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Sample records for qualitative study comparing

  1. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Suryani, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality....

  2. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Suryani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality.

  3. Mental health recovery on care farms and day centres: a qualitative comparative study of users' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iancu, Sorana C.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Bunders, Joske F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health services increasingly incorporate the vision of recovery. This qualitative study analysed and compared experiences of recovery on prevocational services, in order to assess if users make progress towards recovery, relative to a staged recovery model. Data were collected through

  4. Mental health recovery on care farms and day centres: a qualitative comparative study of users perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iancu, S.C.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Veltman, D.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mental health services increasingly incorporate the vision of recovery. This qualitative study analysed and compared experiences of recovery on prevocational services, in order to assess if users make progress towards recovery, relative to a staged recovery model. Method: Data were

  5. Flexibility and working conditions : a qualitive and comparative study in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Nanteuil, M. de

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of profound transformations in work and employment, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has undertaken a qualitative and comparative study concerning the impact of flexibility on working conditions in the European Union. Complementing other

  6. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  7. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  8. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  9. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  10. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...

  11. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  12. Patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a qualitative comparative study between Norway and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-06-20

    In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of the healthcare system, such as gatekeeping, do not explain the magnitude of the differences. Our hypothesis is that patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation play a major role in explaining different healthcare utilisation behaviour in different countries. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore these subjective concepts comparatively, between Germany and Norway. With that aim in mind, we chose a comparative qualitative study design. In Norway and Germany, we are going to interview 20 patients each with qualitative episodic interviews. In addition, we are going to conduct participant observation in four German and four Norwegian primary care practices. The data will be analysed by thematic coding. Using selected categories, we are going to conduct comparative case and group analyses. The study adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. All interviewees will sign informed consent forms and all patients will be observed during consultation. Strict rules for data security will apply. Developed theory and policy implications are going to be disseminated by a workshop, presentations for experts and laypersons and publications.

  13. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs with married community members were carried out. Community Health Officers, Community Health Volunteers, and Health Care Managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

  14. Mental health recovery on care farms and day centres: a qualitative comparative study of users' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2014-01-01

    Mental health services increasingly incorporate the vision of recovery. This qualitative study analysed and compared experiences of recovery on prevocational services, in order to assess if users make progress towards recovery, relative to a staged recovery model. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with participants on care farms (n = 14), work (n = 7) and creative projects (n = 5). The transition from past to current lives was described as a progressive, non-linear process, with different stages guided by different goals. Participants on creative projects lacked clear goals, presented less interest in peers and high need for emotional support. Participants on work projects aimed for occupational rehabilitation, but struggled with the patient culture of the peer community. Participants on care farms aimed for daytime occupations and closer contact with society. They experienced care farms as open, real-life work settings where they could exercise responsibility and connect with people. Participants progressed towards recovery, as care farms, work- and creative projects empowered them to leave behind inactive, isolated or disorganized living. In day centres, users focused on self-reflection and personal development (creative projects) or on occupational performance (work projects), whereas on care farms, users fulfilled worker roles in a real-life, open community environment. Organized as open communities in real-life settings, care farms facilitate the reflection on personal and social responsibility, and therefore have the potential to help users internalize worker identities and improve their motivation to progress towards recovery. Supervisors on care farms are regarded by users as close contacts within the social networks they develop on the service, a position that allows supervisors to actively engage and promote users' progress towards recovery. Elements of the farm environment (such as the "normal life", presence of family

  15. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delnoij Diana MJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20 were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes from consumers' thoughts and evaluations. These themes were categorized under four important areas of interest: (1 a response to the design; (2 a response to the information content; (3 the use of the information, and (4 the purpose of the information. Conclusion Several barriers to an effective use of comparative healthcare information were identified, such as too much information and the ambiguity of terms presented on websites. Particularly important for future research is the question of how comparative healthcare information can be integrated with alternative information, such as patient reviews on the Internet. Furthermore, the readability of quality of care concepts is an issue that needs further attention, both from websites and communication experts.

  16. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers.

  17. Discovering successful strategies for diabetic self-management: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta; Nash, Anita; Perez, Noe

    2017-01-01

    This project explored lifestyles of patients in good and poor control to identify naturally occurring practices and strategies that result in successful diabetes management. Semistructured interviews with adult patients with type 2 diabetes explored diet, food preparation, physical activity, medication use and glucose monitoring. Patients (n=56) were classified into good (A1C 8.0%) control groups and matched across groups on diabetes duration (±5 years) and medication modality (none, oral, insulin±oral) to control for non-lifestyle factors. A qualitative comparative analysis identified practices that distinguished glycemic groups. Good control patients were more likely to test their glucose two or more times a day and reduce their sodium intake, as well as increase fruits and vegetables and limit portion sizes, some attaining good control without exercise. Fair control patients discussed several dietary strategies including limiting sweets, drinking non-caloric beverages, reducing carbs, 'cheating' (eating only a few sweets/limiting carbs in one meal to have more in another meal) and tested their glucose once a day. Poor control patients were more likely to skip antidiabetic medications and not test their glucose. Although clinical trials indicate most self-management practices have limited effectiveness over time, increased glucose monitoring is a valuable component in daily management. Research is needed on effectiveness of dietary strategies that emphasize sodium monitoring and allow some degree of cheating. Reoffering diabetes education classes and providing pill boxes as memory aids may help improve poor control.

  18. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....

  19. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...... between architect and general contractor for design-bid-build projects or senior project responsible involvement from the contractors side in design-build projects. The analysis illustrates how QCA is a powerful strategy for exploring the complexity of project practices being able to bridge the divide...

  20. An intervention to improve interprofessional collaboration and communications: a comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathleen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Russell, Ann; Reeves, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Interprofessional communication and collaboration are promoted by policymakers as fundamental building blocks for improving patient safety and meeting the demands of increasingly complex care. This paper reports qualitative findings of an interprofessional intervention designed to improve communication and collaboration between different professions in general internal medicine (GIM) hospital wards in Canada. The intervention promoted self-introduction by role and profession to a collaborating colleague in relation to the shared patient, a question or communication regarding the patient, to be followed by an explicit request for feedback from the partner professional. Implementation and uptake of the intervention were evaluated using qualitative methods, including 90 hours of ethnographic observations and interviews collected in both intervention and comparison wards. Documentary data were also collected and analysed. Fieldnotes and interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Our findings suggested that the intervention did not produce the anticipated changes in communication and collaboration between health professionals, and allowed us to identify barriers to the implementation of effective collaboration interventions. Despite initially offering verbal support, senior physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals minimally explained the intervention to their junior colleagues and rarely role-modelled or reiterated support for it. Professional resistances as well as the fast paced, interruptive environment reduced opportunities or incentive to enhance restrictive interprofessional relationships. In a healthcare setting where face-to-face spontaneous interprofessional communication is not hostile but is rare and impersonal, the perceived benefits of improvement are insufficient to implement simple and potentially beneficial communication changes, in the face of habit, and absence of continued senior clinician and management support.

  1. Why Returning to VET? Results of a Qualitative Comparative Study about English and German Car Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Educational choices, especially the influence of class on these choices have been a subject of lively international debate. However, thus far, there has been little international and comparative research with respect to vocational and education training (VET) decision making from a subject-oriented perspective. This paper considers…

  2. Exploring human papillomavirus vaccination refusal among ethnic minorities in England: A comparative qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Alice S.; Rockliffe, Lauren; Marlow, Laura A.V.; Bedford, Helen; McBride, Emily; Waller, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives In England, uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent HPV‐related cancer is lower among girls from ethnic minority backgrounds. We aimed to explore the factors that prevented ethnic minority parents from vaccinating, compared to White British nonvaccinating parents and vaccinating ethnic minority parents. Methods Interviews with 33 parents (n = 14 ethnic minority non‐vaccinating, n = 10 White British nonvaccinating, and n = 9 ethnic minority vaccinating) ...

  3. Exploring human papillomavirus vaccination refusal among ethnic minorities in England: A comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Rockliffe, Lauren; Marlow, Laura A V; Bedford, Helen; McBride, Emily; Waller, Jo

    2017-09-01

    In England, uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent HPV-related cancer is lower among girls from ethnic minority backgrounds. We aimed to explore the factors that prevented ethnic minority parents from vaccinating, compared to White British nonvaccinating parents and vaccinating ethnic minority parents. Interviews with 33 parents (n = 14 ethnic minority non-vaccinating, n = 10 White British nonvaccinating, and n = 9 ethnic minority vaccinating) explored parents' reasons for giving or withholding consent for HPV vaccination. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Concerns about the vaccine were raised by all nonvaccinating ethnic minority parents, and they wanted information to address these concerns. External and internal influences affected parents' decisions, as well as parents' perceptions that HPV could be prevented using means other than vaccination. Reasons were not always exclusive to nonvaccinating ethnic minority parents, although some were, including a preference for abstinence from sex before marriage. Only ethnic minority parents wanted information provided via workshops. Ethnic differences in HPV vaccination uptake may be partly explained by concerns that were only reported by parents from some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve uptake may need to tackle difficult topics like abstinence from sex before marriage, and use a targeted format. © 2017 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparative Study of Clinical Staging of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers Under Polarized Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Neha; Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a condition where excessive deposition of dense collagen fibers occurred in the connective tissue of oral mucosa. An alteration of collagen necessitates an in depth understanding of collagen in oral tissues as no breakthrough studies have been reported. T herefore the aim was to correlate the clinical, functional and histopathological staging and to analyze the polarization colors and thickness of the collagen fibers in different stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain under polarizing microscopy so as to assess the severity of disease. The study was conducted in the department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology at Padm. Dr. D. Y Patil Dental and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India (2012-13). A sample size was of a total 40 subjects, of which 30 patients had OSMF, and 10 were in control group. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging were done depending upon definite criteria. Collagen fibers were analyzed for polarizing colors and thickness. Further clinical, functional and histopathological stages as well as qualitative parameters of collagen fibers were compared. The correlation between clinical and functional staging was not significant ( P >0.05) whereas the comparison of the functional staging with histopathological staging was more reliable ( P qualitative change in the collagen fibers of OSMF patients using polarized microscopy would help to assess its role in diagnostic evaluation, to determine the prognosis of the disease as well as to provide useful predictive treatment modalities to them.

  5. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  6. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  7. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out in Adami Tulu District of East Shoa Zone – the ... to enhance teaching learning at CBE sites and facilitate ..... on good nutrition”. ... not observing any misbehavior: “The behavior of the.

  8. Addressing the challenges in using qualitative data in qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Block, Debora; Vis, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that so far has received relatively little attention in methodological discussions about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), namely the challenges researchers face when using qualitative data in QCA analyses. Building on a literature review of 22 empirical studies

  9. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Key Informant Interviews in Health Services Research: Enhancing a Study of Adjuvant Therapy Use in Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel; Moss, Alexandra D; Bickell, Nina A

    2016-04-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a methodology created to address causal complexity in social sciences research by preserving the objectivity of quantitative data analysis without losing detail inherent in qualitative research. However, its use in health services research (HSR) is limited, and questions remain about its application in this context. To explore the strengths and weaknesses of using QCA for HSR. Using data from semistructured interviews conducted as part of a multiple case study about adjuvant treatment underuse among underserved breast cancer patients, findings were compared using qualitative approaches with and without QCA to identify strengths, challenges, and opportunities presented by QCA. Ninety administrative and clinical key informants interviewed across 10 NYC area safety net hospitals. Transcribed interviews were coded by 3 investigators using an iterative and interactive approach. Codes were calibrated for QCA, as well as examined using qualitative analysis without QCA. Relative to traditional qualitative analysis, QCA strengths include: (1) addressing causal complexity, (2) results presentation as pathways as opposed to a list, (3) identification of necessary conditions, (4) the option of fuzzy-set calibrations, and (5) QCA-specific parameters of fit that allow researchers to compare outcome pathways. Weaknesses include: (1) few guidelines and examples exist for calibrating interview data, (2) not designed to create predictive models, and (3) unidirectionality. Through its presentation of results as pathways, QCA can highlight factors most important for production of an outcome. This strength can yield unique benefits for HSR not available through other methods.

  10. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Menaca, A.; Pell, C.; Manda-Taylor, L.; Chatio, S.; Afrah, N.A.; Were, F.; Hodgson, A.; Ouma, P.; Kalilani, L.; Tagbor, H.; Pool, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. Methods: A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Gha...

  11. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) of Key Informant Interviews in Health Services Research: Enhancing a Study of Adjuvant Therapy Use in Breast Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel; Moss, Alexandra DeNardis; Bickell, Nina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a methodology created to address causal complexity in social sciences research by preserving the objectivity of quantitative data analysis without losing detail inherent in qualitative research. However, its use in health services research (HSR) is limited, and questions remain about its application in this context. Objective To explore the strengths and weaknesses of using QCA for HSR. Research Design Using data from semi-structured interviews conducted as part of a multiple case study about adjuvant treatment underuse among underserved breast cancer patients, findings were compared using qualitative approaches with and without QCA to identify strengths, challenges, and opportunities presented by QCA. Subjects Ninety administrative and clinical key informants interviewed across ten NYC area safety net hospitals. Measures Transcribed interviews were coded by three investigators using an iterative and interactive approach. Codes were calibrated for QCA, as well as examined using qualitative analysis without QCA. Results Relative to traditional qualitative analysis, QCA strengths include: (1) addressing causal complexity, (2) results presentation as pathways as opposed to a list, (3) identification of necessary conditions, (4) the option of fuzzy-set calibrations, and (5) QCA-specific parameters of fit that allow researchers to compare outcome pathways. Weaknesses include: (1) few guidelines and examples exist for calibrating interview data, (2) not designed to create predictive models, and (3) unidirectionality. Conclusions Through its presentation of results as pathways, QCA can highlight factors most important for production of an outcome. This strength can yield unique benefits for HSR not available through other methods. PMID:26908085

  12. Survivorship care and support following treatment for breast cancer: a multi-ethnic comparative qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Charlotte; Scanlon, Karen; Scott, Emma; Ream, Emma; Harding, Seeromanie; Armes, Jo

    2016-08-18

    As the number of breast cancer survivors continues to rise, Western populations become more ethnically and socially diverse and healthcare resources become ever-more stretched, follow-up that focuses on monitoring for recurrence is no longer viable. New models of survivorship care need to ensure they support self-management and are culturally appropriate across diverse populations. This study explored experiences and expectations of a multi-ethnic sample of women with breast cancer regarding post-treatment care, in order to understand potential barriers to receiving care and inform new models of survivorship care. A phenomenological qualitative research design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with women from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds in England, who completed treatment for breast cancer in the 12 months prior to the study. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Sixty-six women participated and reported expectations and needs were unmet at follow-up. Whilst there were more commonalities in experiences, discernible differences, particularly by ethnicity and age, were identified relating to three key themes: emotional responses on transition to follow-up; challenges communicating with healthcare professionals at follow-up; and challenges finding and accessing information and support services to address unmet needs. There are cultural differences in the way healthcare professionals and women communicate, not necessarily differences in their post-treatment needs. We do not know if new models of care meet survivors' needs, or if they are appropriate for everyone. Further testing and potential cultural and linguistic adaptation of models of care is necessary to ensure their appropriateness and acceptability to survivors from different backgrounds. New ways of providing survivorship care mean survivors will need to be better prepared for the post-treatment period and the role they will have to play in managing their symptoms and care.

  13. Bridging the Qualitative and Quantitative Divide in Comparative Migration Studies : Newspaper Data and Political Ethnography in Mixed Method Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newspaper data are popular in Comparative Migration Studies as they allow diachronic and cross-national comparison and are relatively easy and inexpensive to acquire. Critics, however, warn that newspaper data are hampered by selection, description and researcher bias. This article argues that

  14. A qualitative study of patient experiences of Type 2 Diabetes care delivered comparatively by General Practice Nurses and Medical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eileen; Saunders, Rosemary; Drury, Vicki

    2016-07-01

    To explore patient experiences of type 2 diabetes mellitus care delivered by general practice nurses in collaboration with the general practitioner. Australian general practice nurses are expanding their role in multidisciplinary type 2 diabetes care with limited research on patient perceptions of care provision within this collaborative model. Qualitative interpretive. Purposeful sampling was used to invite the patients (n = 10). Data were collected from semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Braun and Clarke's () inductive coding thematic analysis process was used to interpret the data. All participants experienced their General Practice Nurse consultation as a clinical assessment for their General Practitioner. While they appreciated the extra time with the General Practice Nurse, they were unsure of the purpose of the consultation beyond clinical assessment. They described the ongoing challenge of living with T2DM and identified a need for additional information and advice. The results suggest that the model of general practice nurse type 2 diabetes care has an important role to play in the delivery of effective ongoing care of patients. However, this role requires further development to ensure that it is understood by the patients as a role that not only conducts clinical assessments but also provides relevant education and self-management support as part of a collaborative approach to care delivery with General Practitioners. The findings are relevant to primary health care clinicians providing diabetes care to inform more relevant supportive care by general practice nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microprocessor-controlled vs. "dump-freezing" platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation: A quantitative and qualitative comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thermodynamical and cryobiological parameters responsible for cell damages during cryopreservation (cryoinjuries have not yet been completely explained. Thus, freezing procedures should be revised, exactly optimized to obtain an enhanced structural and functional recovery of frozen- thawed cells. The aim of this study was to compare microprocessor- controlled (controlled-rate with the compensation of the released fusion heat and “dump-freezing” (uncontrolled- rate of the platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation efficacy. Methods. Platelet quantitative recovery (post-thaw vs. unfrozen cell count, viability (using hypotonic shock response - HSR, morphological score (PMS, ultrastructural (electron microscopy properties and expression of different surface antigens were investigated. In lymphocyte setting, cell recovery and viability (using trypan blue exclusion test as well as functionality (by plant mitogens were determined. Controlled- rate freezing and uncontrolled-rate cryopreservation were combined with 6% (platelets and 10% (lymphocytes dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Results. Platelet recovery and functionality were superior in the controlled-rate system. The majority of surface antigen expression was reduced in both freezing groups vs. unfrozen cells, but GP140/CD62p was significantly higher in controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate setting. Controlled- rate freezing resulted with better lymphocyte recovery and viability (trypan blue-negative cell percentage. In mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative response no significant intergroup difference (controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate were found. Conclusion. The data obtained in this study showned the dependence of cell response on the cryopreservation type. Controlled-rate freezing provided a superior platelet quantitative and functional recovery. Lymphocyte recovery and viability were better in the controlled-rate group, although only a minor intergroup difference for cell

  16. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Qualitative, Comparative Study of the Use of Electronic Information and Other Services at Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Crawford

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, (ULB Münster, has a substantial background of research and publication in performance measurement and evaluation of library and information services (Poll and te Boekhorst and has conducted and published internal studies of various aspects of its services.(Obst 1995; Buch 1996. My contact with the Library goes back to late 1996 when I spent two weeks at ULB on a British Council exchange scheme with North Rhine Westphalia which gave me some understanding of how the Library operates and some knowledge of the technical vocabulary of German academic librarianship. In 1998 I directed a qualitative study of the use being made of Glasgow Caledonian University Library’s recently opened Electronic Information Floor (Crawford 1999. A literature review undertaken prior to the study showed that surprisingly little research had been done in this area and that one of the earliest studies was that undertaken by Dr Oliver Obst at Münster (1995. Coincidentally ULB is a partner in the EQUINOX Project, led by CERLIM, which aims to develop a set of standardised performance measures for the electronic library and was interested in collecting some qualitative data as a background to the Project. After email discussions with ULB it was decided that I should visit the Library again to undertake a qualitative study of the use of electronic information services there which would act both as a comparative study with Glasgow Caledonian University and a background study to the much larger, CERLIM led, EQUINOX Project.

  18. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  19. ' Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine : A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Dornan, Tim

    Purpose Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. Method In fall 2014, the authors

  20. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds- a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown. ...

  1. Experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain in the ED or acute surgical ward --a qualitative comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Danish health care system is currently establishing emergency departments (EDs) with an observation unit nationwide. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with acute abdominal pain and their experiences upon arrival and stay in an acute surgical ward (ASW) versus an ED with an obse......The Danish health care system is currently establishing emergency departments (EDs) with an observation unit nationwide. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with acute abdominal pain and their experiences upon arrival and stay in an acute surgical ward (ASW) versus an ED...... was that the ED included a multidisciplinary team with nurses, who mainly had interactions with the patients before surgical assessment. In all, it resulted in fragmentation of care and a patient experience of repetition. In ASW, focus was on assessment by a senior physician, only, and the nurses' interaction...... with the patients took place after surgical assessment. In all, patients experienced long waiting times. The study shows a need to define the roles of the professionals in units receiving patients with acute abdominal pain in order to fulfil the medical as well as the experienced needs of the acute patient....

  2. Addressing the Challenges Related to Transforming Qualitative Into Quantitative Data in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, de Debora; Vis, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The use of qualitative data has so far received relatively little attention in methodological discussions on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This article addresses this lacuna by discussing the challenges researchers face when transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in QCA. By

  3. Cultural differences in clinical leadership: a qualitative study comparing the attitudes of general dental practitioners from Greater Manchester and Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, P; Nomura, M; Ozaki, T; Ferguson, J; Matsuda, R

    2013-11-01

    Leadership has been argued to be a key component in the transformation of services in the United Kingdom and in Japan. In the UK, local professional networks have developed to provide clinician led care in dentistry; working to develop local plans to deliver improvements in the quality of care for patients. In Japan, the remuneration model for dental care has been revised with the aim to improve the service and tackle the current challenges of population health there. The aim of this study was to use semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis to explore general dental practitioners' (GDPs) understanding of the term 'leadership' and determine whether its meaning is culturally bound. Twelve participants were sampled purposively by the research team; identifying GDPs involved in leadership roles from across Greater Manchester and Tokyo. A set of open-ended questions was developed for semi-structured interviews a priori and the interviews continued until saturation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and codes were developed into a coding frame for thematic analysis. Representative quotations are provided in the results. Fourteen codes were identified according to the aims of the study and organised into five overarching themes. 'Leadership as the relationship' was more pronounced among Japanese GDPs, while 'leadership as the individual' was common in GDPs from Greater Manchester. Differences were also found in respect of education and training in leadership. Training was also considered to be important by the GDPs from Japan, while UK GDPs felt leaders were more likely to be influenced by innate qualities. The interdependence of leadership and entrepreneurship was raised by both sets of GDPs. The concept of leadership was considered to be important by GDPs from both Greater Manchester and Tokyo; leadership was seen as providing strategy and direction for a clinical team. However, cultural influences were evident in how this was conceptualised.

  4. Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries, Joy; Fu-Chang Tsai, Daniel; Dornan, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. In fall 2014, the authors purposively sampled 22 clinical students from Taiwan and the Netherlands and asked them to keep audio diaries, narrating emotional experiences during clerkships using three prompts: What happened? What did you feel/think/do? How does this interplay with your development as a doctor? Dutch audio diaries were supplemented with follow-up interviews. The authors analyzed participants' narratives using a critical discourse analysis informed by Figured Worlds theory and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism, according to which people's spoken words create identities in imagined future worlds. Participants talked vividly, but differently, about their experiences. Dutch participants' emotions related to individual achievement and competence. Taiwanese participants' rich, emotional language reflected on becoming both a good person and a good doctor. These discourses constructed doctors' and patients' autonomy in culturally specific ways. The Dutch construct centered on "hands-on" participation, which developed the identity of a technically skilled doctor, but did not address patients' self-determination. The Taiwanese construct located physicians' autonomy within moral values more than practical proficiency, and gave patients agency to influence doctor-patient relationships. Participants' cultural constructs of physician and patient autonomy led them to construct different professional identities within different imagined worlds. The contrasting discourses show how medical students learn about different meanings of becoming doctors in culturally specific contexts.

  5. Facilitating central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention: a qualitative study comparing perspectives of infection control professionals and frontline staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Infection control professionals (ICPs) play a critical role in implementing and managing healthcare-associated infection reduction interventions, whereas frontline staff are responsible for delivering direct and ongoing patient care. The objective of our study was to determine if ICPs and frontline staff have different perspectives about the facilitators and challenges of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention program success. We conducted key informant interviews at 8 hospitals that participated in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality CLABSI prevention initiative called "On the CUSP: Stop BSI." We analyzed interview data from 50 frontline nurses and 26 ICPs to identify common themes related to program facilitators and challenges. We identified 4 facilitators of CLABSI program success: education, leadership, data, and consistency. We also identified 3 common challenges: lack of resources, competing priorities, and physician resistance. However, the perspective of ICPs and frontline nurses differed. Whereas ICPs tended to focus on general descriptions, frontline staff noted program specifics and often discussed concrete examples. Our results suggest that ICPs need to take into account the perspectives of staff nurses when implementing infection control and broader quality improvement initiatives. Further, the deliberate inclusion of frontline staff in the implementation of these programs may be critical to program success. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen interviews with doctors working at different public and private hospitals in. Islamabad and ... problems due to polypharmacy, overuse of antibiotics ... Study design. A qualitative ..... drug selection, procurement and dispensing he is the ...

  7. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  8. a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    what I have already read). • I wake up at night when everyone is asleep and read my books precisely around 4am and stop by 6am to carry out my house chores. I spend every two hours at night to study my books . If I read in a noisy environment, I hardly understand, so I try to avoid such places . • A night to my examination, ...

  9. Exploring and comparing the experience and coping behaviour of men and women with colorectal cancer after chemotherapy treatment: a qualitative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Prue, Gillian; Parahoo, Kader; McIlfatrick, Sonja; McKenna, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher incidence and mortality rates for nearly all cancers. They are less likely than women to utilise cancer information services and other social support services. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experience and coping behaviour of men and women after treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted involving 38 individuals (24 men and 14 women) with CRC. Data were generated using semi-structured interviews at four time points over an 18-month period, post-diagnosis. Interviews focused on participant's experience of CRC and on how gender affected their coping. This paper reports the findings of interviews 3 and 4 which examined the participant's experience after chemotherapy. Three themes emerged from the interviews ('new normal', living with uncertainty and support needs). Many men and women reacted similarly; however, there was some variation evident between and within sexes. The main difference was with regard to the long-term physical side effects of the illness. Many women admitted to still experiencing side effects, whereas many men indicated that they had no problems. These men engaged in practices that aligned with their gender identity and view of masculinity. It must be noted that some men and women were still experiencing an impact. Recovery from the physical and psychological effects of CRC does not occur simultaneously. Healthcare professionals should be aware that not all men (or women) conform to the social stereotypes of masculinity (or femininity). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  11. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore medical practitioners' perceptions towards irrational malaria treatment practices in Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of medical practitioners regarding antimalarial prescribing practices in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and ...

  12. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaca, Arantza; Pell, Christopher; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Afrah, Nana A; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Ouma, Peter; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-07-22

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into account when designing and promoting Mi

  13. Comparing the meanings of living with advanced breast cancer between women resilient to distress and women with persistent distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W W T; Yoon, S W; Sze, W K; Ng, A W Y; Soong, I; Kwong, A; Suen, D; Tsang, J; Yeo, W; Wong, K Y; Fielding, R

    2017-02-01

    Most women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) show little distress, but about one in ten show persistent distress over time. It remains unclear if meanings ascribed by patients to ABC differentiate these distress trajectories. This qualitative study (a) compared illness meanings of ABC between women with persistent psychological distress and those with low/transient distress, and (b) examined how illness meanings might influence coping strategies. The sample was drawn from a prior quantitative study exploring psychological distress trajectories following ABC diagnosis. Overall, 42 Cantonese- or Mandarin-speaking Chinese women diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ABC were recruited based on their distress trajectory status (low-stable, transient, or persistent distress). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed following grounded theory approach using simultaneous analysis. Women with persistent distress viewed their diagnosis as another blow in life, the illness was global, permeating every aspect of their life. Maladaptive rumination and thought suppression were common responses to illness demands. These women had poor social support. A sense of demoralization stood out in their narratives. In contrast, women with transient/low-stable distress encapsulated the illness, with minimum impacts of their life. They did not evidence dysfunctional repetitive thoughts. Living in a supportive environment, they were able to accept and/or live in the present-moment. Rumination, thought suppression, social constraints, and pre-existing exposure to life stress may be potential risks for chronic distress in response to advanced breast cancer. Persistent and transient distress responses to cancer may have different underpinnings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: qualitative comparative case study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Huby, Guro; Pinnock, Hilary; Gillies, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-06-04

    Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff's knowledge or increased clinical resource and time, which are

  15. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  16. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    care services. Visions of shared use of (electronic) data for administrative purposes, for research purposes and for performing daily health care services push the IT-development and challenges the understanding of what health care work actually is. The Achilles of ICT-mediated health care...... that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...

  17. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: Qualitative comparative case study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies John

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Methods Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. Results There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. Conclusion In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff

  18. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Christian M; Morlec, Julia; Tamblyn, Robyn M

    2012-02-29

    Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a) perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b) preferred approach to hypertension management and, c) perceptions about hypertension guidelines. Specifically, physicians had

  19. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochefort Christian M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b preferred approach to hypertension management and, c perceptions about

  20. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  1. How do the EMA and FDA decide which anticancer drugs make it to the market? A comparative qualitative study on decision makers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, G; Stolk, P; Trotta, F; Putzeist, M; Leufkens, H G; Laing, R O; De Allegri, M

    2014-01-01

    The process leading to a regulatory outcome is guided by factors both related and unrelated to the data package, defined in this analysis as 'formal and informal factors', respectively. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse which formal and informal factors drive the decision-making process of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulators with regard to anticancer drugs, using in-depth semi-structured interviews with regulators of the two agencies. In line with the theory and practice of qualitative research, no set sample size was defined a priori. Respondent enrolment continued until saturation and redundancy were reached. Data were collected through means of in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted either in a face-to-face setting or via Skype(®) with each regulator. The interviews were audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed. The analysis was manually carried out on the transcribed text. Data were independently coded and categorized by two researchers. Interpretation of the findings emerged through a process of triangulation between the two. Seven EMA and six FDA regulators, who had extensive experience with making decisions about anticancer medicines, were interviewed between April and June 2012. There is an open dialogue between the FDA and EMA, with the two moving closer and exchanging information, not opinions. Differences in decision-making between the agencies may be due to a different evaluation of end points. Different interaction modalities with industry and patients represent an additional source of divergence with a potential impact on decision-making. The key message of our respondents was that the agencies manage uncertainty in a different way: unlike the EMA, the FDA has a prevailing attitude to take risks in order to guarantee quicker access to new treatments. Although formal factors are the main drivers for regulatory decisions, the influence of informal factors plays an important role in

  2. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  3. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  4. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  5. What adaptation to research is needed following crises: a comparative, qualitative study of the health workforce in Sierra Leone and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Baral, Sushil; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie; Samai, Mohamed; Paudel, Pravin; Subedi, Hom Nath; Martineau, Tim; Elsey, Helen; Theobald, Sally

    2018-02-07

    Health workers are critical to the performance of health systems; yet, evidence about their coping strategies and support needs during and post crisis is lacking. There is very limited discussion about how research teams should respond when unexpected crises occur during on-going research. This paper critically presents the approaches and findings of two health systems research projects that explored and evaluated health worker performance and were adapted during crises, and provides lessons learnt on re-orientating research when the unexpected occurs. Health systems research was adapted post crisis to assess health workers' experiences and coping strategies. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health workers in a heavily affected earthquake district in Nepal and 25 frontline health workers in four districts in Ebola-affected Sierra Leone. All data were transcribed and analysed using the framework approach, which included developing coding frameworks for each study, applying the frameworks, developing charts and describing the themes. A second layer of analysis included analysis across the two contexts, whereas a third layer involved the research teams reflecting on the approaches used to adapt the research during these crises and what was learned as individuals and research teams. In Sierra Leone, health workers were heavily stigmatised by the epidemic, leading to a breakdown of trust. Coping strategies included finding renewed purpose in continuing to serve their community, peer and family support (in some cases), and religion. In Nepal, individual determination, a sense of responsibility to the community and professional duty compelled staff to stay or return to their workplace. The research teams had trusting relationships with policy-makers and practitioners, which brought credibility and legitimacy to the change of research direction as well as the relationships to maximise the opportunity for findings to inform practice. In both contexts

  6. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  7. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...

  8. Qualitative analysis in reliability and safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Burdick, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative evaluation of system logic models is described as it pertains to assessing the reliability and safety characteristics of nuclear systems. Qualitative analysis of system logic models, i.e., models couched in an event (Boolean) algebra, is defined, and the advantages inherent in qualitative analysis are explained. Certain qualitative procedures that were developed as a part of fault-tree analysis are presented for illustration. Five fault-tree analysis computer-programs that contain a qualitative procedure for determining minimal cut sets are surveyed. For each program the minimal cut-set algorithm and limitations on its use are described. The recently developed common-cause analysis for studying the effect of common-causes of failure on system behavior is explained. This qualitative procedure does not require altering the fault tree, but does use minimal cut sets from the fault tree as part of its input. The method is applied using two different computer programs. 25 refs

  9. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  10. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  11. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Background The current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums. Aims To explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities. Method A two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar. Results Themes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness. Conclusions These results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  12. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  13. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Explore Outcome Patterns of Grant Support to Farmer Organisations in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.

    2015-01-01

    We used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to study the combinations of factors that are consistently related to success or failure of grants given to farmer groups. Using data from a sample of 26 grant beneficiaries, we explored whether baseline characteristics of the organisations related to

  14. Comparative study of the oxidation of various qualities of uranium in carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Etude comparative de l'oxydation de diverses qualites d'uranium dans l'anhydride carbonique aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrues, R; Paidassi, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Uranium samples of six different qualities were subjected, in the temperature range 400 - 1000 C, to the action of carbon dioxide carefully purified to eliminate oxygen and water vapour; the resulting oxidation was followed micro-graphically and also (but only in the range 400 - 700 C) gravimetrically using an Ugine-Eyraud microbalance. A comparison of the results leads to the following 3 observations. First, the oxidation of the six uraniums studied obeys a linear law, (followed at 700 C by an accelerating law). The rates of reaction differ by a maximum of 100 per cent, the higher purity grades being oxidized more slowly except at 700 C when the reverse is true. Secondly, simultaneously with the growth, of an approximately uniform film of uranium dioxide on the metal, there occurs a localized attack in the form of blisters in the immediate neighbourhood of the monocarbide inclusions in the uranium. The relative importance of this attack is greater for lower oxidation temperatures and for a larger size, number and inequality of distribution of the inclusions, that is to say for higher carbon concentrations in the uranium (which have values from 7 to 1000 ppm in our tests). Thirdly, for oxidation temperatures above 600 C blistering is much less pronounced, but at 700 C the beginning of a general deformation of the sample occurs, which, above 750 C, becomes much greater; this leads to an acceleration of the reaction rate with respect to the linear law. In view of the over-heating, the sample must already be in the {gamma}-phase which is particularly easily deformed; furthermore this expansion phenomenon is more pronounced when the sample is more plastic and therefore purer. (authors) [French] Des echantillons de six qualites d'uranium ont ete soumis, dans l'intervalle 400-1000 C, a l'action de l'anhydride carbonique tres soigneusement purifie en oxygene et en vapeur d'eau, et leur oxydation a ete suivie par voie micrographique et egalement (mais seulement entre 400

  15. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    . A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...... years, range 47-92) consented to participate and completed the 4-week study. The majority were women (88%) with breast cancer (79%). No statistically significant differences were found between the type and number of different wound pathogens in the wounds during the course of the study or between Group...... were identified. Sixty-one percent (61%) of wounds decreased in size following treatment, but no significant differences were observed between the type and variety of wound pathogens and whether wound size decreased. Although quantitative bacteriological changes may have occurred, the possible...

  16. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    course (1948, the first, credit units, eligibility, number of year offer, type of graduation (from major to doctorate and professional. Concluding, the end of the sixties can be the mark of a well-established body of literature in comparative education and sports studies published in several scientific journals. What about the XXIst century? Is it still important to compare sports and education throughout the world? Only with qualitative methods? Mixed methods? We think so. That is why, after a certain decline and fuzzy goal definition in research motivations within ISCPES we decided to innovate and reorganize people from physical education and sports around this important theme of comparative studies. Important because we observe an increasing concern on the contradictions across different results in publications under the same subject. How can we infer? What about good research questions which get no statistically significant results? New times are coming, and we want to be on that frontline of this move as said by Elsevier “With RMR (results masked review articles, you don’t need to worry about what editors or reviewers might think about your results. As long as you have asked an important question and performed a rigorous study, your paper will be treated the same as any other. You do not need to have null results to submit an RMR article; there are many reasons why it can be helpful to have the results blinded at initial review”.https://www.elsevier.com/connect/reviewers-update/results-masked-review-peer-review-without-publication-bias. This is a very different and challenging time. Our future strategy will comprehend more cooperation between researchers, institutions and scientific societies as an instrument to leverage our understanding of physical activity and sports through different continents and countries and be useful for policy designs. Next 2018, on the occasion of the UE initiative Sofia – European Capital of Sport 2018 we - Bulgarian Comparative

  17. Qualitative criteria of urbanism and brands: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pompe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactivity, multidisciplinarity, synergy and interdependence are all concepts that are clearly intertwined with managing every responsible city and its leaders. Urbanism plays a significant role among the disciplines that affect the uniqueness and competitive position of a city. None of the cities that are successful in a competitive environment would be a noteworthy and powerful brand if they did not possess recognisable, singular and distinctive elements of urbanism that made them unique. This article proceeds from the hypothesis that urbanism with qualitative solutions helps shape a city’s brand and that the criteria that demonstrate this are in agreement with the qualitative criteria of a brand. In reviewing the scholarly literature on urbanism as brands and branding itself, it is shown that qualitative urbanism criteria show great similarity with qualitative brand criteria, and therefore have a decisive effect on a city brand and its placement in a competitive urban market. Qualitative urbanism and brand criteria are closely linked and tend to be cast in the same mould, although they differ in formulation and level of implementation. These acknowledged similarities represent a step forward in integral operation, management, communication and urban marketing. They also enable more or less unconnected areas of urbanism and marketing to connect. The positive consequences of understanding the connection of both fields will be long term and will build a recognisable, consistent and stakeholder friendly reputation for a city. These findings are a golden opportunity for urban management and confirm the need for a comprehensive approach to urban management.

  18. Economic Recession, Job Vulnerability, and Tourism Decision Making: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Papatheodorou, A.; Pappas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Occupational uncertainty has a considerable effect upon consumer decisions during a recession, especially with respect to discretionary products and services such as tourism. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), the study examines the complex relations among job vulnerability, disposable income for tourism, marketing activities, and price and quality issues for Greek holiday makers returning from their vacations. The article also compares QCA with the two dominant linear methods of a...

  19. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is often...

  20. A Qualitative Ethnographic Portrait of Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Julee L.

    2013-01-01

    In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…

  1. Boolean comparative analysis of qualitative data : a methodological note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Boolean logic in the analysis of qualitative data, especially on the basis of so-called process theories. Process theories treat independent variables as necessary conditions which are binary rather than variable in nature, while the dependent variable is a final

  2. The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Yamasaki, Sakura

    2009-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the data of a previous study on the policy impact of antinuclear, ecology, and peace movements in three countries with the aim of replicating its findings. Our goal is to see whether using a different analytical technique will yield similar results. The previous study used a regression approach to time-series analysis. Here, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to analyze the previous study’s data. Specifically, we test the two main hypotheses based on the joi...

  3. a qualitative study of grandparents' experiences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grandparents are increasingly becoming the primary carers of children orphaned by the HIV epidemic in South Africa. Traditional family roles are being reversed as aging family members take responsibility for the physical and psychosocial needs of children. This study uses qualitative research to explore the experiences of ...

  4. a qualitative study of providers' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma management is challenging to patients as well as to the eye care providers.The study is aimed at describing the challenges faced by providers using qualitative methods. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with selected Ophthalmologists and resident doctors in ophthalmology at centres ...

  5. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Clare

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient ‘deficit’ model – an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT (SPARE, CRUK/07/011 in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. Methods The qualitative study used a ‘Framework Analysis’ that included ‘constant comparison’ in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Results Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment. The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding ‘informed consent’, as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel. Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. Conclusions These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the ‘deficit’ model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  7. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  8. The art of preceptorship. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Finderup, Jeanette; Brahe, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    was to investigate how preceptorship can be used in clinical practice to create learning and facilitate competence development. A qualitative study guided by a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and inspired by ethnographic fieldwork included 28 participant observations and 58 interviews. Data were analysed...... performed nursing together to obtain skills focusing on independence, practical skills and communication. Getting along together: Preceptee and preceptor together focused on the patient, relation, comfort and managing how to keep the balance between a professional and a personal relation. Precepetorship...

  9. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  10. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  11. Living with low carbon technologies: An agenda for sharing and comparing qualitative energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerstaff, Karen; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Butler, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Policies to reduce the carbon intensity of domestic living place considerable emphasis on the diffusion of low(er) carbon technologies-from microgeneration to an array of feedback and monitoring devices. These efforts presume that low carbon technologies (LCTs) will be accepted and integrated into domestic routines in the ways intended by their designers. This study contributes to an emerging qualitative energy research (QER) literature by deploying an analytical approach that explores comparison of data from two UK projects (‘Carbon, Comfort and Control’ and 'Conditioning Demand’) concerned, in broad terms, with householder-LCTs interactions — primarily associated with the production and maintenance of thermal comfort. In-depth, and in many cases repeat, interviews were conducted in a total of 18 households where devices such as heat pumps and thermal feedback lamps had recently been installed. We discuss this comparative process and how a reflexive reading of notions of (and strategies associated with) credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmablity enabled new ways of working and thinking with existing data. We conclude by highlighting the contrasts, conflicts, but also creativities raised by drawing these connections, and consider implications for methodologies associated with qualitative energy research. -- Highlights: •We develop a robust strategy for comparing data from Qualitative Energy Research (QER). •We apply principles of qualitative rigour to a reanalysis of two QER datasets. •We demonstrate how this approach can strengthen extant analyses as well as reveal new interpretive insights. •We highlight the academic and policy significance of developing comparative approaches to QER

  12. Reasons for Whistleblowing: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALTACI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing has become a commonly encountered concept in recent times. Negative behaviors and actions can be experienced in any organization, and whistleblowing, as a communication process, is a kind of ethical behavior. Whistleblowing is the transmission of an unfavorable situation discovered in the organization to either internal or external authorities. An examination of the reasons for the employee’s whistleblowing is important for a better understanding of this concept; hence, this research focuses on the reasons for whistleblowing. In addition, the reasons for avoiding whistleblowing were also investigated. This research, which is designed as a qualitative study, is based on the phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with open-ended, semi-structured interview form in the study. The research was conducted on 20 teachers, 12 administrators, and 7 inspectors. The data were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, the individual, organizational and social reasons for whistleblowing have been differentiated. Among the individual reasons for whistleblowing are the considerations of protecting and gaining interests. Organizational reasons include business ethics and the expectation of subsequent promotion. Social reasons encompass social benefits, social justice, and religious belief. Reasons for avoiding whistleblowing vary based on retaliation and worry. This research is considered important because as it is believed to be the first qualitative research to approach the reasons for whistleblowing. The results of this research have revealed gaps in the understanding of this area for future studies.

  13. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  14. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due

  15. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  16. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

  17. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  18. Healing through prayer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Mary Blaszko

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study using a semistructured interview process explored the experience of being healed through prayer in 20 participants from several Protestant Christian faith traditions. Five cluster themes and their subthemes were identified, such as Spirituality and Suffering (subthemes of Purpose of Suffering and Spiritual Meaning of Suffering); The Healing Experience (subthemes of Problems that Were Healed, Incomplete Healings or Recurrences, and Healing of Friends and Family Members); The Connecting Network of Prayer (subthemes of Connection to God, Connection to Others, Meaning of Prayer, Methods of Prayer, and Unanswered Prayer); Spiritual Transformation of Prayer (subthemes of Changed Lives and Sense of Purpose); and Spiritual Phenomena (subthemes of Sense of God's Presence, Use of Complementary and Alternative Practices, and Mysterious Phenomena).

  19. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information behaviour of graduate students: a qualitative user study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a qualitative user study exploring information behaviour of graduate students. The study is conceptually based on Brenda Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology. The information behaviour is conceptualised as a process. The author conducted 13 interviews using the time-line micro moment interview technique. Data were transcribed and then condensed using the ATLAS/ti program for qualitative analysis. The basic approach to the analysis was to compare the moments of sense making instances within the situation of the same actor and also a comparison of moments across situations of different actors. The characteristics of actors’ situations was described. The most intensive information activity of graduate students was found during the completion of their studies. The proposed model consisted of three successive types of gaps: topic selection gap, topic ignorance gap and literature collecting gap. The article also presents findings about the process of writing and information habits.

  1. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  2. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  3. Women's orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2017-08-01

    Woman's orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was "Multidimensionality of women's orgasm obstacles". Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife's or husband's boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband's hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children's bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman's life is necessary.

  4. Murder and Motivation: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Alavijeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Murder is considered as the worst crime in all societies. It might be accomplished suddenly based on previous resolution, effect of stimuli, or due to a mental condition. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the reasons and motivations to commit a murder from murderers’ point of view. Patients and Methods It is a qualitative research making use of content analysis, conducting on 17 male imprisoned murderers. Participants were selected through goal based sampling to gain data saturation among prisoners in central prison of Kermanshah. Deep individual and semi-structured interviews were conducted using general questions designed as interview guide. In the meantime, personal satisfaction, information privacy, liberty to leave the study, and moral commitment of the interviews were observed. Results In the end, five main contents were found: collective quarrel, honor killing, emotional dissatisfaction, lack of control on anger, and burglary. Conclusions It seems that prevention of collective quarrel and control on anger could be helpful to decrease the murder rate in society.

  5. A qualitative comparative survey of First Cycle radiography programmes in Europe and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tatsuhito; Caruana, Carmel J.; Shimosegawa, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To qualitatively compare First Cycle Radiography programmes in Europe and Japan. Methods: This qualitative survey was conducted via a series of case-studies of university-based radiography curricula in Europe and Japan. Findings and conclusions: The main themes arising from the survey were that: (a) in Europe the freedom that most universities have in setting their own curricula and examinations means that in practice there is still a wide variability in curricula between and within states. On the other hand in Japan curricula are more uniform owing to central government guidelines regarding radiography education and a centrally administered national radiography examination. This means that student and worker mobility is much easier for Japanese radiographers. (b) in some countries in Europe principles of reporting and healthcare management are being expanded at the expense of the more technological aspects of radiography. Physical science competences on the other hand are considered highly in Japanese culture and form a major part of the curriculum. This may indicate that Japanese students would be in a much better position to cope with role developments linked to changes in imaging technology. Pragmatically oriented studies need to be carried out to determine ways in which radiographers can enhance their role without sacrificing their technological competences. The profession cannot afford to lose its technological expertise - it is neither in the interest of the profession itself and even less of the patient.

  6. The use of theory in qualitative approaches to research: application in end-of-life studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Lan; Volker, Deborah L

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the use of theory in qualitative approaches to research as exemplified in qualitative end-of-life studies. Nurses researchers turn to theory to conceptualize research problems and guide investigations. However, researchers using qualitative approaches do not consistently articulate how theory has been applied, and no clear consensus exists regarding the appropriate application of theory in qualitative studies. A review of qualitative, end-of-life studies is used to illustrate application of theory to study design and findings. A review of theoretical literature was carried out, focusing on definitions and use of theory in qualitative end-of-life studies published in English between 1990 and 2008. The term 'theory' continues to be used in a variety of ways by theorists and researchers. Within the reviewed end-of-life studies, the use of theory included theory creation or provision of a comparative framework for data analysis and interpretation. Implications for nursing. Nurses who conduct qualitative studies should examine the philosophical and theoretical bases of their selected methodological approach, articulate a theoretical framework that fits the phenomenon being studied, and adopt a critical, flexible and creative attitude when applying theory to a study. Theory can be put to several uses in qualitative inquiry and should guide nurse researchers as they develop and implement their studies. Nurse educators who teach qualitative approaches to research should emphasize a variety of ways to incorporate theory in qualitative designs.

  7. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  8. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  9. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  10. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  11. Comparing the Cognitive Process of Circular Causality in Two Patients with Strokes through Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily; Ghoochani, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC). Although considerable research has been devoted to study the brain dynamics by sophisticated computerized imaging techniques, less attention has been paid to study it through investigating the adaptation process of thoughts and behaviors. To explore how CPCC manifested thinking and behavioral patterns, a qualitative case study was conducted on two matched female participants with strokes, who were of comparable ages, affected sides, and other characteristics, except for their resilience and motivational behaviors. CPCC was compared by matrix analysis between two participants, using content analysis with pre-determined categories. Different patterns of thinking and behavior may have happened, due to disparate regulation of CPCC between two participants.

  12. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  13. Guidelines for Qualitative Research in Organization Studies: Controversy and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Rios Cavalcanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to tackle the controversy of establishing guidelines for qualitative research in Organization and Management Theory (OMT and to present a summary of suggestions on how to conduct good qualitative research given by methodologists on top-tier international publications. In order to do so, the article discusses: general guidelines for qualitative research; how to achieve coherence and transparency in a qualitative empirical study; the meaning and importance of the concept of reflexivity; and, finally how to establish a theoretical contribution and transferability of findings in such context. The work presents a valuable contribution because such guidelines, concepts, and approaches can be adopted by students and researchers when conducting a qualitative research proposal, and by periodic reviewers to evaluate the quality of existing empirical studies.

  14. Sample Size in Qualitative Interview Studies: Guided by Information Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2015-11-27

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is "saturation." Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose the concept "information power" to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power depends on (a) the aim of the study, (b) sample specificity, (c) use of established theory, (d) quality of dialogue, and (e) analysis strategy. We present a model where these elements of information and their relevant dimensions are related to information power. Application of this model in the planning and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  16. Inequality and adolescent cannabis use: A qualitative comparative analysis of the link at national level

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article explores the link between income inequality and adolescent cannabis use at the national level, in the context of other relevant social conditions, in developed countries. Methods and data: Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis is applied to two data sets that contain information on the national prevalence of past year cannabis use among 15 and 16 year olds, taken from the ESPAD and HBSC surveys, with supplementary data from the MtF and ASSAD surveys for the USA and Aust...

  17. A qualitative study of vulnerability to HIV infection: Places and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Methods: A qualitative study employing Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and ... cope and are subjects to the threats for HIV infection. (2-4). In the era of HIV .... Table 1: Characteristics of participants in focus group discussions. Variable.

  18. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  19. Mastectomy, body deconstruction, and impact on identity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot-Ziegler, C; Sassi, M-L; Raffoul, W; Delaloye, J-F

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study aims at understanding the consequences of body deconstruction through mastectomy on corporality and identity in women with breast cancer. Nineteen women were contacted through the hospital. All had to undergo mastectomy. Some were offered immediate breast reconstruction, others, because of cancer treatments, had no planned reconstruction. A qualitative reflexive methodological background was chosen. Women were invited to participate in three semi-structured interviews, one shortly before or after mastectomy, and the other interviews later in their illness courses, after surgery. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was performed. The analysis of the first interview of each woman is presented in this article. Mastectomy provokes a painful experience of body deconstruction. Even when immediate reconstruction is proposed, contrasted feelings and dissonance are expressed when comparing the former healthy body to the present challenged body entity. Body transformations are accompanied with experiences of mutilation, strangeness, and modify the physical, emotional social, symbolic and relational dimensions of the woman's gendered identity. Although the opportunity of breast reconstruction is seen as a possible recovery of a lost physical symmetry and body integrity, grieving the past body and integrating a new corporality leads to a painful identity crisis. With mastectomy, the roots of the woman's identity are challenged, leading to a re-evaluation of her existential values. The consequences of mastectomy transform the woman's corporality and embodiment, and question her identity. Psychological support is discussed in the perspective of our results.

  20. A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32

  1. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D{sub 105%} and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT.

  2. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D 105% and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT

  3. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  5. Stakeholder experiences with general practice pharmacist services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson

    2013-09-11

    To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Qualitative study. Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of

  6. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  7. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  8. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  9. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  10. Parents’ Perspectives on Radicalization: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sikkens (Elga); M.R.P.J.R.S. van San (Marion); S. Sieckelinck (Stijn); M. de Winter (Micha)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Radicalization of young people might be influenced by the way parents react towards the development of political or religious ideals. However, these reactions have hardly been explored. This study aimed to discover how parents reacted to the development of extreme ideals, and

  11. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  12. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  13. Finding Structure in Diversity: A Stepwise Small-N/Medium-N Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach for Water Resources Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing particularly on recent debates on, and development of, comparative methods in the field of comparative politics, the paper argues that stepwise small-N/medium-N qualitative comparative analysis (QCA is a particularly suitable methodological approach for water resources studies because it can make use of the rich but fragmented water resources studies literature for accumulation of knowledge and development of theory. It is suggested that taking an explicit critical realist ontological and epistemological stance allows expansion of the scope of stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA beyond what is claimed for it in Ragin’s 'configurational comparative methods (CCM' perspective for analysing the complexity of causality as 'multiple conjunctural causation'. In addition to explanation of certain sets of 'outcomes' as in CCM’s combinatorial, set-theoretic approach, embedding stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA in a critical realist ontology allows the method to contribute to development of theory on (qualitative differences between the structures in society that shape water resources use, management and governance.

  14. Effective factors in providing holistic care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Jasemi, Madineh; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses' provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis) software. Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  15. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of sustainable household water treatment interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Daniel; Pande, Saket; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Household water treatment (HWT; such as boiling, chlorination, solar or UV disinfection with lamps, etc.) is one of the technologies that can be used to reach this target. However, there is a big challenge to scale up the widespread implementation of this technology. Even though there are many HWT products on the market, sustainable uptake of this method (compliance) is unsatisfying. Researchers have shown that its compliance rate has often declined over time. Since there are many factors that influence the compliance rate, it is desirable to know the best combination of causal factors (pathway) that give the highest compliance based on the success stories reported in the literature. The motivation of this research is to find the pathways characteristic of local people that influence the compliance rate of HWT, using QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis). The comparative analysis is essentially a meta-analysis of HWT interventions and factors, possibly, behind successful or unsuccessful HWT uptake reported in literature. This thus helps to identify the characteristics of target communities that are willing to adopt HWT intervention, irrespective of the type of HWT. Out of 102 case studies reported in literature, 36 are selected from developing countries where an HWT intervention lasted for at least 12 months were selected and analyzed. Factors such as education level, perception about water quality, local beliefs, sanitation coverage, existing water treatment, type of water source, ability to pay, willingness to pay, existing local supply chain, and accessibility to water treatment were examined. Preliminary results show that 1) a combination of no prior HWT intervention in the community with a general perception of water quality being poor often leads to uptake of HWT technology, 2) education

  16. Using qualitative comparative analysis in a systematic review of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Jacobs, Sara; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E

    2016-05-04

    Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a non-probabilistic method that uses mathematical set theory to study complex phenomena; it has been proposed as a potential method to complement traditional evidence synthesis in reviews of complex interventions to identify key intervention components or implementation features that might explain effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The objective of this study was to describe our approach in detail and examine the suitability of using QCA within the context of a systematic review. We used data from a completed systematic review of behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence to conduct two substantive analyses using QCA. The first analysis sought to identify combinations of nine behavior change techniques/components (BCTs) found among effective interventions, and the second analysis sought to identify combinations of five implementation features (e.g., agent, target, mode, time span, exposure) found among effective interventions. For each substantive analysis, we reframed the review's research questions to be designed for use with QCA, calibrated sets (i.e., transformed raw data into data used in analysis), and identified the necessary and/or sufficient combinations of BCTs and implementation features found in effective interventions. Our application of QCA for each substantive analysis is described in detail. We extended the original review findings by identifying seven combinations of BCTs and four combinations of implementation features that were sufficient for improving adherence. We found reasonable alignment between several systematic review steps and processes used in QCA except that typical approaches to study abstraction for some intervention components and features did not support a robust calibration for QCA. QCA was

  17. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in te...

  18. A Qualitative Study: Integrating Art and Science in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah N.

    2013-01-01

    The study was used to develop an understanding of the nature of a creative learning experience that incorporated the foundational elements of Reggio Emilia, place-based education, and experience design. The study took place in an urban high school with eight students in an advanced placement art class. The qualitative research project revolved…

  19. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  20. THE MEANING OF FOOD FOR OBESE MEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    qualitative study used the theoretical per- spectives ... METHOD. Research design. This phenomenological study seeks to explore, ... way their story was unfolding. .... many cases, they had to adapt to new food ..... Choosing among five trade- ... ethnography and phenomenology. .... discourse analysis, and grounded theory.

  1. Challenges in implementing clinical governance: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A qualitative study. Setting: Hospitals affiliated to Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran. Subjects: Thirteen participants selected among clinical governance executives of under study hospitals and members of clinical governance office in curative deputy of the University. Results: Eight major ...

  2. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  3. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    features and breaks in psychotherapy investigated. One aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a transparent and systematic methodology for the psychoanalytic case study by application of rigorous qualitative research methodology. To this end, inductive-deductive principles in line...

  4. adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Zambia: a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients\\' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective medical treatment of HIV/AIDS. We conducted a qualitative interview study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia in 2006. The aim of the study was to explore patients\\' and health care professionals\\' perceived barriers and facilitators to patients\\' ...

  5. A qualitative exploratory study: Using medical students' experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... There is recognition of the importance of qualitative research on incentives ... an attribute, such as personality type; and secondly does ... Method. Study site. The study site was a rural district-level hospital in KwaZulu-. Natal.

  6. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  7. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  8. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Assay Performance Characteristics Between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 Scoring Methods in Mucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection

  9. Informed consent and medical ordeal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M; Jordens, C F C; McGrath, C; Montgomery, K; Lipworth, W; Kerridge, I

    2008-08-01

    Informed consent is a mainstay of clinical practice, with both moral and legal forces. Material disclosure about extreme treatments, however, is unlikely to convey the full impact of the experience of treatment. Informed consent may be flawed under such circumstances. The aims of this study were to compare expressed satisfaction with pretreatment information to satisfaction after experiencing autologous stem cell transplantation for recurrent lymphoma. A qualitative, narrative-based cohort study was conducted in a bone-marrow transplant unit of a teaching hospital at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The cohort consisted of 10 transplant recipients and 9 of their nominated lay carers. The outcome measure was satisfaction expressed in narrative interviews at the time of transplantation and 3 months later. We used discourse-analytic techniques to examine the narratives. Both patients and carers expressed high satisfaction with the information given by individual clinicians and by speakers at a formal Information Day held before transplantation. At the first interview, neither patients nor carers commented much on the forthcoming ordeal of chemotherapy and bone marrow ablation, although all patients had undergone previous chemotherapy. At the second interview, the ordeal dominated the narratives and retrospective dissatisfaction with information was common. This study suggests that information about treatment theories and protocols can be satisfactorily communicated, but personal experience of suffering defies communication. This finding has serious implications for the practices involved in obtaining informed consent and for the very notion of informed consent.

  10. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  11. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  13. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  14. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  15. Do Labour Rights Matter for Export? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Pineapple Trade to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelien Gansemans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour norms are increasingly considered in trade relations, but is the protection of labour standards a necessary condition for export to the EU? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis, based on countries that export pineapples to the EU, shows that labour standards protection matters in combination with distance, zero tariffs and institutional quality in a number of cases. However, for none of the cases was it a sufficient condition on its own for determining exports to the European market. Rather, we show that (1 having a zero tariff is necessary for a relatively large share of export to the EU, and (2 labour standards protection can make a difference when the institutional quality is weak in some African cases, in contrast to Latin American exporters.

  16. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  17. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  18. A Qualitative Self-Study of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert James

    2007-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…

  19. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Comijs, H. C.; van Mierlo, S.; Semeijn, E. J.; Beekman, A. T.F.; Deeg, D. J.H.; Kooij, J. J.S.

    Objective: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  20. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  1. A qualitative study of alcohol risk perceptions among drinkers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence in the scientific literature linking alcohol-related deaths and morbidities with excessive alcohol consumption, yet individuals are often undeterred by their experiences of negative alcohol-related outcomes. In seeking to understand this behavior, this exploratory qualitative study was undertaken among ...

  2. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative ...

  3. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmar Schaufeli; Annet de Lange; Juhani Ilmarinen; Per Erik Solem; Trude Furunes; Reidar Mykletun; Astri Syse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process

  4. Qualitative and numerical study of Bianchi IX Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.; Matsas, G.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of trajectories in the Mixmaster universe is studied. The Lyapunov exponents computed directly from the differential equations and from the Poincare map are shown to be different. A detailed discussion of the role of these exponents in analysing the effect of chaos on trajectories is presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Exploring Innovation: A Qualitative Study of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninghove, Linda Scanlon

    2016-01-01

    As academic libraries evolve to affirm their place as key partners in research, teaching, and learning in university communities, the process of innovation is one of great importance in the intentional design of library services, resources, and staffing. This dissertation was a qualitative, exploratory research study in which the conceptual…

  6. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  7. Children's experiences of dialysis: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, Lidwien; Tong, Allison; Henning, Paul; Groothoff, Jaap; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the experiences and perspectives of children and adolescents on dialysis. Design A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted that explored the experiences of children on dialysis. Electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to

  8. A qualitative study exploring attitudes and perceptions of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV positive women who were instructed to stop breastfeeding at 6 months to prevent the transmission of HIV to their children. Methods We used qualitative methods consisting of key informant interviews (KII), critical incidence narratives (CINs), focus group ...

  9. A Qualitative Study on Primary School Mathematics Lesson Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson…

  10. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: broadening the matrix approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootel, L. van; Wesel, F. van; O'Mara-Eves, A.; Thomas, J.; Hox, J.; Boeije, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the

  11. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  12. Occupational balance of women with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Tanja; Wright, Jon; Machold, Klaus; Sadlo, Gaynor; Smolen, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Occupational balance has been shown to be an important factor in maintaining health. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reduces functional ability and quality of life and may thus reduce occupational balance. The aim of this qualitative pilot study was to explore occupational balance in women who have RA. Nine women with RA with past, but not current, paid work experience, no other confounding neuro-motor disease and with disease duration of 0.75-31 years were selected from an Austrian rheumatology outpatient clinic. Age range of the participants was 28-68 years. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by the constant comparative method from an occupational perspective. Three main categories emerged: (1) The participants experienced a process of change that affected their occupational balance. (2) This new state of occupational balance was characterized by changed levels of involvement in physical, mental, social and rest occupations and by a certain level of unpredictability of symptoms. (3) Overall, the new state of occupational balance was valued differently: positively, indifferently or negatively. RA was found to have a considerable impact on occupational balance. The experience is not invariably seen as negative as previous literature would suggest. Further research should explore the longitudinal dimension of occupational balance in people with RA. Copyright (c) 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd.

  13. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pathways to Medical Home Recognition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the PCMH Transformation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Chen, Emily K; Green, Harold D; Armstrong, Courtney; Timbie, Justin W; Kress, Amii M; Friedberg, Mark W; Kahn, Katherine L

    2017-12-15

    To understand the process of practice transformation by identifying pathways for attaining patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition. The CMS Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Advanced Primary Care Practice Demonstration was designed to help FQHCs achieve NCQA Level 3 PCMH recognition and improve patient outcomes. We used a stratified random sample of 20 (out of 503) participating sites for this analysis. We developed a conceptual model of structural, cultural, and implementation factors affecting PCMH transformation based on literature and initial qualitative interview themes. We then used conventional cross-case analysis, followed by qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a cross-case method based on Boolean logic algorithms, to systematically identify pathways (i.e., combinations of factors) associated with attaining-or not attaining-Level 3 recognition. Site-level indicators were derived from semistructured interviews with site leaders at two points in time (mid- and late-implementation) and administrative data collected prior to and during the demonstration period. The QCA results identified five distinct pathways to attaining PCMH recognition and four distinct pathways to not attaining recognition by the end of the demonstration. Across these pathways, one condition (change leader capacity) was common to all pathways for attaining recognition, and another (previous improvement or recognition experience) was absent in all pathways for not attaining recognition. In general, sites could compensate for deficiencies in one factor with capacity in others, but they needed a threshold of strengths in cultural and implementation factors to attain PCMH recognition. Future efforts at primary care transformation should take into account multiple pathways sites may pursue. Sites should be assessed on key cultural and implementation factors, in addition to structural components, in order to differentiate interventions and technical assistance. © Health

  15. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  16. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  17. Spiritual Health through Pilgrimage Therapy: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Moaven; Majid Movahed; Mohammad Taghi Iman Iman; Mansour Tabiee

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Going on a pilgrimage for spiritual and religious purposes is not a new phenomenon and can be considered one of the oldest tourism typologies. This form of travel is related to the task social perception, which is stronger than leisure or pleasure. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to study how spiritual well-being is achieved through pilgrimages trips. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out using ethnographic methodology. Data collection was...

  18. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The partic...

  19. Factors influencing patients’ satisfaction with complete dentures: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jessica de Cassia Motta; Departamento de Odontologia – Univ de Taubaté – Taubaté – SP – Brazil.; dos Santos, Jarbas Francisco Fernandes; Departamento de Odontologia – Univ de Taubaté – Taubaté – SP – Brazil.; Marchini, Leonardo; College of Dentistry – University of Iowa – Iowa City – IA – USA.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The treatment most used worldwide for edentulism is conventional complete dentures, and the most important factor for the success of denture treatment seems to be patient satisfaction. The present study aims to use a qualitative approach to investigate factors that were previously associated with patient satisfaction with dentures by quantitative techniques (correlational studies). Material and methods: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, age 59-87) participated in open and semi-s...

  20. Does cultural context make a difference to women's experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast-feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl

    2013-12-01

    Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women's lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast-feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of culturally appropriate care. The study comprised individual interviews with 23 women of Bangladeshi origin and four health service managers, and focus group discussions with 28 health practitioners between February and December 2008. Participants were recruited from four localities in northern England. Women's rich descriptions of various facets of their identities were in contrast to practitioners' representations of women of Bangladeshi origin as homogenous. Practitioners did not recognize when the needs of women of Bangladeshi origin were similar to those of the majority white population, or where cultural context made a difference to their experiences of breast-feeding and breast-feeding support. Some practitioners used cultural stereotypes which, combined with organizational constraints, resulted in services not meeting many of the women's needs. Implications for education, policy and practice include the need for training of health practitioners to work with diverse populations, implementing evidence-based practice and providing an organizational context which supports practitioners to respond to diversity without using cultural stereotypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Does cultural context make a difference to women’s experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast‐feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women’s lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. Objective  To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast‐feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of culturally appropriate care. Methods  The study comprised individual interviews with 23 women of Bangladeshi origin and four health service managers, and focus group discussions with 28 health practitioners between February and December 2008. Participants were recruited from four localities in northern England. Results  Women’s rich descriptions of various facets of their identities were in contrast to practitioners’ representations of women of Bangladeshi origin as homogenous. Practitioners did not recognize when the needs of women of Bangladeshi origin were similar to those of the majority white population, or where cultural context made a difference to their experiences of breast‐feeding and breast‐feeding support. Some practitioners used cultural stereotypes which, combined with organizational constraints, resulted in services not meeting many of the women’s needs. Conclusions  Implications for education, policy and practice include the need for training of health practitioners to work with diverse populations, implementing evidence‐based practice and providing an organizational context which supports practitioners to respond to diversity without using cultural stereotypes. PMID:22429489

  2. Comparing appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to phone interviews in qualitative research on reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is

  3. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  4. Comparing interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in healthcare: A systematic review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Marlène; Brault, Isabelle; Van Durme, Thérèse; Macq, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration have become important components of a well-functioning healthcare system, all the more so given limited financial resources, aging populations, and comorbid chronic diseases. The nursing role in working alongside other healthcare professionals is critical. By their leadership, nurses can create a culture that encourages values and role models that favour collaborative work within a team context. To clarify the specific features of conceptual frameworks of interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field. This review, accordingly, offers insights into the key challenges facing policymakers, managers, healthcare professionals, and nurse leaders in planning, implementing, or evaluating interprofessional collaboration. This systematic review of qualitative research is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology for conducting synthesis. Cochrane, JBI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Sociological Abstract, PsycInfo, and ProQuest were searched, using terms such as professionals, organizations, collaboration, and frameworks. Qualitative studies of all research design types describing a conceptual framework of interprofessional or interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field were included. They had to be written in French or English and published in the ten years between 2004 and 2014. Sixteen qualitative articles were included in the synthesis. Several concepts were found to be common to interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration, such as communication, trust, respect, mutual acquaintanceship, power, patient-centredness, task characteristics, and environment. Other concepts are of particular importance either to interorganizational collaboration, such as the need for formalization and the need for professional role clarification, or to interprofessional collaboration, such as the role of individuals and team identity. Promoting

  5. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  6. Redefining Work And Nonwork. A Qualitative Study Comparing The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The married interviewees with two or more children held a much wider concept of work that covered also the home, family and voluntary work, and synthesized the diverse definitions found in the literature with an added emphasis on responsibility. They defined nonwork essentially as relaxation. Effort, purpose and sense of ...

  7. Postpartum smoking relapse--a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Caitlin; Blyth, Annie; Craig, Jean; Edwards, Alice; Holland, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many women quit smoking during pregnancy, but relapse after the baby is born. To understand why and identify ways of preventing this, this study reviewed the qualitative literature on women's experience of postpartum smoking relapse. A systematic review of qualitative studies and process evaluations of trials. We undertook a thematic synthesis of published qualitative data. We screened 1336 papers. Twenty-two papers reporting on 16 studies were included, reporting on the views of 1031 postpartum women. Factors affecting relapse and barriers and facilitators to relapse prevention were identified around the key themes of beliefs, social influences, motivation, physiological factors and identity. Women's beliefs about smoking as a means of coping with stress and the need for social support, especially from a partner, emerged as important. Extrinsic motivation to quit during the pregnancy (for the health of the fetus) appeared to be a factor in prompting relapse after the baby was born. During the immediate postpartum period women believed that physiological changes influence cigarette cravings. The stress of caring for a newborn, sleeplessness and adjusting to a new mothering identity were also reported to be important. Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, those who relapse postpartum talk commonly about no longer needing to protect the baby and the effects of stress. Partner support and a sense of changed identity are cited as factors preventing relapse. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  9. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  10. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assau...

  11. Nutrition, training and recovery : A qualitative study of athletes’ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large components for athletes are nutrition, training and recovery. These components are subjects all by them selves in all kind of media. That woke my interest to find out more about the connections between nutrition, training and recovery and how much knowledge athletes have of them together. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate how athletes feelings and experience of nutrition, training and recovery. Method: A qualitative approach was used to investigate athl...

  12. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  13. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...... randomly chosen psychotherapy sessions with a schizophrenic patient and the supervision session given in between. The author's analysis is verified by an independent examiner's analysis. Parallel processes are identified and described. Reflections on the dynamics of parallel processes and supervisory...

  14. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  15. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  16. Spirituality, Religion, and Suicidality Among Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jaimie; Dobscha, Steven K; Kopacz, Marek; Ritchie, Mary Frances; Ono, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the relationship between veterans' spirituality/religion and suicide ideation and attempts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 veterans who either endorsed chronic suicidal ideation or had made suicide attempt(s). Interviews explored the bi-directional relationship between spirituality/religion (e.g., beliefs, practices, and experiences), and suicide ideation and behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Veterans' responses indicate that spirituality/religion can discourage or permit suicidal ideation, help in coping with ideation, and facilitate meaning making and coping in the presence of self-perceived suffering. Veterans who survived a suicide attempt explored the impact of their spirituality/religion on their recovery. Findings highlight a complex and diverse relationship between spirituality/religion and suicidality. These findings may inform further research on treatment strategies that assess the function of spirituality/religion, and incorporate protective aspects of spirituality/religion into mental health treatment.

  17. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  18. Comparative study Beamnrc VS Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.

    2013-01-01

    Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)

  19. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  20. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  1. Navigating the complexities of qualitative comparative analysis: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Alrik

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) has been enjoying increasing levels of popularity in evaluation and directly neighboring fields. Its holistic approach to causal data analysis resonates with researchers whose theories posit complex conjunctions of conditions and events. However, due to QCA's relative immaturity, some of its technicalities and objectives have not yet been well understood. In this article, I seek to raise awareness of six pitfalls of employing QCA with regard to the following three central aspects: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities. Most importantly, I argue that case numbers are irrelevant to the methodological choice of QCA or any of its variants, that necessity is not as simple a concept as it has been suggested by many methodologists, and that doubt must be cast on the determinacy of virtually all results presented in past QCA research. By means of empirical examples from published articles, I explain the background of these pitfalls and introduce appropriate procedures, partly with reference to current software, that help avoid them. QCA carries great potential for scholars in evaluation and directly neighboring areas interested in the analysis of complex dependencies in configurational data. If users beware of the pitfalls introduced in this article, and if they avoid mechanistic adherence to doubtful "standards of good practice" at this stage of development, then research with QCA will gain in quality, as a result of which a more solid foundation for cumulative knowledge generation and well-informed policy decisions will also be created. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Stigma, abortion, and disclosure--findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury-Ward, Edna; Parry, Odette; Carnwell, Ros

    2012-12-01

    This study qualitatively explores perceptions of women who have experienced abortion care. It explores women's journey through abortion from confirmation of pregnancy to post-abortion. The study seeks to understand the implications of these perceptions for policy and practice. A qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured interviews with 17 women, aged between 22 and 57 years, who had undergone legal induced abortion in the UK when they were 16 years or older. Participants were not recruited under the age of 16 because of the ethical and legal complexities of interviewing minors. Additionally, 16 years was deemed to be the most appropriate age as this is the legal age of consent in the UK. Participants were recruited from 12 community contraception and sexual health clinics in two NHS trusts, one in England and one in Wales. Participant recruitment was set at a minimum of 12 and participants were recruited on a "first come first served basis" (i.e., the first 12 who contacted the researcher). The number of participants was raised to seventeen as this was the number deemed to be the most suitable for data saturation in this particular qualitative research. Women in this study understood abortion as highly taboo and a potentially personally stigmatizing event. These perceptions continued to affect disclosure to others, long after the abortion, and affected women's perceptions of the response of others, including society in general, significant others, and health professionals. Women's experiences of abortion may be influenced by perceived negative social attitudes. Health professionals and abortion service providers might combat the perceived isolation of women undergoing abortion by attending not only to clinical/technical aspects of the procedure but also to women's psychological/emotional sensitivities surrounding the event. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

  4. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  5. Locum physicians' professional ethos: a qualitative interview study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline

    2018-05-08

    In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums' own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups' perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians' role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor-patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians' professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.

  6. Practices in Human Dignity in Palliative Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Korhan, Esra; Üstün, Çağatay; Uzelli Yilmaz, Derya

    Respecting and valuing an individual's existential dignity forms the basis of nursing and medical practice and of nursing care. The objective of the study was to determine the approach to human dignity that nurses and physicians have while providing palliative care. This qualitative study was performed using a phenomenological research design. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in 9 nurses and 5 physicians with human dignity approach in palliative care. Following the qualitative Colaizzi method of analyzing the data, the statements made by the nurses and physicians during the interviews were grouped under 8 categories. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 8 themes and 43 subthemes of responses were determined describing the human dignity of the nurse and the physicians. The results of the study showed that in some of the decisions and practices of the nurses giving nursing care and physicians giving medical care to palliative care patients, while they displayed ethically sensitive behavior, on some points, they showed approaches that violated human dignity and showed lack of awareness of ethical, medical, and social responsibilities.

  7. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Quality of life in ostomy patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Dabirian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aazam Dabirian, Farideh Yaghmaei, Maryam Rassouli, Mansoureh Zagheri TafreshiNursing and Midwifery School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranPurpose: Therapeutic procedures may not only treat disease but also affect patient quality of life. Therefore, quality of life should be measured in order to assess the impact of disease and therapeutic procedures. To identify clients' problems, it is necessary to assess several dimensions of quality of life, including physical, spiritual, economic, and social aspects. In this regard, we conducted a qualitative study to explore quality of life and its dimensions in ostomy patients referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association.Methods: Fourteen patients were interviewed about their quality of life dimensions by purposeful sampling. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method.Results: Nine main themes emerged using this approach, including physical problems related to colostomy, impact of colostomy on psychological functioning, social and family relationships, travel, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual function, as well as religious and economic issues.Conclusion: The findings of the study identified a number of challenges in quality of life for patients with ostomy. The results can be used by health care providers to create a supportive environment that promotes better quality of life for their ostomy patients.Keywords: ostomy, colostomy, qualitative study, quality of life

  9. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18 on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.

  10. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  11. Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Bois Cindy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher

  12. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Tyhurst, Janis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  13. Fuel reprocessing plant: No qualitative differences as compared to other sensitive process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweinoch, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power plants like the fuel reprocessing plant belong to the highly sensitive installations in respect of safety, but involve the same risks qualitatively as liquid-gas plants or chemical plants. Therefore no consequences for basic rights are discernible. The police can take adequate preventive measures. The regulations governing police action provide proper and sufficient warrants. (DG) [de

  14. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  15. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  17. Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh

    2018-06-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The emotional sequelae of whistleblowing: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Luck, Lauretta; Hutchinson, Marie; Wilkes, Lesley; Andrew, Sharon; Jackson, Debra

    2011-10-01

    To highlight and illuminate the emotional sequelae of whistleblowing from whistleblowers and subjects of whistleblowing complaints. Whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on individuals' physical and emotional well-being. However, few empirical studies have been conducted using qualitative methods to provide an in-depth exploration of the emotional consequences for those involved in whistleblowing incidents. Qualitative narrative inquiry design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who had been involved in whistleblowing incidents. During interviews participants' accounts were digitally recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were then analysed by two researchers until consensus was reached. Findings revealed that participants' emotional health was considerably compromised as a result of the whistleblowing incident. Analysis of the data revealed the following dominant themes: 'I felt sad and depressed': overwhelming and persistent distress; 'I was having panic attacks and hyperventilating': acute anxiety; and, 'I had all this playing on my mind': nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive thoughts. While it has been previously acknowledged that whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on all aspects of an individual's life, this study notably highlights the intensity of emotional symptoms suffered by participants as well as the extended duration of time these symptoms were apparent. As professionals, nurses, as well as organisations, have a responsibility to identify those who may be suffering the emotional trauma of whistleblowing and ensure they have access to appropriate resources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Analysis of the participants' experiences led to five main concepts: "Disturbed in femininity-body image," "discouragement of sexual relations," "sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant," "confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment," and "striving to protect their marriage." Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples.

  20. Leisure activities among older Germans - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Leisure activities contribute to well-being and health in old age. Community nurses should consequently promote such activities among older persons. To do so they need an understanding of older persons' interest in leisure activities. Social contacts, volunteering and pursuit of hobbies and interests constitute the main aspects of leisure. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of older Germans to these aspects to identify user types of leisure time facilities. A qualitative study was conducted within a community-based project in an industrial town in West Germany. Data were collected with semi-structured guideline interviews and evaluated with qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. With regard to social contacts attitudes ranged from limited need for contacts to being a reliable member in an older persons' club. Social engagement is only found among the latter. Pursuit of hobbies and interest ranged from being a minimal user of leisure time facilities to refined expectations. Inflexible group structures may prevent potential users from participation despite having a programme in accordance with target group needs. Attitudes to leisure activities can be described as a combination of two dimensions: the degree of social involvement and the desired refinement of hobbies and interest. Community nurses who organise social afternoons need to assess these attitudes and should steer social dynamics of in a way that facilitates access for newcomers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

    2014-06-01

    Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galmes Belmonte, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  5. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses' career advancement. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses' career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.

  6. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  7. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies. PMID:27556054

  8. Qualitative study on maintenance management in Moroccan industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Amal; El Oumami, Mohamed; Bouksour, Otmane; Beidouri, Zitouni

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance management is, and has been studied in depth, especially for strategies to be implemented in industry, even though, authors note that there is a gap between literature and management adopted by industries. In this paper, we present a qualitative study in five Moroccan industries to investigate “how maintenance is managed” rather than “how it should be”. The questionnaire utilized for the study consists on semi-structured and open-ended questions. We consider factors and variables related to maintenance management and we explore the relationships between those factors. The original contribution of this paper is to provide a «real view »about maintenance management in Moroccan industries, which could help to improve understanding of barriers to implementing maintenance strategy.

  9. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2018-04-01

    To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.

  10. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  11. Understanding "revolving door" patients in general practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrea E; Mullen, Kenneth; Wilson, Philip

    2014-02-13

    'Revolving door' patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners' (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise 'revolving door' patients and their impact from professionals' perspectives. 'Revolving door' patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when 'revolving door' patients interacted with NHS staff. We utilise the 'sensitising concepts' of legitimacy by drawing on literature about 'good and bad' patients and 'dirty work designations.' We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with 'revolving door' patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature.

  12. Challenges for Infants’ Home Care: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hemati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Home care is an acceptable strategy for the relationship between family and healthcare team and implementation of healthcare interventions, and infants’ nurses could play an important role in enhancing the capability of families and promoting child health in this area. This study examined challenges facing infants’ home care from nurses’ viewpoints in Iranian culture.Materials and MethodsA qualitative design was used to explain challenges facing infants’ home care from nurses’ viewpoints. Participants included 20 nurses’ working in the neonatal units of University hospitals in Isfahan, Iran in 2015. Data collection was done by interviewing nurses working in neonatal units of Shahid Beheshti and Alzahra hospitals. All the data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis.ResultsFour main categories of “The need to warn the community ", “culture",” need for security " and ” legal support" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of Challenges for Infants’ Home Care.Conclusion Nursing policy makers and managers are able to help to facilitate home care and improve the infants’ health through correcting the infrastructure and eliminating current obstacles.

  13. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exploring the situational motivation of medical specialists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to obtain insight into the factors in the work environment that motivate or demotivate a medical specialist during his/her working day. A qualitative ethnographic design was used, and a constructivist approach was adopted with the Self-Determination theory of motivation as a framework. Six medical specialists from VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands, recruited through convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, were shadowed for one day each. Data were transcribed and open-coded. Themes were finalized through discussion and consensus. Sixty hours of observation data identified motivating and demotivating factors categorized into four themes that are important for specialists' motivation. Informational technology issues are demotivating factors. Working with colleagues can be both a motivating and demotivating factor, e.g., filling in for each other through feelings of relatedness was motivating. Being in control of one's planning through feelings of autonomy was motivating. Furthermore, patient care and teaching, especially in combination, stimulated specialists' motivation. Regarding the design of the study, we found that situational motivation is indeed observable. The basic psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness are important for specialists' motivation. Investing in a more motivating, open, transparent, and basic-needs- supportive work environment for medical specialists is necessary. Keywords: Continuing professional development, motivation, medical specialists, self-determination theory, qualitative research.

  15. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy.

  16. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  17. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  18. Comparative study of radiosensitivity of normal and regenerating tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalova, H.S.; Popova, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of radiosensitivity of cells of normal and regenerating tissues of bone marrow and spleen has demonstrated that single exposure to X-rays produces a lesser damaging effect on regenerating tissues than on normal ones. The data obtained indicate that the increase in radioresistance of the organism during active regeneration of the haemopoietic organs is due not merely to the increase in the dividing cell pool of these organs but also to qualitative changes in their functional state

  19. Views of Nursing Students about Reflection: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrzieh Moattari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The phenomenon of knowledge explosion has led teachers to feel the necessity of training students so that they become reflective thinkers. This issue is particularly important for nursing students who are responsible for providing care for patients. The purpose ofthis study is exploration of nursing students’ views on reflection on practice.Methods: Twenty senior nursing students participated in this study. They were asked to reflect on their clinical experiences for 10 weeks of their final clinical course. They were also asked to write their reflection in their weekly journals. The journals were studied by the researcher and appropriatefeedback was given to the student regarding their reflective writing. At the end of the clinical course, they were divided into 2 groups to participate in 2 separate focus group session and to discuss the issues regarding 9 proposed open – ended questions. The students’ responses were tape – recorded and a transcript was made and analyzed qualitatively. The data were coded and categorized. Then each category was named to elicit the related constructs.Results: Qualitative data analysis showed that refection as a learning strategy has impact on 5 different elements of teaching learning process: caring, thinking, theory practice integration, selfregulatory mechanisms and motivation.Conclusion: Nursing students evaluated their experience on reflection on practice as an effective and valuable strategy. They believe that reflection through 5 different but related elements make them to consolidate their learning and plan their future experiences. Four out of the five emergedconstructs in this study are very similar to elements of cyclic learning proposed by Kolb (1984 and are capable of being integrated into experiential learning cycle. Motivation can be integrated into this cycle. Based on the result of this study reflection is suggested to be integrated in Iranian nursing curriculum

  20. Expression of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Khalil, Susan S; Silverman, Henry J

    2009-06-30

    Studies have shown that research participants fail to appreciate the difference between research and medical care, labeling such phenomenon as a "therapeutic misconception" (TM). Since research activity involving human participants is increasing in the Middle East, qualitative research investigating aspects of TM is warranted. Our objective was to assess for the existence of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians. Study Tool: We developed a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of Egyptians regarding medical research. We recruited individuals from the outpatient settings (public and private) at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. We analyzed the content of the transcribed text to identify the presence of a TM, defined in one of two ways: TM1 = inaccurate beliefs about how individualized care can be compromised by the procedures in the research and TM2 = inaccurate appraisal of benefit obtained from the research study. Our findings showed that a majority of participants (11/15) expressed inaccurate beliefs regarding the degree with which individualized care will be maintained in the research setting (TM1) and a smaller number of participants (5/15) manifested an unreasonable belief in the likelihood of benefits to be obtained from a research study (TM2). A total of 12 of the 15 participants were judged to have expressed a TM on either one of these bases. The presence of TM is not uncommon amongst Egyptian individuals. We recommend further qualitative studies investigating aspects of TM involving a larger sample size distinguished by different types of illnesses and socio-economic variables, as well as those who have and have not participated in clinical research.

  1. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  2. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Jun, Soo-Koung; Park, Ie Byung

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited research on physicians' perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Televideo Consultations for COPD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm Larsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . The patients’ assessments of the service must be understood in relation to the routines and strategies developed to handle the array of problems related to a life affected by chronic illness. Keywords: COPD patients, televideo consultations, telemedicine, coping strategies, security, control.......This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating COPD patients' experiences with televideo consultations at home as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question is: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients related to discharge...... from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult...

  4. Expert interpretation of bitemark injuries--a contemporary qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2013-05-01

    This study attempts to characterize the nature of disagreement among odontologists in determining the fundamental properties of suspected bitemark injuries. Fifteen odontologists were asked to freely comment on six images of supposed bitemarks. Qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach revealed that practitioner agreement was at best fair, with wide-ranging opinions on the origin, circumstance, and characteristics of the wound given for all six images. More experienced practitioners (>10 years) tended to agree with each other less than those who had 10 years or less experience in forensic odontology. The differences in opinions can be at least partly accounted for by the inconsistent nature of approaches used by different practitioners in assessing bitemark evidence. The results of this study indicate that more definitive guidelines as to the assessment of bitemarks as patterned injuries should be developed to ensure the highest possible level of practitioner agreement. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi Hwa Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There has been limited research on physicians’ perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Methods: Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Results: Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  6. Experiences of adolescents living with cancer: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Sin Hui; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Lee, Xiu Hua Hideka Tamamura; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of adolescents from Singapore, aged 10-18 years old, living with cancer and their perceptions on how their psychosocial outcomes can be improved. A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 participants from a pediatric oncology ward in a Singapore hospital. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Five major themes emerged: (1) experience of physical symptoms, (2) emotional response to their condition, (3) changes in social dynamics, and (4) falling behind in academics. The psychosocial outcomes of Singaporean adolescents with cancer could be improved by thorough pain assessments and creating a more conducive hospital environment.

  7. A Qualitative Study of Job Interviewers’ Implicit Person Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundmann, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Job interviewers’ implicit person theories (i.e., beliefs that personalities are adaptable or fixed) were examined through a qualitative analysis of interviews with job interviewers. The study demonstrates that job interviewers tend to use generalized trait descriptions of applicants when...... the job interview are easily transferrable to the job they are seeking to fill. Thus, job interviewers appear to view applicants as persons with fixed personality traits, despite human adaptability. This is not necessarily because the job interviewer has a stable implicit entity theory of persons; instead...... determining their selection. This is problematic because it neglects the context’s interference with the applicant—for example, the effect of a new manager, colleagues, or company culture. The study demonstrates that job interviewers implicitly assume that the impressions they form of an applicant during...

  8. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  9. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  10. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.; Waller, J.; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White othe...

  11. Teachers as School-Based Mentors for At-Risk Students: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Francisco; Alarcão, Madalena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade, administrators have implemented school-based mentoring (SBM) programs in schools across several western countries. However, few studies have compared the views of mentors and parents regarding the factors that determine SBM success. Objectives: The purpose of this work is to explore the factors that may facilitate or undermine the completion of SBM goals, according to the perspectives of both mentors and parents. Methods: We conducted a qualitative stud...

  12. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. RESULTS: The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1 Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2 Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3 Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4 Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. CONCLUSIONS: First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if

  13. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no

  14. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

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    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  15. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  16. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

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    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  17. A qualitative numerical study of high dimensional dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, David James

    Since Poincare, the father of modern mathematical dynamical systems, much effort has been exerted to achieve a qualitative understanding of the physical world via a qualitative understanding of the functions we use to model the physical world. In this thesis, we construct a numerical framework suitable for a qualitative, statistical study of dynamical systems using the space of artificial neural networks. We analyze the dynamics along intervals in parameter space, separating the set of neural networks into roughly four regions: the fixed point to the first bifurcation; the route to chaos; the chaotic region; and a transition region between chaos and finite-state neural networks. The study is primarily with respect to high-dimensional dynamical systems. We make the following general conclusions as the dimension of the dynamical system is increased: the probability of the first bifurcation being of type Neimark-Sacker is greater than ninety-percent; the most probable route to chaos is via a cascade of bifurcations of high-period periodic orbits, quasi-periodic orbits, and 2-tori; there exists an interval of parameter space such that hyperbolicity is violated on a countable, Lebesgue measure 0, "increasingly dense" subset; chaos is much more likely to persist with respect to parameter perturbation in the chaotic region of parameter space as the dimension is increased; moreover, as the number of positive Lyapunov exponents is increased, the likelihood that any significant portion of these positive exponents can be perturbed away decreases with increasing dimension. The maximum Kaplan-Yorke dimension and the maximum number of positive Lyapunov exponents increases linearly with dimension. The probability of a dynamical system being chaotic increases exponentially with dimension. The results with respect to the first bifurcation and the route to chaos comment on previous results of Newhouse, Ruelle, Takens, Broer, Chenciner, and Iooss. Moreover, results regarding the high

  18.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

    by the health care system offering it. By prenatal examinations the pregnant women want to be giving the choice of future management should there be something wrong with their child. Conclusions:Participation in prenatal examinations is not based on a thorough knowledge of pros and contra of the screening tests......  Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...

  19. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  20. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  1. Family-focused dementia care - a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohrsen Busted, Laila; Nielsen, Dorthe; Birkelund, Regner

    to decrease the experienced burden that relatives to persons with dementia experience. The qualitative research project consists of three parts; 1) An interview study to investigate the problem area as experienced by 24 relatives. 2) Initiate family intervention, conducted by professional caregivers......Relatives to persons with dementia are in the literature described as the "invisible second patients." They get a more burdensome responsibility to the family’s everyday life and relation within the family. Furthermore, relatives as caregivers provide most of the assistance and supervision...... to fulfill the basic needs of the person with dementia. The experience of being close to a person with dementia may seem as a burden that involves emotional chaos and uncertainty which can lead to stress and depressions. Family health therapeutic conversations may be an intervention to relieve the suffering...

  2. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

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    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  3. Adolescent Perceptions of Dating Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah; Calkins, Carrie A; Xia, Yan; Dalla, Rochelle L

    2017-08-01

    Scholars have identified dating violence as a public health issue among adolescents. Yet, minimal research has detailed adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, specifically gender differences in perceptions. Research suggests that in order for dating violence prevention and intervention to be effective, services need to be delivered in a manner that is understood by adolescents. Therefore, this study used a qualitative phenomenology study to investigate adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, including gender differences in adolescents' perceptions. Thirty adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19 from a Midwest public high school participated in focus groups. Focus group participants were asked semistructured interview questions regarding the definition of dating violence, risk and protective factors for dating violence, support for victims and perpetrators, and prevention efforts. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods, and common themes were identified. Adolescents' language revealed gender differences in perceptions toward dating violence. Males perceive dating violence through action, perpetration, and physical consequences. Females discuss dating violence by relating to the victim and the victim's emotions. Although gender differences existed in participants' perceptions, both males and females explained that dating violence is more often perpetrated by females, despite the view from society that males are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. Findings suggest that schools, practitioners, and policy makers are not meeting the needs of adolescents in regard to dating violence prevention and intervention. Prevention and intervention efforts could be improved by delivering education and services using language that adolescents find relevant. Findings also suggest that adolescents may benefit from prevention and intervention with gender specific components.

  4. Women's experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard

    2014-10-14

    Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as

  5. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

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    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  6. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  7. Work organization, health, and obesity in urban transit operators: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L

    2017-11-01

    Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  9. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users’ perceptive. Methods In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Results Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1 barriers to adoption of health apps, 2 barriers to continued use of health apps, 3 motivators, 4 information and personalized guidance, 5 tracking for awareness and progress, 6 credibility, 7 goal setting, 8 reminders, and 9 sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. Conclusions This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users’ perspective.

  10. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

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    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  11. Combining qualitative with quantitative approaches to study contraceptive pill use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Yu, M Y; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, X L; Chen, W H; Yao, L

    1999-03-01

    According to large-scale studies, oral contraceptive users become pregnant at rates that exceed ideal use failure rates. It is thought that a major cause is missed pills, but current research on consistent contraceptive pill taking is characterized by inadequate measures and a failure to investigate women's thinking about their own patterns of use. The purpose of this study was to gain some understanding about women's interpretations of consistency in their own pill taking through combining qualitative with quantitative data. The study was conducted in China, where contraception is free and widely available. Five urban and five rural oral contraceptive users were followed for up to three pill-taking cycles during 1996 for a total of 759 person-days. Consistency of pill taking was measured with electronic data obtained from a new blister package made by Anderson Clinical Technologies (Elmhurst, IL). Data from these devices were reviewed and interpreted by the study participants during in-depth private interviews. The users' reasons for missing pills included disruptions in their daily routines, their husband's absence, spotting, and trouble implementing the family planning program's instructions to take one pill per day for 22 days and start the next cycle on the fifth day of menses. One user gave these reasons for two cycles but denied missing numerous pills in her third cycle. Data from a series of four questionnaires showed that most demographic, psychosocial, and service system characteristics were not related to missed pills. However, results suggested that the daily routines of rural living may make consistent use more likely and that instructions for taking the pill may be associated with prolonged pill-free intervals and skipping pills during episodes of spotting. Three of the 10 women were at increased risk of pregnancy during the study period because of their pill-taking pattern. We concluded that the combination of qualitative with quantitative data

  12. The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Frank

    The problem this research addresses is the airline industry, and the seemingly unwillingness attitude towards adopting ways to taxi aircraft without utilizing thrust from the main engines. The purpose of the study was to get a better understanding of the decision-making process of airline executives, in respect to investing in cost saving technology. A qualitative research method is used from personal interviews with 24 airline executives from two major U.S. airlines, related industry journal articles, and aircraft performance data. The following three research questions are addressed. RQ1. Does the cost of jet fuel influence airline executives' decision of adopting the aircraft electric taxi system technology? RQ2 Does the measurable payback period for a return on investment influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? RQ3. Does the amount of government assistance influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? A multi case research study design is used with a triangulation technique. The participant perceptions indicate the need to reduce operating costs, they have concerns about investment risk, and they are in favor of future government sponsored performance improvement projects. Based on the framework, findings and implications of this study, a future research paper could focus on the positive environmental effects of the ETS application. A study could be conducted on current airport area air quality and the effects that aircraft main engine thrust taxiing has on the surrounding air quality.

  13. Caregiver coping with the mentally ill: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Azlinda; Jamir Singh, Paramjit Singh; Sulaiman, Jamalludin

    2017-04-01

    Mental illness is a disease that affects millions of people every year. It not only causes stress to the mentally ill patients, but also for the family members who provide them the care. The family caregivers, therefore need some form of coping strategies in dealing with their mentally ill family members. This qualitative study aims at identifying and analysing the coping strategies adopted by the family caregivers in dealing with their mentally ill family members. A total of 15 family caregivers from the state of Kedah, Malaysia participated in the face-to-face semi structured interview. The study findings identified an array of coping strategies used by the family caregivers, including religious coping, emotional coping, acceptance, becoming engaged in leisure activities, and the use of traditional healing to help them cope with their mentally ill members. Suggestions and conclusions: Study suggests that the family caregivers should engage themselves in social support groups to learn about and obtain the positive coping strategies used by other caregivers who have similar experiences in caring for the mentally ill. Study also suggests that they should get appropriate training from the mental health professionals in order to enhance the caregivers' coping skills.

  14. Mind-life continuity: A qualitative study of conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito, Inês; Martins, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    There are two fundamental models to understanding the phenomenon of natural life. One is the computational model, which is based on the symbolic thinking paradigm. The other is the biological organism model. The common difficulty attributed to these paradigms is that their reductive tools allow the phenomenological aspects of experience to remain hidden behind yes/no responses (behavioral tests), or brain 'pictures' (neuroimaging). Hence, one of the problems regards how to overcome methodological difficulties towards a non-reductive investigation of conscious experience. It is our aim in this paper to show how cooperation between Eastern and Western traditions may shed light for a non-reductive study of mind and life. This study focuses on the first-person experience associated with cognitive and mental events. We studied phenomenal data as a crucial fact for the domain of living beings, which, we expect, can provide the ground for a subsequent third-person study. The intervention with Jhana meditation, and its qualitative assessment, provided us with experiential profiles based upon subjects' evaluations of their own conscious experiences. The overall results should move towards an integrated or global perspective on mind where neither experience nor external mechanisms have the final word. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Does online learning click with rural nurses? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kim; Schmidt, David

    2016-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence rural nurses engagement with online learning within a rural health district in New Sound Wales (NSW), Australia. This qualitative study based on appreciative inquiry methodology used semi-structured interviews with managers and nurses. Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit facility managers, whereas convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses in 2012-2013. Three public health facilities in rural NSW. Fourteen nurses were involved in the study, including Health Service Managers (n = 3), Nurse Unit Manager (n = 1), Clinical Nurse Specialists (n = 3), Registered Nurses (n = 2), Enrolled Nurses (n = 2) and Assistant in Nursing (n = 3). The research found that online learning works well when there is accountability for education being undertaken by linking to organisational goals and protected time. Nurses in this study valued the ability to access and revisit online learning at any time. However, systems that are hard to access or navigate and module design that did not provide a mechanism for users to seek feedback negatively affected their use and engagement. This study demonstrates that rural nurses' engagement with online learning would be enhanced by a whole of system redesign in order to deliver a learning environment that will increase satisfaction, engagement and learning outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Conditions for addressing environmental determinants of health behavior in intersectoral policy networks: A fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Verweij, S; Grêaux, K; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Improving health requires changes in the social, physical, economic and political determinants of health behavior. For the realization of policies that address these environmental determinants, intersectoral policy networks are considered necessary for the pooling of resources to implement different policy instruments. However, such network diversity may increase network complexity and therefore hamper network performance. Network complexity may be reduced by network management and the provision of financial resources. This study examined whether network diversity - amidst the other conditions - is indeed needed to address environmental determinants of health behavior. We included 25 intersectoral policy networks in Dutch municipalities aimed at reducing overweight, smoking, and alcohol/drugs abuse. For our fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis we used data from three web-based surveys among (a) project leaders regarding network diversity and size (n = 38); (b) project leaders and project partners regarding management (n = 278); and (c) implementation professionals regarding types of environmental determinants addressed (n = 137). Data on budgets were retrieved from project application forms. Contrary to their intentions, most policy networks typically addressed personal determinants. If the environment was addressed too, it was mostly the social environment. To address environmental determinants of health behavior, network diversity (>50% of the actors are non-public health) was necessary in networks that were either small (policy networks in improving health behaviors by addressing a variety of environmental determinants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  18. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  19. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  20. Socio-psychological factors driving adult vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Wheelock

    Full Text Available While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≥65 s (73% and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52% in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines.20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1 perceived health and health behaviors; 2 knowledge; 3 vaccination influences; 4 disease appraisal; and 5 vaccination appraisal.The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines, policy should be better

  1. Distrust and patients in intercultural healthcare: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2018-05-01

    The importance of trust between patients and healthcare personnel is emphasised in nurses' and physicians' ethical codes. Trust is crucial for an effective healthcare personnel-patient relationship and thus for treatment and treatment outcomes. Cultural and linguistic differences may make building a trusting and positive relationship with ethnic minority patients particularly challenging. Although there is a great deal of research on cultural competence, there is a conspicuous lack of focus on the concepts of trust and distrust concerning ethnic minority patients, particularly in relation to the concept of 'othering'. To study which factors help build trust or create distrust in encounters between healthcare professionals and hospitalised ethnic minority patients, as well as study the dynamic complexities inherent within the process of 'othering'. Qualitative design, in-depth interviews and hermeneutic analysis. Participants and research context: The interviewees were 10 immigrant patients (six women and four men - eight Asians, two Africans - ages 32-85 years) recruited from a south-eastern Norwegian hospital. Ethical considerations: Study approval was obtained from the hospital's Privacy Ombudsman for Research and the hospital's leadership. Participation was voluntary and participants signed an informed consent form. Distrust and othering may be caused by differences in belief systems, values, perceptions, expectations, and style of expression and behaviour. Othering is a reciprocal phenomenon in minority ethnic patient-healthcare personnel encounters, and it influences trust building negatively. Besides demonstrating general professional skill and competence, healthcare personnel require cultural competence to create trust.

  2. Ethical competency of nurse leaders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2018-02-01

    Ethics play an important role in activating the manpower and achieving the organizational goals. The nurse leaders' ethical behavior can promote the care quality by affecting the nurses' performance and bringing up several positive consequences for the organization. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical competency of nurse leaders in cultural domains and the working conditions of the Iranian healthcare setting to arrive at a more comprehensive and specific perspective. This was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted with the participation of 14 nurse leaders at various levels. The participants were selected using the purposive sampling method, and the required data were collected using deep interview and also semi-structured interview. A deductive method of content analysis was applied in data analysis. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accord with the principles of research ethics and national rules and regulations relating to informed consent and confidentiality. Data analysis resulted in 17 subcategories that were subsequently grouped into three major categories including empathetic interactions, ethical behavior, and exalted manners. Our findings are consistent with previous ones, yet presenting a more complete knowledge about aspects of ethical competency of nurse leaders. The nurse leaders can provide a proper behavioral model for the work environment through the use of new information. The nurse leaders introduced various aspects of ethical competency, so the leaders' ethical competency could be promoted via planning and managing some ethical development programs. More future research is needed regarding the experiences of the subordinates and other related parties.

  3. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  4. SAUDI TEACHERS’ PRACTICES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Almuntasheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting from teacher-centred to student-centred practices requires teachers to understand strategies to interact with students in science classes. Formative assessment strategies are very critical component of classroom interaction where teachers obtain information about student learning wherever possible. Traditionally, however, teachers ask questions and evaluate student responses but without investigating student contributions to the classroom interaction. This qualitative study aimed at developing teachers’ knowledge of formative assessment strategies when teaching science-based inquiry in Saudi Arabia. 12 teachers were observed when teaching science and details of one teachers’ practices of formative assessment is presented in this study. Formative assessment framework that describes assessment conversations is used and modified to observe teachers’ assessment practices. Assessment conversation consists of four-step cycles, where the teacher elicits information from students through questioning, the student responds, the teacher recognizes the student’s response, and then uses the information to develop further inquiry. Findings indicate that teachers ask questions and receive responses but rarely allow students to share their own ideas or discuss their own thinking. The study underlines the importance of integrating formative assessment strategies during scientific inquiry teaching for professional development as a way to increase student participation and allow opportunities for students’ inquiry in science classes.

  5. A qualitative study of male dental hygienists' experiences after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, C C

    1999-01-01

    This report is part of a larger study undertaken in 1996 and 1997 for the author's doctoral dissertation. The study's purpose was to explore the experiences of male dental hygienists--focusing on their experiences before, during, and after graduation. The researcher interviewed 14 practicing male dental hygienists from east of the Mississippi River and one participant from the Midwest. Because of the length of the study, only their experiences following graduation from a dental hygiene program are discussed. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate the information gained from the interviews, which entails analyzing interview transcripts and developing themes from the data. Four post-graduation themes emerged: participants experienced (1) no job-search difficulties, although some participants experienced minor problems with securing a position, most had little trouble in finding a job; (2) societal gender discrimination, mainly in relation to societal stereotypes about what men and women should do; (3) mixed feelings of acceptance by the profession, although most felt the profession accepting, there were some feelings of not belonging; and (4) career satisfaction, all but one of the participants felt satisfied with his career choice.

  6. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2014-07-01

    Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi's seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy.

  7. Body image in gay and straight men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Inside the fitness for work consultation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Aylward, M; Rollnick, S

    2009-08-01

    Evidence now suggests that work is generally good for physical and mental health and well-being. Worklessness for whatever reason can lead to poorer physical and mental health. The role of the general practitioner (GP) in the management of fitness for work is pivotal. To understand the interaction between GP and patient in the fitness for work consultation. This study forms part of a larger research project to develop a learning programme for GPs around the fitness for work consultation based on behaviour change methodology. A qualitative study set in South Wales. Structured discussion groups with seven GPs. Two sessions each lasting 3 h were conducted to explore the GP and patient interaction around the fitness for work consultation. Multiple methods were used to enhance engagement. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Four major themes emerged from the meetings: role legitimacy, negotiation, managing the patient and managing the systems. Within these, subthemes emerged around role legitimacy. 'It's not my job', 'It's not what I trained for' and the 'shifting agenda' Negotiation was likened to 'A polite tug of war' and subthemes around decision making, managing the agenda and dealing with uncertainty emerged. This study starts to unravel the complexity of the fitness for work consultation. It illustrates how GPs struggle with the 'importance' of their role and 'confidence' in managing the fitness for work consultation. It addresses the skillful negotiation that is required to manage the consultation effectively.

  9. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  10. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

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    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  12. Patients' expectations of osteopathic care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Vinette; Leach, C M Janine; Fawkes, Carol A; Moore, Ann P

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that patients' expectations of health care and health-care practitioners are complex and may have a significant impact on outcomes of care. Little is known about the expectations of osteopathic patients. To explore osteopathic patients' expectations of private sector care. Focus groups and individual interviews with purposively selected patients; this was the qualitative phase of a mixed methods study, the final phase being a patient survey. A total of 34 adult patients currently attending for treatment at private osteopathic practices across the United Kingdom. Focus group discussions and individual interviews around expectations before, during and after osteopathic care. Thematic analysis of text data to identify topics raised by patients and to group these into broad themes. Many components of expectation were identified. A preliminary conceptual framework describing the way the therapeutic encounter is approached in osteopathy comprised five themes: individual agency, professional expertise, customer experience, therapeutic process and interpersonal relationship. The components of expectation identified in this phase of the study provided potential question topics for the survey questionnaire in the subsequent phase of the investigation. The model developed in this study may add a new perspective to existing evidence on expectations. Further research is recommended to test the findings both within private practice and the National Health Service. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A qualitative study of the organizational consequences of telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    The organizational consequences of telemedicine have frequently been mentioned in the telemedicine community, but there are few empirical studies. A study was therefore carried out of what happens in organizations when telemedicine is implemented. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. Almost all respondents reported numerous organizational changes, some important. Changes in work processes were the most common. Examples of the organizational consequences of telemedicine were organizational restructuring, new organizational units, changed mechanisms for internal coordination, different flows of patients through the health-care system, improved coordination of care, new job descriptions, relocation of the place of work, employment of personnel living far away from the workplace, effects on employees not directly involved in telemedicine, sharing of experiences, minor staffing changes, clinical teamwork independent of co-location, administrative meetings arranged by telemedicine, merger of organizations independent of location, less travel by staff (and patients), a possible beneficial effect on the quality of care, and limited opposition to the adoption of the technology. Telemedicine may be important in the future organization of the disciplines studied and in health-care generally. The infrastructure of electronic networks may play an important role for organizations as the volume of telemedicine activity increases and economies of scale are realized.

  14. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  15. Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary. PMID:29082366

  16. Acculturation Needs of Pediatric International Medical Graduates: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osta, Amanda D; Barnes, Michelle M; Pessagno, Regina; Schwartz, Alan; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: International medical graduates (IMGs) play a key role in host countries' health systems but face unique challenges, which makes effective, tailored support for IMGs essential. Prior literature describing the acculturation needs of IMGs focused primarily on communication content and style. We conducted a qualitative study to explore acculturation that might be specific to IMG residents who care for children. In a study conducted from November 2011 to April 2012, we performed four 90-minute semistructured focus groups with 26 pediatric IMG residents from 12 countries. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using open and focused coding methodology. The focus groups and subsequent analysis demonstrated that pediatric IMG residents' socialization to their home culture impacts their transition to practice in the United States; they must adjust not only to a U.S. culture, different from their own, but also to the culture of medicine in the United States. We identified the following new acculturation themes: understanding the education system and family structure, social determinants of health, communication with African American parents, contraception, physician handoffs, physicians' role in prevention, adolescent health, and physicians' role in child advocacy. We further highlight the acculturation challenges faced by pediatric IMG residents and offer brief recommendations for the creation of a deliberate acculturation curriculum for pediatric IMG residents. Insight: Residency training is a unique period in physicians' personal and professional development and can be particularly challenging for IMGs. There is a significant gap in the identified acculturation needs and the current curricula available to IMG residents who care for children.

  17. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  18. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  19. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity.

  20. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  1. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  2. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  3. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  4. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  5. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

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    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  6. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

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    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  7. Core attitudes of professionals in palliative care: a qualitative study.

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    Simon, Steffen T; Ramsenthaler, Christina; Bausewein, Claudia; Krischke, Norbert; Geiss, Gerlinde

    2009-08-01

    Self-awareness of one's own reactions towards patients and their relatives is of paramount importance for all professionals in palliative care. 'Core attitude' describes the way in which a person perceives himself and the world, and forms the basis for his actions and thoughts. The aim of this study is to explore what core attitude means for palliative care professionals and whether there is a specific core attitude in palliative care. Qualitative study with 10 face-to-face in-depth interviews with experts in palliative care (nurses, physicians, social workers, psychologists, chaplain) in Germany. Core attitude in palliative care can be best described with the following three domains: 1) personal characteristics; 2) experience of care; and 3) competence in care. Authenticity is the most important characteristic of professionals, along with honesty and mindfulness. Core attitude primarily becomes apparent in the relationship with the patient. Perception and listening are key competences. The experts emphasized the universality of the core attitude in the care of ill people. They stressed the importance and relevance of teaching core attitudes in palliative care education. In the field of palliative care, core attitude consists predominately of authenticity, manifests itself in relationships, and requires a high degree of perceptiveness.

  8. Internalized homophobia in homosexual men: a qualitative study

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    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence about linguistic expressions used that show internalized homophobia by homosexual individuals. The objective of this research was to explore suggestive internalized homophobic language used by web page users for homosocialization purposes among homosexual men living in Bogotá and Cartagena, Colombia. A qualitative study was designed with the purpose of analyzing content of 40 profiles, 20 from Bogota, and in the same proportion in Cartagena. This was based on account profiles from a website which contained contact inquiries between people who were not heterosexual and described homophobic characteristics when referring to their ideal partner. It was observed that in 19 out of 20 profiles in Bogotá and the same proportion in Cartagena people used suggestive and direct qualifiers that showed internalized explicit homophobia and implicit language, for instance, “I am looking for serious people”. The internalized homophobia is expressed by looking for that “macho” man who is professional and lives a heterosexual lifestyle. Authors conclude that homosexual men who requested contact with other men by Internet often expressed internalized homophobia in explicit and implicit ways, which suggests accepting hegemonic model of masculine men. Quantitative studies are needed in Colombian non-heterosexual populations.

  9. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

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    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  10. Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study

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    Maryam Nekoolaltak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication, psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems, relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home. Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary.

  11. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study.

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    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-28

    Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013.The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients' privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean.

  12. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

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    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  13. Quality of life in ostomy patients: a qualitative study.

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    Dabirian, Aazam; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Rassouli, Maryam; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri

    2010-12-21

    Therapeutic procedures may not only treat disease but also affect patient quality of life. Therefore, quality of life should be measured in order to assess the impact of disease and therapeutic procedures. To identify clients' problems, it is necessary to assess several dimensions of quality of life, including physical, spiritual, economic, and social aspects. In this regard, we conducted a qualitative study to explore quality of life and its dimensions in ostomy patients referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association. Fourteen patients were interviewed about their quality of life dimensions by purposeful sampling. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Nine main themes emerged using this approach, including physical problems related to colostomy, impact of colostomy on psychological functioning, social and family relationships, travel, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual function, as well as religious and economic issues. The findings of the study identified a number of challenges in quality of life for patients with ostomy. The results can be used by health care providers to create a supportive environment that promotes better quality of life for their ostomy patients.

  14. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

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    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  15. Health Management in Disasters in Iran: A Qualitative Study

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    Maryam Nakhaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Disaster  management  relies  on  the  prediction  of  problems  and  providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management. Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants  were  selected  purposefully  and  data  were  collected  through  interviews, observation, and relevant documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors. Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages

  16. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

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    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  17. Cardiovascular patients’ experiences of living with pacemaker: Qualitative study

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    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A pacemaker implantation is considered major life event for cardiovascular patients, so they will probably have very interesting experiences of living with this device. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cardiovascular patients living with the pacemaker. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 27 patients were chosen through purposive sampling to achieve data saturation, and their experiences were examined using semi-structured interviews. The patients’ statements were recorded with their consent and analyzed using content analysis method. RESULTS: Participants’ experiences included three main themes: “Problems and limitations,” “feeling and dealing with pacemaker”, and “sources of comfort” and 10 sub-themes including: physical problems, financial problems, social problems, the first encounter, the feeling of living with the pacemaker, how to cope with pacemaker, satisfaction with pacemaker, good family support, hospital and hospital staff performance, and role of religious beliefs. CONCLUSION: Planning to solve social problems, identifying and changing feelings of patients using pacemakers, reinforcing the resources of comfort especially family support seem to be necessary steps for improving quality of life and impact of using pacemaker. 

  18. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

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    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  19. Patients' views on priority setting in neurosurgery: A qualitative study.

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    Gunaratnam, Caroline; Bernstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accountability for Reasonableness is an ethical framework which has been implemented in various health care systems to improve and evaluate the fairness of priority setting. This framework is grounded on four mandatory conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement. There have been few studies which have evaluated the patient stakeholders' acceptance of this framework; certainly no studies have been done on patients' views on the prioritization system for allocating patients for operating time in a system with pressure on the resource of inpatient beds. The aim of this study is to examine neurosurgical patients' views on the prioritization of patients for operating theater (OT) time on a daily basis at a tertiary and quaternary referral neurosurgery center. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with thirty-seven patients, recruited from the neurosurgery clinic at Toronto Western Hospital. Family members and friends who accompanied the patient to their clinic visit were encouraged to contribute to the discussion. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Overall, patients are supportive of the concept of a priority-setting system based on fairness, but felt that a few changes would help to improve the fairness of the current system. These changes include lowering the level of priority given to volume-funded cases and providing scheduled surgeries that were previously canceled a higher level of prioritization. Good communication, early notification, and rescheduling canceled surgeries as soon as possible were important factors that directly reflected the patients' confidence level in their doctor, the hospital, and the health care system. This study is the first clinical qualitative study of patients' perspective on a prioritization system used for allocating neurosurgical patients for OT time on a daily basis in a socialized not-for-profit health care system with

  20. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

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    Saranya Mony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  1. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

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    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  2. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  3. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

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    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  4. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD - A qualitative study.

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    Canela, Carlos; Buadze, Anna; Dube, Anish; Eich, Dominique; Liebrenz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate how adult patients with ADHD coped with their symptoms prior to diagnosis and treatment, what skills and compensation strategies they had developed and what their self-perceptions of these strategies were. We used a qualitative approach to analyze interviews with 32 outpatients of a specialty care unit at a university hospital. Patients reported frequent use of diverse compensatory strategies with varying degrees of effectiveness. These were classified into five categories (organizational, motoric, attentional, social, psychopharmacological). In certain circumstances, ADHD symptoms were even perceived as useful. Before diagnosis and treatment, patients with ADHD may develop a variety of skills to cope with their symptoms. Several of these skills are perceived as helpful. Knowledge of self-generated coping strategies may help better understand patients and their histories and thus facilitate patient cooperation. Moreover, knowing ways in which such patients cope with their symptoms may help elucidate reasons for late or under-diagnosing of the disorder.

  6. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

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    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  7. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups ( n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews ( n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

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    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Doctors' experience with handheld computers in clinical practice: qualitative study.

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    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Medow, Mitchell A

    2004-05-15

    To examine doctors' perspectives about their experiences with handheld computers in clinical practice. Qualitative study of eight focus groups consisting of doctors with diverse training and practice patterns. Six practice settings across the United States and two additional focus group sessions held at a national meeting of general internists. 54 doctors who did or did not use handheld computers. Doctors who used handheld computers in clinical practice seemed generally satisfied with them and reported diverse patterns of use. Users perceived that the devices helped them increase productivity and improve patient care. Barriers to use concerned the device itself and personal and perceptual constraints, with perceptual factors such as comfort with technology, preference for paper, and the impression that the devices are not easy to use somewhat difficult to overcome. Participants suggested that organisations can help promote handheld computers by providing advice on purchase, usage, training, and user support. Participants expressed concern about reliability and security of the device but were particularly concerned about dependency on the device and over-reliance as a substitute for clinical thinking. Doctors expect handheld computers to become more useful, and most seem interested in leveraging (getting the most value from) their use. Key opportunities with handheld computers included their use as a stepping stone to build doctors' comfort with other information technology and ehealth initiatives and providing point of care support that helps improve patient care.

  10. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  11. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Women's mental health during pregnancy: A participatory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M

    2017-08-01

    British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Pharmacy Student Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Joel; Ginsburg, Diane B

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To understand what motivates student pharmacists to seek a leadership position while in the professional pharmacy program and why these students choose to lead in a particular organization. Methods. A qualitative study was used to answer the research questions. Current student leaders were recruited to participate, and each completed a pre-interview questionnaire and a one-hour interview. All interviews were transcribed, and an interpretive phenomenological approach was used to describe, code, and analyze the experiences. Results. Student leaders were motivated to serve in a leadership position for four reasons: networking opportunities, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy. Additionally, prior leadership experience and influence played major roles in these student leaders' pursuit of a position. Conclusion. Networking, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy are the four primary motivating factors for student leadership while in the professional pharmacy program. Knowing these factors should help direct resources in organizational and college efforts to produce qualified and impactful pharmacist leaders.

  14. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  15. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaya Góngora, Maria Del Mar; Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-03-30

    To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  16. Integrating postgraduate and undergraduate general practice education: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Andrew; Culhane, Aidan; Dunne, Colum; Griffin, Michael; McGrath, Deirdre; Meagher, David; O'Dwyer, Pat; Cullen, Walter

    2013-05-01

    Educational activity in general practice has increased considerably in the past 20 years. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' capacity to fulfil this role. To explore the potential for vertical integration in undergraduate and postgraduate education in general practice, by describing the experience of (and attitudes towards) 'vertical integration in general practice education' among key stakeholder groups. Qualitative study of GPs, practice staff, GPs-in-training and medical students involving focus groups which were thematically analysed. We identified four overarching themes: (1) Important practical features of vertical integration are interaction between learners at different stages, active involvement in clinical teams and interagency collaboration; (2) Vertical integration may benefit GPs/practices, students and patients through improved practice systems, exposure to team-working and multi-morbidity and opportunistic health promotion, respectively; (3) Capacity issues may challenge its implementation; (4) Strategies such as recognising and addressing diverse learner needs and inter-agency collaboration can promote vertical integration. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' teaching capacity. Recognising the diverse educational needs of learners at different stages and collaboration between agencies responsible for the planning and delivery of specialist training and medical degree programmes would appear to be important.

  17. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-11-01

    Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician-patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Qualitative study using interviews. Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist.

  19. Treatment of hemophilia: A qualitative study of mothers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, boys with hemophilia usually begin treatment after their first bleeding episode. Boys with severe hemophilia usually start prophylactic treatment around 18-24 months. Health professionals administer factor concentrate initially, but when boys are around 4 years old most parents start treating their children at home. There is a lack of research on how parents, and especially how carrier mothers, experience the medical treatment for their sons' hemophilia. Our aim was to investigate how carrier mothers experience this treatment in the hospital setting and at home. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 16 mothers of boys or men with hemophilia A or B. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive thematic analytical approach. Mothers experienced both practical and emotional challenges in relation to their sons' treatment, and repeated venipuncture was especially difficult emotionally. Parents preferred home treatment to hospital treatment because it was less time-consuming, less disruptive to family life, and provided a greater sense of control. Encountering healthcare professionals who were unfamiliar with hemophilia was a second major stress factor, especially when parents felt that health professionals lacked competence and were unwilling to seek advice. While home treatment for hemophilia enables freedom, flexibility, and autonomy for the boys as well as for the family, mothers may experience treatment of hemophilia as a burden. Health professionals should provide tailored practical and emotional support to parents by probing into their experiences with treating their sons' hemophilia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki

    2008-05-01

    To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health.

  1. Self-knowledge of health teachers: A qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Bruna Pedroso; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; de Jesus, Bruna Helena

    2018-06-01

    Specific pedagogical training for teaching in the area of health emerges with the goal of creating critical and reflective professionals and as a necessary challenge to university teaching, where there is reflection on self-awareness, consciousness, and the incompleteness of being. This study aims to understand how Freire's critical consciousness is expressed in the pedagogical practice of health teachers. This study is a qualitative study that is descriptive, exploratory, and analytical. Twenty-one teachers from a public university in southern Brazil participated. Data were collected using open-ended, in-person interviews held from May to December 2013. Data systematization was based on Minayo's operative proposal. The analysis yielded 2 main categories, including the naïve critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of oppression, and the epistemological critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of freedom. The results revealed the teachers' self-knowledge, including the reasoning and motivations that made them become teachers, the characteristics considered necessary to be a teacher, the teachers' feelings in their teaching practice, and the teaching preparation required for being in the classroom from the perspective of naïve and epistemological critical consciousness. The study shows that the self-knowledge that emerged from the teachers' reports encourages new perspectives in the construction of the teacher, raising the challenge of development and transformation from naïve consciousness to epistemological consciousness, and thus contributing to a breakthrough with respect to critical and creative teacher training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  3. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  4. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  5. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health

  6. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote

  7. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  8. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  9. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The challenges of clinical education in a baccalaureate surgical technology students in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardosht, Roghayeh; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Razavi, Mohammad Etezad; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2018-02-01

    Clinical education is an integral part of the surgical technology curriculum, in which students combine and integrate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and philosophies of the profession. It is difficult to learn and adapt to different types of skills and roles in the operating room environment. This qualitative study examines the difference between the clinical education of Surgical Technology and other clinical settings, and the challenges faced by students in the field, within the course. This was a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2016. The participants in this study were 16 baccalaureate surgical technology students of the University for Medical Sciences in Khorasan Razavi province. A semi-structured interview method was run to collect the required data. The sampling was initially purposive, then in the snowball method which continued until data saturation. All interviews were recorded, then transcribed, and analyzed using a continuous comparative method and conventional qualitative content analysis method. From the deep and rich descriptions of the participants, three themes including "stressful environment", "controversy between anticipation of role and reality", and "humiliating experiences" as well as a general theme of "bitter education" were obtained. Students' orientation before attending the operating room, accompanying, supporting, and a full-time attendance of the specialist instructor, strengthening the prerequisite knowledge and skills for the students in this field, teaching ethics, and professional interactions, play an important role in the student's acceptance of the operating room, in the surgery team and the improvement of the quality of clinical education of these students.

  11. Implementation of case studies in undergraduate didactic nursing courses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Danette K

    2013-07-04

    The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students' levels of cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the strategies. Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study. For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8. Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Results of this investigation have led to an increased understanding of implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in undergraduate nursing didactic courses. Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience.

  12. Therapy interventions for children with neurodisabilities: a qualitative scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Susan; Maddison, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015; 5 :e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this. The objectives were to (1) describe the current practice, approaches and schools of thought in relation to physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language therapy for children with neurodisability; (2) explore clinical decision-making; (3) investigate views on outcomes and their measurement, particularly participation as an outcome, that is, the child's ability to have the opportunity to be involved in life situations and activities (e.g. communication, mobility, interpersonal interactions, self-care, learning and applying knowledge); (4) seek views on the aspects of therapy interventions that have an impact on outcomes; and (5) elicit stakeholder views on research needs and priorities. More than 70 professionals (therapists, service leads, paediatricians and education staff) and 25 parents participated in a qualitative interview (either individually or as part of a focus group). Professional thinking and models of service delivery are in a state of flux and development. There is a move towards goals-focused, family-centred approaches. Work tends to be highly individualised, with few protocols. Parents are certain of the value of therapies, although they may experience difficulties with provision and may seek (additional) private provision. Therapy interventions are conceived as three components: the therapist, the procedures/equipment, etc., and the wider

  13. Qualitative Study on the Identity of the Manager in Romania

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    FLORENTINA SCÂRNECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a qualitative research project carried out in 2008, which aimed at identifying the identity condition of managers in Romania. The article presents part of the grounded theory on the identity of managers: the day to day circumstances in which they live - issues related to childhood and maturity (material situation, relationships, family, etc.. Also, it describes in brief the methodology applied: qualitative collection of data, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the analysis of qualitative data obtained.The article presents, also in brief, the larger research framework wherefrom the presented part was extracted. The conclusion is that there are life-related issues specific to managers (and, more precisely, specific reactions to the environment and that their identification can form the basis for designing methods of managerial diagnosis and prognosis.

  14. Comparative effect of paracetamol, NSAIDs or their combination in postoperative pain management: a qualitative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, M; Jones, S; Pedersen, J L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative reviews of postoperative pain management have demonstrated that the number of patients needed to treat for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief (NNT) is 2.7 for ibuprofen (400 mg) and 4.6 for paracetamol (1000 mg), both compared with placebo. However, direct...... comparisons between paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have not been extensively reviewed. The aims of this review are (i) to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of paracetamol with those of other NSAIDs in postoperative pain, (ii) to compare the effects of combined...... paracetamol and NSAID with those of either drug alone, and (iii) to discuss whether the adverse effects of NSAIDs in short-term use are justified by their analgesic effects, compared with paracetamol. METHODS: Medline (1966 to January 2001) and the Cochrane Library (January 2001) were used to perform...

  15. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

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    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  16. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  17. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  18. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  20. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

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    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities.The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  1. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  3. Parents' concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Sarah; Everard, Claire M; Gallagher, Stephen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-08-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth. A qualitative semi-structured interview format was utilized. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed as the analytic strategy. The recruitment strategy focused on couples whereby the parents of ten stillborn babies were contacted; however, five men declined to participate in the study. The final sample of 15 parents were all Irish: ten of whom were female and five of whom were male. Findings revealed two superordinate themes relating to a subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth: aspirations for future pregnancy and expectations of future care. Parents disclosed how the prospect of a subsequent pregnancy was daunting with fears about the potential loss of another child. Despite these fears, parents' aspirations differed in the days following stillbirth; mothers wished to plan a future pregnancy while fathers were reluctant to consider any pregnancies. Parents were unsure of what to expect in terms of the level of care that would be provided to them in a subsequent pregnancy. Additional appointments at the maternity hospital were considered crucial to provide reassurance during a subsequent pregnancy. These findings underscore the far-reaching and contrasting effects of stillbirth on parents. These complex needs highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary team approach. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  5. Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtrop Jodi S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127 were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38% than the overall rate (26% for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.

  6. Clinicians' experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Frich, Jan C; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-11-22

    There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals' decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians' journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. We found that there were three phases in clinicians' journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants' experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management "on the fly". Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians' decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary support functions are available locally, especially

  7. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  8. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary

  9. Transgender men's experiences of fertility preservation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuand, G; Dhejne, C; Olofsson, J I; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2017-02-01

    How do transgender men experience fertility preservation (FP) by cryopreservation of oocytes? The procedures required prior to oocyte cryopreservation, such as hormonal ovarian stimulation and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), have a negative impact on gender dysphoria as they are closely linked to the men's female assigned sex at birth, which is incompatible with their current status. Transgender persons often have high dissatisfaction with assigned sex-specific body features, such as the genital organs and androgen/oestrogen-responsive features. Thus, undergoing FP that requires genital-specific examinations, aimed at obtaining oocytes to cryopreserve, could be distressing. As no previous studies have investigated transgender men's experiences of FP involving cryopreservation of oocytes, little is known about their experience of the procedures. This is a prospective study among adult transgender men referred for FP between March 2014 and December 2015. Individual in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted shortly after FP treatment. The interviews lasted between 62 and 111 min (mean 81 min) and were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants were recruited on their first visit to the assisted reproduction clinic for reproductive counseling. There were 15 men, scheduled for FP, who chose to participate in the study (age 19-35); none had given birth and eight had a partner. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in three main categories: the journey to FP, reactions to the FP proceedings and strategies for coping. The referral for FP was an important part of the assessment and diagnosis and sometimes lined with frustrating waits and doubts. The reaction to the FP proceedings revealed that the genital examinations and the physical changes associated with discontinuation of testosterone or hormonal stimulation treatment triggered gender incongruence and dysphoria. However, for some, the negative expectations were not

  10. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  11. Children with Facial Morphea Managing Everyday Life: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R

    2018-02-16

    This study explores the everyday experiences of children with facial morphea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphea 8-17 years of age and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and reactions of others, (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines and side effects, such as weight gain added to participants' stress. To manage the impact of facial morphea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to support children with facial morphea to achieve a better quality of life. Health care providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphea, as well as providing opportunities for peer support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgeons’ views on preoperative medical evaluation: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Riggs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial variation in the practice of preoperative medical evaluation (PME and limited evidence for its benefit, which raises concerns about overuse. Surgeons have a unique role in this multidisciplinary practice. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore surgeons’ practices and their beliefs about PME. Methods We conducted of semi-structured interviews with 18 surgeons in Baltimore, Maryland. Surgeons were purposively sampled to maximize diversity in terms of practice type (academic vs. private practice, surgical specialty, gender, and experience level. General topics included surgeons’ current PME practices, perceived benefits and harms of PME, the surgical risk assessment, and potential improvements and barriers to change. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis to identify themes, which are presented as assertions. Transcripts were re-analyzed to identify supporting and opposing instances of each assertion. Results A total of 15 themes emerged. There was wide variation in surgeons’ described PME practices. Surgeons believed that PME improves surgical outcomes, but not all patients benefit. Surgeons were cognizant of the financial cost of the current system and the potential inconvenience that additional tests and office visits pose to patients. Surgeons believed that PME has minimal to no risk and that a normal PME is reassuring to them and patients. Surgeons were confident in their ability to assess surgical risk, and risk assessment by non-surgeons rarely affected their surgical decision-making. Hospital and anesthesiology requirements were a major driver of surgeons’ PME practices. Surgeons did not receive much training on PME but perceived their practices to be similar to their colleagues. Surgeons believed that PME provides malpractice protection, welcomed standardization, and perceived there to be inadequate evidence to

  13. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona

    2011-08-30

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  14. Women's Views About Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.

  15. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  16. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  17. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  18. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The construction of professional identity by physiotherapists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  1. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...

  2. A Qualitative Study of Participants in a Family Law Course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... period 2009-2012. This research sets out to examine the change ... adopted a mixed methods approach with a primarily qualitative focus, and was ..... An example of the type of assessment in the family law course would be to ...

  3. The structure and comparative advantages of China's scientific research: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a sharp increase in China's scientific output. Behind its fast growth, little is known about China's comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. Meanwhile, despite China's rising position (now in second place worldwide for research output), its research

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  5. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  6. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  7. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government's measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. The government's endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of women deliver at home and this was found to be the

  8. Patients' appraisals of public and private healthcare: a qualitative study of physiotherapy and osteopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katherine J; Bishop, Felicity L; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George

    2013-10-01

    Patients have previously reported differences in their experiences of treatments received in the public and private sectors; it remains unclear whether such perceived differences are particular to or shared across different interventions. This study explored whether patients' appraisals of public and private treatments are similar when appraising a complementary therapy (osteopathy) compared to a mainstream therapy (physiotherapy). Thirty-five qualitative interviews were analysed thematically. Patients' appraisals varied by health-care sector and therapy type: physiotherapy was appraised more negatively in the National Health Service than the private sector but osteopathy was appraised similarly within both health-care sectors. Potential reasons for this are discussed.

  9. Awake craniotomy for excision of arteriovenous malformations? A qualitative comparison study with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David Yuen Chung; Chan, Danny Tat Ming; Zhu, Cannon Xian Lun; Kan, Patricia Kwok Yee; Ng, Amelia Yikjin; Hsieh, Yi-Pin Sonia; Abrigo, Jill; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016. Patients' presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grading, rate of obliteration and complication were reviewed and analyzed with the modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (RS score). Six patients had excision of AVM under awake mapping during this period of time. Two were SM Grade II and four were SM Grade III. Five located at the peri-rolandic region while one at the temporal language area. None had failed mapping. Five out of six achieved complete obliteration (83.3%). Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed better treatment outcome with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS with the obliteration rate of 100% versus 96% for RS score ≤1.00, 100% versus 78% for RS score 1.01-1.50, and 66% versus 50% for RS score >2.00 respectively. In conclusion, awake mapping and excision of AVMs at the eloquent area is feasible. Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed higher obliteration rate with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sawynok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65% who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N=5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N=8 trial completers and N=7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes.

  11. Inflated medicine prices in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Mant, Andrea; Razee, Husna; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dang, Thu Ha; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen

    2017-06-01

    One third of the world's population lacks regular access to essential medicines partly because of the high cost of medicines. In Vietnam, the cost to patients of medicines was 47 times the international reference price for originator brands and 11 times the price for generic equivalents in the public sector. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study conducted to identify the principal reasons for inflated medicine prices in Vietnam.Between April 2008 and December 2009, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from pharmaceutical companies, private pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam. Study participants were recruited using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using NVivo8® software and analyzed using a framework of structure-conduct-performance (SCP).Participants attributed high prices of originator medicines to a monopoly of supply. The prices of generic medicines were also considered to be excessive, reportedly due to the need to recoup the cost of financial inducements paid to prescribers and procurement officers. These inducements constituted a dominant cost component of the end price of generic medicines. Poor market intelligence about current world prices, as well as failure to achieve economies of scale because of unwarranted duplication in pharmaceutical production and distribution system were also factors contributing to high prices. This was reported to be further compounded by multiple layers in the supply chain and unregulated retail mark-ups.To address these problems a multifaceted approach is needed encompassing policy and legislative responses. Policy options include establishing effective monitoring of medicine quality assurance, procurement, distribution and use. Rationalization of the domestic pharmaceutical production and distribution system to achieve economies of scale is also required. Appropriate

  12. Effects of complex interventions in 'skin cancer prevention and treatment': protocol for a mixed-method systematic review with qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beifus, Karolina; Breitbart, Eckhard; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2017-09-05

    Occurring from ultraviolet radiation combined with impairing ozone levels, uncritical sun exposure and use of tanning beds an increasing number of people are affected by different types of skin cancer. But preventive interventions like skin cancer screening are still missing the evidence for effectiveness and therefore are criticised. Fundamental for an appropriate course of action is to approach the defined parameters as measures for effectiveness critically. A prerequisite should be the critical application of used parameter that are defined as measures for effectiveness. This research seeks to establish, through the available literature, the effects and conditions that prove the effectiveness of prevention strategies in skin cancer. A mixed-method approach is employed to combine quantitative to qualitative methods and answer what effects can display effectiveness considering time horizon, perspective and organisational level and what are essential and sufficient conditions to prove effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in skin cancer prevention strategies. A systematic review will be performed to spot studies from any design and assess the data quantitatively and qualitatively. Included studies from each key question will be summarised by characteristics like population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design, endpoints, effect estimator and so on. Beside statistical relevancies for a systematic review the qualitative method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will be performed. The estimated outcomes from this review and QCA are the accomplishment and absence of effects that are appropriate for application in effectiveness assessments and further cost-effectiveness assessment. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews number CRD42017053859. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  13. Swiss Armed Forces Organizational Level Leader Development: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Merriam, defines a case study as “an in-depth description and analysis of a bounded system.”79 Among the six different qualitative types of research ...80 John W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2014), 201. 81 Ibid...Publishing Group, 1996. Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2014. Curphy

  14. A student's perspective of managing data collection in a complex qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Eileen Mary; van der Riet, Pamela; Keatinge, Diana Rosemary

    2014-11-01

    To highlight from a doctoral student's perspective some of the unexpected and challenging issues that may arise when collecting data in a complex, qualitative study. Using a qualitative approach to undertaking a PhD requires commitment to the research topic, the acquisition of a variety of research skills and the development of expertise in writing. Despite close research supervision and guidance, the first author of this paper experienced unexpected hurdles when collecting data. This article highlights these hurdles and compares them with similar and dissimilar challenges raised by a social researcher with 30 years' experience (White 2012). The first author's experience of field research during her PhD candidature. Informed by a critical theoretical perspective, a snowballing technique was used to examine issues related to data collection by a doctoral student in a qualitative research study. The first author found the logistics of qualitative data collection, concerns about transparency, role confusion and power differentials with participants, and the effective use of video recording technology, unexpectedly challenging. Many of these issues are highlighted in the literature and/or during research supervision. However, the student researcher remains a novice when entering the field. It is often only on reflection after encountering the hurdle that the student recognises future pre-emptive or alternative methods of data collection. The challenges faced as a doctoral student managing the data collection phase of the study concurred with White's discussion of some of the 'real life challenges that novice researchers might face' (2012). Specific guidance and prudence are needed by research students to know when enough data have been collected for manageable analysis within the limits of candidature. Use of reflexivity and mindfulness practised by the student during this phase assisted the ability to reflect, respond and learn from issues as they arose and aim for a

  15. Transforming Verbal Counts in Reports of Qualitative Descriptive Studies Into Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Voils, Corrine I.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Hasselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of qualitative studies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitative studies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative. PMID:19448052

  16. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  17. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  18. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Agyemang, Charles; Schuster, John S.; Willems, Dick L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  19. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguli, S.; Mafigiri, D.; Nakigudde, J.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in

  20. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients percieve and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: A qualitive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, E.J.; Haafkens, J.; Agyeman, Ch.; Schuster, J.; Willems, D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  1. General practitioners learning qualitative research: A case study of postgraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.

  2. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita ANGIONI; Francesco DONINI

    2017-01-01

    Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group), leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a compa...

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  4. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation / Lars Fredrik Stöcker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Norkus, Zenonas. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation. Verlag Apostrofia Publishers, Central European University Press. Budapest und New York 2012

  5. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita ANGIONI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group, leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a comparison with the strategic choices of three main competitors of Tod's, which offer products with similar values (Made in Italy, exclusivity and high craftsmanship; they are listed companies; they derive from a family business and the family still holds the company's control. The analysis highlights the ability of the Tod's Group in valorizing its capabilities and skills, and the ability of the management to exploit the available relational network.

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema with T2-Weighted PROPELLER MRI in a High-Risk Population Compared to Low-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Becker, Manuel; Homsi, Rami; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-03-07

     To determine the suitability of T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema.  60 participants in a lung cancer screening program (30 subjects with pulmonary emphysema, and 30 control subjects without emphysema) were included for this retrospective study. All subjects were examined with low-dose CT (LDCT) and MRI within the screening program. The use of a T2-weighted PROPELLER sequence for the assessment of emphysema was analyzed and correlated with the results of LDCT. The presence and the extent of pulmonary emphysema were first assessed qualitatively using a three-point score, and then quantitatively with a semi-automated software program to obtain emphysema indices.  All 30 cases with pulmonary emphysema were accurately detected by MRI. There were 3 cases with emphysema according to MRI without emphysematous changes on LDCT (false-positive results). The qualitative scores as well as the emphysema indices were significantly higher in the emphysema group compared to the control group for MRI and LDCT (p emphysema group and r = 0.668/p emphysema index: r = 0.960/p emphysema group and r = 0.746/p pulmonary emphysema may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI with very good correlation to LDCT.   · T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI may be suitable for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema.. · There was significant correlation between MRI and LDCT regarding qualitative scores and quantitative emphysema indices in our study with correlation coefficients for different subgroups ranging from r = 0.668 to r = 0.960.. · T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI may have the potential to be used for follow-up examinations in patients with severe emphysema to avoid radiation exposure of repeated CTs.. · Meier-Schroers M, Sprinkart AM, Becker M et al. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema with T2-Weighted PROPELLER MRI in a High-Risk Population Compared to Low-Dose CT

  7. Victims of educator-targeted bullying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.

  8. Menstruation during a lifespan: A qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.

  9. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  10. A qualitative pilot study of food insecurity among Maasai women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a qualitative method to understand food insecurity based on the lived experience of women of the Maasai population in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Tanzania. Methods: Short semi-structured qualitative interviews with 4 Maasai women. Results: Food insecurity was present in ...

  11. Client Experiences of Counselling and Treatment Interventions: A Qualitative Study of Family Views of Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David

    1996-01-01

    Argues that personal experience and social life are inherently meaningful and that qualitative research designs can contribute to theory-building in counseling and psychotherapy. To illustrate the use of qualitative research designs and methods of analysis, a study of family members' views of family therapy is described. (RJM)

  12. Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

  13. What Can Qualitative Studies Offer in a World Where Evidence Drives Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2018-01-01

    In an environment in which evidence-based practice is the espoused norm, nurses have understandably sought to frame the knowledge they deem relevant to practice decisions, including the findings of their qualitative studies, as a form of evidence. However, since cancer patients face a significant challenge interpreting various evidence claims, it is important to recognize that the results of our qualitative studies reflect a different form of knowledge from that which an evidence-based practice definition of evidence presumes. Thus, we need to rethink our relationship to what qualitative studies offer to the evidentiary dialog. An approach to qualitative inquiry that derives from a nursing disciplinary logic model is, therefore, presented as an alternative means by which to generate the kinds of knowledge nurses need to practice and to gain expertise in clinical wisdom. Drawing on cancer communications research as an example, a nursing angle of vision on how best to use qualitative approaches to interpret evidence and inform practice emerges.

  14. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  15. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  16. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  17. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Page 1. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence characteristics around translation initiation codon in four eukaryotes. Qingpo Liu and Qingzhong Xue. J. Genet. 84, 317–322. Table 1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 39 base positions around the AUG codon in the four eukaryotic species studied.

  18. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  19. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  20. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana Lorens; Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Fiks, José Paulo

    2012-09-03

    Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents' experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  1. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program : A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-Franca, Cristineide; Van Solinge, Hanna; Henkens, Kene; Murta, Sheila Giardini

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation

  2. "I was a little surprised": Qualitative Insights from Patients Enrolled in a 12-Month Trial Comparing Opioids to Non-Opioid Medications for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne S Matthias; Donaldson, Melvin T; Jensen, Agnes C; Krebs, Erin E

    2018-04-28

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major public health problem. Although opioid prescribing for chronic pain has increased dramatically since the 1990s, this practice has come under scrutiny because of increases in opioid-related harms and lack of evidence for long-term effectiveness. The Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial was a pragmatic 12-month randomized trial comparing benefits and harms of opioid versus non-opioid medications for chronic musculoskeletal pain. The current qualitative study was designed to better understand trial results by exploring patients' experiences, including perceptions of medications, experiences with the intervention, and whether expectations were met. Thirty-four participants who were purposefully sampled based on treatment group and intervention response participated in semi-structured interviews. The constant comparison method guided analysis. Results revealed that participants often held strong beliefs about opioid medications, which sometimes changed during the trial as they gained experience with medications; participants described a wide variety of experiences with treatment effectiveness, regardless of study group or their response to the intervention; and participants highly valued the personalized pain care model used in SPACE. SPACE trial results indicated no advantage for opioid over non-opioid medications. Qualitative findings suggest that, for patients in both treatment groups, pre-existing expectations of medications and of anticipated improvement in pain shaped experiences with and responses to medications. In addition, the personalized pain care model was described as contributing to positive outcomes in both groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  4. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  5. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coping with interruptions in clinical nursing - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Brahe, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    phenomenological approach. METHODS: Observations were performed combined with semi-structured qualitative interviews. RESULTS: Managing interruptions depend on level of competence, working environment, dialogue and matching of expectations, collegial roles and implicit rules. Working procedures impact on how......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain knowledge on how nurses' cope with interruptions in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Interruptions may delay work routines and result in wasted time, disorganised planning and ineffective working procedures, affecting nurses' focus and overview in different ways. Research......: Culture work and matching of expectations are important to reflect on and discuss personal- and group behaviour caused by interruptions. We need to focus on the role of each nurse in the professional team, types of personality and unspoken rules. Professional competencies for example prioritising, keeping...

  7. Perianesthesia Nurses Are My Second Family: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Julanne; Wood, Stacey; Bolton, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Tara; Stegenga, Kristin; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-12-01

    Identify the perceptions of perianesthesia nurses regarding behaviors that promote or detract from sustaining a safe, efficient, and satisfying work environment. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews (n=14) were conducted exploring the perceptions regarding team behavior of registered nurses in one pediatric perianesthesia unit. Qualitative descriptive data collection, inductive content analysis. Nurses described a responsive, engaged health care team whose leadership is available and directive when needed, as creating an effective, satisfying work environment. Primary themes that emerged were Leadership Sets the Tone, Playing Fair, No One Gets Hurt, and Why We Stay. This nursing team acknowledged that inattentive, distracted team members cause frustration, work inequities, and care delays, potentially undermining patient safety. Results demonstrate the need to create and sustain consistently respectful perianesthesia work cultures. Research focusing on unit specific approaches to work distribution, communication, leadership, and technology use is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Qualitative Study on Education of Philosophy for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Akkocaoğlu Çayır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy for children (P4C is that children discuss the philosophical concepts such as knowledge, trueness, reality, and justice in an adult guidance by starting from a text, a story or a case study. This study was carried out in order to determine how education of philosophy for children has affected the 3rd grade students in the primary schools in the cognitive, affective and social areas by being used the qualitative research method for a total of 28 hours and 14 weeks.  At the end of the process, in the cognitive domain, it has been observed some changes in students, such as understanding the philosophy, the questions of philosophy and the features of philosophers, establishing relations between concepts, associating the concepts with everyday life, cognizing the thinking errors, orientation to think, and thinking from different angles. Enjoying the philosophy and awareness of the concepts have been also mentioned by the philosophers in the affective domain. Also, in the social domain, some changes occurred in students’ problem-solving and knowing each other. Philosophy for children can be integrated with the programs of many courses at different age levels from pre-school to high school or be taught as a separate course.Keywords: Philosophy for children, primary school students, thinking skills.Çocuklar İçin Felsefe Eğitimi Üzerine Nitel Bir AraştırmaÖzÇocuklar için felsefe çocukların, bir metin, öykü ya da örnek olaydan yola çıkarak bilgi, doğru, gerçek, güzel, adalet gibi felsefi kavramları bir yetişkin rehberliğinde tartışmalarıdır. Bu araştırma çocuklar için felsefe eğitiminin, ilkokul üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerini bilişsel, duyuşsal ve sosyal alanlarda nasıl etkilediğini tespit etmek amacıyla on dört hafta toplam yirmi sekiz saat sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. Çocuklarla felsefe yapmak üzere hazırlanan ders planları iki ayrı sınıfta, k

  9. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  10. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  11. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge A.

    2004-01-01

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature

  12. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  13. Coping with multimorbidity in old age – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65–85 cope with multimorbidity. Methods 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75 years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Results Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. Conclusions These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.

  14. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  15. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  16. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  17. Electronic portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Mobarhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio is known as an electronic learning record which collects the learning evidences, reflections and accomplishments. In fact, it tells the story of learning achievements. It is an important tool for students, lecturers, administrators and faculties to monitor the learning outcomes. Similarly to other technologies, e-Portfolio is also considered successful, if it is used by students continuously. Previous researches showed the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in using any technologies. However, lack of motivation has been a major concern for developing any successful online learning environments. The aim of this paper is to explain the e-Portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective. Interviews are conducted with students from one university in Malaysia in order to get better understanding of the phenomena. The target interviewees are bachelor students chosen from different faculties. Based on the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, the motivational factors affecting the continuous use of e-portfolio are coded in eight themes and then they categorized in four main groups of individual, system, social and environmental characteristics. Finally they are classified into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations.

  18. Engagement of nurses in their profession. Qualitative study on engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    To identify common issues of nurses with high engagement to enable us to develop the construct as it applies to nursing in more depth. Based on the constructivist paradigm and with a phenomenological approach, a qualitative content analysis was conducted using an inductive approach. Participants were nurses working in direct care in different healthcare areas. The sample size was determined by data saturation and 15 participants were interviewed. The units of meaning were grouped into 11 subcategories, and then into 7 categories termed vigour, dedication, reward, autonomy, social support, conciliation and attributes of nurses. Then these categories were grouped into 3 major themes: job characteristics, characteristics of organizations, and individual characteristics. Having high engagement does not mean ignoring the negative aspects of work and organizations. Nurses who maintain high engagement are also affected by the negative aspects, however the assessment of positive aspects such as enjoying the work, the meaning of being a nurse, reward and autonomy enable the process of depletion of engagement to be overcome. In view of the findings, we propose reconceptualising the construct, taking the features of nursing into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Work's Role in Medicaid Reform: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Sara S; Wachman, Madeline; Manning, Leticia; Cohen, Alexander M; Seifert, Robert W; Jones, David K; Fitzgerald, Therese; Nuzum, Rachel; Riley, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    To critically analyze social work's role in Medicaid reform. We conducted semistructured interviews with 46 stakeholders from 10 US states that use a range of Medicaid reform approaches. We identified participants using snowball and purposive sampling. We gathered data in 2016 and analyzed them using qualitative methods. Multiple themes emerged: (1) social work participates in Medicaid reform through clinical practice, including care coordination and case management; (2) there is a gap between social work's practice-level and systems-level involvement in Medicaid innovations; (3) factors hindering social work's involvement in systems-level practice include lack of visibility, insufficient clarity on social work's role and impact, and too few resources within professional organizations; and (4) social workers need more training in health transformation payment models and policy. Social workers have unique skills that are valuable to building health systems that promote population health and reduce health inequities. Although there is considerable opportunity for social work to increase its role in Medicaid reform, there is little social work involvement at the systems level.

  20. Patient expectations of emergency dental services: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R

    2004-09-25

    To describe the expectations of walk-in patients seeking emergency dental care out-of-hours. Consecutive patients attending two emergency dental clinics at weekends were interviewed prior to seeing the dentist. The audio-recorded interview transcripts were analysed using the "framework" method of applied qualitative data analysis. Forty-four walk-in emergency dental patients at a community-based dental clinic and a dental hospital emergency clinic at the weekend. In addition to symptom relief, the main desired outcome for emergency dental patients may be informational and psychological--especially reassurance that the problem is not serious, and reduced uncertainty about the cause of the pain. In general, patients' stated expectations for specific treatments (such as antibiotics, or tooth extraction) were not absolute: rather, they implied these expectations were conditional upon the dentist deciding they were necessary. Emergency dental services, some of which are still dominantly treatment-focused, should reflect that many emergency dental attenders want advice and reassurance as much as relief from symptoms. This reinforces the importance of effective and sympathetic dentist-patient communication within emergency or out-of-hours consultations. It also implies that dentists' skills in listening, explaining and reassuring should be captured in any patient satisfaction or outcome measure designed for this patient group.

  1. Patients' perceptions on losing access to FPs: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2013-04-01

    To examine the health care-related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. A qualitative design using phenomenology. Southwestern Ontario. Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care.

  2. Negotiating refusal in primary care consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Harrison, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    How GPs negotiate patient requests is vital to their gatekeeper role but also a source of potential conflict, practitioner stress and patient dissatisfaction. Difficulties may arise when demands of shared decision-making conflict with resource allocation, which may be exacerbated by new commissioning arrangements, with GPs responsible for available services. To explore GPs' accounts of negotiating refusal of patient requests and their negotiation strategies. A qualitative design was employed with two focus groups of GPs and GP registrars followed by 20 semi-structured interviews. Participants were sampled by gender, experience, training/non-training, principal versus salaried or locum. Thematic content analysis proceeded in parallel with interviews and further sampling. The setting was GP practices within an English urban primary care trust. Sickness certification, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were cited most frequently as problematic patient requests. GP trainees reported more conflict within interactions than experienced GPs. Negotiation strategies, such as blaming distant third parties such as the primary care organization, were designed to prevent conflict and preserve the doctor-patient relationship. GPs reported patients' expectations being strongly influenced by previous encounters with other health care professionals. The findings reiterate the prominence of the doctor-patient relationship in GPs' accounts. GPs' relationships with colleagues and the wider National Health Service (NHS) are particular of relevance in light of provisions in the Health and Social Care Bill for clinical commissioning consortia. The ability of GPs to offset blame for rationing decisions to third parties will be undermined if the same GPs commission services.

  3. Challenges of clinical translation in nanomedicine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simon; Hunziker, Patrick; Shaw, David

    2016-05-01

    Clinical translation of breakthroughs in nanotechnology and nanomedicine is expected to significantly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities for various diseases. This will not only improve human health and well-being, but is also likely to reduce health care costs in the long run. However, clinical translation is a long, arduous, resource intensive process that requires priority setting, resource mobilization, successful national and international collaboration, and effective coordination between key stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to describe various challenges faced by the stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine while planning and conducting first in human clinical trials. We draw on insights obtained from 46 in-depth qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from Europe and North America. Translational research is a crucial step in bringing basic research into clinical reality. This is particularly important in a new field like nanomedicine. Clinical translation is a long and resource intensive process with difficulties along the way. In this article, the authors looked at the challenges faced by various parties in order to help identify ways to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Information in mental health: qualitative study of mental health service users

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Background  Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.

  5. Qualitative study on software application usage and user behaviour at South African Digital Doorway sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -methods research approach provides a more comprehensive picture. Qualitative studies hold utility in complementing quantitative research, by providing data on the site environment, user interactions and perceptions, and stated requirements. This paper presents...

  6. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  7. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  8. Staying married after stroke: a constructivist grounded theory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M

    2017-10-01

    Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.

  9. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-07-10

    The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients' eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients' perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families' and doctors' perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all

  10. Woman focused smoking cessation programming: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Penner, Jessica; Voci, Sabrina; Selby, Peter

    2016-03-12

    Several studies of smoking cessation programs in clinical settings have revealed poorer outcomes for women compared to men, including counselling alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy. The objective of the current study was to explore treatment and program structure needs and preferences among female clients in a specialized smoking cessation clinic in an academic mental health and addiction health science centre in order to inform program design so that it meets the needs of female clients. Four focus groups were conducted with current and former female clients (n = 23, mode age range = 50-59 years old, 56.5% were still smoking and 43.5% had quit) who had registered for outpatient smoking cessation treatment. Questions were designed to examine what aspects of the services were helpful and what changes they would like to see to better assist them and other women with quitting smoking. A thematic analysis of the raw data (audio recordings and notes taken during the focus groups) was conducted using a phenomenological theoretical framework. Themes that emerged indicated that females trying to quit smoking are best supported if they have choice from a variety of services so that treatment can be individualized to meet their specific needs; psychosocial support is provided both one-one-one with health care professionals and by peers in support groups; free pharmacotherapy is available to eliminate financial barriers to use; women-specific educational topics and support groups are offered; the clinic is accessible with evening/weekend hours, options to attend a local clinic, and childcare availability; and communication about clinic services and operation are clear, readily available, and regularly updated. An ideal smoking cessation program for women includes a women's centred approach with sufficient variety and choice, free pharmacotherapy, non-judgmental support, accessible services and clear communication of program options and changes. Findings may suggest

  11. Educators' experiences of managing students with ADHD: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D A; Russell, A E; Arnell, S; Ford, T J

    2017-07-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with difficulty coping with the social, behavioural and academic components of school. Compared with medication and other non-pharmacological treatment, there is less evidence relating to school-based interventions to support children with ADHD. There is additionally an absence of any research focused on the experiences and practices of educators in the UK around how they work with children who are inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive. Forty-two educational practitioners from primary, secondary and alternate provision schools in the UK participated in focus groups or individual interviews that explored (1) their experiences of managing students with ADHD in the classroom and (2) factors that helped and hindered them in this endeavour. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis identified six themes: broad strategies, student-centred, inclusive strategies, labelling, medication and relationships. Participants' experiences of managing students with ADHD drew upon a wide range of strategies that typically involved responding to individual needs in an inclusive manner, so individuals with ADHD could access the classroom with their peers. Participants spoke about three factors that helped and hindered managing students with ADHD. Labelling of students with ADHD was reported, with the negative aspects of labelling, such as stigmatization, affecting the classroom. Educators reported mixed experiences regarding the helpfulness of medication; where helpful, it allowed the use of strategies in the classroom. Although students with ADHD were described as having rollercoaster relationships, positive relationships were considered key to the support of children with these difficulties. This study suggests that factors such as attitudes towards ADHD, relationships experienced by students with ADHD and other treatments being delivered need to be carefully considered before strategies are put

  12. A qualitative study of factors influencing different generations of Newfoundland and Saskatchewan trained physicians to leave a work location

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Maria; Seguin, Maureen; Chowdhury, Nurun; Card, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Some studies have suggested that young physicians may have different expectations and practice behaviours than their older generational counterparts, including their reasons for wanting to remain or leave a community. This study examined the factors associated with a physician’s decision to leave a work location. We compared different generations of physicians to assess whether these factors have changed over generations. Methods We conducted semi-structured, qualitative i...

  13. A qualitative study on the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ölmezer Öztürk, Elçin

    2015-01-01

    Following a qualitative research design, this study examines the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities in Turkey. Purposeful sampling was used in the selection of participants and 20 teachers working at different universities participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and daily reflection entries. In the analysis of data, qualitative content analysis scheme of Creswell (2011) was used. The results revealed that ...

  14. Qualitative case studies of five cochlear implant recipients' experience with music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Lee R; Greenberg, Simon; Friesen, Lendra M; Ostroff, Jodi; Bodmer, Daniel; Shipp, David; Chen, Joseph M

    2011-02-01

    Cochlear implantation has revolutionized the management of those who suffer from severe-to-profound hearing loss because many patients now achieve excellent speech understanding with objective testing. Nevertheless, speech understanding in noisy conditions and music appreciation remain significant challenges to cochlear implant (CI) users. Music appreciation is an extremely complex experience that is difficult to quantify through a conventional outcome study. This paper aims at documenting the experience of five CI patients with regard to music appreciation using qualitative techniques. This information was obtained through a semi-structured interview process. The interviews were then transcribed and analysed using a constant comparative method of qualitative description. The results together with medical case records were used to identify emerging themes. The common themes that evolved were: musical background, the experience of receiving the implant, current experience with music, attention, musical prediction ability, internal hearing, hedonic vs. critical listening, determination, and timbre perception. By documenting their experiences in this manner, novel insights into the patient perspective are provided that are unique to the literature. These descriptions will aid clinicians and researchers who work in the area of cochlear implantation to better understand the needs of their patients.

  15. Managing childhood eczema: qualitative study exploring carers' experiences of barriers and facilitators to treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Burgess, Hana; Yardley, Lucy; Ersser, Steven J; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Muller, Ingrid; Hugh, Catherine; Little, Paul

    2013-11-01

    To explore parents and carers' experiences of barriers and facilitators to treatment adherence in childhood eczema Childhood eczema is common and causes significant impact on quality of life for children and their families, particularly due to sleep disturbance and itch. Non-adherence to application of topical treatments is the main cause of treatment failure. Qualitative interview study. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 carers from 28 families of children with eczema. Participants were recruited through primary care and included if they had a child aged 5 or less with a diagnosis of eczema. Interviews were carried out between December 2010-May 2011. Data were analysed using a constant comparative approach. Barriers to treatment adherence included carer beliefs around eczema treatment, the time consuming nature of applying topical treatments, and child resistance to treatment. Families employed a range of strategies in an attempt to work around children's resistance to treatment with varying success. Strategies included involving the child in treatment, distracting the child during treatment, or making a game of it, using rewards, applying treatment to a sleeping child or, in a few cases, physically restraining the child. Some carers reduced frequency of applications in an attempt to reduce child resistance. Regular application of topical treatments to children is an onerous task, particularly in families where child resistance develops. Early recognition and discussion of resistance and better awareness of the strategies to overcome this may help carers to respond positively and avoid establishing habitual confrontation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  17. Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mason

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative research; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation. This has been explored in detail by a number of authors but is still hotly debated, and some say little understood. A sample of PhD studies using qualitative approaches, and qualitative interviews as the method of data collection was taken from theses.com and contents analysed for their sample sizes. Five hundred and sixty studies were identified that fitted the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the mean sample size was 31; however, the distribution was non-random, with a statistically significant proportion of studies, presenting sample sizes that were multiples of ten. These results are discussed in relation to saturation. They suggest a pre-meditated approach that is not wholly congruent with the principles of qualitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100387

  18. A Systematic Review of Research Strategies Used in Qualitative Studies on School Bullying and Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Patel, Sadiq; Kral, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The erasure of gender in academic surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Fiona; Rice, Kathleen; Christian, Jennifer; Seemann, Natashia; Baxter, Nancy; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Cil, Tulin

    2016-10-01

    The number of women in surgery has steadily increased, yet their numbers in academic surgery positions and in high-ranking leadership roles remain low. To create strategies to address and improve this problem, it is essential to examine how gender plays into the advancement of a woman's career in academic surgery. Focus group (1) and one-on-one qualitative interviews (8) were conducted with women academic surgeons from various subspecialties in a large university setting. Interviews examined women surgeons' accounts of their experiences as women in surgery. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. NVivo10 software was used for cross-referencing of data and categorization of data into themes. Focus group data suggested that gender discrimination was pervasive in academic surgery. However, in interviews, most interviewees strongly disavowed the possibility that their gender had any bearing on their professional lives. These surgeons attempted to distance themselves from the possibility of discrimination by suggesting that differences in men and women surgeons' experiences are due to personality issues and personal choices. However, their narratives highlighted deep contradiction; they both affirmed and denied the relevance of gender for their experience as surgeons. As overt acts of discrimination become less acceptable in society, it does not necessarily disappear but rather manifests itself in covert forms. By disavowing and distancing themselves from discrimination, these women exposed the degree to which these issues continue to be pervasive in surgery. Women surgeons' ability to both identify and resist discrimination was hobbled by narratives of individualism, gender equality, and normative ideas of gender difference. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Medication errors in home care: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Astrid; Bentsen, Signe Berit

    2017-11-01

    To explore registered nurses' experiences of medication errors and patient safety in home care. The focus of care for older patients has shifted from institutional care towards a model of home care. Medication errors are common in this situation and can result in patient morbidity and mortality. An exploratory qualitative design with focus group interviews was used. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses in home care. The data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were identified as follows: lack of information, lack of competence, reporting medication errors, trade name products vs. generic name products, and improving routines. Medication errors occur frequently in home care and can threaten the safety of patients. Insufficient exchange of information and poor communication between the specialist and home-care health services, and between general practitioners and healthcare workers can lead to medication errors. A lack of competence in healthcare workers can also lead to medication errors. To prevent these, it is important that there should be up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers during the transfer of patients from specialist to home care. Ensuring competence among healthcare workers with regard to medication is also important. In addition, there should be openness and accurate reporting of medication errors, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medicines. To prevent medication errors in home care, up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers is important when patients are transferred from specialist to home care. It is also important to ensure adequate competence with regard to medication, and that there should be openness when medication errors occur, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  2. Comparative Study on Water Impact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liang; Yang, Hao; Yan, Shiqiang; Ma, Qingwei; Bihnam, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative numerical study for the water impact problems due to dropping of triangular wedges or ship sections. In the numerical investigation, both the dynamic mesh technique and immersed boundary method adopting fixed Cartesian grids have been adopted in order to conform to the motion of the structure. For the former, a multiple-phase solver with the volume of fluid for identifying the free surface is implemented. In the simulation using this method, both the compress...

  3. Methodological developments in qualitative longitudinal research: the advantages and challenges of regular telephone contact with participants in a qualitative longitudinal interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carduff, Emma; Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn

    2015-04-11

    Qualitative longitudinal research is an evolving methodology, particularly within health care research. It facilitates a nuanced understanding of how phenomena change over time and is ripe for innovative approaches. However, methodological reflections which are tailored to health care research are scarce. This article provides a synthesised and practical account of the advantages and challenges of maintaining regular telephone contact between interviews with participants in a qualitative longitudinal study. Participants with metastatic colorectal cancer were interviewed at 3 time points over the course of a year. Half the group also received monthly telephone calls to explore the added value and the feasibility of capturing change as close to when it was occurring as possible. The data gathered from the telephone calls added context to the participants' overall narrative and informed subsequent interviews. The telephone calls meant we were able to capture change close to when it happened and there was a more evolved, and involved, relationship between the researcher and the participants who were called on a monthly basis. However, ethical challenges were amplified, boundaries of the participant/researcher relationship questioned, and there was the added analytical burden. The telephone calls facilitated a more nuanced understanding of the illness experience to emerge, when compared with the interview only group. The findings suggest that intensive telephone contact may be justified if retention is an issue, when the phenomena being studied is unpredictable and when participants feel disempowered or lack control. These are potential issues for research involving participants with long-term illness.

  4. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  5. A comparative study of two shovel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G

    1993-10-01

    In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.

  6. [Nonprocess autism in children: comparative etiopathogenetic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E

    1979-01-01

    Etiopathogenesis of the childhood autism syndrome of a non-process nature is discussed on the basis of a comparative study of 156 children aged from 3 to 16 years. In the etiological complex there is a prevalence of early exogenous-organic noxious factors, which is reflected in disturbances of mental divelopment, maturation of the system of hemispheric pair work. The data of follow-up studies and treatment confirm a conclusion about a residual-organic basis in the syndrome of childhood autism.

  7. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forozun Olfati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts.Materials and methods:The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation.Results:The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management.Conclusion:In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery.Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies.

  8. A Local Dimension of Integration Policies? A Comparative Study of Berlin, Malmö, and Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rianne); H. Emilsson (Henrik); B. Krieger (Bernhard); P.W.A. Scholten (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines three theses on local integration policies by a qualitative comparative case study of integration policies in three cities in three different countries (Berlin, Malmö, and Rotterdam). We found little evidence of a congruent local dimension of integration policies.

  9. A Comparative Study of Strategic HRD Approaches for Workforce Planning in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth; Johnson, Karen; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the outcomes of two often used approaches for strategic HRD planning. Using methods framed within a strategic HRD planning framework the outcomes of a qualitative primary data approach are examined against quantitative labor market projections in a study of the future Minnesota tourism workforce. Results show each planning…

  10. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  11. Factors affecting planned return to work after trauma: A prospective descriptive qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkard, S S; Bloomfield, T D; Page, P R J; Wilson, D; Ricketts, D M; Rogers, B A

    2016-12-01

    The use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in trauma is limited. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate qualitative responses and factors affecting planned return to work following significant trauma, for which there is currently a poor evidence base. National ethical approval was obtained for routine prospective PROMs data collection, including EQ-5D, between Sept 2013 and March 2015 for trauma patients admitted to the Sussex Major Trauma Centre (n=92). 84 trauma patients disclosed their intended return to work at discharge. Additional open questions asked 'things done well' and 'things to be improved'. EQ-5D responses were valued using the time trade-off method. Statistical analysis between multiple variables was completed by ANOVA, and with categorical categories by Chi squared analysis. Only 18/68 of patients working at admission anticipated returning to work within 14days post-discharge. The injury severity scores (ISS) of those predicting return to work within two weeks and those predicting return to work longer than two weeks were 14.17 and 13.59, respectively. Increased physicality of work showed a trend towards poorer return to work outcomes, although non-significant in Chi-squared test in groups predicting return in less than or greater than two weeks (4.621, p=0.2017ns). No significant difference was demonstrated in the comparative incomes of patients with different estimated return to work outcomes (ANOVA r 2 =0.001, P=0.9590ns). EQ-5D scores were higher in those predicting return to work within two weeks when compared to greater than two weeks. Qualitative thematic content analysis of open responses was possible for 66/92 of respondents. Prominent positive themes were: care, staff, professionalism, and communication. Prominent negative themes were: food, ward response time, and communication. This pilot study highlights the importance of qualitative PROMs analysis in leading patient-driven improvements in trauma care. We provide standard

  12. A Qualitative Natural History Study of ME/CFS in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Valerie R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Hlavaty, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples, which limit the representativeness of the findings to those with access to health care. This qualitative study examined the natural history of a community-based sample of people with ME/CFS. Participants (n=19) were categorized into persisting, incidence, or remitting groups based on their reported illnes...

  13. An integrated qualitative and quantitative modeling framework for computer‐assisted HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Hu, Jinqiu

    2014-01-01

    safety critical operations, its causes and consequences. The outcome is a qualitative hazard analysis of selected process deviations from normal operations and their consequences as input to a traditional HAZOP table. The list of unacceptable high risk deviations identified by the qualitative HAZOP......‐assisted HAZOP studies introduced in this article allows the HAZOP team to devote more attention to high consequence hazards. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J 60: 4150–4173, 2014...

  14. An Exploratory Study of Gender and Changes in Alcohol Consumption: A Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Bullers

    2012-01-01

    Consistent research shows that men drink more, and more often than women, although recent findings suggest that this gender difference may be diminishing. This exploratory qualitative analysis offers a “micro” perspective on the possible attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions that underlie these aggregate findings. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 18 men and women from three age and ethnic groups, this study explores changes in behaviors and attitudes regarding gender an...

  15. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  16. EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INDIAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the job satisfaction level of a public sector and private sector bank employees in India. The sample consisted of 340 bank employees from both sectors. Job Diagnostic Survey by Hackman and Oldham (1975 was used to ascertain the level of job satisfaction. This study used independent samples t-test and qualitative analysis to study the differences in employee attitudes. Results indicated that the means of the public and private banks were significantly different from each other. It was found that private sector bank employees perceive greater satisfaction with pay, social, and growth aspects of job as compared to public sector bank employees. On the other hand, public sector bank employees have expressed greater satisfaction with job security as compared to private sector bank employees. The findings of the study highlight important satisfiers and dissatisfiers present in the job and suggest both the banks to take performance initiatives in the areas where employees have reported reduced satisfaction.

  17. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  18. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  19. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Beune, E.J.A.J.; Haafkens, J.A.; Agyemang, C.; Schuster, J.S.; Willems, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive patients without comorbidity who were prescribed antihypertensives. RESULTS: Patients in all the ethnic groups actively decided how to manage their prescribed antihypertensive regimens. In all the ...

  20. A qualitative and quantitative study of the reasons of attrition in an Indian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study attempts to evaluate the reasons of attrition in the organization from the perspective of the existing as well as the leaving employees; compare and identify the gaps, if any between the perspectives of these two employees groups. The study also aims to critically analyze the utility of ′exit interviews′ for analyzing the reasons of attrition. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a 150-bedded hospital in Ahmedabad, India, during May-July 2015. Exit interview data of forty leaving employees were collected and reviewed. One hundred existing employees were interviewed through quantitative and qualitative methods to understand their perceptions about attrition in the organization. Results: Attrition rate of 26% was observed in the study and 57% leaving employees were nurses. 70% leaving employees cite "blanket reasons" such as better opportunity and personal reasons during exit interviews. 72.5% leaving employees believed that exit interview is largely for record purpose and 11% were unsure of its utility. However, when existing employees were probed qualitatively, a variety of responses were received. 65% existing employees quoted salary issues, partiality/poor recognition, improper assignment of tasks, and monotonous work as reasons for attrition in the organization. Conclusion: Exit interviews somewhere fail to probe into the real reasons of attrition. To improve retention, organizations must monitor their existing employee′s intention to continue working in the organization and any sign indicating a poor intention to continue must be addressed immediately to avoid ripple effects. Moreover, to use exit interview as a tool to improve employee retention, leaving employees must be interviewed in-depth to uncover the actual reasons for quitting the job.

  1. Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

  2. Qualitative Study of Foster Caregivers’ Views on Adherence to Pediatric Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kennedy, Andrea K.; Sayegh, Caitlin S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a qualitative investigation of how foster caregivers, primarily Latinos, view adherence to pediatric appointments with the purpose of identifying how the child welfare system, pediatric clinics, and pediatric health providers serving foster children might promote appointment attendance. Participants in the study had a return appointment at an outpatient pediatric clinic that only served children in the child welfare system. Twenty-eight caregivers (13 related and 15 unrelated) participated in telephone interviews after the date of their scheduled pediatric appointment (32% missed their return appointment). Semistructured interview guides included general questions about what promotes attending the pediatric appointment, what makes it difficult to attend the pediatric appointment, and how pediatric care affects the foster child. Analysis of qualitative data using content analysis identified three themes: (a) multiple methods to attend appointments, which included caregivers’ organizational and problem-solving skills; (b) positive health care experiences, which consisted of caregivers’ personal relationships with providers and staff members and clinic organization; and (c) necessity of pediatric care, which included recognition of the need for health care, especially timely immunizations. All caregivers also reported that appointments reminders would be helpful. Unrelated caregivers more often said that appointment attendance was facilitated by clinic organization compared to related caregivers. Nonadherent caregivers mentioned their need to solve problems to attend appointments or reschedule appointments more than attenders. In summary, caregivers said they valued regular pediatric health care to treat their child’s chronic conditions and prevent illnesses, but they acknowledged that their home lives were hectic and attending scheduled appointments was sometimes difficult. Foster caregivers in this study identified the ideal pediatric

  3. A Qualitative Study on Patients' Perceptions of Two Types of Attachments for Implant Overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marina; Bedos, Christophe; da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Fromentin, Olivier; de Albuquerque, Rubens F

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of patient perceptions of wearing implant-retained overdentures with ball-shaped or cylindrical attachment systems. Twenty-two wearers of implant-supported overdentures participated in this qualitative study based on a randomized crossover clinical trial that aimed to compare a cylindrical attachment and a ball attachment. In phase I of the study, group A experienced ball attachments (n = 11) and group B Locator attachments (n = 11) for 1 year. Afterward, in phase II, the attachments were changed; group A received Locator attachments and group B received ball attachments. One week after the attachment's replacement, semistructured individual interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The analysis was guided by thematic content analysis. Most of the patients from both groups preferred the attachment they received in phase II, regardless the type. A major theme raised by the participants to justify their preference between the attachment types was prosthesis retention/stability, sometimes considered as a positive and other times as a negative factor. Other themes were also explored: oral function, pain, hygiene, previous experiences, confidence on the dentist's work, and esthetic. Aspects related to the retention/stability of the overdentures are the main concerns associated with the perceptions of most patients treated with implant overdentures regardless of the type of attachment. Adequate retention level should be identified and adjusted on an individual basis and maintained overtime as possible. Therefore, follow-up appointments should be planned for readjustment of the attachment's retention. Overretention should be avoided.

  4. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  5. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  6. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  7. Critical Elements of Student Assistance Programs: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodriguez, Leslie; Beyard, Karen; Goldstein, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    Student assistance programs (SAPs) are one approach for using teams to respond to student needs, but there is little research on SAP implementation and whether SAPs function as intended. The authors present findings from a study of two SAPs that use a model developed by Connecticut's Governor's Prevention Partnership. The study focused on…

  8. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  9. Presence of Mind: A Qualitative Study of Meditating Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michèle; Miller, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study into the effects of meditation practice on the lives of professional educators, specifically educators who either began or continued such practice during course work led by Professor Miller at the University of Toronto. The study incorporates semistructured interviews with 12 participants to track their…

  10. A Qualitative Study of Vulnerable Patient Views of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Pellerano, Maria B; Howard, Jenna; Saver, Barry; Hannan, Edward L; Lee, Justin; Lundberg, Michael T; Sabo, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports. This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care. We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group transcripts to identify recurring themes, which were summarized and compared across population groups. Participants expressed minimal interest in currently available consumer reports. They instead listed personal referrals and interpersonal interactions among the most important factors when choosing a physician. Further, in place of information to aid in physician selection, participants articulated strong desires for more basic, straightforward disease-specific information that would promote diabetes self-management. This study's results call into question the value of consumer reports as defined by the ACA. Participants reported little interest in comparative provider performance data. Instead, they were more interested in information to assist in diabetes self-management. This suggests that consumer reports may not be as important a tool to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities as policy makers imagine them to be.

  11. [Condylar hyperplasia: qualitative and quantitative study of temporomandibular joints remodeling before and after condylectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojare, Camille; Wojcik, Thomas; Coussens, Camille; Ferri, Joël; Pertuzon, Bruno; Raoul, Gwénaël

    2014-06-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate bone remodeling of temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) using computed tomography (CT) before and after condylectomy for condylar hyperplasia. TMJ bone remodeling was studied by comparing the pre and postoperative CT scan of ten patients. Qualitative evaluation was performed by two-dimensional analysis. Three-dimensional analysis superimpositions were done after digital condylar units isolation. Condylar volume modifications were measured and compared on both sides. Lastly, before and after surgery, we studied the radio-clinic correlations. After surgery, all the operated condyles developed a new cortical bone. We noticed also a thickening of the glenoid fossa. Surgical condylectomy leaded to a 43.5% volume reduction on the operated side and 2.14% on the controlateral side. On the controlateral side, most of abnormalities seen preoperatively disappeared after surgery. For two patients, the condylar resection took away over 80% of the initial volume. For these patients, we observed major radiologic modifications on the controlateral TMJ associated with symptoms of dysfunction. These problems did not worsen their quality of life. Both TMJ presented with bone remodelling after condylectomy. In condylar hyperplasia, condylectomy provides orthopaedic results on dysmorphia and removal of the pathological prechondroblastic zone. In the future, an earlier detection of this pathology may help the surgeon to treat in childhood. This would limit surgical excision and would avoid important dysmorphia. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  12. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no

  13. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative research: reflections from an interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witty, Karl; Branney, Peter; Bullen, Kate; White, Alan; Evans, Julie; Eardley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To explore the challenges of engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview research. Qualitative interviewing offers an ideal tool for exploring men's experiences of illness, complementing and providing context to gendered health inequalities identified in epidemiological research on men. But conducting interviews with men can be challenging and embarking on a qualitative interview study with males can feel like a daunting task, given the limited amount of practical, gender-sensitive guidance for researchers. Reflecting on a researcher's experience of conducting qualitative research on men with penile cancer, this paper explores the potential challenges of interviewing this group, but also documents how engagement and data collection were achieved. This is a reflective paper, informed by the experiences of a male researcher (KW) with no nurse training, who conducted 28 interviews with men who had been treated for penile cancer. The researcher's experiences are reported in chronological order, from the methodological challenges of recruitment to those of conducting the interview. The paper offers a resource for the novice researcher, highlighting some advantages and disadvantages of conducting qualitative interview research as a nurse researcher, as well as recommendations on how to overcome challenges. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview raises practical, methodological, ethical and emotional challenges for the researcher. However, when these challenges are met, men will talk about their health. Methodological procedures must enable an open and ongoing dialogue with clinical gatekeepers and potential participants to promote engagement. Support from colleagues is essential for any interviewer, no matter how experienced the researcher is.

  14. Graphical passwords: a qualitative study of password patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords schemas are becoming more main-stream. There are many different approaches to graphical passwords, each with its own drawbacks and advantages. There has been many studies to suggest that graphical passwords should be stronger...

  15. QUALITATIVE STUDIES IN ACCOUNTING: THE ABDUCTIVE. RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia URDARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  16. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  17. A Qualitative Study on Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    İpek, Hülya

    2018-01-01

    Affective constructs such as motivation, self-esteem, and anxiety play an important role in learning a foreign language. Scholars have conducted many studies to find out how these constructs affect foreign language (FL) learning. They aimed to find out how anxiety affects language learning, the sources of anxiety in FL learners, and how to overcome this anxiety. Teachers were offered various strategies to lower their students’ anxiety. Studies on Foreign Language (FL) anxiety mostly focused o...

  18. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Barnicot

    Full Text Available Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

  20. Cannabis use in a Swiss male prison: qualitative study exploring detainees' and staffs' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Catherine; Broers, Barbara; Elger, Bernice S

    2013-11-01

    Several studies suggest a high prevalence of cannabis use before and during imprisonment, but subjective perspectives of detainees and staff towards its use in prison are lacking. This issue was explored in the framework of an observational study addressing tobacco use in three Swiss prisons in 2009 and 2010 that involved multiple strands (quantitative and qualitative components). This article presents qualitative data on cannabis use collected in one of the settings. We used in-depth semi-structured interviews with both detainees and staff to explore their attitudes towards cannabis in one post-trial male Swiss prison. We performed specific coding and thematic analysis for cannabis with the support of ATLAS.ti, compared detainees' and staff's opinions, and considered the results with regard to drug policy in prison in general. 58 participants (31 male offenders, mean age 35 years, and 27 prison staff, mean age 46 years, 33% female) were interviewed. Detainees estimated the current use of cannabis use to be as high as 80%, and staff 50%. Participants showed similar opinions on effects of cannabis use that were described both at individual and institutional levels: analgesic, calming, self-help to go through the prison experience, relieve stress, facilitate sleep, prevent violence, and social pacifier. They also mentioned negative consequences of cannabis use (sleepiness, decreased perception of danger and social isolation), and dissatisfaction regarding the ongoing ambiguous situation where cannabis is forbidden but detection in the urine was not sanctioned. However, the introduction of a more restrictive regulation induced fear of violence, increased trafficking and a shift to other drug use. Although illegal, cannabis use is clearly involved in daily life in prison. A clearer and comprehensive policy addressing cannabis is needed, including appropriate measures tailored to individual users. To sustain a calm and safe environment in prison, means other than