ability to participate in social activities and to do household chores. Rest, exercise, and avoiding or getting assistance with activities were cited as ways of coping. Participants generally did not discuss their fatigue with anyone except their spouses. Conclusion Participants with OA described

  15. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.

  16. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  17. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  18. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  19. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  20. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  1. A Comparative Study of Teaching Comparative Education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the comparative education subjects offered in different programs in different foreign universities. As a subject, comparative education has not been firmly institutionalized in education programs in Japanese universities. There was a movement which aimed at making comparative education as one of the mandatory subjects in the teacher training program, however it was not successful. To date, comparative education subject has been offered in various p...

  2. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  3. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... features and breaks in psychotherapy investigated. One aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a transparent and systematic methodology for the psychoanalytic case study by application of rigorous qualitative research methodology. To this end, inductive-deductive principles in line...

  4. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  5. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  6. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  7. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  8. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.

  9. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  10. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  11. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  12. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Resilience in eating disorders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Padierna, Jesús A; Muñoz, Pedro; Aguirre, Maialen; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Beato-Fernández, Luís; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the authors in this study were two-fold: (1) to explore the role of resilience in recovery from eating disorders (EDs), and (2) to develop a model of resilience in women with EDs. Semi-structured interviews with ten women were conducted in April 2011, along with two focus groups with women who had recovered from EDs (n  = 5 women each; conducted in April 2012 at the University of Deusto, Spain), one focus group with clinical experts (n = 8; conducted in April 2012 at the Foundation Against EDs of Biskay, Spain), and six narratives from primary caregivers of ED patients living in Biskay, Spain (conducted in November 2012). All data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. All female participants acknowledged experiencing resilience in their recovery. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of resilience composed of the following categories: deep dissatisfaction with life, turning point, acceptance, hope, determination to change, accountability for the ED, active coping, getting social support, gaining self-knowledge, getting information about EDs, increase well-being, trait resilience, initiating new projects and living in the here and now. According to the model presented, resilience preceded the experience of recovery in women with EDs in this sample and could be a useful asset for future interventions.

  14. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  15. Improving science teaching in multicultural settings: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Kean, Elizabeth

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study of a collaboration between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the administration and science teachers of the Omaha (Nebraska) Public Schools to improve the learning environment in multicultural science classrooms. The study of the summer workshops and follow-up interactions is described, along with a description of the changes in teacher attitudes and beliefs toward culturally diverse students. The three major themes of the workshops (multicultural understanding, cooperative learning, and problem solving as a source of content) are presented. Qualitative data sources are used to describe and interpret the changes in teacher interactions with minority students that were observed during a three-year period.

  16. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  17. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  18. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  19. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  20. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  1. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  2. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  3. Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

  4. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  5. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  6. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Internet recruitment and e-mail interviews in qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rebekah J; Bowers, Barbara J

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, 111 million adults accessed the Internet looking for health and medical information. Qualitative researchers can apply long-standing principles of recruitment and interviewing to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical and methodological aspects of Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing. The authors address issues of appropriateness, adequacy, representativeness, sample bias, data fraud, flexibility and consistency in interviewing, timing, elimination of the need for transcription, oral versus written communication, reliability and validity, and ethical concerns. They include some practical suggestions on a research design for a qualitative study employing both Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing.

  8. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  9. Metaphoric Stories in Supervision of Internship: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…

  10. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive ra...

  11. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  12. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  13. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar; Solem, Per Erik; Lange, Annet de; Syse, Astri; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Ilmarinen, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process o

  14. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...

  15. Adjuncts Matter: A Qualitative Study of Adjuncts' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Telvis M.

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic factors that influence the workplace experiences of 27 adjuncts teaching online were explored. In this qualitative research study, the adjuncts' lived experiences were examined through in-depth interviews. The results indicated three emergent factors which influenced the participants' workplace experiences, and the alternative…

  16. A Qualitative Case Study: Teacher Perceptions of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stacey L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is becoming a more widely used term to explain student behaviors, yet research on EF in education is limited. This qualitative study addressed a gap in literature by examining teacher perceptions of students with EF deficits, as well as teacher preparedness and desire to learn more about EF. Perceptions of third grade,…

  17. Influences on Preservice Teacher Socialization: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melissa J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative two-year study traces the changes in beliefs and actions of four preservice teachers through the final two years of their university education program. Dialectical Theory of Socialization and Cognitive Dissonance Theory provide the theoretical framework. The findings show that three main factors affect the transfer of learning…

  18. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu; Karien Jooste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretation...

  19. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  20. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  1. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  2. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: broadening the matrix approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootel, L. van; Wesel, F. van; O'Mara-Eves, A.; Thomas, J.; Hox, J.; Boeije, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the

  3. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of sustainable household water treatment interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Daniel; Pande, Saket; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Household water treatment (HWT; such as boiling, chlorination, solar or UV disinfection with lamps, etc.) is one of the technologies that can be used to reach this target. However, there is a big challenge to scale up the widespread implementation of this technology. Even though there are many HWT products on the market, sustainable uptake of this method (compliance) is unsatisfying. Researchers have shown that its compliance rate has often declined over time. Since there are many factors that influence the compliance rate, it is desirable to know the best combination of causal factors (pathway) that give the highest compliance based on the success stories reported in the literature. The motivation of this research is to find the pathways characteristic of local people that influence the compliance rate of HWT, using QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis). The comparative analysis is essentially a meta-analysis of HWT interventions and factors, possibly, behind successful or unsuccessful HWT uptake reported in literature. This thus helps to identify the characteristics of target communities that are willing to adopt HWT intervention, irrespective of the type of HWT. Out of 102 case studies reported in literature, 36 are selected from developing countries where an HWT intervention lasted for at least 12 months were selected and analyzed. Factors such as education level, perception about water quality, local beliefs, sanitation coverage, existing water treatment, type of water source, ability to pay, willingness to pay, existing local supply chain, and accessibility to water treatment were examined. Preliminary results show that 1) a combination of no prior HWT intervention in the community with a general perception of water quality being poor often leads to uptake of HWT technology, 2) education

  4. Using qualitative comparative analysis in a systematic review of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Jacobs, Sara; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E

    2016-05-04

    Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a non-probabilistic method that uses mathematical set theory to study complex phenomena; it has been proposed as a potential method to complement traditional evidence synthesis in reviews of complex interventions to identify key intervention components or implementation features that might explain effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The objective of this study was to describe our approach in detail and examine the suitability of using QCA within the context of a systematic review. We used data from a completed systematic review of behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence to conduct two substantive analyses using QCA. The first analysis sought to identify combinations of nine behavior change techniques/components (BCTs) found among effective interventions, and the second analysis sought to identify combinations of five implementation features (e.g., agent, target, mode, time span, exposure) found among effective interventions. For each substantive analysis, we reframed the review's research questions to be designed for use with QCA, calibrated sets (i.e., transformed raw data into data used in analysis), and identified the necessary and/or sufficient combinations of BCTs and implementation features found in effective interventions. Our application of QCA for each substantive analysis is described in detail. We extended the original review findings by identifying seven combinations of BCTs and four combinations of implementation features that were sufficient for improving adherence. We found reasonable alignment between several systematic review steps and processes used in QCA except that typical approaches to study abstraction for some intervention components and features did not support a robust calibration for QCA. QCA was

  5. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  6. Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an

  7. Living With Cluster Headache: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Talavera, Blanca; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Palacios-Ceña, María; Arias, José A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the views and experiences of a group of Spanish men suffering from cluster headache (CH). CH has considerable effects on patients' quality of life, impairs everyday activities, and can modify lifestyle. This is the first time the experience of patients with CH is examined in a clinical study using a qualitative, phenomenological approach. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study exploring how 20 male patients with CH, followed at the Headache Unit of a Spanish hospital, perceived their disease. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal letters. A systematic text condensation analysis was performed following appropriate guidelines for qualitative research. Mean age was 41.15 years (standard deviation, 11.25). Seventeen patients had episodic CH and three patients had chronic CH. Five main themes describing the significance of suffering CH emerged: (a) meaning of disease, (b) experience of attacks, (c) meaning of treatment, (d) healthcare, and (e) social and family interaction. Patients with CH often live in fear and uncertainty because of their condition. Intensity and frequency of attacks, the use of ineffective treatments, skepticism perceived from social and workplace environments and physician unawareness play a significant role. Qualitative research offers insight into the way CH patients experience their disease, and may be helpful in establishing a fruitful relationship with these patients. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  8. Patients' experience compared with physicians' recommendations for treating fecal incontinence: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2014-07-01

    Using qualitative methods, we compared physician-recommended treatment options for fecal incontinence to patient knowledge of treatment options. Our hypothesis was that physician recommendations were not being communicated well to patients and that this impaired patients' ability to cope with fecal incontinence. Cognitive interviews were conducted with physicians who routinely care for women with fecal incontinence. Physicians were asked to describe their typical nonsurgical treatment recommendations and counseling for fecal incontinence. Women with bothersome fecal incontinence were recruited to participate in focus groups and asked about personal experience with fecal incontinence symptoms and treatment options. For both physician interviews and patient focus groups, qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded-theory methodology. Physicians identified several barriers patients face when seeking treatment: lack of physician interest toward fecal incontinence, and patient embarrassment in discussing fecal incontinence. Physicians universally recommended fiber and pelvic floor exercise; they felt the majority (approximately 70-80 %) of patients will improve with these therapies. Collectively, patients were able to identify all treatment recommendations given by physicians, although many had discovered these treatments through personal experience. Three concepts emerged regarding treatment options that physicians did not identify but that patients felt were important in their treatment: hope for improvement, personal effort to control symptoms, and encouragement to go on living life fully. Whereas physicians had treatment to offer women with fecal incontinence, women had already found the best treatments through personal research and effort. Women want to hear a message of hope and encouragement and perceive personal effort from providers.

  9. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Managing depression through needlecraft creative activities: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the personal meanings of needlecrafts and their role in the self-management of depression. Written and spoken narratives from 39 women were studied. Respondents described themselves as experiencing chronic or episodic depression (e.g. associated with stressful work situations, bereavement or caring for an ill relative). Some had received treatment for depression but most had not. When analysing the therapeutic effects of creative activity, most women describ...

  11. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  12. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  13. Exploring barriers of enterprise search implementation: a qualitative user study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Alexander; Richter, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and scope, the chosen research approach of generating qualitative findings from a single case, and the size of the involved sample of engineers. Implications address measures to increase enterprise search adoption. Practical implications – This study provides project managers with knowledge to take...... existing studies primarily focus on advancing the technical perspective of search in organizations, the author elaborate on the under-investigated social and organizational aspects. The author furthermore stress the importance of user-centered approaches for enterprise search adoption....... to explore user-centric barriers of enterprise search implementation in order to increase user satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Results are built on a qualitative user study in an R & D organization. Findings are gained from think-aloud observations introduced by semi-structured interviews...

  14. A qualitative study comparing the assay performance characteristics between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 scoring methods in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru

    2014-12-01

    The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection rates of HER2 positivity in mucinous

  15. Quantitative versus qualitative modeling: a complementary approach in ecosystem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, C; Favilla, S; Bodini, A

    2009-02-01

    Natural disturbance or human perturbation act upon ecosystems by changing some dynamical parameters of one or more species. Foreseeing these modifications is necessary before embarking on an intervention: predictions may help to assess management options and define hypothesis for interventions. Models become valuable tools for studying and making predictions only when they capture types of interactions and their magnitude. Quantitative models are more precise and specific about a system, but require a large effort in model construction. Because of this very often ecological systems remain only partially specified and one possible approach to their description and analysis comes from qualitative modelling. Qualitative models yield predictions as directions of change in species abundance but in complex systems these predictions are often ambiguous, being the result of opposite actions exerted on the same species by way of multiple pathways of interactions. Again, to avoid such ambiguities one needs to know the intensity of all links in the system. One way to make link magnitude explicit in a way that can be used in qualitative analysis is described in this paper and takes advantage of another type of ecosystem representation: ecological flow networks. These flow diagrams contain the structure, the relative position and the connections between the components of a system, and the quantity of matter flowing along every connection. In this paper it is shown how these ecological flow networks can be used to produce a quantitative model similar to the qualitative counterpart. Analyzed through the apparatus of loop analysis this quantitative model yields predictions that are by no means ambiguous, solving in an elegant way the basic problem of qualitative analysis. The approach adopted in this work is still preliminary and we must be careful in its application.

  16. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.

  17. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  18. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassanpourDehkordi, Ali; Mohammadi, Nooredin; NikbakhatNasrabadi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis is one of health problems throughout the world. It has numerous consequences on patients' life. Stigma, depression, social marginalization and financial problems are some of the challenges in these patients. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine hepatitis-related stigma and discrimination in patients living with chronic hepatitis in Iranian society. This present study was designed as a qualitative method, and this article shows up the results of a qualitative research study undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in Iran. The study uses a content analysis method. A purposive sample of 18 patients was chosen. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field note that the researchers will take during participants' observation. Data analysis process was performed on the texts which were generated from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews. Participants were between 18 and 61 years old. The main theme, Stigma, emerged from three themes during the process data analysis in this study. These themes were including fear to lose of family and social support, fear to present in public and fear of transmission. This research indicates that stigma presents major challenges not only for patients living with chronic hepatitis but also for nurses, other healthcare practitioners, family and social networks, institutions and society. The researcher suggests that interventions to reduce or eliminate stigma should require individual, structural, cultural thought, society and systemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Four Commercial Mandarin Cultivars on 'Flying Dragon' Rootstock

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    E. Abedi Gheshlaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Flying dragon' is one of the citrus rootstocks that are considered to be a promised dwarfing rootstock in the world. This experiment was conducted in the Astara research station for study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 4 mandarin cultivars (Unshiu, Clementine, Page, and Yunesi budded on 'Flying dragon'. This experiment was carried out with four cultivars in randomized complete bloke design (RCBD with three replications. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fruits, as well as vegetative traits were recorded and analyzed for 3, 6 and 1 years, respectively. The highest yield was observed on Yunesi cultivar in the final year of experiments and the lowest yield was on Unshiu cultivar in the fifth year. TSS/TA and means of fruit weight were affected by interaction of year and cultivar. The highest means of fruit weight was on Yunesi in the years of 85 and the highest TSS/TA was in years of 88 on Clementine cultivar. The highest alternate bearing index obtained in years of 88 on the Unshiu cultivar and the lowest that was on the Page cultivar. The highest yield efficiency, cumulative yield and plant height were observed on Yunesi cultivar, and the highest width and canopy of tree were on Unshiu cultivar. The lowest yield and tree size were on Page cultivar.

  20. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

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    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  1. Physicians' Practice of Dispensing Medicines: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Darbyshire, Daniel; Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Bates, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The physical act of giving medication to patients to administer away from a health care setting, dispensing, is normally performed by pharmacists. Dispensing of medication by physicians is a neglected patient safety issue, and having observed considerable variation in practice, the lead author sought to explore this issue further. A literature review yielded zero articles pertaining to this, so an exploratory study was commenced. The qualitative arm, relating to junior physicians'...

  2. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  3. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Negarandeh Reza; Dehghan Nayeri Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A ...

  4. Why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentations: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Ana Mafalda Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão Hoteleira e Turismo/ JEL codes: L83; M31 This dissertation is a qualitative study about why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentation even though they earn a small incentive for doing so. The Hoffman and Bateson’s decision process model is used as a broad theoretical framework. On this basis and the inputs of managers and off-premise contact (OPC) representatives of a Marketing company located in Orlando, Florida, USA, five main lik...

  5. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  6. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  7. College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weiglein, Carolyn Anderson Jr.

    1998-01-01

    College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study Carolyn A. Weiglein (ABSTRACT) Research has indicated that college-age women are not consuming the recommended daily servings of dairy foods, and therefore, have inadequate calcium intakes as well. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 college women to explore their perceptions, opinions, thoughts, and feelings about dairy foods. Single, non-Hispanic white females, aged 19-22, enrolled in state-funded co...

  8. An evaluation of rheumatology practitioner outreach clinics: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Services for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have evolved with the development of independently led outreach Rheumatology Practitioner (RP) clinics in Primary Care (PC). Their clinical and cost effectiveness, compared with Secondary Care (SC) services, has not been assessed. The RECIPROCATE study aims to evaluate their clinical and cost effectiveness. This part of the study aimed to explore health professionals’ opinions of rheumatology outreach service. Methods Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs, practice nurses, hospital doctors and RPs, from one hospital and seven PC practices in Norfolk, to elicit their opinions of the service. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All participants agreed the service was supportive and valuable providing high quality personalised care, disease management, social, and educational support. Advantages identified included convenience, continuity of care and proximity of services to home. RPs helped bridge the communication gap between PC and SC. Some participants suggested having a doctor alongside RPs. The service was considered to be cost effective for patients but there was uncertainty about cost effectiveness for service providers. Few disadvantages were identified the most recurring being the lack of other onsite services when needed. It was noted that more services could be provided by RPs such as prescribing and joint injections as well as playing a more active role in knowledge transfer to PC. Conclusions Professionals involved in the care of RA patients recognised the valuable role of the RP outreach clinics. This service can be further developed in rheumatology and the example can be replicated for other chronic conditions. PMID:22607063

  9. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  10. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  11. How Single-Parent Children Speak about Poverty and Social Exclusion: Policy Implications from a Comparative, Qualitative, Cross-National Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…

  12. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  13. COMPARATIVE, QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHEMOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AMONG NORTH INDIAN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

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    Kumar Ashwani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, Several medicinal plant species are used in herbal drug industries, whereas Tribulus terrestris extract has an ancient tradition in folk medicine and in ayurveda as a diuretic, mood enhancer, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent. Due to few phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are no quality criteria for this Tribulus terrestris species as raw material. In this work, we present unique fingerprints of six samples of Tribulus terrestris population relating to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloid and saponins. Qualitative analysis of the phytochemicals of methanolic extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins in all the plants. Quantitative analysis showed that the crude saponin was the major phytochemical constituent present in highest percentage followed by crude tannin in all six plants. These chemical characterizations can provide, for example, authentication of samples, detection of adulterations, and differentiation between closely related species.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  15. Conducting a multicentre and multinational qualitative study on patient transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie K; Barach, Paul; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2012-12-01

    A multicentre, multinational research study requires careful planning and coordination to accomplish the aims of the study and to ensure systematic and rigorous examination of all project methods and data collected. The aim of this paper is to describe the approach we used during the HANDOVER Project to develop a multicentre, multinational research project for studying transitions of patient care while creating a community of practice for the researchers. We highlight the process used to assure the quality of a multicentre qualitative study and to create a codebook for data analysis as examples of attending to the community of practice while conducting rigorous qualitative research. Essential elements for the success of this multinational, multilanguage research project included recruiting a strong research team, explicit planning for decision-making processes to be used throughout the project, acknowledging the differences among the study settings and planning the protocols to capitalise upon those differences. Although not commonly discussed in reports of large research projects, there is an underlying, concurrent stream of activities to develop a cohesive team that trusts and respects one another's skills and that engage independent researchers in a group process that contributes to achieving study goals. We discuss other lessons learned and offer recommendations for other teams planning multicentre research.

  16. Hand-Washing Practices of Women; a Qualitative Study

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    Filiz Hisar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out as a qualitative research in order to determine hand-washing practices of women living a Health Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. METHOT: The population of the research was made up of married women living in Number 2 Health Care Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. The current study is a qualitative research and carried out through purposive sampling method. Data was collected through in-depth interview method for the descriptive statistics, number, percentile frequency and mean were used for the descriptive statistics and content analysis was used for the analysis of qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the research was =29.86. It was found that 40% of the women were graduates of a primary school and 86.7% had a nuclear family structure. Almost half of the families experienced frequent diarrhea, and almost all of the families often had a common cold / flu. Eighty percent of the women thought that hand washing protected them against common cold, and 66.7% reported that it protected urinary tract and genital area against diseases. On the other hand, 66.7% of the women reported that they did not know anything about the fact that using a towel commonly causes infections. Forty percent of the women expressed that they were able to make the family members wash their hands before meals, 73% did it after toilet while 40% was able to make them wash their hands when they came home. CONCLUSION: In this study it was determined that women do not pay enough attention to hand-washing. Depending on these results, it is suggested that in this first step, educational studies about the hand-washing should be made widespread. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 537-544

  17. Empowerment needs of women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants' perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer.

  18. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  19. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.

  1. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  2. Political Participation : A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract “Political participation” - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong Thesis in Political Science, D-level Author: Liza Bergström Tutor: Michele Micheletti On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes...

  3. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  4. Resident physicians' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, John B; Bundrick, John B; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand residents' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching. A group facilitator solicited residents' reflections, based on their lived experiences, on teaching domains from previous factor analytic studies: interpersonal, clinical-teaching, and efficiency. Researchers coded focus group transcripts and identified themes within the domains. Final themes were determined by consensus. Leading themes were "kindness" and "teacher-learner relationships." Junior residents were sensitive to faculty who were brusque, harsh, and degrading. Senior residents respected faculty who were humble, collaborative, and allowed residents to co-manage teaching encounters. Seniors emphasized the importance of faculty role-modelling and preferentially staffed with experts to "gain wisdom from experience." Overall, residents expressed that effective learning requires grounded teacher-learner relationships. These findings support learning theories and previous factor analytic studies. However, this qualitative study provided insights that could not be gleaned from assessment scores alone.

  5. CAQDAS and Qualitative Syllogism Logic—NVivo 8 and MAXQDA 10 Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Schönfelder, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is a heterogeneous field comprised of different and sometimes competing analytical strategies. A growing number of researchers use computer programs to assist in the analysis of qualitative data. Some analytical tasks are common ground and will be performed by most researchers regardless of their methodological approach. Software vendors try to accommodate an increasing demand for common and specific analytical needs and include an ever growing number of features in th...

  6. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  8. Postcoital Sperm Assessment Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    This postcoital sperm assessment study was performed over a 10 month time period (November 2014-August 2015). Fifteen couples enrolled in the study. The study was a non-blinded, non-randomized, single-center comparison study comparing The Stork® OTC (Rinovum Women's Health, Monroeville, PA) to natural intercourse (NI), using the subjects as their own control/baseline. This was an efficacy study designed to compare the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following the use of The Stork OTC conception aid with the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following natural intercourse. Subjects used both The Stork OTC conception system and the natural intercourse method to evaluate concentrations of sperm in the cervical mucus. Post-coital test (PCT) data was collected demonstrating higher concentrations of sperm within the cervical mucus with The Stork OTC conception system versus natural intercourse for 85% of test subjects in this study. Of the 15 couples enrolled in the study, 2 were lost to follow-up. Mean age for male subjects was 31.7 +/ 5.4 years of age and mean age for female subjects was 29.7+/- 5.4. The average sperm score value of the 85% of test subjects with higher sperm concentrations from The Stork OTC was 3.23 times the score value of sperm concentration compared to natural intercourse. The remaining 15% of test subjects showed no change in sperm score value between The Stork OTC and natural intercourse.

  9. Qualitative Life-Grids: A Proposed Method for Comparative European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon their large three-year mixed-method study comparing four English university sociology departments, the authors demonstrate the benefits to be gained from concisely recording biographical stories on life-grids. They argue that life-grids have key benefits which are important for comparative European educational research. Some of these…

  10. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  11. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  12. Psychiatric Nurses' Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods.

  13. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Life experiences of patients before having hypertension: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Afzal; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Esmaili, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Identification of causes of hypertension on the basis of the perspectives and experiences of patients is the key to success in health plans of these patients. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of life before becoming hypertensive patients. This qualitative study was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Twenty-seven hypertensive patients referred to hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected based on purposive sampling, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with them. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Three main categories were extracted from data analysis. Patients experienced factors such as negligence and neglect, life stress, lack of healthy lifestyles and abuse awareness, spirituality abandonee in the main category of "personal experience," factors such as family conflicts, heredity, inappropriate nutritional and life style in the main category of "family life," and also factors such as job stress, economic problems, urbanization, chemical agents during the war in the main category of "social life." Based on the findings, patients before becoming hypertensive under the influence of their culture and beliefs had experienced many risk factors associated with hypertension. Comprehensive planning and appropriate to the cultural, social, and beliefs context about the prevention and correction of these factors is necessary.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Televideo Consultations for COPD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm Larsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . In public the expectations are high that digital mediation between clients' everyday lives and the health care system can strengthen patients' abilities regarding their self-management. Nonetheless, the study shows that patients have a number of reservations concerning televideo consultations at home......This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating COPD patients' experiences with televideo consultations at home as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question is: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients related to discharge...... from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult...

  16. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikhi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.

  17. Access to Triptans for Acute Episodic Migraine: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sobia; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Knowles, Sandra; Gomes, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims to examine factors related to access of triptans among multiple stakeholder groups. Triptans are a cornerstone of pain management for the acute treatment of migraine, but actual utilization of triptans is lower than ideal. Initial and continued access to triptans may be an important clinical issue in the acute treatment of migraines, but factors affecting access at the patient, provider, and health-care system levels have not been comprehensively explored. A qualitative study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between August 2013 and January 2014. Three participant groups were recruited to the qualitative study: (1) migraineurs who have experience accessing triptans; (2) physicians, including primary care physicians (PCPs) and neurologists, who have prescribed triptans; and (3) pharmacists who have dispensed triptans. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured telephone interviews. The framework approach was used for data collection and analysis. Data collected from 19 migraineurs, 6 physicians, and 8 pharmacists were included in the analysis. Study participants discussed various factors that facilitate or hinder access to triptans, which were synthesized into four themes that emerged at the patient, provider, and health-care systems levels: (1) awareness; (2) apathy; (3) advocacy; and (4) affordability. Across all participant groups, awareness of available treatments and coverage policies for those treatments were potential factors relating to timely drug provision. Participants describe apathy in terms of patients' health-seeking behaviors and physicians' lack of concern toward migraine, which were seen as factors that could delay diagnosis and provision of appropriate treatment. Patients engaging in self-advocacy enhanced their ability to seek timely and appropriate provision of triptans at the patient level. At the health-care provider level, pharmacists were identified by patients as advocates for receiving more effective

  18. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  19. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

  20. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  1. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study of social ... a total of 20 participants aged 10-19 years, and selected using convenience sampling. Three themes were extracted using the consensual qualitative method and ...

  2. Interprofessional primary care team meetings: a qualitative approach comparing observations with personal opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background. The number of people with multiple chronic conditions requiring primary care services increases. Professionals from different disciplines collaborate and coordinate care to deal with the complex health care needs. There is lack of information on current practices regarding interprofessional team (IPT) meetings. Objectives. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the process of interprofessional collaboration in primary care team meetings in the Netherlands by observing the current practice and exploring personal opinions. Methods. Qualitative study involving observations of team meetings and interviews with participants. Eight different IPT meetings (n = 8) in different primary care practices were observed by means of video recordings. Experiences were explored by conducting individual semi-structured interviews (n = 60) with participants (i.e. health care professionals from different disciplines) of the observed team meetings. The data were analysed by means of content analysis. Results. Most participants expressed favourable opinions about their team meetings. However, observations showed that team meetings were more or less hectic, and lacked a clear structure and team coordinator or leader. There appears to be a discrepancy between findings from observations and interviews. From the interviews, four main themes were extracted: (1) Team structure and composition, (2) Patient-centredness, (3) Interaction and (4) Attitude and motivation. Conclusion. IPT meetings could benefit from improvements in structure, patient-centredness and leadership by the chairpersons. Given the discrepancy between observations and interviews, it would appear useful to improve team members’ awareness of aspects that could be improved before training them in dealing with specific challenges. PMID:28122925

  3. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Jun, Soo-Koung; Park, Ie Byung

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited research on physicians' perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  4.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

      Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...... using a semi-structured interview guide and includes 26 pregnant women each interviewed shortly after having received information at their general practitioner, and again after having completed prenatal screenings tests.   Results:Only very few of the pregnant women in this study remember having...

  5. Spirituality and clinical care in eating disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Patricia; Karagianni, Efthalia; Morgan, John F

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary research has posited links between eating disorders and religious asceticism. This study aimed to examine relationships between eating disorders, religion, and treatment. Qualitative study using purposeful sampling, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview, subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were 10 adult Christian women receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Five dominant categories emerged: locus of control, sacrifice, self-image, salvation, maturation. Appetitive control held moral connotations. Negative self-image was common, based more on sin than body-image. Medical treatment could be seen as salvation, with religious conversion manifesting a quest for healing, but treatment failure threatened faith. Beliefs matured during treatment, with prayer, providing a healing relationship. Religious beliefs impact on attitudes and motivation in eating disorders. Clinicians' sensitivity determines how beliefs influence clinical outcome. Treatment modifies beliefs such that theological constructs of illness cannot be ignored. (c) 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Megin

    2013-01-01

    This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo.

  7. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  8. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  9. Cutting down: insights from qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary; Flemming, Kate; Fox, David; Heirs, Morag; Sowden, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are minimised if the mother quits completely in early pregnancy. Smokers are therefore advised to quit abruptly; cutting down is not recommended either as a method of, or alternative to, quitting. However, most pregnant smokers do not quit and cutting down is widely reported. Evidence comes primarily from quantitative studies; qualitative research has contributed little to understandings of cigarette consumption in pregnancy. In consequence, little is known about the place and meaning of cutting down for pregnant smokers. The paper investigates this important dimension of maternal smoking. It explores perceptions and experiences of cutting down among pregnant smokers by examining data from a systematic review of qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy. The studies were located in high-income countries and published between 1970 and 2012. Twenty-six studies, reported in 29 papers, were included, representing over 640 women. Meta-ethnography guided the analysis and synthesis. Data (participants' accounts and authors' interpretations) were extracted and coded; codes were progressively combined to identify overarching themes ('lines of argument'). Running through the lines of argument was evidence on cutting down; the paper presents and analyses this evidence. The analysis indicates that cutting down figured centrally as both a method of quitting and, for persistent smokers, a method of harm reduction. While pregnant women were aware that official advice was to quit abruptly, cutting down was seen as a positive behaviour change in often-difficult domestic circumstances, and one that health professionals condoned. Our findings suggest that cutting down in pregnancy, as an aid and an alternative to quitting, requires greater recognition if healthcare and tobacco control policies are to be sensitive to the perspectives and circumstances of pregnant smokers.

  10. Locating air samplers inside a room using qualitative airflow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Haim, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-05-01

    The concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are reactively close. Inappropriately placed air samplers can give misleading results and, therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers is not always obvious and cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling-for estimating worker intakes, warning of abnormally high concentrations, defining airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials, etc. Qualitative smoke tests were conducted inside rooms using a 'KUPO Inc.' smoke tube (D5050 fog machine). Smoke was released at elevation of 1-2 meters and its path was recorded on worksheet drawings of the room. The tests revealed three types of airflow patterns inside the rooms: a) flow path with a definite stable direction, b) flow path which changes direction arbitrarily as a result of airflow vortices, and c) static/stagnant air. In some cases the airflow path direction was different from the expected one. This emphasizes the significance of conducting airflow studies for location of air samplers and not only relying on intuition. An airflow patterns comparison study between the qualitative smoke tests and computer simulation using a commercial finite element CFD code, FIDAP 8.01, was also conducted. The measured and the computed paths of the airflow were mostly in good agreement. The computer simulation indicated additional details which could not be observed when performing the smoke tests because of physical and visibility limitations. (author)

  11. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  12. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  13. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  14. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  15. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of real world data comparative effectiveness research of systemic therapies in lung oncology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bas J M; Janssen, Vivi E M T; Schramel, Franz M; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W

    2016-10-01

    The growing interest in comparative effectiveness research (CER) based on data from routine clinical practice also extends towards lung oncology. Although CER studies using real world data (RWD) have the potential to assist clinical decision-making, concerns about the quality and validity of studies with observational data subsist. The primary objective of the present study is to assess the current status of observational CER in the field of lung oncology, both quantitatively as qualitatively. We performed a systematic electronic literature database search in MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to 1 July 2015). The quality of all selected studies was assessed according to the Good ReseArch for Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) checklist. The first selection included 657 publications. After screening the corresponding abstracts and full-text papers, 38 studies remained. A total of 36 studies included patients with advanced NSCLC. The comparison of the effectiveness of gefitinib versus erlotinib was the main objective in 22% of the studies. The median number of patients per study was 202 (range 21-10064). The number of publications increased over the years whereas the quality score remained stable over the years with several common shortcomings (checklist items M5, D1, D4, D6). The growing interest in clinical oncology CER studies using RWD is reflected in an increasing number of publications in the recent years. The studies have several common methodological shortcomings possibly limiting their applicability in clinical decision-making. To fulfil the promise of RWD CER in lung oncology effort should be continued to overcome these shortcomings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  18. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

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    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  19. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  20. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  1. Adolescents' Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents' interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents' understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  2. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  3. Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations – a qualitative study

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    Paulson-Karlsson G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla Paulson-Karlsson,1 Lauri Nevonen21Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro and Anorexia-Bulimia Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, SwedenBackground: Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients' own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit.Methods: A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, "What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit?" A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme.Results: From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: "treatment content," "treatment professionals," and "treatment focus." The overall theme, "receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering," described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled.Discussion: Patients' expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients' motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind

  4. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  5. Patients' perspectives on taking warfarin: qualitative study in family practice

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    Tracy C Shawn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitative studies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process.

  6. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

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    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  7. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  8. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  9. The GP's perception of poverty: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sara J; Swinnen, Wilfried; De Maeseneer, Jan M

    2005-04-01

    Health differences between people from lower and higher social classes increase. The accessibility of the health care system is one of the multiple and complex causes. The Physician's perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards the patient are in this context important determinants. To explore the general practitioners' definition of poverty and their perception of the deprived patients' attitude towards health and health care, to get insight into the ways general practitioners deal with the problem of poverty and to present the proposals general practitioners make to improve health care for the deprived. The study involved qualitative methodology using 21 semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded using Framework Analysis techniques. Interviews were undertaken with general practitioners in primary care, working in a deprived area in the city of Ghent. In the definition of poverty, three concepts can be identified: socioeconomic aspects, psychological and individual characteristics, and socio-cultural concepts. General practitioners adopt different types of approaches to deal with deprived patients in practice: adaptation of the doctor-patient communication, lowering of the financial threshold, referral to specialists and other health care professionals. Including the issue of poverty and poverty in the curriculum of the medical students and in the in-service training for practicing doctors could have a positive impact on their attitude towards this patient group. Further research is needed into the barriers in the accessibility of the health care system for the deprived, exploring qualitatively and quantitatively the experiences and the living conditions of deprived patients and the perceptions of health care providers.

  10. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O Shiyanbola

    Full Text Available The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4% with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3. The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  11. Going home after infant cardiac surgery: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregay, Jenifer; Wray, Jo; Crowe, Sonya; Knowles, Rachel; Daubeney, Piers; Franklin, Rodney; Barron, David; Hull, Sally; Barnes, Nick; Bull, Catherine; Brown, Katherine L

    2016-04-01

    To qualitatively assess the discharge processes and postdischarge care in the community for infants discharged after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and Framework Analysis. UK specialist cardiac centres and the services their patients are discharged to. Twenty-five cardiologists and nurses from tertiary centres, 11 primary and secondary health professionals and 20 parents of children who had either died after discharge or had needed emergency readmission. Participants indicated that going home with an infant after cardiac intervention represents a major challenge for parents and professionals. Although there were reported examples of good care, difficulties are exacerbated by inconsistent pathways and potential loss of information between the multiple teams involved. Written documentation from tertiary centres frequently lacks crucial contact information and contains too many specialist terms. Non-tertiary professionals and parents may not hold the information required to respond appropriately when an infant deteriorates, this contributing to the stressful experience of managing these infants at home. Where they exist, the content of formal 'home monitoring pathways' varies nationally, and families can find this onerous. Service improvements are needed for infants going home after cardiac intervention in the UK, focusing especially on enhancing mechanisms for effective transfer of information outside the tertiary centre and processes to assist with monitoring and triage of vulnerable infants in the community by primary and secondary care professionals. At present there is no routine audit for this stage of the patient journey. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  13. Comparative effect of paracetamol, NSAIDs or their combination in postoperative pain management: a qualitative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, M; Jones, S; Pedersen, J L

    2002-01-01

    have been excluded. RESULTS: NSAIDs were clearly more effective in dental surgery, whereas the efficacy of NSAIDs and paracetamol seemed without substantial differences in major and orthopaedic surgery, although firm conclusions could not be made because the number of studies was limited. The addition...... of an NSAID to paracetamol may confer additional analgesic efficacy compared with paracetamol alone, and the limited data available also suggest that paracetamol may enhance analgesia when added to an NSAID, compared with NSAIDs alone. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is a viable alternative to the NSAIDs, especially...

  14. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan; Cole, Donald C; Cho, Dan-Bi; Aslanyan, Garry; Bates, Imelda

    2013-12-14

    Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders' internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation.

  15. Nursing instructors' perception of students' uncivil behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumpoor, Anahita; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rassouli, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Uncivil behavior is a serious issue in nursing education around the world, and is frequently faced by instructors and students. There is no study in relation to explain the concept and dimensions of uncivil behavior in nursing education of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of nursing educators about student incivility behavior. This was a qualitative study. Data from 11 semi-structured interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants and research context: In all, 11 nursing educators of 5 various nursing schools in Tehran, capital of Iran, participated. Ethical considerations: Organizational approval by the Universities, and informed consent were ensured before conducting the research. The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were respected during the research process. Three themes were found: disruptive behavior affecting communication climate, disruptive behavior affecting ethical climate, and disruptive behavior affecting learning climate. Discussion and final considerations: The results of this study demonstrated that uncivil behavior affects every ethical, communicational, and learning climate and threaten peace of the instructors, students, and the academic community. With the consideration of mutuality in incivility behaviors, the authors propose to examine students' perceptions and identify dimensions of uncivil behavior of instructors for formulating strategies to minimize such behaviors in nursing educational society.

  16. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  17. Qualitative case study in pedagogical research: Cognitive possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the cognitive possibilities and limitations of case study, as a qualitative research approach, and the fields of its application in studying pedagogical problems. Special attention is paid to different ways of defining and usual criticism pointed at this strategy in methodological literature of recent date: (1 general, theoretical (context independent knowledge is much more valuable from actual, practical (context dependent knowledge; (2 one cannot perform generalizations based on an individual case and therefore case study cannot contribute to the development of science; (3 case study is the most useful in generating hypotheses, that is, for the first phase of research process, while other methods are more suitable for testing hypotheses and building a theory; (4 case study tends to be partial towards verification, that is, the tendency of a researcher to confirm his/her previously established concepts; (5 it is often very difficult to present in brief the specific case study, and especially difficult to deduce general suggestions and theories on the basis of a specific case study. The objections, therefore, regard the possibility of theory development, reliability and validity of the approach, or doubt in its scientific status. The author of this paper discusses the justifiability of these objections and points out to different methodological procedures of arranging and analyzing the data collected for studying the case, which contribute to the reliability of this research approach. As a general conclusion, it is stated that the case method contains all the features relevant for studying pedagogical phenomena: preservation of the integrality of the phenomenon, appreciation of its context, developmental dimension and complementariness of different data sources.

  18. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  19. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  20. Citizens' perspectives on personalized medicine: a qualitative public deliberation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine.

  1. Relapse experience in Iranian opiate users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

    2014-04-01

    To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase.

  2. Iranian Women's Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.

  3. Lived experiences of elderly home residents: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing elderly population has been lead to increased number of hospices and their customers. However, the lived experiences of elderly home residents have been less noticed. This study aimed to investigate the lived experiences of elderly residents of Kashan's Golabchi elderly hospice.Methods: In this qualitative study based on phenomenological approach data collected using purposive sampling and deep open interview, narrative collection method until data saturation was obtained. Data were analyzed using Van Manen’s six step method.Results: Fifteen elderly with age range 65-73 years and average length of stay of 2.5 years participated in the study. Five items were extracted from data, including of "rejection and isolation", "feel failure and disgrace", "adaptation", "satisfaction" and "being monotonous and waiting". Most of the participants felt that were rejected by their families and the community. Their life was tedious and this had reduced their life passion and they were waiting for the end of life. Conclusion: Most of the elderly had not positive experiences of living in the hospice. Inattention of the family and the condition of the hospice environment made them a feel of “isolation and being rejected” along with a “feel of failure and disgrace”. Improving the validity of elderly home residents, may be achieved by improving communication culture of this population, elderly hospices condition and appropriate training of geriatric nurses.

  4. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  5. Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Emergency Nurses as Second Victims of Error: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajri-Khameslou, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    There are many nurses who are victims of errors in the hospital environment. It is quite essential to perceive the outcome of mistakes in nurses' profession. The aim of this scientific study was to interpret the causes that place nurses in danger of errors in emergency departments and also the consequences resulting from confronting the errors in the job environment. This research was designed to pursue a qualitative approach following content analysis. Through the purposeful sampling, 18 emergency nurses were selected to participate in this study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. The results of data analysis were presented in three different categories: the psychological reactions to error, learning from errors, and avoiding reactions. The current study revealed that errors could create positive and negative impacts on the emergency nurses' attitude. Confronting the errors through learning from the mistakes can result in the improvement of patients' safety whereas the negative outcomes can provoke destructive effects on nurses' career. Nurses are considered as victims of errors; therefore, they need support and protection to enhance their career.

  7. The good doctor: a qualitative study of German homeopathic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliems, Harald; Witt, Claudia M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that make a good doctor, both from a patient and a physician perspective. Is there a connection between practicing homeopathy and being a good doctor? This was a qualitative study of homeopathically trained physicians and their patients, using observation of patient-physician interactions (n = 29) and interviews with patients (n = 20) and with physicians (n = 4). Patients identified the availability of time, both in itself and as a prerequisite for other physician characteristics, as the single most important factor. Other factors include scope of diagnosis/holistic approach, patient-centeredness/empathy, and perceived competence/therapeutic success. Patients did not link these factors to the homeopathic orientation of their physician, while physicians clearly made this connection. The findings confirm other studies of patient satisfaction and physician characteristics. The availability of time, a holistic approach, and high physician empathy lead to high patient satisfaction. Homeopathic physicians probably are more likely to exhibit these characteristics. Health care policy should create conditions that enable individual physicians to be "good doctors." For medical education, a stronger emphasis on interpersonal skills and practitioner empathy could lead to higher patient satisfaction and potentially better treatment outcomes. Homeopathy might provide a good role model for this type of education.

  8. Distrust and patients in intercultural healthcare: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2016-06-09

    The importance of trust between patients and healthcare personnel is emphasised in nurses' and physicians' ethical codes. Trust is crucial for an effective healthcare personnel-patient relationship and thus for treatment and treatment outcomes. Cultural and linguistic differences may make building a trusting and positive relationship with ethnic minority patients particularly challenging. Although there is a great deal of research on cultural competence, there is a conspicuous lack of focus on the concepts of trust and distrust concerning ethnic minority patients, particularly in relation to the concept of 'othering'. To study which factors help build trust or create distrust in encounters between healthcare professionals and hospitalised ethnic minority patients, as well as study the dynamic complexities inherent within the process of 'othering'. Qualitative design, in-depth interviews and hermeneutic analysis. The interviewees were 10 immigrant patients (six women and four men - eight Asians, two Africans - ages 32-85 years) recruited from a south-eastern Norwegian hospital. Study approval was obtained from the hospital's Privacy Ombudsman for Research and the hospital's leadership. Participation was voluntary and participants signed an informed consent form. Distrust and othering may be caused by differences in belief systems, values, perceptions, expectations, and style of expression and behaviour. Othering is a reciprocal phenomenon in minority ethnic patient-healthcare personnel encounters, and it influences trust building negatively. Besides demonstrating general professional skill and competence, healthcare personnel require cultural competence to create trust. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Original Research A qualitative study of health education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes health education experiences and self-management practices 118 ... had a positive regard for the diabetes education classes and had satisfactory health literacy. .... with this qualitative assessment will serve as a foundation for future ...

  10. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  11. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  12. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  13. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  14. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  16. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  17. Good death for children with cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Okuyama, Toru; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kamei, Michi; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Kubota, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Shinji; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. A total of 10 pediatric cancer survivors, 10 bereaved family members and 20 medical professionals participated in in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was performed on the transcribed data obtained from semi-structured interviews. Thirteen characteristics including unique and specific for children of a good death were identified: (i) sufficient opportunities to play freely, (ii) peer supporters, (iii) continued access to the patient's usual activities and relationships, (iv) assurance of privacy, (v) respect for the patient's decisions and preferences, (vi) a sense that others acknowledge and respect the patient's childhood, (vii) comfort care to minimize distressing symptoms, (viii) hope, (ix) not aware of the patient's own impending death, (x) constant dignity, (xi) strong family relationships, (xii) no sense of being a burden to family members and (xiii) good relationships with medical staffs. This study identifies important characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. These findings may help medical staffs provide optimal care for children with cancer and their families, enabling them to achieve a good death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  19. Oral health promotion in Gauteng: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molete, Mpho Primrose; Daly, Blanaid; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy

    2013-03-01

    One of the aims of the South African Oral Health Promotion Framework is to integrate oral health promotion activities into general health promotion using the Common Risk Factor Approach (CRFA). Though policies have directed that oral health should be integrated into general health promotion in South Africa, little is known about the implementation of the CRFA in daily oral health promotion practice. This study aimed to assess how health promoters in Gauteng integrate oral health into their general health promotion activities. The objectives were (i) to describe how health promoters undertake health promotion in Gauteng; (ii) to describe how health promoters incorporate oral health promotion into health promotion activities; and (iii) to describe the opportunities and challenges for health promoters in applying the CRFA. This was a qualitative study and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. A purposive sample of 10 formally trained health promoters agreed to be interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants' work was centred mostly on healthy lifestyle campaigns and there was little integration of oral health into health promotion activities. While most health promoters had an understanding of the CRFA, this understanding was not common amongst other levels of management. Oral health literacy was low and health promoters perceived few opportunities for using a CRFA when weighed against other priorities such as poverty and HIV/AIDS. Currently there is little evidence of integration of oral health into general health promotion activities.

  20. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  1. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  2. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  3. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  4. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  5. Communication Needs of Patients with Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards.

  6. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  7. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  8. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  9. Organizational Failure in an NHS Hospital Trust: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Mannion, Russell; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore the key factors associated with organizational failure in an NHS Hospital Trust. This case study adopted a qualitative design. Fifty-seven semistructured interviews and document analyses were conducted as well. Data were analyzed using a framework analysis method. A range of symptoms of organizational performance failure was identified. These relate to a financial deficit, lack of good external relationships, inability to meet core targets, a lack of clear management systems, and low staff morale. These markers had not been taken seriously by the previous senior management team. Symptoms of failure were the reflection of presence of secondary and primary causes of failure. Poor managerial leadership, poor financial control and performance management, lack of open culture, distraction by 2 large projects, and the lack of clinician engagement were perceived as internal causes of failure and the high level of policy changes within the NHS as the key external cause. The level of deprivation in the area was also thought to have had a negative impact on performance. The findings reinforce and expand on those of recent studies across the public sector. Tracking an organization's performance and early diagnosis of performance problems, focusing on performance management systems, and taking into account contextual factors are issues that should be considered.

  10. Psychological impact after mastectomy among Nepalese women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Cancer epidemiologists have stated that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, Nepal is not an exception. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women of Nepal after cervical cancer. A Qualitative phenomenological study was done to explore the psychological impact of women with mastectomy after diagnosis of breast cancer. In-depth study was done with ten women age ranging from 36 to 50 years. Ten women were interviewed which was recorded, and verbatim were transcribed before taking next interview. The interviews were analyzed in three stages as stated by Miles and Hubermans. Findings revealed that respondents expressed the fear of death, emotional impact of the loss of breast disfigurement, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, and concern about their family. Breast cancer and mastectomy have impact on women psychosocial state. They develop stress due to loss of body part, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, fear of cost and prolong treatment protocol.

  11. Exploring anesthesiologists' understanding of situational awareness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Julia A; Ellaway, Rachel H; Chun, Rosaleen; Lockyer, Jocelyn M

    2017-08-01

    This study explored how anesthesiologists understand situational awareness (SA) and how they think SA is learned, taught, and assessed. Semi-structured interviews were performed with practicing anesthesiologists involved in teaching. This qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory techniques (i.e., line-by-line coding, memoing, and constant comparison) in a thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Group meetings were held to develop and review themes emerging from the data. Eighteen anesthesiologists were interviewed. Respondents displayed an understanding of SA using a mixture of examples from clinical experience and everyday life. Despite agreeing on the importance of SA, formal definitions of SA were lacking, and the participants did not explicate the topic of SA in either their practice or their teaching activities. Situational awareness had been learned informally through increasing independence in the clinical context, role modelling, reflection on errors, and formally through simulation. Respondents taught SA through modelling and discussing scanning behaviour, checklists, verbalization of thought processes, and debriefings. Although trainees' understanding of SA was assessed as part of the decision-making process for granting clinical independence, respondents found it difficult to give meaningful feedback on SA to their trainees. Although SA is an essential concept in anesthesiology, its use remains rather tacit, primarily due to the lack of a common operational definition of the term. Faculty development is required to help anesthesiologists teach and assess SA more explicitly in the clinical environment.

  12. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  13. Financial and employment impacts of serious injury: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Sleney, Jude S; Gosling, Cameron M; Wilson, Krystle; Sutherland, Ann; Hart, Melissa; Watterson, Dina; Christie, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    To explore the financial and employment impacts following serious injury. Semi-structured telephone administered qualitative interviews with purposive sampling and thematic qualitative analysis. 118 patients (18-81 years) registered by the Victorian State Trauma Registry or Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry 12-24 months post-injury. Key findings of the study were that although out-of-pocket treatment costs were generally low, financial hardship was prevalent after hospitalisation for serious injury, and was predominantly experienced by working age patients due to prolonged absences from paid employment. Where participants were financially pressured prior to injury, injury further exacerbated these financial concerns. Reliance on savings and loans and the need to budget carefully to limit financial burden were discussed. Financial implications of loss of income were generally less for those covered by compensation schemes, with non-compensable participants requiring welfare payments due to an inability to earn an income. Most participants reported that the injury had a negative impact on work. Loss of earnings payments from injury compensation schemes and income protection policies, supportive employers, and return to work programs were perceived as key factors in reducing the financial burden of injured participants. Employer-related barriers to return to work included the employer not listening to the needs of the injured participant, not understanding their physical limitations, and placing unrealistic expectations on the injured person. While the financial benefits of compensation schemes were acknowledged, issues accessing entitlements and delays in receiving benefits were commonly reported by participants, suggesting that improvements in scheme processes could have substantial benefits for injured patients. Seriously injured patients commonly experienced substantial financial and work-related impacts of injury. Participants of working age who were

  14. Capturing the stories behind the numbers: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study (ARCOS IV), a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandy J; Theadom, Alice; Jones, Amy; Hocking, Clare; Feigin, Valery; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Kent, Bruce; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative data can add value and understanding to more traditional epidemiological studies. This study was designed to complement the quantitative data from the incidence study the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study or ARCOS-IV by using qualitative methods to uncover the richer detail of life as a stroke survivor, thereby extending our understanding of the impact of stroke. The aims of the study were to identify how the experience of recovery and adaptation changes over time after stroke; and to elicit the strategies people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find helpful in living life after stroke. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology and also the challenges and advantages of embedding qualitative research into a large epidemiological study. Longitudinal study utilizing a Qualitative Description design in a subset of those taking part in the incidence study. Participants will be interviewed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after stroke. Semistructured interviews will explore three key areas: (1) issues of importance to people following a stroke and their whānau/family; (2) the perceived impact on people's sense of recovery, adaptation, and hopes; and (3) key strategies that people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find most helpful in living life after stroke. Thematic analysis will be conducted using iterative constant comparative methods. This methodology paper demonstrates the application of mixed methods in epidemiology. It also considers some of the practical and methodological issues that have emerged and may provide a useful framework for other qualitative projects in population-based studies. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

  16. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Choosing nursing as a career: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances

    2008-04-01

    It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection.

  18. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Doctors on Values and Advocacy: A Qualitative and Evaluative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Siun; Little, Miles

    2016-05-11

    Doctors are increasingly enjoined by their professional organisations to involve themselves in supraclinical advocacy, which embraces activities focused on changing practice and the system in order to address the social determinants of health. The moral basis for doctors' decisions on whether or not to do so has been the subject of little empirical research. This opportunistic qualitative study of the values of medical graduates associated with the Sydney Medical School explores the processes that contribute to doctors' decisions about taking up the advocate role. Our findings show that personal ideals were more important than professional commitments in shaping doctors' decisions on engagement in advocacy. Experiences in early life and during training, including exposure to power and powerlessness, significantly influenced their role choices. Doctors included supraclinical advocacy in their mature practices if it satisfied their desire to achieve excellence. These findings suggest that common approaches to promoting and facilitating advocacy as an individual professional obligation are not fully congruent with the experiences and values of doctors that are significant in creating the advocate. It would seem important to understand better the moral commitments inherent in advocacy to inform future developments in codes of medical ethics and medical education programs.

  20. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  1. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups (n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews (n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Acceptability of community pharmaceutical care in Portugal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Mara; Cantrill, Judith; Martins, Paula

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, community pharmacists are increasingly involved in clinical care. This study aimed to explore the acceptability to users of pharmaceutical care (drug therapy monitoring and management) provided in Portuguese community pharmacies, thereby informing future practice, policy and research. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews with a maximum variability sample of 21 service users. Interviews were audio-taped with permission of interviewees, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the 'framework approach' with the help of NVIVO(®) software. A perception of convenient access is one of the key themes associated with acceptability to users. Four factors are central in understanding this perception: shorter waiting time; flexibility of appointments; service organization; and proximity to home. Data analysis suggests that these factors have different weights. Another key theme underpinning user acceptability is the formation of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' accounts provide evidence of a trusting and collaborative relationship where the pharmacist is seen as a health care provider. Recognition of interpersonal and technical skills were associated with the formation of this relationship. Although patients generally trusted the pharmacist's ability to help, patients were unable to voice clear expectations about the service, either in terms of the pharmacist's role or expected outcomes. Acceptability to patients is mainly determined by perceptions of convenient access and the development of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' expectations concerning the service are not well developed, but not necessarily low.

  3. Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan Day, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.

  4. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

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    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  5. Qualitative study on college student’s perceptions on lunch

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    Carolina Zuñiga B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A healthy diet leads to optimal growth and development of the individual. A healthy diet is the result of the right combination of macro and micronutrients, which should be sufficient, moderate, balanced and varied. Diet can be modified through the course of life, while the university period is a crucial time to strengthen proper food habits. Methods. The purpose of this investigation is to interpret the perception that college students have about lunchtime. A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used. Data collection was conducted through a structured survey. We interviewed 15 students who met the selection criteria. The results were analyzed by the principal investigators using content analysis. Results. Respondents pointed out that lunch is one of the main meals and that a regular lunchtime helps to improve eating habits. Respondents report that one of the main causes for not complying with this feeding schedule is the lack of time due to academic burden. Conclusion. This study concludes that students perceive daily lunchtime to be important and yet claim that during much of the academic week they skip this meal.

  6. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

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    María del Mar Alfaya Góngora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants.Methods:A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed.Results:The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources.Conclusion:Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  7. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

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    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  8. Biofuel: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Aamir; Kading, Christopher; Carter, Kasey

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project analyzes the governments role in the commercialization of biofuel by comparing biofuel commercialization efforts to those of nuclear power and nanotechnology commercialization. The PESTEL framework is applied to nuclear power and nanotechnology to identify key factors relevant to successful commercialization. These success factors are compared to current government biofuel policies to infer the likelihood of successful bio...

  9. Urut Melayu for poststroke patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria

    2012-01-01

    Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. A qualitative study design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients.

  10. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

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    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  11. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Sawatsky, Adam P; Mbata, Ihunanya; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy

    2016-06-01

    In many low-income countries, including Malawi, expatriate physicians serve diverse roles in clinical care, education, mentorship, and research. A significant proportion of physicians from high-income countries have global health experience. Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known about local physician and trainee impressions of their expatriate counterparts. The objective of this study was to explore University of Malawi College of Medicine (COM) physicians' and trainees' impressions of expatriate physicians. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with COM medical students, interns, registrars, and faculty. Through open coding, we developed a codebook that we applied to interview transcripts and used thematic analysis to identify major themes. We interviewed 46 participants from across the continuum of medical education at two teaching hospitals in Malawi. Participants discussed themes within the following domains: perceived benefits of expatriate physicians in Malawi, perceived challenges, past contributions, and perceived roles that expatriate physicians should play going forward. Malawian faculty and trainees appreciated the approachability, perspectives, and contribution to education that expatriates have provided, though at times some have been perceived as aggressive, unable to relate to patients and trainees, deficient at adapting to the setting, and self-serving. Potential roles that Malawian physicians and trainees feel expatriates should serve include education, training, capacity building, and facilitating exchange opportunities for local physicians and trainees. This study highlights the perceived benefits and challenges that physicians and trainees at the COM have experienced with their expatriate counterparts, and suggests roles that expatriates should play while abroad. These findings can be used to help inform existing global health guidelines, assist

  13. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  14. Vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Europe: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Dinca, Irina; Apfel, Franklin; Cecconi, Sabrina; Wűrz, Andrea; Takacs, Judit; Suk, Jonathan; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Kramarz, Piotr; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-09-22

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects. New vaccines were singled out due to perceived lack of testing for vaccine safety and efficacy. Furthermore, while high trust in health authorities was expressed by HCWs, there was also strong mistrust of pharmaceutical companies due to perceived financial interests and lack of communication about side effects. The notion that it is a doctor's responsibility to respond to hesitant patients was reported in all countries. Concerns were also seen to be country- and context-specific. Strategies to improve confidence in vaccines should be adapted to the specific political, social, cultural and economic context of countries. Furthermore, while most interventions focus on education and improving information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, or the need for vaccines, concerns raised in this study identify other determinants of hesitancy that need addressing. The representativeness of the views of the interviewed HCWs must be interpreted with caution. This a qualitative study with a small sample size that included geographical areas where vaccination uptake was lower or where hesitancy was more prevalent and it reflects individual participants' beliefs and attitudes toward the topic. As HCWs have the potential of influencing patient vaccination uptake, it is crucial to improve their confidence in vaccination and engage them in activities targeting vaccine hesitancy among their patients.

  15. Causes of Incivility in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

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    Mostafa Rad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in KhorasanRazavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015. Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops.

  16. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

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    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  17. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    .... The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while...

  18. Qualitative Study on the Identity of the Manager in Romania

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    FLORENTINA SCÂRNECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a qualitative research project carried out in 2008, which aimed at identifying the identity condition of managers in Romania. The article presents part of the grounded theory on the identity of managers: the day to day circumstances in which they live - issues related to childhood and maturity (material situation, relationships, family, etc.. Also, it describes in brief the methodology applied: qualitative collection of data, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the analysis of qualitative data obtained.The article presents, also in brief, the larger research framework wherefrom the presented part was extracted. The conclusion is that there are life-related issues specific to managers (and, more precisely, specific reactions to the environment and that their identification can form the basis for designing methods of managerial diagnosis and prognosis.

  19. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  1. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

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    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  2. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  3. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

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    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  4. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

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    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  5. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

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    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  6. Symptoms in patients with takotsubo syndrome: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826

  7. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

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    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  8. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

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    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  9. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health S

  10. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  11. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  12. HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS; ISSUES AND CONCERNS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

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    Manjunatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To get an insight into: 1. Perceived health needs and demands of positive mothers. 2. Constraints and barriers in accessing health services. 3. Impact of positive status on social and economic entitlements.4. Role of positive network in educating and empowering mothers. METHODOLOGY: Type of study; Qualitative research using focus group discussions (FGD. Study Setting; “AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS®”- A positive network at Mysore. Period of study; September- October, 2008. Study participants: positive mothers from in and around Mysore city attending AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS. Inclusion Criteria; Mother of at least one child irrespective of: Her age. Duration of the positive status/ stage of disease. Age of the child-live/dead. On ART or not. And were willing to participate in the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those not willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: Health Needs and Demands: The positive women felt the need for regular screening tests for side effects of ART free of cost, nutrition supplementation programmes, more health centres and health education. Barriers to treatment: Poverty is the main barrier to accessing treatment. This is the amount of money required by clients for the government health services before being put on the ART programme and individuals have to pay for a CD4 count, a full hemogram and a liver function test. Poverty also means that people experience difficulty in paying for transport to get to services, especially when travelling from rural areas where distances to the nearest clinic or hospital are further and infrastructure poorer. Social and economic impact of positive status: It becomes difficult to look after their children when they are thrown out of their house. Even though they are mentally harassed by their family members they find it difficult to come out of their house because of their children are too young and need a family support

  13. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

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    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  14. GPs' approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study.

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    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-06-01

    Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  15. Patients' views on outcome following head injury: a qualitative study

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    Mayle Wendy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injuries are a common occurrence, with continuing care in the years following injury being provided by primary care teams and a variety of speciality services. The literature on outcome currently reflects areas considered important by health-care professionals, though these may differ in some respects from the views of head injured individuals themselves. Our study aimed to identify aspects of outcome considered important by survivors of traumatic head injury. Methods Thirty-two individuals were interviewed, each of whom had suffered head injury between one and ten years previously from which they still had residual difficulties. Purposive sampling was used in order to ensure that views were represented from individuals of differing age, gender and level of disability. These interviews were fully transcribed and analysed qualitatively by a psychologist, a sociologist and a psychiatrist with regular meetings to discuss the coding. Results Aspects of outcome mentioned by head injury survivors which have received less attention previously included: specific difficulties with group conversations; changes in physical appearance due to scarring or weight change; a sense of loss for the life and sense of self that they had before the injury; and negative reactions of others, often due to lack of understanding of the consequences of injury amongst both family and general public. Conclusion Some aspects of outcome viewed as important by survivors of head injury may be overlooked by health professionals. Consideration of these areas of outcome and the development of suitable interventions should help to improve functional outcome for patients.

  16. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

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    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  17. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Moghadam, Mohammad Ali; Fayaz Bakhsh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs), it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  18. The construction of professional identity by physiotherapists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

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    Negarandeh Reza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1 the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2 organizational structure; (3 hospital management style; (4 the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5 individual characteristics; (6 mutual understanding and interaction; and (7 the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Faculty Members' Views of Women Chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine. PMID:20156081

  1. Creative art and medical student development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth K; Kittendorf, Anne L; Kumagai, Arno K

    2017-02-01

    Although many medical schools include arts-based activities in their curricula, empirical evidence is lacking regarding how the creation of art might impact medical students and their professional development. We used a qualitative research design in order to understand this process. We conducted and analysed interviews with 16 medical students who had created and presented original artwork in the context of a required narrative-based undergraduate medical education programme. Teams of students collaborated to create interpretive projects based on common themes arising from conversations with individuals with chronic illness and their families. Open-ended questions were utilised to explore the conceptualisation and presentation of the projects, the dynamics of teamwork and the meaning(s) they might have for the students' professional development. We identified themes using repeated contextual reading of the transcripts, which also enhanced accuracy of the interpretations and ensured saturation of themes. Several major themes and sub-themes were identified. The creation of art led to a sense of personal growth and development, including reflection on past life experiences, self-discovery and an awareness of art as a creative outlet. Students also reported an enhanced sense of community and the development of skills in collaboration. Lastly, students reflected on the human dimensions of illness and medical care and identified an enhanced awareness of the experience of those with illness. A programme involving the creation of art based on stories of illness encouraged students' explorations of conceptions of the self, family and society, as well as illness and medical care, while enhancing the development of a collaborative and patient-centred worldview. Creative art can be a novel educational tool to promote a reflective, humanistic medical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

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    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  3. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  4. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  5. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  6. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  7. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  8. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

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    Saranya Mony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  9. Use of qualitative methods alongside randomised controlled trials of complex healthcare interventions: methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Oxman, Andrew D

    2009-09-10

    To examine the use of qualitative approaches alongside randomised trials of complex healthcare interventions. Review of randomised controlled trials of interventions to change professional practice or the organisation of care. Systematic sample of 100 trials published in English from the register of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Published and unpublished qualitative studies linked to the randomised controlled trials were identified through database searches and contact with authors. Data were extracted from each study by two reviewers using a standard form. We extracted data describing the randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, the quality of these studies, and how, if at all, the qualitative and quantitative findings were combined. A narrative synthesis of the findings was done. 30 of the 100 trials had associated qualitative work and 19 of these were published studies. 14 qualitative studies were done before the trial, nine during the trial, and four after the trial. 13 studies reported an explicit theoretical basis and 11 specified their methodological approach. Approaches to sampling and data analysis were poorly described. For most cases (n=20) we found no indication of integration of qualitative and quantitative findings at the level of either analysis or interpretation. The quality of the qualitative studies was highly variable. Qualitative studies alongside randomised controlled trials remain uncommon, even where relatively complex interventions are being evaluated. Most of the qualitative studies were carried out before or during the trials with few studies used to explain trial results. The findings of the qualitative studies seemed to be poorly integrated with those of the trials and often had major methodological shortcomings.

  10. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  11. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  12. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  13. Qualitative and quantitative simulation of androgen receptor antagonists: A case study of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Xia, Pu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-12-15

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the identification and prediction of the androgen disrupting potencies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, few existing models can discriminate active and inactive compounds, which make the quantitative prediction process including the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique unreliable. In this study, different grouping methods were investigated and compared for qualitative identification, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The results showed that qualitative identification based on MD, which is lab-independent, accurate and closer to the real transcriptional activation process, could separate 90.5% of active and inactive chemicals and was preferred. The 3D-QSAR models built as the quantitative simulation method showed r(2) and q(2) values of 0.513 and 0.980, respectively. Together, a novel workflow combining qualitative identification and quantitative simulations was generated with processes including activeness discrimination and activity prediction. This workflow, for analyzing the antagonism of androgen receptor (AR) of PBDEs is not only allowing researchers to reduce their intense laboratory experiments but also assisting them in inspecting and adjusting their laboratory systems and results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

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    Jana Sawynok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65% who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N=5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N=8 trial completers and N=7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes.

  15. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Sola, Iván; Rotaeche, Rafael; Marzo-Castillejo, Mèrce; Louro-González, Arturo; Carrillo, Ricard; González, Ana-Isabel; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-08-09

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts.The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts

  16. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1 The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2 The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3 The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not

  17. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  18. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  19. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  20. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  1. A student's perspective of managing data collection in a complex qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Eileen Mary; van der Riet, Pamela; Keatinge, Diana Rosemary

    2014-11-01

    To highlight from a doctoral student's perspective some of the unexpected and challenging issues that may arise when collecting data in a complex, qualitative study. Using a qualitative approach to undertaking a PhD requires commitment to the research topic, the acquisition of a variety of research skills and the development of expertise in writing. Despite close research supervision and guidance, the first author of this paper experienced unexpected hurdles when collecting data. This article highlights these hurdles and compares them with similar and dissimilar challenges raised by a social researcher with 30 years' experience (White 2012). The first author's experience of field research during her PhD candidature. Informed by a critical theoretical perspective, a snowballing technique was used to examine issues related to data collection by a doctoral student in a qualitative research study. The first author found the logistics of qualitative data collection, concerns about transparency, role confusion and power differentials with participants, and the effective use of video recording technology, unexpectedly challenging. Many of these issues are highlighted in the literature and/or during research supervision. However, the student researcher remains a novice when entering the field. It is often only on reflection after encountering the hurdle that the student recognises future pre-emptive or alternative methods of data collection. The challenges faced as a doctoral student managing the data collection phase of the study concurred with White's discussion of some of the 'real life challenges that novice researchers might face' (2012). Specific guidance and prudence are needed by research students to know when enough data have been collected for manageable analysis within the limits of candidature. Use of reflexivity and mindfulness practised by the student during this phase assisted the ability to reflect, respond and learn from issues as they arose and aim for a

  2. A Study of Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    New methods and tools have been developed and the landscape of research has changed in TESOL, second language acquisition and applied linguistics. As research methodologies have become complex, the principles of undertaking and reporting research have become obscure. In this article, the assumptions and definitions underlying both qualitative and quantitative research, which have been major research methods in TESOL and the related fields for a long time, are reconsidered.

  3. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam; Ahmad Fayaz Bakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, ...

  4. General practitioners learning qualitative research: A case study of postgraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.

  5. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguli, S.; Mafigiri, D.; Nakigudde, J.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in W

  6. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, E.J.A.J.; Haafkens, J.A.; Agyemang, C.; Schuster, J.S.; Willems, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  7. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  8. An exploratory qualitative study of brand associations as a means for brand extensions: Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H Kasper; Y Strepp; NS Terblanche

    2014-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is on brand associations as means to extend the original brand. A qualitative study, in contrast with the quantitative nature of most earlier studies, was used to elicit an unbiased picture of consumers...

  9. The structure and comparative advantages of China's scientific research: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a sharp increase in China's scientific output. Behind its fast growth, little is known about China's comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. Meanwhile, despite China's rising position (now in second place worldwide for research output), its research

  10. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  11. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  12. Effects of complex interventions in 'skin cancer prevention and treatment': protocol for a mixed-method systematic review with qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beifus, Karolina; Breitbart, Eckhard; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2017-09-05

    Occurring from ultraviolet radiation combined with impairing ozone levels, uncritical sun exposure and use of tanning beds an increasing number of people are affected by different types of skin cancer. But preventive interventions like skin cancer screening are still missing the evidence for effectiveness and therefore are criticised. Fundamental for an appropriate course of action is to approach the defined parameters as measures for effectiveness critically. A prerequisite should be the critical application of used parameter that are defined as measures for effectiveness. This research seeks to establish, through the available literature, the effects and conditions that prove the effectiveness of prevention strategies in skin cancer. A mixed-method approach is employed to combine quantitative to qualitative methods and answer what effects can display effectiveness considering time horizon, perspective and organisational level and what are essential and sufficient conditions to prove effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in skin cancer prevention strategies. A systematic review will be performed to spot studies from any design and assess the data quantitatively and qualitatively. Included studies from each key question will be summarised by characteristics like population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design, endpoints, effect estimator and so on. Beside statistical relevancies for a systematic review the qualitative method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will be performed. The estimated outcomes from this review and QCA are the accomplishment and absence of effects that are appropriate for application in effectiveness assessments and further cost-effectiveness assessment. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews number CRD42017053859. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  13. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-11

    BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and...breastfeeding for primiparous active duty military mothers, from their perspective, using a Husserlian phenomenological approach. A semi-structured

  14. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  15. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  16. The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2009-01-01

    Judging from the recent surge in research on outcomes assessment, many study abroad offices rely on quantitative surveys and measures to collect student outcomes data. This paper presents a multidimensional, qualitative approach to data collection. This approach makes qualitative data easy to collect and encourages students to reflect and…

  17. Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F Salk

    Full Text Available Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems

  18. Comparing Forests across Climates and Biomes: Qualitative Assessments, Reference Forests and Regional Intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Carl F.; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with “pristine” reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using

  19. Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Carl F; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced

  20. The sociology of Qi Gong: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an in-depth, idiographic study of how individuals experience others during Qi Gong practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Qi Gong groups to collect research data. These data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content and thematic analysis across and within groups. The analysis indicates extraordinary experiences of Qi Gong practitioners at various levels of their social functioning. Qi Gong influences their social health in complex and \\dimensional ways. The author compares and contrasts his results with those of recent research. Implications for practice are briefly outlined and possible strategies for future research are presented.

  1. Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2011-12-21

    Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models.In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale-with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and

  2. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  3. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program: A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-França, C.; van Solinge, H.; Henkens, K.; Giardini Murta, S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation progra

  4. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation / Lars Fredrik Stöcker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Norkus, Zenonas. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation. Verlag Apostrofia Publishers, Central European University Press. Budapest und New York 2012

  5. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation / Lars Fredrik Stöcker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Norkus, Zenonas. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation. Verlag Apostrofia Publishers, Central European University Press. Budapest und New York 2012

  6. Redefined by illness: meta-ethnography of qualitative studies on the experience of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daker-White, Gavin; Donovan, Jenny; Campbell, Rona

    2014-01-01

    To synthesize published qualitative studies concerning the lived experience of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To compare the conceptual features of qualitative studies covering two different time periods. In 2002, 24 items published 1975-2001 were identified in comprehensive literature searches and assessed by multiple reviewers. In 2010, the first author found 28 articles published 2002-2009 in a simple search of the Medline database and synthesized them alone. Articles were synthesized using meta-ethnography. Both syntheses found that the main symptoms of RA are variable and unpredictable. However, in the first synthesis a sociological model dominated where RA was seen as an assault on self-identity with devastating social consequences. The main concepts were biographical disruption, role incompetence and the dread of dependency on others. In the second synthesis, the findings produced a model for health care practitioners tied to perceptions of control and incorporating a career-adaptation model of the experience of RA. We recommend that future synthesizers and primary qualitative health researchers focus more on non-hospital based populations and non-English language articles or study participants. The implications for rehabilitation follow from reflecting the findings of the synthesis against existing psychological models of coping and adaptation in RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Coping and adaptation are biographical processes, although the relative importance of active "disease mastery" versus more passive "getting used to it" is unclear. The uncertainty and fluctuating nature of symptoms and disease course presents existential challenges for people with RA in relation to maintaining physical functioning and social roles. Within a social model of disability, these findings point to potential intervention sites in society and relationships that would benefit people living with RA.

  7. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  8. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  9. County council politicians' attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention: a qualitative cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knizek, Birthe Loa; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Skruibis, Paulius; Fartacek, Reinhold; Fekete, Sandor; Gailiene, Danute; Osvath, Peter; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Rohrer, Rudolf R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare county council politicians' attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention in five European countries. A questionnaire was distributed and here the responses to the open-ended questions are analyzed qualitatively. Considerable differences were found in what the politicians in the five countries believed to be the most important causes of suicide and how suicide can be prevented. There were also differences in to what degree the politicians revealed a judgmental attitude toward suicide, which seemed to be related to the magnitude of the problem in the respective countries. A certain implicit inconsistency in the logic directing the politicians' responses was found when their views on causes to suicide and suicide prevention strategies were compared. The responses indicate a need for increased consciousness and knowledge about suicide and suicide prevention among politicians in all the five countries. This is important since they are responsible for initiating and funding suicide preventive efforts.

  10. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths.

  11. Disabled women׳s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective there is little evidence about disabled women׳s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women׳s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

  12. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita ANGIONI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group, leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a comparison with the strategic choices of three main competitors of Tod's, which offer products with similar values (Made in Italy, exclusivity and high craftsmanship; they are listed companies; they derive from a family business and the family still holds the company's control. The analysis highlights the ability of the Tod's Group in valorizing its capabilities and skills, and the ability of the management to exploit the available relational network.

  13. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Dermatoglyphic Patterns in Albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghodsi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The changes of dermal ridges in albinism patients were studied. The results obtained from subjects with albinism were compared with healthy subjects. A number of 30 patients were finally selected as our sample sizes. To gain a better understanding the results, a case-control study with the similar number of cases and control was designed. The related statistical test, t-test and chi-square, were considered to evaluate whether the discrepancy is statistically significant. The results indicated that a-b ridge counts of the right side were decreased significantly (p = 0.04. Moreover, the discrepancy between cases and controls for the case total a-b ridge count (TABRC was statistically significant (p = 0.06 at 10% significant level. Furthermore, based on the visual analysis, there was no strong evidence for the differences between cases and controls from the fingerprint shapes point of view. The general result is that dermatoglyphic can be considered as a valuable aid and promising method for genetic analysis and albinism studies.

  15. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  16. Comparison of Two Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Study of C - Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiaei, MR. (BSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: C - reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase protein produced in liver. It is less than 5 mg per deciliter in the serum and body fluids of normal individuals, but it is increased suddenly within a few hours following inflammatory reaction. In bacterial and viral infections, active rheumatic fever, acute myocardial infarction and rheumatoid arthritis are also increased. The aim of this study was to investigate CRP level by Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Material and Methods: The CRP of 200 patients was investigated by quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative CRP testing was conducted three times by different people, using two kit of bionic and Omega, and then the mean of the results was reported. For quantitative CRP testing, Immunoturbidimetry was used. Results: In qualitative CRP test by Bionic kit: 180 (90% were negative, 6 (3% weakly positive, 9 (4.5% +1 and 5 (2.5 % were + 2. In qualitative CRP test by Omega Kit: 148 (74% were negative, 32 (16% weakly positive, 13 (6.5% +1, 4 (2% +2 and 3 (1.5% were +3. A high percentage of Qualitative results, which were weakly positive, became negative by Quantitative methods. The Qualitative results of +1 and the next became positive by Quantitative methods. Conclusion: It seems that in the early stages of inflammatory disease, quantitative methods are preferred to qualitative methods. Also, in cases that the CRP test results are weakly positive by qualitative methods, they should be controlled by quantitative methods too. Keywords: CRP; CRP Test Quantitative; Qualitative CRP Test

  17. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-01-01

    .... This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20-30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia...

  18. Factors Influencing the Introduction of Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Health Care: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Zouwe, N. van der; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. Purpose: The aim of this qualitative study was

  19. Engagement of nurses in their profession. Qualitative study on engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    To identify common issues of nurses with high engagement to enable us to develop the construct as it applies to nursing in more depth. Based on the constructivist paradigm and with a phenomenological approach, a qualitative content analysis was conducted using an inductive approach. Participants were nurses working in direct care in different healthcare areas. The sample size was determined by data saturation and 15 participants were interviewed. The units of meaning were grouped into 11 subcategories, and then into 7 categories termed vigour, dedication, reward, autonomy, social support, conciliation and attributes of nurses. Then these categories were grouped into 3 major themes: job characteristics, characteristics of organizations, and individual characteristics. Having high engagement does not mean ignoring the negative aspects of work and organizations. Nurses who maintain high engagement are also affected by the negative aspects, however the assessment of positive aspects such as enjoying the work, the meaning of being a nurse, reward and autonomy enable the process of depletion of engagement to be overcome. In view of the findings, we propose reconceptualising the construct, taking the features of nursing into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. INTEGRATING VOCATIONAL STREAM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hisyam Mohd. Hashim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocational stream is a new set-up in the education system of developing countries especially for countries with low population and limited area of land. Nevertheless, this countries are working on providing vocational education to their citizen particularly for their youngsters in secondary school. There are few important elements or items that can be used as guidence in a certain implementation that might be the basics of the implementation. The qualitative methodology (Inteviews, Documents analysis and observation are used. Research findings show that there are some items that can be adopted as the Guidelines On International Best Practices In Integrating Vocational Education In Secondary School especially for the vocational streamed school. It is also found that, it is still too soon for the implementation of vocational stream in the existing secondary schools if the basic requirements for it are not being formed or improved. It is suggested that, the implementation of International Best Practices in Integrating TVET in the Secondary School which was also being suggested previously for other developing countries by model pathway of voational stream student.

  1. Electronic portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Mobarhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio is known as an electronic learning record which collects the learning evidences, reflections and accomplishments. In fact, it tells the story of learning achievements. It is an important tool for students, lecturers, administrators and faculties to monitor the learning outcomes. Similarly to other technologies, e-Portfolio is also considered successful, if it is used by students continuously. Previous researches showed the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in using any technologies. However, lack of motivation has been a major concern for developing any successful online learning environments. The aim of this paper is to explain the e-Portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective. Interviews are conducted with students from one university in Malaysia in order to get better understanding of the phenomena. The target interviewees are bachelor students chosen from different faculties. Based on the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, the motivational factors affecting the continuous use of e-portfolio are coded in eight themes and then they categorized in four main groups of individual, system, social and environmental characteristics. Finally they are classified into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations.

  2. [Risk of laparoscopic surgery. 100 records of complications. A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, J; Vayre, P; Chapuis, Y; Germain, M A; Jost, J L; Murat, J; Spay, G

    1996-01-01

    A total of 100 accidents occurring during laparoscopic surgery between 1969 and 1993 were studied. Fifty-five of the cases concerned gynaecology surgery over a 24 year period. The other 45 concerned digestive surgery over a 5 year period (1989-1993). The surgical risk was not statistically greater compared with open surgery. Overall morbidity was 1%. Overall mortality was 0.5/1000. A more precise statistical analysis was recently reported. The examination of the 100 cases was qualitative rather than quantitative. The study demonstrated an imbalance between age (mean age 38 years) in patients with major pathology initially and the gravity of the induced accidents: 26 deaths for 100 observations. These deaths were related to technology trocar, capnoperitoneum, electrocoagulation. Technical skill, cautiousness, vigilance and humility are qualities the surgeon must have to perform successful operations. The irreversible acceleration of the new surgical technique should not cloud the basic precepts of sound surgical technique.

  3. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, G; Cropley, M.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during...

  4. Perceptions of thalassemia and its treatment among Malaysian thalassemia patients: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ismahanisa Ismail; Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali; Maryam Farooqui; Fahad Saleem; Hisham Aljadhey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalassemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and one of the most common chronic and genetic disorders. Aims The present qualitative study explores knowledge about thalassemia, perceptions about conventional therapies and the points that affect Malaysian patients with thalassemia in taking medications correctly. Methods This study used a qualitative method. Purposive and theoretical samplings were combined to explore the issues related to thalassaemia and...

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Gaussian Beam Visualization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Magnes, J; Hartke, J; Fountain, M; Florence, L; Davis, V

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative overview of existing laser beam profiling methods. We compare the the knife-edge, scanning slit, and pin-hole methods. Data is presented in a comparative fashion. We also elaborate on the use of CCD profiling methods and present appropriate imagery. These methods allow for a quantitative determination of transverse laser beam-profiles using inexpensive and accessible methods. The profiling techniques presented are inexpensive and easily applicable to a variety of experiments.

  6. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-07-10

    The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients' eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients' perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families' and doctors' perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all

  7. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  8. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  9. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  10. [Chronic illness from the perspective of patients and health professionals: a qualitative study in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    Chronic diseases are leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and increasing expenditures in numerous countries. However, little is known about how chronic diseases are perceived and managed by social actors. This article aims to compare the perspectives of health professionals and patients towards chronic diseases, besides analyzing the relationship between these two groups. A qualitative, multi-center study was conducted in three Mexican cities: Guadalajara, San Luis Potosí, and Mexico City. Participants included chronically ill individuals, physicians, and other health professionals from primary and secondary health care centers. Data collection used focus groups and interviews. The data were analyzed using discourse analysis. Participants' perceptions varied, from the medicalized view of physicians to that of patients focused on illness and the lifeworld. The participants agreed that there are unequal relationships between health professionals, families, and the chronically ill, but that relationships are more equal among the chronically ill themselves. The article includes by discussing various implications of the findings.

  11. Healthy competition: A qualitative study investigating persuasive technologies and the gamification of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Paul

    2016-10-28

    Changing socio-technical practices occurring within cycling are leading the pursuit, and its participants, to become ever more embedded into the networked digital world. GPS enabled mobile-technologies have introduced a new element of competition into recreational riding, whether on the road, competing over timed virtual segments, or online dissecting and comparing the data that has been logged and shared via dedicated ride-logging applications. In order to understand these technologies qualitative study using reflective diaries and semi-structured interviews has been conducted with experienced club cyclists who had fully experienced the effects of their arrival. These riders claim that the applications influence their route choice and motivate them to cycle more frequently, and at a greater intensity although the engagement changes over time. This paper explores how this increased motivation to exercise and compete is instigated, manifested and maintained in the everyday practices of cyclists, as well as the negative consequences of gamification.

  12. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forozun Olfati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts.Materials and methods:The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation.Results:The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management.Conclusion:In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery.Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies.

  13. Factors affecting planned return to work after trauma: A prospective descriptive qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkard, S S; Bloomfield, T D; Page, P R J; Wilson, D; Ricketts, D M; Rogers, B A

    2016-12-01

    The use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in trauma is limited. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate qualitative responses and factors affecting planned return to work following significant trauma, for which there is currently a poor evidence base. National ethical approval was obtained for routine prospective PROMs data collection, including EQ-5D, between Sept 2013 and March 2015 for trauma patients admitted to the Sussex Major Trauma Centre (n=92). 84 trauma patients disclosed their intended return to work at discharge. Additional open questions asked 'things done well' and 'things to be improved'. EQ-5D responses were valued using the time trade-off method. Statistical analysis between multiple variables was completed by ANOVA, and with categorical categories by Chi squared analysis. Only 18/68 of patients working at admission anticipated returning to work within 14days post-discharge. The injury severity scores (ISS) of those predicting return to work within two weeks and those predicting return to work longer than two weeks were 14.17 and 13.59, respectively. Increased physicality of work showed a trend towards poorer return to work outcomes, although non-significant in Chi-squared test in groups predicting return in less than or greater than two weeks (4.621, p=0.2017ns). No significant difference was demonstrated in the comparative incomes of patients with different estimated return to work outcomes (ANOVA r(2)=0.001, P=0.9590ns). EQ-5D scores were higher in those predicting return to work within two weeks when compared to greater than two weeks. Qualitative thematic content analysis of open responses was possible for 66/92 of respondents. Prominent positive themes were: care, staff, professionalism, and communication. Prominent negative themes were: food, ward response time, and communication. This pilot study highlights the importance of qualitative PROMs analysis in leading patient-driven improvements in trauma care. We provide standard

  14. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN AHWAZ CITY; WITH EMPHASIS ON HOSPITAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Omrani; A.R. Mesdaghinia; A.E. Amoui

    1998-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hospital and municipal solid waste are necessary for selecting the best and most appropriate method of health care collection, storage, transportation and disposal of this kind of wastes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of hospital and municipal wastes have been studied in Ahwaz city during spring 1996. The amount of solid wastes in five regions of the city was 560,000 Kg perday (0.648 Kg per capita). Also, the rate of waste production in 6 hospi...

  15. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H.C.; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S. C.; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children’s psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. Methods A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A ran...

  16. The Influence Studies in Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏莹

    2010-01-01

    Comparative literature arose in the 19th century,the approach adopted for its influence study has been developed and diversified in different eras,in this article,the influence study in comparative literature through a reading culture is discussed in order to reveal in what aspects the reading culture may cut across the regional border of influence study.

  17. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  18. Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

  19. [Medical care for chronic disease: reflexions on methodologic procedures of a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Francisco J; Alcántara Hernández, Elizabeth; Flores, Norma Lara; Sánchez, Adelita; Tejada Tayabas, Luz María

    2002-01-01

    Chronic diseases have been the focus of qualitative researchers. However, few studies have explained in depth the methodological options choOsed in the studies and their reasons. This paper presents some reflections on the methodological strategies and procedures used in a multisite, qualitative study whose focus are the individual's perspectives on chronic conditions and medical care. Such reflections are on the study's orientation, the selection of the area, the focus groups and the social relations among participants. We conclude stating that the methodological options and the strategies used, rather than being solely a technical issue, are deeply linked to the study's object, the social relations among participants and the context of research.

  20. A Study on Capabilities Required In Military Medicine to Develop Modular Training Courses: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Ali; Mohammadimehr, Mojgan

    2017-07-01

    The main mission of military medicine in the world is to support the health and treatment of the military in relation to issues, risks, injuries and diseases that arise due to the specific occupational conditions. The current study was carried out with the aim of determining the required skills of military physicians to define and determine the required training modules. The study was a qualitative research. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The study population included all the professors and experts in the field of military medicine and medical sciences at the medical universities of Tehran. Snowball sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Based on the results, the required skills of military physicians in 5 categories and 29 sub- categories were identified; then based on the identified skills, 60 training modules at two introductory and advanced levels were determined including 39 introductory levels and 21 advanced levels. We can conclude that some of the important skills that military physicians need and can achieved through training have not been provided in any educational program and to achieve such skills and capabilities, other programs should be developed and modular training can be one of them.

  1. Study on the Reliability Evaluation of Qualitative Indices in Multi-Objective Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative indices in multi-objective decision can usually be evaluated and measured by mathematical methods or models, but the obtained results are sometimes inaccurate because of fuzziness of indices. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation results, set-value statistic principle is applied, and accordingly four evaluation methods are obtained. Meanwhile, these methods are compared briefly.

  2. SOCIAL VALUE CREATION: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDIAN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAMU SUNDARAMURTHY; MARTINA MUSTEEN; AMY E. RANDEL

    2013-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is emerging as an important field of study within business disciplines. There is significant social entrepreneurship activity in emerging economies but little systematic research of the phenomenon in this context. The purpose of this study is to generate a deeper understanding of how social value is created in India (one of the largest emerging economies). Using a multiple historical case study design and systematic coding techniques, we uncover distinct types of socia...

  3. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  4. Vocational reintegration after a lower limb amputation : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.; Geertzen, J.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Schoppen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the process of job reintegration, to obtain more detailed information about workplace adjustments, and to assess the positive and negative experiences of amputees (in the Netherlands) who returned to paid work after their lower limb amputation. The study

  5. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

  6. Vocational reintegration after a lower limb amputation: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Ria; Bruins, M.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Groothoff, J.W.; Schoppen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the process of job reintegration, to obtain more detailed information about workplace adjustments, and to assess the positive and negative experiences of amputees (in the Netherlands) who returned to paid work after their lower limb amputation. The study

  7. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  8. Vocational reintegration after a lower limb amputation : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.; Geertzen, J.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Schoppen, T.

    The objectives of this study were to describe the process of job reintegration, to obtain more detailed information about workplace adjustments, and to assess the positive and negative experiences of amputees (in the Netherlands) who returned to paid work after their lower limb amputation. The study

  9. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  10. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no

  11. Graphical passwords: a qualitative study of password patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available focus on a quantitative analysis of graphical passwords. During this study users from commercial companies were asked to enter graphical passwords. These passwords were then analysed and patterns identified. Users were also asked what there password...

  12. QUALITATIVE STUDIES IN ACCOUNTING: THE ABDUCTIVE. RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia URDARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  13. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  14. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmann, Solveig; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa influences patients' lives in many ways. It is therefore necessary to focus on the effects of the disease on daily life in order better to define patient-related outcomes in hidradenitis suppurativa studies...

  15. Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon – particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion – are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured i...

  16. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Barnicot

    Full Text Available Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

  18. Perceived usefulness of a distributed community-based syndromic surveillance system: a pilot qualitative evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a pilot utility evaluation and information needs assessment of the Distribute Project at the 2010 Washington State Public Health Association (WSPHA Joint Conference. Distribute is a distributed community-based syndromic surveillance system and network for detection of influenza-like illness (ILI. Using qualitative methods, we assessed the perceived usefulness of the Distribute system and explored areas for improvement. Nine state and local public health professionals participated in a focus group (n = 6 and in semi-structured interviews (n = 3. Field notes were taken, summarized and analyzed. Findings Several emergent themes that contribute to the perceived usefulness of system data and the Distribute system were identified: 1 Standardization: a common ILI syndrome definition; 2 Regional Comparability: views that support county-by-county comparisons of syndromic surveillance data; 3 Completeness: complete data for all expected data at a given time; 4 Coverage: data coverage of all jurisdictions in WA state; 5 Context: metadata incorporated into the views to provide context for graphed data; 6 Trusted Data: verification that information is valid and timely; and 7 Customization: the ability to customize views as necessary. As a result of the focus group, a new county level health jurisdiction expressed interest in contributing data to the Distribute system. Conclusion The resulting themes from this study can be used to guide future information design efforts for the Distribute system and other syndromic surveillance systems. In addition, this study demonstrates the benefits of conducting a low cost, qualitative evaluation at a professional conference.

  19. Understanding Masculinity in Undergraduate African American Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John

    2014-09-01

    This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Maximising the impact of qualitative research in feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials: guidance for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Hoddinott, Pat; Lewin, Simon; Thomas, Kate J; Young, Bridget; Adamson, Joy; Jansen, Yvonne Jfm; Mills, Nicola; Moore, Graham; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full trial. We present guidance that researchers, research funders and reviewers may wish to consider when assessing or undertaking qualitative research within feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. The guidance consists of 16 items within five domains: research questions, data collection, analysis, teamwork and reporting. Appropriate and well conducted qualitative research can make an important contribution to feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. This guidance may help researchers to consider the full range of contributions that qualitative research can make in relation to their particular trial. The guidance may also help researchers and others to reflect on the utility of such qualitative research in practice, so that trial teams can decide when and how best to use these approaches in future studies.

  1. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  2. Parents’ concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth.

  3. THE MEANING OF FOOD FOR OBESE MEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    physical deformity (like obesity) are made to feel ashamed and experience a .... participants who were obese as a child, food was seen as ..... current food activities. He does this by .... litative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers. Appetite 57 ...

  4. A qualitative study of sexual health education among Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatrists, premari- .... the study by Michael et al25, He reported lack of religious beliefs as a .... (2013)40. Considering the fact that increased sexual satis- faction would also increase marital satisfaction and over- ... The new application is of Per-.

  5. Entrepreneurial Community College Presidents: An Exploratory Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, Lorenzo L.; McPhail, Christine Johnson; Singh, Robert P.; Sygielski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the entrepreneurial, nontraditional fundraising behaviors and activities of 23 community college presidents using interview and survey data. The institutional characteristics that facilitate entrepreneurial action and how presidents are raising these new revenues were explored. "Best practices" and implications for…

  6. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  7. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    organisations. The complexity of the facilitation field and diversity of potential facilitator roles fosters a need to investigate in detail how facilitation is enacted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the enactment of external peer facilitation in general practice in order to create a stronger...

  8. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  9. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  10. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  11. Adult Financial Literacy Education and Latina Learners: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow, Karin Millard

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as well…

  12. A Qualitative Case Study of the Bilingual Teacher Shortage in One Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how stakeholders in one Texas school district perceive, experience, and respond to the Spanish bilingual teacher shortage. The research design was qualitative with an exploratory, single case study approach. The case study school district was a mid-sized suburban district in Texas that utilized a dual…

  13. A Qualitative Study on the Use of Summarizing Strategies in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an…

  14. Family Stigma Associated With Epilepsy: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi Amjad, Reza; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Navab, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Harmful nature of epilepsy can affect the patient and their parent. Stigma, arising from it, affects the patient and their family. To relieve it understanding the experiences of the parent are useful. This study was aimed at understanding the experiences of parent of child with epilepsy in Iran. Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, 10 parents who took care of their child with epilepsy were participated. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. After transcription, data were analyzed using Van Manen’s method. Results: Family stigma emerged as a main theme in data analysis with three subthemes including becoming verbally abusive, a dull and heavy shadowed look, and associates interference. Conclusion: Family stigma is a major challenge for parents of child with epilepsy need to special attention by health system. Nurses, as a big part of the system, can play an important role to manage this problem. PMID:28299298

  15. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari; Ataollah Ghahiri; Mojtaba Habibi; Ali Zargham-Boroujeni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materi...

  16. The client experience of assertive community treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiphart, Linda R; Barnes, Madaline G

    2005-01-01

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing hospital days for persons with schizophrenia. Utilizing depth interviews and Grounded Theory techniques (Strauss & Corbin, 1998), client reactions to this intensive form of treatment delivery were explored. This study illustrates the importance of the relationship between treatment providers and persons with schizophrenia. As providers assisted clients with practical needs, clients began to develop trust, which fostered a sense of belonging and relationship, leading toward a positive motivation regarding treatment.

  17. Emotions in veterinary surgical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Tanggaard, Lene; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Berendt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus and engagement. Our study identified the most common sources of positive and negative emotions to be "being able to prepare well" and "lack of self-confidence," respectively. Our findings suggest that there are factors that we can influence in the surgical learning environment to minimize negative emotions and enhance positive emotions and engagement, thereby improving students' learning.

  18. Bizarre delusions: A qualitative study on Indian schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delusions are an important symptom for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ in both the commonly used international classificatory systems - the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV - American Psychiatric Association, 2000 and the International Classification of Diseases, X (ICD X - World Health Organization, 1992. Of special significance are "bizarre delusions" the presence of which is alone sufficient for a diagnosis of SZ in DSM IV. In an attempt to find out the frequency, criteria for classification, and other clinical aspects of bizarre delusions and justification of their importance in the diagnostic system, this retrospective study was conducted. Methodology: Records of 1952 Indian patients affected with SZ, recruited for various research projects at one center were included in this study. All had a diagnosis of DSM IV SZ; all symptoms of SZ from the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies were asked regardless of the presence of specific symptoms - like bizarre delusions - sufficient for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of bizarre delusions was 2.56%. Five themes, identified on analyzing their contents are described. Main themes were unnatural, bodily sensation, change in identity, sexual, and religious. Conclusions: These themes were culture based, but definitely out of context, excessive or extremely odd. Moreover, the rarity of bizarre delusions makes it difficult to include them as a sole criterion for diagnosis.

  19. Introducing medical educators to qualitative study design: Twelve tips from inception to completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Mann, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions. This understanding is vital in exploring learning and teaching styles, learners' experiences and perceptions, implementing and studying the impact of educational interventions and faculty development. This article aims to advance medical educators' understanding and application of qualitative research principles in educational scholarship by summarising and consolidating the fundamental principles of research in medical education described in recent AMEE guides. The 12 tips below offer a systematic, yet practical approach to designing a qualitative research study, particularly targeting educators new to this arena.

  20. Finding a method to analyze qualitative data: using a study of conceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Wendy J

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing awareness in the health sciences of the potential of qualitative research to address questions that quantitative research cannot satisfactorily answer. While a growing number of studies in health sciences and health sciences education discuss the value of such research or describe the methodology and data collection processes, few detail how analysis was carried out. Reliability and validity of findings from qualitative research depend on the quality of data management, retrieval, and interpretation or identification of meaning. The robustness of data analysis is therefore an important factor in the rigor of qualitative research. This article uses a study of dental students' conceptual learning to illustrate strategies that ensure rigor in qualitative analysis. Factors that informed the decisions regarding analysis are discussed in detail. The use of both grounded theory and literature is discussed. The role that deductive and inductive reasoning played in the analysis is outlined. A brief section illustrates the kinds of conclusions that can be made about conceptual learning when qualitative data are rigorously analyzed. Finally, potential shortcomings in the study and alternatives or additional mechanisms for ensuring validity and reliability of analysis are discussed.

  1. Nurses’ experiences of working in organizations undergoing restructuring: A metasynthesis of qualitative research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Jensen, Anne Sofie Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    experience working in organizations undergoing structural changes. Design: The review is designed as a metasynthesis and follows the guidelines put forth by Sandelowski and Barroso for synthesizing qualitative research. Data sources: From January to April 2015, literature searches were conducted......Background: Health care organizations worldwide undergo continual reconfiguration and structural changes in order to optimize the use of resources, reduce costs, and improve the quality of treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies of how nurses...... in the CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases for the period from 1994 to 2014. Review methods: A total of 762 articles were found and screened, 12 of which were included in the review after being appraised using a specially designed reading guide. The inclusion criteria were qualitative studies...

  2. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Rosarie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings.

  3. Defining infidelity in research and couple counseling: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Naomi P; Vossler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Infidelity can destroy relationships, but there is long-standing debate in the field about how best to define the construct. A clear definition of infidelity is important theoretically, empirically, and therapeutically; however, research on the topic is limited. This study explores how seven experienced couple counselors define infidelity on the basis of their work with heterosexual couples presenting with this issue. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts and research findings suggest a rich web of conflicting definitions of infidelity for couples counselors and, in their accounts, clients. The findings support an understanding of infidelity as socially constructed and the implications of this for the field are discussed.

  4. Male Menopause And Decision-Making: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Claassen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how a small group of white South African men going through menopause attached meaning to this major event in their lives, and also how it affected the decisions they took as leaders in the financial sector. The findings indicated that menopause symptoms in particular (physical, psychological and sexual dimensions had a profound influence on the systemic male. A provisional substantive theory was developed – “work power trade-offs result in decreased decision-making power during the male menopause�? – and a number of recommendations were proposed

  5. Joy, happiness, and humor in dementia care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Marianne; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    People with advanced dementia can still enjoy life. Even if their language is impaired and they live in the moment, it should still be possible for them to live a life of pleasure and joy. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about these individuals' experiences, but because of the decline in their access to language, it was necessary to have others speak on their behalf. Analysis of findings was based on a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur (1981). Central findings were that all the interviewees emphasized humor and interacting with other people as a source of happiness.

  6. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  7. Public Beliefs about Antibiotics, Infection and Resistance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Madden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of public views and ways of talking about antibiotics. Four focus groups were held with members of the public. In addition, 39 households were recruited and interviews, diaries of medicine taking, diaries of any contact with medication were used to explore understanding and use of medication. Discussions related to antibiotics were identified and analyzed. Participants in this study were worried about adverse effects of antibiotics, particularly for recurrent infections. Some were concerned that antibiotics upset the body’s “balance”, and many used strategies to try to prevent and treat infections without antibiotics. They rarely used military metaphors about infection (e.g., describing bacteria as invading armies but instead spoke of clearing infections. They had little understanding of the concept of antibiotic resistance but they thought that over-using antibiotics was unwise because it would reduce their future effectiveness. Previous studies tend to focus on problems such as lack of knowledge, or belief in the curative powers of antibiotics for viral illness, and neglect the concerns that people have about antibiotics, and the fact that many people try to avoid them. We suggest that these concerns about antibiotics form a resource for educating patients, for health promotion and social marketing strategies.

  8. The unique experience of adults with multimorbidity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Duguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from several countries indicate that the prevalence of multimorbidity is very high among clients of primary healthcare. A deeper understanding of patients’ experiences from their own perspective can greatly enrich any intervention to help them live as well as possible with multimorbidity. Objective: To describe the fundamental structure of adults’ experience with multimorbidity. Design: A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the experiences of 11 adults with multimorbidity. These adults participated in two semi-structured interviews, the content of which was rigorously analyzed. Results: At the core of the study participants’ multimorbidity experience are the impression of aging prematurely, difficulties with self-care management, and issues with access to the healthcare system, which contribute to the problem’s complexity. Despite these issues, participants with multimorbidity report attempting to take control of their situation and adjusting to daily living. Conclusions: The description of this experience, through the systemic vision of participants, provides a better understanding of the realities experienced by people with multimorbidity.

  9. New methods for quantitative and qualitative facial studies: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I T; Hintz, R J; Frias, J L

    1989-01-01

    The clinical study of birth defects has traditionally followed the Gestalt approach, with a trend, in recent years, toward more objective delineation. Data collection, however, has been largely restricted to measurements from X-rays and anthropometry. In other fields, new techniques are being applied that capitalize on the use of modern computer technology. One such technique is that of remote sensing, of which photogrammetry is a branch. Cartographers, surveyors and engineers, using specially designed cameras, have applied geometrical techniques to locate points on an object precisely. These techniques, in their long-range application, have become part of our industrial technology and have assumed great importance with the development of satellite-borne surveillance systems. The close-range application of similar techniques has the potential for extremely accurate clinical measurement. We are currently evaluating the application of remote sensing to facial measurement using three conventional 35 mm still cameras. The subject is photographed in front of a carefully measured grid, and digitization is then carried out on 35-mm slides specific landmarks on the cranioface are identified, along with points on the background grid and the four corners of the slide frame, and are registered as xy coordinates by a digitizer. These coordinates are then converted into precise locations in object space. The technique is capable of producing measurements to within 1/100th of an inch. We suggest that remote sensing methods such as this may well be of great value in the study of congenital malformations.

  10. Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs.

  11. Ebola outbreak preparedness planning: a qualitative study of clinicians' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, J; Broom, A; Bowden, V

    2017-02-01

    The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia. The data were systematically coded to discover key themes in participants' accounts of Ebola preparedness. Three key themes identified were: 1) the impact of high volumes of-often inconsistent-information, which shaped participants' trust in authority; 2) barriers to engagement in training, including the perceived relative risk Ebola presented; and finally, 3) practical and environmental impediments to preparedness. These clinicians' accounts of Ebola preparedness reveal a range of important factors which may influence the relative success of outbreak preparedness and provide guidance for future responses. In particular, they illustrate the critical importance of clear communication and guidelines for staff engagement with, and implementation of training. An important outcome of this study was how individual assessments of risk and trust are produced via, and overlap with, the dynamics of communication, training and environmental logistics. Consideration of the dynamic ways in which these issues intersect is crucial for fostering an environment that is suitable for managing an infectious threat such as Ebola. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  12. Priority setting and cardiac surgery: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nancy A; Martin, Douglas K; Peter, Elizabeth H; Pringle, Dorothy M; Singer, Peter A

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe priority setting in cardiac surgery and evaluate it using an ethical framework, "accountability for reasonableness". Cardiac surgery is an expensive part of hospital budgets. Priority setting decisions are made daily regarding ever increasing volumes of patients. While much attention has been paid to the management of cardiac surgery waiting lists, little empirical research exists into the way actual decision makers deliberate upon and resolve priority setting decisions on a daily basis. A key goal of priority setting, in cardiac surgical areas as well as others, is fairness. "Accountability for reasonableness" is a leading ethical framework for fair priority setting, and can be used to identify opportunities for improvement (i.e. make it fairer) and highlight good practices. A case study was conducted to examine the process of priority setting processes at three University of Toronto affiliated cardiac surgery centres. Relevant documents were examined, weekly triage rounds were observed for 27 months, and interviews were carried out with 23 key participants including cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, and triage nurses. In data analysis, the conditions of "accountability for reasonableness" (relevance, publicity, appeals and enforcement) were used as an analytic lens. While decisions may appear to be based strictly upon clinical criteria (e.g. coronary anatomy); non-clinical criteria also have an impact upon decision-making (e.g. patients' lifestyle choices, type of surgical practice and departmental constraints on resource use). Participants stated that these factors influence their decision-making and can result in unfair and inconsistent decisions. PUBLICITY: Non-clinical reasons are not publicly accessible, nor are they clearly acknowledged in discussions between cardiac clinicians. APPEALS: There are mechanisms for challenging decisions however without access to the non-clinical reasons, this can be problematic

  13. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  14. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  15. Incorporating Lifelong Learning From Residency to Practice: A Qualitative Study Exploring Psychiatry Learners' Needs and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Soklaridis, Sophie; Yufe, Shira; Rawkins, Sian; Harris, Ilene; Tekian, Ara; Silver, Ivan; Wiljer, David

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on lifelong learning (LLL) as a core competency to develop master learners in medical education across the learner continuum. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of psychiatry residents and faculty about LLL implementation, motivation, and training needs. This qualitative study was conducted in a large, urban, multisite psychiatry training program as part of a larger mixed methods study of LLL in psychiatry education. Using a purposive sampling approach, psychiatry residents were recruited to participate in focus groups; early career psychiatrists and psychiatry educators were recruited to participate in semistructured interviews. Content analysis of interviews and focus groups was done using the iterative, inductive method of constant comparative analysis. Of the 34 individuals participating in the study, 23 were residents, six were psychiatry educators, and five were early career psychiatrists. Three predominant themes were identified in participants' transcripts related to (1) the need for LLL training in residency training; (2) the implementation of LLL in residency training and practice; and (3) the spectrum of motivation for LLL from residency training into practice. This study identified the lack of preparation for LLL in residency training and the impact of this gap for psychiatrists transitioning into practice. All participants described the importance of integrating LLL training within clinical rotations and the importance of grounding LLL within the clinical workplace early in residency training to support the delivery of effective, high-quality patient care.

  16. What Instills Trust? A Qualitative Study of Phishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Markus; Tsow, Alex; Shah, Ankur; Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-Kyung

    This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.

  17. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N=18. Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.

  18. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.

  19. Prioritization in Somali health system strengthening: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Abdihamid; Handuleh, Jibril; Patel, Preeti

    2016-05-01

    After years of decline and disintegration, the Somalia Federal Government alongside international and domestic partners is beginning the process of rebuilding its national health system. In this study, we aim to shed light on the current approaches to health system strengthening, as viewed by stakeholders closely involved in its development. Key informant interviews were undertaken with health and development professionals working within all three administrative regions of Somalia, as well as with Somali ministry of health officials, global health and policy specialists with interests in health system reconstruction in fragile states. A review of published and grey literature on Somalia, health systems, fragile and conflict-affected countries using PubMed and Reliefweb was also conducted. Technical documents designed for Somali health system building by external development partners were also reviewed. Key priorities identified by participants were, strengthening of local governance and management capacity, scaling-up efforts to structure a robust health financing mechanism, engagement with the burgeoning and dynamic private sector, as well as investing in the appropriate human resources for health. The study found that there was widespread agreement among participants that health system strengthening through a coordinated system would improve long-term capacity in Somalia's health sector. Future research should focus on the evaluation of the modalities by which health system strengthening interventions are implemented, on neglected topics such as mental health within the Somali health system, as well as on population-level barriers to accessing health systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Health literacy in patients dealing with gout: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Onna, Marloes; Hinsenveld, Elke; de Vries, Hein; Boonen, Annelies

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the health literacy of patients dealing with gout and to understand perceptions that might account for non-adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Semi-structured interviews involving patients with gout were conducted. The transcripts of the interviews were scored by two readers and a coding system to categorize the data was developed. Fifteen patients (14 men, mean age 63 years, mean disease duration 11 years) were interviewed; ten patients were recruited from secondary care and five from primary care. Six patients had gout tophi and 12 patients used ULT. Less than half of the patients were sufficiently aware of the pathophysiological processes that cause gout. Twelve patients indicated that treatment of gout only encompasses treatment of the acute attack. Patients were unaware of long-term treatment goals. Six patients admitted medication non-adherence at some point in time. Several reasons for non-adherence, such as healthcare professionals providing conflicting messages about medication, can be considered preventable. Half of the patients expressed that they, especially at the time of diagnosis, wanted to know more about the cause of gout, treatment goals and long-term consequences. In conclusion, the health literacy of patients dealing with gout was low in our study, especially with regard to medication. Yet, patients often recognized these knowledge gaps. Our data suggest that improving knowledge and addressing common misperceptions in training programmes, may ultimately contribute to adherence to ULT and an optimized outcome in patients with gout. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed in future research.

  1. Exploring patient values in medical decision making: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2013-01-01

    Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28-67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, 'treatment-specific values', 'life goals and philosophies', and 'personal and social background', emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients' decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients' priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values.

  2. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  3. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-12-09

    Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  4. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  5. A Comparative Study of Whitman and Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田寨耕

    2014-01-01

    Walt Whitman and Robert Frost are both famous poets in American literary history. They share a great deal in common. This paper attempts to make a study of the two poets by means of comparing their similarities and differences.

  6. Why undertake a pilot in a qualitative PhD study? Lessons learned to promote success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jane; Archibong, Uduak; Walton, Sean

    2017-01-23

    Background Pilot studies can play an important role in qualitative studies. Methodological and practical issues can be shaped and refined by undertaking pilots. Personal development and researchers' competence are enhanced and lessons learned can inform the development and quality of the main study. However, pilot studies are rarely published, despite their potential to improve knowledge and understanding of the research. Aim To present the main lessons learned from undertaking a pilot in a qualitative PhD study. Discussion This paper draws together lessons learned when undertaking a pilot as part of a qualitative research project. Important methodological and practical issues identified during the pilot study are discussed including access, recruitment, data collection and the personal development of the researcher. The resulting changes to the final study are also highlighted. Conclusion Sharing experiences of and lessons learned in a pilot study enhances personal development, improves researchers' confidence and competence, and contributes to the understanding of research. Implications for practice Pilots can be used effectively in qualitative studies to refine the final design, and provide the researcher with practical experience to enhance confidence and competence.

  7. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice.

  8. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  9. Stories about asexuality: a qualitative study on asexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdenhove, Ellen; Gijs, Luk; T'Sjoen, Guy; Enzlin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how asexual women experience their asexual identity, sexuality, and relationships. The authors recruited participants through the Asexuality Visibility and Education Network's website and posts on several health- and lifestyle-related websites. Interviewees were 9 women between 20 and 42 years of age. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The authors discuss 3 main themes that arose from the data: coming to an (a)sexual identity, experiencing physical intimacy and sexuality, and experiencing love and relationships. Participants described how they have always felt different and how they experienced their process of coming out. The authors found a great variation in the experience of (a) sex and physical intimacy and (b) love and relationships. Engaging in sexual behavior was mainly based on a willingness to comply with partner wishes. Whereas some longed for a relationship, aromantic asexual women did not. Some participants separated love from sex. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Living and working with sickness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzanne; Gabbay, Mark

    2007-06-01

    To explore patients' views and experiences of long-term sickness absence, and their attitudes with regard to return to work. The study design and analysis were guided by a narrative psychology perspective. In-depth, biographical narrative interviews were conducted with 26 individuals, aged between 30 and 65 years, who had been certified absent for longer than 6 weeks. Follow-up data were collected at 12 months. The narrative analysis techniques used were holistic content, holistic form, categorical content, and categorical form. This paper illustrates our findings obtained mainly using the holistic-form approach. Long-term absence reduces attachment to work and impacts on work identity. Three distinct narrative patterns emerged from the data analysis. The first was 'uncomplicated absence', usually triggered by an acute event with an uncomplicated resolution; the second, 'complicated absence', typically involved gradually deteriorating health and social complications with a less predictable recovery; the third pattern, 'sustained absence', was associated with chronic deterioration in health, often complex and multidimensional in nature. These three patterns offer an insight into how well individuals are coping with their underlying health condition. Narrative analysis tools could be developed to help identify those patients who would: (1) respond favourably to 'return to work' interventions; or (2) benefit from additional health service support.

  11. A qualitative chemometric study of resin composite polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferraz Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An experiment was carried out to assess the effect produced by different polymerization techniques on resin composite color after it has been immersed in coffee. Methods: Samples were manufactured using TPH Spectrum composite. It was polymerized for 10 or 40 seconds, with the light tip at one or zero millimeters from the resin surface, and afterwards the samples were immersed in coffee for 24 hours or 7 days. Ten different evaluators classified the samples according to their degree of staining. Results: The samples that were polymerized for 10 seconds were more susceptible to staining than the ones polymerized by 40 seconds. Samples immersed in coffee for 7 days were more susceptible to staining than the ones immersed for 24 hours. Conclusion: The variables polymerization time and immersion time were determinant in the staining susceptibility of the studied composite by coffee. However, there was no significant difference, irrespective of whether the resin was polymerized 10 or zero millimeters away from the resin surface.

  12. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A qualitative study

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    Tanja Thomsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods: Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results: SB appeared in three categories covering: 1 A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2 Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3 It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions: SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns.

  13. Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J

    Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students.

  14. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  15. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production....... Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘bǐ - 比’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production...

  16. Qualitative Assessment of User Acceptance within Action Design Research and Action Research: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Loza-Aguirre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several models to evaluate technological acceptance of software developed through Action Design Research and Action Research. These models rely on quantitative techniques to study user behavioural intentions and thus predict the use of a technology. This paper presents our experiences in using qualitative methods to assess such acceptance in the development of specialized tools for Strategic Scanning. Our study suggests that qualitative methods can be an alternative to evaluate technology acceptance in situations where the number of users is small or where there are requirements for continuous improvement.

  17. Life Experiences of Abused Elderly in Geriatric Care in Iasi, Romania. A Qualitative Study

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    Aliona DRONIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study focused on the life experiences of abused elderly in geriatric care in a Iasi hospital, in Romania. A total of 13 (9 women and 4 men patients were involved in a complimentary, multidisciplinary psycho-social service after been screened for abuse using EASI © (Yaffe et al., 2008. Through thematic network analysis, the texts from the interviews revealed three global themes: 1 the abuse undermines the dignity, 2 the need to find meaning to the lived experience and, 3 the strategies of maintaining dignity. This is the first qualitative study of hospitalized elderly having an experience of abuse in Romania.

  18. Perspectives on Promoting Hospital Primary Vaginal Birth: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly P; Doig, Eleanor; Tillman, Stephanie; Strauss, Amanda; Williams, Beth; Pettker, Christian; Illuzzi, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    One in three women will deliver by cesarean, a procedure that can be life saving, but which also carries short- and long-term risks. There is growing interest in preventing primary cesarean deliveries, while optimizing the health of the mother and infant. The primary aim of this study was to use participatory action strategies and ethnographic interview data collected from diverse stakeholders in birth (caregivers, women, policymakers) about facilitators and barriers to the achievement of primary vaginal birth in first-time mothers in hospital settings. The secondary aim was to use the findings to identify strategies to promote primary vaginal birth and future areas of research. Individual and small group interviews were conducted with caregivers and policymakers (N = 79) and first-time mothers (N = 24) at a northeastern hospital. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Four broad themes were identified: 1) preparation for childbirth, 2) early labor management, 3) caregiver knowledge and practice style, and 4) birth environment (physical, cultural/emotional). The first two were closely linked from caregivers' perspectives. If the woman was not prepared for childbirth, it was perceived she would be more likely to present to the hospital in early labor. Once there, it was hard to prevent admission and interventions. A woman's knowledge and confidence were perceived as powerful mediators for vaginal birth. Caregivers and first-time mothers identified early labor management and childbirth preparation as important factors to promote primary vaginal birth in hospital settings. Both deserve further inquiry as potential strategies to decrease rising cesarean delivery rates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. ONCOLOGISTS' BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS FOR ONCOTYPE DX USE: QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan C; Bryson, Amy; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Dinan, Michaela A; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2016-01-01

    Oncotype DX (ODX), a tumor gene profiling test, has been incorporated into clinical guidelines to aid in adjuvant chemotherapy decision making for early-stage, hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients. Despite United States (U.S.) guidelines, less than half of eligible women receive testing. Reasons for low usage are unclear: Our objective was to better understand U.S. oncologists' ODX uptake and how they use ODX during adjuvant chemotherapy decision making. We conducted semi-structured, ~30-minute phone interviews with medical and surgical oncologists in one U.S. State using purposive sampling. Oncologists were included if they saw greater than or equal to five breast cancer patients per week. Recruitment ended upon thematic saturation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and double-coded using template analysis. During analysis, themes emerged across three domains. First, organizational factors (i.e., departmental structure, ODX marketing, and medical/insurance guidelines) influenced ease of ODX use. Second, oncologists referenced the influence of interpersonal factors (e.g., normative beliefs and peer use of ODX) over their own practices and recommendations. Third, intrapersonal factors (e.g., oncologist attitudes, perceived barriers, and research gaps) were discussed: although oncologists largely held positive attitudes about ODX, they reported challenges with interpreting intermediate scores for treatment decisions and explaining test results to patients. Finally, oncologists identified several research gaps. As more tumor gene profiling tests are incorporated into cancer care for treatment decision making, it is important to understand their use in clinical practice. This study identified multi-level factors that influence ODX uptake into clinical practice, providing insights into facilitators and modifiable barriers that can be leveraged for improving ODX uptake to aid treatment decision making.

  20. Reasons for discharges against medical advice: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Saunders, Elijah; Mullins, C. Daniel; Pradel, Françoise G.; Zuckerman, Marni; Weir, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited information in the literature about reasons for discharges against medical advice (DAMA) as supplied by patients and providers. Information about the reasons for DAMA is necessary for identifying workable strategies to reduce the likelihood and health consequences of DAMA. The objective of this study is to identify the reasons for DAMA based on patient and multi-category provider focus group interviews (FGIs). Methods Patients who discharged against medical advice between 2006 and 2008 from a large, academic medical center along with hospital providers reporting contact with patients who left against medical advice were recruited. Three patient-only groups, one physician-only group, and one nurse/social worker group were held. Focus group interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed to identify themes within and across groups. Participants discussed the reasons for patient DAMA and identified potential solutions. Results Eighteen patients, 5 physicians, 6 nurses and 4 social workers participated in the FGIs. Seven themes emerged across the separate patient, doctor, nurse/social worker group FGIs of reasons why patients leave against medical advice: 1) drug addiction, 2) pain management, 3) external obligations, 4) wait time, 5) doctor’s bedside manner, 6) teaching hospital setting, and 7) communication. Solutions to tackle DAMA identified by participants revolve mainly around enhanced communication and provider education. Conclusions In a large, academic medical center we find some differences and many similarities across patients and providers in identifying the causes of and solutions to DAMA, many of which relate to communication. PMID:20538627