WorldWideScience

Sample records for qualitative analysis

  1. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  2. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde

    2003-01-01

    The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology......: traceability, reliability (uncertainty), validation, and internal/external quality control for qualitative methods.......The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology...... and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  3. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde

    2003-01-01

    The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology...... and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Somitogenesis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maschke-Dutz E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recently the properties of a single somite cell oscillator have been intensively investigated, the system-level nature of the segmentation clock remains largely unknown. To elaborate qualitatively this question, we examine the possibility to transform a well-known time delay somite cell oscillator to dynamical system of differential equations allowing qualitative analysis.

  5. Collective Analysis of Qualitative Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    What. Many students and practitioners do not know how to systematically process qualitative data once it is gathered—at least not as a collective effort. This chapter presents two workshop techniques, affinity diagramming and diagnostic mapping, that support collective analysis of large amounts...... of qualitative data. Affinity diagramming is used to make collective analysis and interpretations of qualitative data to identify core problems that need to be addressed in the design process. Diagnostic mapping supports collective interpretation and description of these problems and how to intervene in them. We...... explain the techniques through a case where they were used to analyze why a new elec- tronic medical record system introduced life-threatening situations for patients. Why. Collective analyses offer all participants a voice, visualize their contributions, combine different actors’ perspectives, and anchor...

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  7. Hermeneutic analysis: a qualitative decision trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J B

    1999-10-01

    Qualitative analysis is problematic from two perspectives, which exist in the science and art debate [Tesch, R., 1990. Qualitative Research. Analysis types and software tools. The Falmer Press, London; Robson, C., 1993. Real World Research. Blackwell, Oxford]. The science view claims that the absence of clear and agreed analysis processes, which can be found in the quantitative domain, attracts labels to qualitative analysis of intuitive artistry and personal journeys which are considered 'unscientific'. This thinking remains dominant despite the growth of systematic qualitative analysis supported through computer analysis systems [Tesch, 1990]. However, in the art domain there is real resistance to the development of set methods of analysis which does view qualitative analysis, "as more of an art than a science" [Robson, 1993, p. 370]. This paper offers a contribution to the qualitative analysis tension through the promotion and illustration of a decision making trail. This option supports the principles of academic rigour in qualitative research [Guba, E.G., Lincoln, Y.S., 1981. Effective Evaluation. Jossey Bass, San Francisco] as a decision trail permits the research community to make their own judgements concerning the process of analysis, the overall trustworthiness of the research and therefore its presented interpretations.

  8. Qualitative data analysis a methods sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Matthew B; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny SaldaNa, author of The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and comprehension. The Third Edition's presentation of the fundamentals of research design and data management is followed by five distinct methods of analysis: exploring, describing, ordering, explaining, and predicting. Miles and Huberman's original research studies are profiled and accompanied with new examples from SaldaNa's recent qualitative work. The book's most celebrated chapter, "Drawing and Verifying Conclusions," is retained and revised, and the chapter on report writing has been greatly expanded, and is now called "Writing About Qualitative Research." Comprehensive and authoritative, Qualitative Data Analysis has been elegantly revised for a new generation of qualitative r...

  9. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  10. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  11. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  12. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  13. About Statistical Analysis of Qualitative Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Loehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gathered data is frequently not in a numerical form allowing immediate appliance of the quantitative mathematical-statistical methods. In this paper are some basic aspects examining how quantitative-based statistical methodology can be utilized in the analysis of qualitative data sets. The transformation of qualitative data into numeric values is considered as the entrance point to quantitative analysis. Concurrently related publications and impacts of scale transformations are discussed. Subsequently, it is shown how correlation coefficients are usable in conjunction with data aggregation constrains to construct relationship modelling matrices. For illustration, a case study is referenced at which ordinal type ordered qualitative survey answers are allocated to process defining procedures as aggregation levels. Finally options about measuring the adherence of the gathered empirical data to such kind of derived aggregation models are introduced and a statistically based reliability check approach to evaluate the reliability of the chosen model specification is outlined.

  14. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

  15. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohlbacher

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  16. First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia

    2008-04-01

    Qualitative research in primary care deepens understanding of phenomena such as health, illness and health care encounters. Many qualitative studies collect audio or video data (e.g. recordings of interviews, focus groups or talk in consultation), and these are usually transcribed into written form for closer study. Transcribing appears to be a straightforward technical task, but in fact involves judgements about what level of detail to choose (e.g. omitting non-verbal dimensions of interaction), data interpretation (e.g. distinguishing 'I don't, no' from 'I don't know') and data representation (e.g. representing the verbalization 'hwarryuhh' as 'How are you?'). Representation of audible and visual data into written form is an interpretive process which is therefore the first step in analysing data. Different levels of detail and different representations of data will be required for projects with differing aims and methodological approaches. This article is a guide to practical and theoretical considerations for researchers new to qualitative data analysis. Data examples are given to illustrate decisions to be made when transcribing or assigning the task to others.

  17. How qualitative data analysis software may support the qualitative analysis process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, V.A.M.; Wester, F.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The last decades have shown large progress in the elaboration of procedures for qualitative data analysis and in the development of computer programs to support this kind of analysis. We believe, however, that the link between methodology and computer software tools is too loose, especially for a no

  18. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative.

  19. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  20. Cancer Patients' Informational Needs: Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Haydeh; Mardani-Hamooleh, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the informational needs of cancer patients is a requirement to plan any educative care program for them. The aim of this study was to identify Iranian cancer patients' perceptions of informational needs. The study took a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 25 cancer patients in two teaching hospitals in Iran. Transcripts of the interviews underwent conventional content analysis, and categories were extracted. The results came under two main categories: disease-related informational needs and information needs related to daily life. Disease-related informational needs had two subcategories: obtaining information about the nature of disease and obtaining information about disease prognosis. Information needs related to daily life also had two subcategories: obtaining information about healthy lifestyle and obtaining information about regular activities of daily life. The findings provide deep understanding of cancer patients' informational needs in Iran.

  1. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  2. Combination and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am going to outline ways of combining qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis on five levels. On the technical level, programs for the computer-aided analysis of qualitative data offer various combinations. Where the data are concerned, the employment of categories (for instance by using qualitative content analysis allows for combining qualitative and quantitative forms of data analysis. On the individual level, the creation of types and the inductive generalisation of cases allow for proceeding from individual case material to quantitative generalisations. As for research design, different models can be distinguished (preliminary study, generalisation, elaboration, triangulation which combine qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis. Where the logic of research is concerned, it can be shown that an extended process model which combined qualitative and quantitative research can be appropriate and thus lead to an integration of the two approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs010162

  3. Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

  4. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  5. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  6. Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Hart, Elaine; Erowid, Fire; Erowid, Earth; Trabold, Nicole; Yee, Kaila; Parkhurst, Kimberly A; Priddy, Brittany M; Walsh, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid.org). Themes that emerged from these experience reports indicate that kratom may be useful for analgesia, mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and may aid opioid withdrawal management. Negative response themes also emerged, indicating potential problems and unfavorable "side" effects, especially stomach upset and vomiting. Based on our analyses, we present preliminary hypotheses for future examination in controlled, quantitative studies of kratom.

  7. Handbook of Qualitative Research Techniques and Analysis in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....

  8. Handbook of Qualitative Research Techniques and Analysis in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....

  9. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  10. A Novel Approach for Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophadt, Charles E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a freshman chemistry laboratory program involving nontraditional qualitative investigations of metal ion properties is explained. Experiments are discussed which focus on synthesis of a metal salt, properties of metal ions and their separations, and oxidation states of metals. (DT)

  11. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  12. [Preliminarily application of content analysis to qualitative nursing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Yuan; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Wu, Shu-Fang

    2012-10-01

    Content analysis is a methodology for objectively and systematically studying the content of communication in various formats. Content analysis in nursing research and nursing education is called qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis is frequently applied to nursing research, as it allows researchers to determine categories inductively and deductively. This article examines qualitative content analysis in nursing research from theoretical and practical perspectives. We first describe how content analysis concepts such as unit of analysis, meaning unit, code, category, and theme are used. Next, we describe the basic steps involved in using content analysis, including data preparation, data familiarization, analysis unit identification, creating tentative coding categories, category refinement, and establishing category integrity. Finally, this paper introduces the concept of content analysis rigor, including dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability. This article elucidates the content analysis method in order to help professionals conduct systematic research that generates data that are informative and useful in practical application.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    8217~44IAA A -’ ff3 4% At S. ~ At .~ 4 ’ 󈧦k (A444 4 qg~ 1 ~ ~ H St P /4 .4.,* 4’ SN, h$ A 4., 4,f A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN Master’s Thesis SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE 4. PERFORMING o1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...112-83 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 perso...

  15. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of sterols/sterolins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Quantitative and qualitative analysis of sterols/sterolins ... method was developed to identify and quantify sterols (especially β-sitosterol) in chloroform extracts of ... Studies with phytosterols, especially β-sitosterol, have.

  17. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  18. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BOBWHITE QUAIL POPULATION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先义; 朱德明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the qualitative behavior of solutions of the bobwhite quail pop-ulation modelwhere 0 < a < 1 < a + b,p,c ∈ (0, ∞) and k is a nonnegative integer, is investigated.Some necessary and suficient as well as sufficient conditions for all solutions of the modelto oscillate and some sufficient conditions for all positive solutions of the model to benonoscillatory and the convergence of nonoscillatory solutions are derived. Furthermore,the permanence of every positive solution of the model is also showed. Many known resultsare improved and extended and some new results are obtained for G. Ladas' open problems.

  19. Conducting an Analysis of a Qualitative Dataset Using the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Waikato in New Zealand, which can be used to analyze both qualitative and quantitative data . To illustrate the use of WEKA on a qualitative dataset...Waikato in New Zealand (Witten and Frank 2005), which can be used to analyze both qualitative and quantitative data . To illustrate the use of WEKA on...exemplar for conducting an analysis of a qualitative dataset using machine learning techniques. Qualitative data are measured or expressed as a natural

  20. Towards a Design Theory for Collaborative Qualitative Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2016-01-01

    This position paper addresses how to develop a design theory to support the collaborative practice of qualitative data analysis. Qualitative researchers face several challenges in making sense of their empirical data and IS-support for this practice can be found in software applications such as N....... We use this as a stepping stone to discuss how to use a design theory to problematize existing applications and how to extend a design theory by abduction....

  1. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel

    2015-04-03

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research.

  2. Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, Ulla H; Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Lundman, Berit

    2017-09-01

    This discussion paper is aimed to map content analysis in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges. We discuss phenomenological descriptions of manifest content and hermeneutical interpretations of latent content. We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approaches to qualitative content analysis, and elaborate on the level of abstraction and degree of interpretation used in constructing categories, descriptive themes, and themes of meaning. With increased abstraction and interpretation comes an increased challenge to demonstrate the credibility and authenticity of the analysis. A key issue is to show the logic in how categories and themes are abstracted, interpreted, and connected to the aim and to each other. Qualitative content analysis is an autonomous method and can be used at varying levels of abstraction and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Politics of Historical Discourse Analysis: A Qualitative Research Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical…

  4. QUALITATIVE DATA AND ERROR MEASUREMENT IN INPUT-OUTPUT-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJKAMP, P; OOSTERHAVEN, J; OUWERSLOOT, H; RIETVELD, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the rapidly emerging field of qualitative data analysis in economics. Ordinal data techniques and error measurement in input-output analysis are here combined in order to test the reliability of a low level of measurement and precision of data by means of a stochastic

  5. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyse human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use 8 high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterwards. The

  6. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  7. Qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of penta-rhythmic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Knapper, Drake E.; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

    2016-12-01

    Inhibitory circuits of relaxation oscillators are often-used models for dynamics of biological networks. We present a qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of such a circuit constituted by three generic oscillators (of a Fitzhugh-Nagumo type) as its nodes coupled reciprocally. Depending on inhibitory strengths, and parameters of individual oscillators, the circuit exhibits polyrhythmicity of up to five simultaneously stable rhythms. With methods of bifurcation analysis and phase reduction, we investigate qualitative changes in stability of these circuit rhythms for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we quantify robustness of the rhythms maintained under random perturbations by monitoring phase diffusion in the circuit. Our findings allow us to describe how circuit dynamics relate to dynamics of individual nodes. We also find that quantitative and qualitative stability properties of polyrhythmicity do not always align.

  8. Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis with Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nideröst

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite some fragmentary references in the literature about qualitative methods, it is fairly unknown that Word can be successfully used for computer-aided Qualitative Data Analyses (QDA. Based on several Word standard operations, elementary QDA functions such as sorting data, code-and-retrieve and frequency counts can be realized. Word is particularly interesting for those users who wish to have first experiences with computer-aided analysis before investing time and money in a specialized QDA Program. The well-known standard software could also be an option for those qualitative researchers who usually work with word processing but have certain reservations towards computer-aided analysis. The following article deals with the most important requirements and options of Word for computer-aided QDA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0202225

  9. Underdeveloped Themes in Qualitative Research: Relationship With Interviews and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.

  10. Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hjalmers, Karin; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores dentists' perceptions of Good Work in the meaning of positive and rewarding aspects in their work in contrast to a traditional problem-centred focus on work life. METHODS: Nine informants were selected among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners to obtain...... of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis, as modified by Malterud, generalizing descriptions reflecting aspects of Good Work. Selection of participants continued until saturation of the emerging categories was achieved. RESULTS: The core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter: from the relation...... with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. CONCLUSIONS: The results...

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Self Phase Modulation (SPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Verma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber changed the way of communication. In comparison with wireless communication, optical fiber communication is very fast and reliable. It is more secure but costly. Optical fiber uses the principle of total internal reflection for transmission. Optical fiber has core and cladding with different refractive index and major portion of the signal goes through the core. But due macro and micro bending, chromatic dispersion is observed.In this paper, we have analyzed self phase modulation in an optical fiber system and discussed how it causes dispersion in input signal. These effects are simulated using OPTISYSTEM tool at a bit rate of 10Gbps and analysed using eye pattern method with respect to bit error rate and Q factor. Simulation results from the OPTISYSTEM tool are also compared with the numerical analysis of nonlinear Schrodinger equation, which is simulated in MATLAB

  12. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed.

  13. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  14. Utilizing Problem-Based Learning in Qualitative Analysis Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the…

  15. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  16. Qualitative analysis of the CCEBC/EEAC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO; Haohui; TANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    The CCEBC/EEAC method is an effective method in the quantitative analysis of power system transient stability. This paper provides a qualitative analysis of the CCEBC/EEAC method and shows that from a geometrical point of view, the CCCOI-RM transformation used in the CCEBC/EEAC method can be regarded as a projection of the variables of the system model on a weighted vector space, from which a generalized(-P)-(-δ) trajectory is obtained. Since a transient process of power systems can be approximately regarded as a time-piecewise simple Hamiltonian system, in order to qualitatively analyse the CCEBC/EEAC method, this paper compares the potential energy of a two-machine infinite bus system with its CCEBC/EEAC energy. Numerical result indicates their similarity. Clarifying the qualitative relation between these two kinds of energies is significant in verifying mathematically the CCEBC/EEAC method for judging the criterion of power system transient stability. Moreover, the qualitative analysis of the CCEBC/EEAC method enables us to better understand some important phenomena revealed by quantitative analysis, such as multi-swing loss of stability and isolated stable domain.

  17. Validation of Competencies in E-Portfolios: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Hanft, Anke; Baecker, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the example of an Internet-based advanced studies course to show how the portfolio method, as a competence-based form of examination, can be integrated in a blended learning design. Within the framework of a qualitative analysis of project portfolios, we examined which competencies are documented and how students reflected on their…

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of Suicide Ideation among Manitoban Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Ryan; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Canadian studies examining suicide among rural and farm populations remain scarce. To better understand this phenomenon, a qualitative research paradigm was used to analyze encounter forms of 29 individuals (24 men, 5 women) who called the Manitoban Farm and Rural Stress Line. Content analysis revealed 7 major themes: (a) coping mechanisms, (b)…

  19. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  20. Analysis of Forecasting Sales By Using Quantitative And Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rama Sanjeeva Sresta,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analysis of forecasting sales using quantitative and qualitative methods. This forecast should be able to help create a model for measuring a successes and setting goals from financial and operational view points. The resulting model should tell if we have met our goals with respect to measures, targets, initiatives.

  1. Collage Portraits as a Method of Analysis in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gerstenblatt PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of collage portraits in qualitative research and analysis. Collage portraiture, an area of arts-based research (ABR, is gaining stature as a method of analysis and documentation in many disciplines. This article presents a method of creating collage portraits to support a narrative thematic analysis that explored the impact of participation in an art installation construction. Collage portraits provide the opportunity to include marginalized voices and encourage a range of linguistic and non-linguistic representations to articulate authentic lived experiences. Other potential benefits to qualitative research are cross-disciplinary study and collaboration, innovative ways to engage and facilitate dialogue, and the building and dissemination of knowledge.

  2. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Towards a Design Theory for Collaborative Qualitative Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2016-01-01

    This position paper addresses how to develop a design theory to support the collaborative practice of qualitative data analysis. Qualitative researchers face several challenges in making sense of their empirical data and IS-support for this practice can be found in software applications...... such as NVivo, Atlas.ti, and DeDoose. While these software tools have utility and are valuable, they are also limiting – and they are particularly limiting researchers in their collaborative efforts with their co-researchers. In this paper, we investigate a design theory to extend it to support collaboration....... We use this as a stepping stone to discuss how to use a design theory to problematize existing applications and how to extend a design theory by abduction....

  4. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Validation of a Qualitative Analysis Using Statistical Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Ahern

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates triangulation of the findings of a qualitative analysis by applying an exploratory factor analysis to themes identified in a phenomenological study. A questionnaire was developed from a phenomenological analysis of parents' experiences of parenting a child with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The questionnaire was administered to 114 parents of DCD children and data were analyzed using an exploratory factor analysis. The extracted factors provided support for the validity of the original qualitative analysis, and a commentary on the validity of the process is provided. The emerging description is of the compromises that were necessary to translate qualitative themes into statistical factors, and of the ways in which the statistical analysis suggests further qualitative study.

  5. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Patients' perceptions of palliative surgical procedures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor D; Selby, Debbie; Tsang, Melanie E; Kim, Audrey; Wright, Frances C

    2017-08-01

    Patients with incurable malignancies can require surgical intervention. We prospectively evaluated patients treated with palliative surgery to qualitatively assess peri-operative outcomes. Eligible patients were assessed at a tertiary care cancer center. Demographic information and peri-operative morbidity and mortality were collected. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were obtained pre-operatively and post-operatively (1 month). Qualitative evaluation was performed using content analysis and an inductive approach. Twenty-eight patients were approached and 20 consented to interview. Data saturation was achieved after 14 patients. Median patient age was 58% and 56% were female. Peri-operative morbidity and mortality were 44% and 22%, respectively. "No other option" was seen as a dominant pre-operative theme (14 of 18). Other pre-operative themes included a "poor understanding of prognosis and the role of surgery in overall treatment plan". Post-operative themes included a "perceived benefit from surgery" and "satisfaction with decision-making", notwithstanding significant complications. Improved understanding of prognosis and the role of surgery were described post-operatively. Despite limited options and a poor understanding of prognosis, many patients perceived benefit from palliative surgery. However, peri-operative mortality was substantial. A robust and thorough patient-centered discussion about individual goals for surgery should be undertaken by surgeon, patient and family prior to embarking on a palliative operation.

  7. Summary oral reflective analysis: a method for interview data analysis in feminist qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S M; Barrett, P A

    1997-12-01

    This article explores an innovative approach to qualitative data analysis called Summary Oral Reflective Analysis (SORA). The method preserves the richness and contextuality of in-depth interview data within a broader feminist philosophical perspective. This multidisciplinary approach was developed in two individual research programs within a cooperative, collaborative arrangement. It represents a creative response to perceived deficiencies in the pragmatics of qualitative data analysis where the maintenance of data contextuality is critical.

  8. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  9. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  10. Qualitative analysis of certain generalized classes of quadratic oscillator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Bijan, E-mail: bbagchi123@gmail.com; Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran-g@yahoo.com; Pal, Barnali, E-mail: barrna.roo@gmail.com; Poria, Swarup, E-mail: swarupporia@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-02-15

    We carry out a systematic qualitative analysis of the two quadratic schemes of generalized oscillators recently proposed by Quesne [J. Math. Phys. 56, 012903 (2015)]. By performing a local analysis of the governing potentials, we demonstrate that while the first potential admits a pair of equilibrium points one of which is typically a center for both signs of the coupling strength λ, the other points to a centre for λ < 0 but a saddle λ > 0. On the other hand, the second potential reveals only a center for both the signs of λ from a linear stability analysis. We carry out our study by extending Quesne’s scheme to include the effects of a linear dissipative term. An important outcome is that we run into a remarkable transition to chaos in the presence of a periodic force term fcosωt.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative analysis and interpretation of CT perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Carolina; Ambrose, Marietta; Mehra, Vishal; Lardo, Albert C; Lima, Joao A C; George, Richard T

    2010-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging has an important role in the non-invasive risk stratification of patients with CAD. However, diagnostic accuracies have been limited, which has led to the development of several myocardial perfusion imaging techniques. Among them, myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is especially interesting as it has the unique capability of providing anatomic- as well as coronary stenosis-related functional data when combined with computed tomography angiography (CTA). The primary aim of this article is to review the qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative analysis approaches to CTP imaging. In doing so, we will describe the image data required for each analysis and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  12. Inclusion of Qualitative Research: Content Analysis of ACA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    This paper provides descriptive statistics related to published articles which utilized qualitative methodologies in research studies, as well as conceptual articles pertaining to qualitative research methodologies. The articles examined covered the years 1967-1999. During the 32-year time period, 15 qualitative research articles were published.…

  13. Analisis cualitativo asistido por computadora Computer-assisted qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cisneros Puebla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este ensayo son: por un lado, presentar una aproximación a la experiencia hispanoamericana en el Análisis Cualitativo Asistido por Computadora (ACAC al agrupar mediante un ejercicio de sistematización los trabajos realizados por diversos colegas provenientes de disciplinas afines. Aunque hubiese querido ser exhaustivo y minucioso, como cualquier intento de sistematización de experiencias, en este ejercicio son notables las ausencias y las omisiones. Introducir algunas reflexiones teóricas en torno al papel del ACAC en el desarrollo de la investigación cualitativa a partir de esa sistematización y con particular énfasis en la producción del dato es, por otro lado, objetivo central de esta primera aproximación.The aims of this article are: on the one hand, to present an approximation to the Hispano-American experience on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS, grouping as a systematization exercise the works carried out by several colleagues from related disciplines. Although attempting to be exhaustive and thorough - as in any attempt at systematizing experiences - this exercise presents clear lacks and omissions. On the other hand, to introduce some theoretical reflections about the role played by CAQDAS in the development of qualitative investigation after that systematization, with a specific focus on data generation.

  14. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  15. Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.

  16. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  17. Qualitative analysis of Orzooiyeh plain groundwater resources using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsustainable development of human societies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, is one of the most important environmental hazards that require preservation of groundwater resources, and permanent study of qualitative and quantitative changes through sampling. Accordingly, this research attempts to assess and analyze the spatial variation of quantitative and qualitative indicators of Orzooiyeh groundwater resources in the Kerman province by using the geographic information system (GIS. Methods: This study attempts to survey the spatial analysis of these indexes using GIS techniques besides the evaluation of the groundwater resources quality in the study area. For this purpose, data quality indicators and statistics such as electrical conductivity, pH, sulphate, residual total dissolved solids (TDS, sodium, calcium; magnesium and chlorine of 28 selected wells sampled by the Kerman regional water organization were used. Results: A comparison of the present research results with standard of Industrial Research of Iran and also the World Health Organization (WHO shows that, among the measured indices, the electrical conductivity and TDS in the chosen samples are higher than the national standard of Iran and of the WHO but other indices are more favourable. Conclusion: Results showed that the electrical conductivity index of 64.3% of the samples have an optimal level, 71.4% have the limit of Iran national standard and only 3.6% of them have the WHO standard. The TDS index, too, did not reach national standards in any of the samples and in 82.1% of the samples this index was on the national standard limit. As per this index, only 32.1% of the samples were in the WHO standards.

  18. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  19. The Principle of Mass Understood: A Qualitative Analysis for the Operational Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS, *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *MASS, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, POSITION(LOCATION), MILITARY STRATEGY, THEORY, INTEGRATION, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, PRECISION, HISTORY, TIMELINESS, QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS .

  20. An example of qualitative comparative analysis in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Frank; Wiechula, Richard

    2013-07-01

    To describe an example of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a study about the role of clinical placement, nursing education and patient outcomes. Clinical placement is often considered an essential aspect of nursing education and an invaluable way to prepare students for the reality of nursing. However, many questions about the role of clinical placement remain unanswered, such as duration, style and learning outcomes. QCA is a novel approach to data analysis, which has been used for some time in social science research, and may be useful in tackling such questions. Participants (n= 16) involved in a case study using questionnaire, in-depth interview and document analysis. Few examples of QCA exist in nursing-related research. Examination of approaches to social sciences and educational research, and the conditions that influence nursing education and clinical placement were conducted via a number of online database searches. The paper presents an example of how QCA was used to consider whether there is any causal relationship between certain features of clinical placement, such as duration, level of preparation, level of benefit, and the capacity of recently graduated registered nurses to provide a range of nursing interventions for pneumonia, falls and pressure-area care. Effective and contemporary curriculum design requires examination of the components of clinical placement that influence graduates and their learning, particularly important at a time when access to the clinical placement setting is becoming increasingly difficult. This paper should stimulate nurse researchers to consider the potential for QCA and case study in addressing many of the complex questions that lend themselves to research designs with small numbers of participants. This paper will be of interest to nurse researchers looking for innovative approaches to data analysis and educators responsible for curriculum design and the delivery of clinical placement experience. A greater

  1. Tech Tips: Using Video Management/ Analysis Technology in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Spiers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tips on how to use video in qualitative research. The author states that, though there many complex and powerful computer programs for working with video, the work done in qualitative research does not require those programs. For this work, simple editing software is sufficient. Also presented is an easy and efficient method of transcribing video clips.

  2. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  3. Early child grammars: qualitative and quantitative analysis of morphosyntactic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Géraldine

    2006-09-10

    This article reports on a series of 5 analyses of spontaneous production of verbal inflection (tense and person-number agreement) by 2-year-olds acquiring French as a native language. A formal analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results is developed using the unique resources of Optimality Theory (OT; Prince & Smolensky, 2004). It is argued that acquisition of morphosyntax proceeds via overlapping grammars (rather than through abrupt changes), which OT formalizes in terms of partial rather than total constraint rankings. Initially, economy of structure constraints take priority over faithfulness constraints that demand faithful expression of a speaker's intent, resulting in child production of tense that is comparable in level to that of child-directed speech. Using the independent Predominant Length of Utterance measure of syntactic development proposed in Vainikka, Legendre, and Todorova (1999), production of agreement is shown first to lag behind tense then to compete with tense at an intermediate stage of development. As the child's development progresses, faithfulness constraints become more dominant, and the overall production of tense and agreement becomes adult-like.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhu Du; Lina Chen; Kunfang Ma; Hongjian Ji

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish reliable methods for evaluating the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis. Methods: Qualitative analysis by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) , reference substances were Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai and oleanolic acid, a ethanol solution. In the system of high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), a Prontosil Eurobond C18 column (250 mm×4.0 the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min with UV detected at 210 nm, the column temperature was maintained at room temperature. Results:In the system of TLC, oleanolic acid was separated successfully. In HPLC, the linear ranges of oleanotic acid and ursolic acid were 5.89-13.73 μg (R=0.9990)and 6.84~15.96 μg (R=0.9990), respectively. The average recoveries of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 97.52% (RSD=2.58% ), 98.21% (RSD=2.23%), respectively. Conclusion: The established TLC method can easily distinguish Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis from other commonly used crude drugs of the same family .The HPLC method for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid is simple, reproducible, accurate and feasible. The methods reported in this paper can be used scientifically and effectively to evaluate the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis.

  5. COMMUNICATION IN ONCOLOGY: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS BASED ON PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study about patients' perceptions of communication with the health care team during chemotherapy. Interviews were conducted with 14 patients undergoing cancer treatment at different stages of the disease. The instruments used were: sociodemographic data sheet and semi -structured interview. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed regarding reading nonjudgmental; structural analysis and content categorization; critical interpretation and discussion. Two independent judges evaluated the interviews contents and evaluated concordance index (Kappa = 0.834. Three categories of communication were created: 1 Technical Communication; 2 Technical Communication with Emotional Support; 3 Insufficient communication. The psychoanalytic theory offered a comprehensive view of this issue and joined subjective aspects of illness with the empirical evidence. The results showed that communication with emotional support contributed to greater satisfaction and psychological health of the patient during cancer treatment. Wellness feeling and support feelings were mentioned by patients to refer this type of communication. The technical communication with emotional support provides the patient trust in reality and extends hope in life and comfort before death. More negative perceptions regarding communication with health professionals were linked to failures in the exchange of information, sense of emotional detachment and lack of interest on personal aspects of the patient.

  6. Landslides geotechnical analysis. Qualitative assessment by valuation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo Oscar, Sc D.; Oliva Aldo, Sc D.; Polanco Gabriel, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    In general, a landslide can cause a disaster when it is combined a number of factors such as an extreme event related to a geological phenomenon, vulnerable elements exposed in a specific geographic area, and the probability of loss and damage evaluated in terms of lives and economic assets, in a certain period of time. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of slope stability through of Valuation Factors, obtained from the characterization of the determinants and triggers factors that influence the instability; for the first the morphology and topography, geology, soil mechanics, hydrogeology and vegetation to the second, the rain, earthquakes, erosion and scour, human activity, and ultimately dependent factors of the stability analysis, and its influence ranges which greatly facilitate the selection of construction processes best suited to improve the behavior of a slope or hillside. The Valuation Factors are a set of parameters for assessing the influence of conditioning and triggering factors that influence the stability of slopes and hillsides. The characteristics of each factor must be properly categorized to involve its effect on behavior; a way to do this is by assigning a weighted value range indicating its effect on the stability of a slope. It is proposed to use Valuation Factors with weighted values between 0 and 1 (arbitrarily selected but common sense and logic), the first corresponds to no or minimal effect on stability (no effect or very little influence) and the second, the greatest impact on it (has a significant influence). The meddle effects are evaluated with intermediate values.

  7. Qualitative content analysis from the lean construction perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    qualitative in nature as recent SCM literatures available on the IGLC web portal ... this, horizontal supply chain collaboration among the SMEs was a key reason for the ... every construction site, there appears to be a major hindrance to.

  8. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  9. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  10. Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Services Research: Developing Taxonomy, Themes, and Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Devers, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... Approaches to data analysis vary by discipline and analytic tradition; however, we focus on qualitative data analysis that has as a goal the generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory germane to health services research. Principle Findings...

  11. Qualitative criteria of urbanism and brands: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pompe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactivity, multidisciplinarity, synergy and interdependence are all concepts that are clearly intertwined with managing every responsible city and its leaders. Urbanism plays a significant role among the disciplines that affect the uniqueness and competitive position of a city. None of the cities that are successful in a competitive environment would be a noteworthy and powerful brand if they did not possess recognisable, singular and distinctive elements of urbanism that made them unique. This article proceeds from the hypothesis that urbanism with qualitative solutions helps shape a city’s brand and that the criteria that demonstrate this are in agreement with the qualitative criteria of a brand. In reviewing the scholarly literature on urbanism as brands and branding itself, it is shown that qualitative urbanism criteria show great similarity with qualitative brand criteria, and therefore have a decisive effect on a city brand and its placement in a competitive urban market. Qualitative urbanism and brand criteria are closely linked and tend to be cast in the same mould, although they differ in formulation and level of implementation. These acknowledged similarities represent a step forward in integral operation, management, communication and urban marketing. They also enable more or less unconnected areas of urbanism and marketing to connect. The positive consequences of understanding the connection of both fields will be long term and will build a recognisable, consistent and stakeholder friendly reputation for a city. These findings are a golden opportunity for urban management and confirm the need for a comprehensive approach to urban management.

  12. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Drabble, SJ; O'Cathain, A.; Thomas, KJ; Rudolph, A; Hewison, J

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlle...

  13. Teaching principles of qualitative analysis to industrial design engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Doing qualitative field research has become a standard part of academic human-centered design education. Part of the challenge is to bring design students a thorough understanding of research methods, and practical skills in performing small scale user research as part of design projects. This invo

  14. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Matthew B.; Huberman, A. Michael; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny Saldaña, author of "The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers." Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and…

  15. Towards a Methodological Improvement of Narrative Inquiry: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2009-01-01

    The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…

  16. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  17. Spiritual Dynamics Involved with Overseas Student Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…

  18. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  19. A Learning Community's Potential Academic Impact: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Warner, Susan C.; Rose, Stephanie Firebaugh; Johnson, Courtney B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Communities (LC) in higher education can serve as powerful connectors among individuals, particularly when integrating minority and White students. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews, using qualitative research methodology, with the 2004 cohort of LC students from a private, selective, Midwest university. Seniors at the time of…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

  1. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, &…

  2. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, &…

  3. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

  4. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Matthew B.; Huberman, A. Michael; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny Saldaña, author of "The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers." Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and…

  5. A Software-Assisted Qualitative Content Analysis of News Articles: Example and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kaefer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a step-by-step description of how qualitative data analysis software can be used for a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles. Using NVivo as an example, it illustrates how software tools can facilitate analytical flexibility and how they can enhance transparency and trustworthiness of the qualitative research process. Following a brief discussion of the key characteristics, advantages and limitations of qualitative data analysis software, the article describes a qualitative content analysis of 230 newspaper articles, conducted to determine international media perceptions of New Zealand's environmental performance in connection with climate change and carbon emissions. The article proposes a multi-level coding approach during the analysis of news texts that combines quantitative and qualitative elements, allowing the researcher to move back and forth in coding and between analytical levels. The article concludes that while qualitative data analysis software, such as NVivo, will not do the analysis for the researcher, it can make the analytical process more flexible, transparent and ultimately more trustworthy. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150283

  6. Organizing "mountains of words" for data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semiquantitative coding and analysis. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed.

  7. Use of MRI in Differentiation of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Ankur M; Ream, Justin M; Kierans, Andrea S; Bilbily, Matthew; Rusinek, Henry; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative and quantitative MRI feature analysis is useful for differentiating type 1 from type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This retrospective study included 21 type 1 and 17 type 2 PRCCs evaluated with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists independently evaluated various qualitative features, including signal intensity, heterogeneity, and margin. For the quantitative analysis, a radiology fellow and a medical student independently drew 3D volumes of interest over the entire tumor on T2-weighted HASTE images, apparent diffusion coefficient parametric maps, and nephrographic phase contrast-enhanced MR images to derive first-order texture metrics. Qualitative and quantitative features were compared between the groups. For both readers, qualitative features with greater frequency in type 2 PRCC included heterogeneous enhancement, indistinct margin, and T2 heterogeneity (all, p Quantitative analysis revealed that apparent diffusion coefficient, HASTE, and contrast-enhanced entropy were greater in type 2 PRCC (p quantitative and qualitative model had an AUC of 0.859. Qualitative features within the model had interreader concordance of 84-95%, and the quantitative data had intraclass coefficients of 0.873-0.961. Qualitative and quantitative features can help discriminate between type 1 and type 2 PRCC. Quantitative analysis may capture useful information that complements the qualitative appearance while benefiting from high interobserver agreement.

  8. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

    2012-01-01

    A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

  9. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  10. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  11. Increasing the trustworthiness of research results: the role of computers in qualitative text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal

    2000-01-01

    By using computer packages designed for qualitative data analysis a researcher can increase trustworthiness (i.e., validity and reliability) of conclusions drawn from qualitative research results. This paper examines trustworthiness issues and therole of computer software (QSR's NUD*IST) in the context of a current research project investigating the social...

  12. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

    2012-01-01

    A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

  13. A Simple Card Trick: Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis Using a Deck of Playing Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Yet today, despite recent welcome additions, relatively little is written about teaching qualitative research. Why is that? This article reports out a relatively simple, yet appealing, pedagogical move, a lesson the author uses to teach qualitative data analysis. Data sorting and categorization, the use of tacit and explicit theory in data…

  14. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Coding and data analysis during qualitative empirical research in Practical Theology : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theron, Petria M

    2015-01-01

    .... In this article, it is argued for a more systematic approach during the coding and data analysis phase of qualitative research and the article concludes with a proposed model for coding and data...

  16. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jason R. Rohr; Krista A. McCoy

    .... In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic...

  17. Qualitative phase space reconstruction analysis of supply-chain inventor time series

    OpenAIRE

    Jinliang Wu; Lipeng Xiao; Lizhong Wang; Chenxi Shao

    2010-01-01

    The economy systems are usually too complex to be analysed, but some advanced methods have been developed in order to do so, such as system dynamics modelling, multi-agent modelling, complex adaptive system modelling and qualitative modelling. In this paper, we considered a supply-chain (SC) system including several kinds of products. Using historic suppliers’ demand data, we firstly applied the phase space analysis method and then used qualitative analysis to improve the complex system’s per...

  18. Assigning poetry reading as a way of introducing students to qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to explain how poetry reading can be used to teach interpretive analysis of qualitative data. A number of studies were located in the nursing literature that focused on using poetry to help students develop empathy for patients, to teach students to reflect on their own practice, and to assist them in developing self-understanding. No studies were found that described the use of poetry reading as a way of teaching the skill of interpretive analysis. There are, however, a number of parallels between the principles of poetry reading and qualitative analysis that suggest that this method of teaching would be successful. International papers published on PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL were reviewed to identify challenges facing educators and ways of teaching the process of qualitative data analysis using poetry reading. Using poetry reading to teach skills of qualitative data analysis helps motivate students, cultivates a reflective mindset, and develops the skill of working as a member of an interpretive group. Framing interpretive work as being like reading poetry helps students pick up more quickly on the art that is a major component of the work. This approach also helps students learn the importance of cultural and contextual particulars as they begin analyzing qualitative data. Using poetry reading to introduce students to the complex skill of qualitative data analysis is an effective pedagogical strategy.

  19. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  20. Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, C A; Gaylor, D W

    1988-03-01

    The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and their relationship to dose and to maternal toxicity. The interpretation of these end points is also affected by the statistical power of the experiments used for detecting the various end points observed. The quantitative risk assessment attempts to estimate human risk for developmental toxicity as a function of dose. The current approach is to apply safety (uncertainty) factors to the no observed effect level (NOEL). An alternative presented and discussed here is to model the experimental data and apply a safety factor to an estimated risk level to achieve an "acceptable" level of risk. In cases where the dose-response curves upward, this approach provides a conservative estimate of risk. This procedure does not preclude the existence of a threshold dose. More research is needed to develop appropriate dose-response models that can provide better estimates for low-dose extrapolation of developmental effects.

  1. Qualitative Evaluation Methods in Ethics Education: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Logan L; Todd, E Michelle; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Although qualitative research offers some unique advantages over quantitative research, qualitative methods are rarely employed in the evaluation of ethics education programs and are often criticized for a lack of rigor. This systematic review investigated the use of qualitative methods in studies of ethics education. Following a review of the literature in which 24 studies were identified, each study was coded based on 16 best practices characteristics in qualitative research. General thematic analysis and grounded theory were found to be the dominant approaches used. Researchers are effectively executing a number of best practices, such as using direct data sources, structured data collection instruments, non-leading questioning, and expert raters. However, other best practices were rarely present in the courses reviewed, such as collecting data using multiple sources, methods, raters, and timepoints, evaluating reliability, and employing triangulation analyses to assess convergence. Recommendations are presented for improving future qualitative research studies in ethics education.

  2. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  3. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-08-01

    Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  4. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Redman-MacLaren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design: A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results: New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions: Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.

  5. A qualitative analysis of smokers' perceptions about lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay; DeGroff, Amy S; Richards, Thomas B; Melillo, Stephanie; Kish-Doto, Julia; Heminger, Christina L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Allen, Kristine Gabuten

    2017-06-21

    In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began recommending lung cancer screening for high risk smokers aged 55-80 years using low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan. In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers' knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs. The purpose of this study is to describe results of a qualitative study examining smokers' perceptions around lung cancer screening tests. In 2009, prior to the release of the updated USPSTF recommendations, we conducted 12 120-min, gender-specific focus groups with 105 current smokers in Charlotte, North Carolina and Cincinnati, Ohio. Focus group facilitators asked participants about their experience with three lung cancer screening tests, including CT scan, chest x-ray, and sputum cytology. Focus group transcripts were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using constant comparative methods. Participants were 41-67 years-old, with a mean smoking history of 38.9 pack-years. Overall, 34.3% would meet the USPSTF's current eligibility criteria for screening. Most participants were unaware of all three lung cancer screening tests. The few participants who had been screened recalled limited information about the test. Nevertheless, many participants expressed a strong desire to pursue lung cancer screening. Using the social ecological model for health promotion, we identified potential barriers to lung cancer screening at the 1) health care system level (cost of procedure, confusion around results), 2) cultural level (fatalistic beliefs, distrust of medical system), and 3) individual level (lack of knowledge, denial of risk, concerns about the procedure). Although this study was conducted prior to the updated USPSTF recommendations, these findings provide a baseline for future studies examining smokers' perceptions of lung cancer screening. We recommend clear and patient

  6. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-02-18

    There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and

  7. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for

  8. Perceptions of waste and recycling. A qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study with four main objectives: A To identify activities and inactivities in private households which influence the volume, composition, and further treatment of solid household waste, B to i dentify factors that influence consumers%27 perceptions...... of the possibilities for avoiding or reducing waste, and in particular to identify the perceived barriers for waste reduction, C to identify which types of social or organised consumer activities if any seem to be most popular with regard to waste avoidance, and D to investigate whether or not variations...... characteristics were controlled for: L ife-cycle stage, gender, income, housing conditions, and waste removal system. The last three variables were used as break variables while the first two were controlled for by controlling the composition of the sample Knodel, 1993. Particip ants were selected on the basis...

  9. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more common in blood group O both in male and female. Ulnar loop is most common in the blood group AB. Simple whorl and double loop whorl patterns are less frequent in blood group AB. Accidentals were not recorded in blood group A while blood group O show highest percentage of accidentals. Dankmeijer’s index was highest in blood group AB and lowest in blood group B.

  10. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  11. "Just Do It": An Inductive, Experiential Method for Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Terry A.

    Novices often struggle to learn qualitative data analysis, and benefit from intensive assistance. For teaching analysis more efficiently in the classroom setting, the workshop described in this paper explained and demonstrated an inductive, experiential method. The method introduces grounded theory analysis and helps students to identify,…

  12. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  13. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  14. [Qualitative analysis of Raman spectra based on pulse coupled neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Shao-fa; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Kai; Huang, Yao-xiong

    2010-09-01

    By studying on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) and Raman spectra qualitative analysis, a method based on PCNN for Raman spectra qualitative analysis was proposed. After encoding the Raman spectra by using PCNN neurons' characteristics of fatigue and refractory period, the improved Horspool algorithm was used to match the code corresponding to the detected sample with all of the base code in the database one by one, and then their matching similarity was acquired to determine the sample type. Experimental results and analysis of data proved that the method proposed in this paper is accurate and effective for Raman spectra qualitative analysis. Meanwhile, traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template has some deficiencies, like that it is difficult to determine the characteristic peak of the detected sample and the matching analysis process has a high degree of redundancy. While our proposed method not only can avoid these deficiencies very well, but also needs a small amount of data storage. The requirement of the storage space was only 5.8% of that used in the traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template.

  15. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  16. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of capillaroscopic findings in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambova, Sevdalina Nikolova; Hermann, Walter; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    No guidelines for the application of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the capillaroscopic examination in the rheumatologic practice exist. The aims of the study were to compare qualitative and quantitative analysis of key capillaroscopic parameters in patients with common rheumatic diseases and to assess the reproducibility of the qualitative evaluation of the capillaroscopic parameters, performed by two different investigators. Two hundred capillaroscopic images from 93 patients with different rheumatic diseases were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by two different investigators. The distribution of the images according to the diagnosis and the microvascular abnormalities was as follows-group 1: 73 images from systemic sclerosis patients ("scleroderma" type pattern), group 2: 10 images from dermatomyositis ("scleroderma-like" pattern), group 3: 25 images from undifferentiated connective tissue disease and different forms of overlap (24 "scleroderma-like"), group 4: 26 images from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, group 5: 46 images from rheumatoid arthritis and group 6: 20 images from primary Raynaud's phenomenon patients. All the images were mixed and blindly presented to both investigators. For comparison of the quantitative and qualitative method, investigator 1 assessed presence of dilated, giant capillaries and avascular areas quantitatively by the available software programme and his estimates were compared with the results of investigator 2, who assessed the parameters qualitatively. In addition, the capillaroscopic images were evaluated qualitatively by the investigator 1 and 2 for presence of dilated, giant capillaries, avascular areas and haemorrhages. The comparison of the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the two investigators demonstrated statistically significant difference between the two methods for the detection of dilated and giant capillaries (P 0.05). As we further analysed the results for the capillaroscopic

  17. Qualitative analysis of direction of public hospital reforms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dahai; Zhang, Zhiruo

    2017-07-03

    Reforms in public hospitals are among the most important improvements in China's health care system over the last two decades. However, the reforms that should be implemented in public hospitals are unclear. Thus, a feasible direction of reforms in Chinese public hospitals is suggested and reliable policy suggestions are provided for the government to reform public hospitals. The data used in this study were mainly derived from a qualitative study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted in Shanghai, Guangdong, and Gansu between May and December 2014. Government funding accounted for approximately eight percent of the total annual revenue of public hospitals in China, and the insufficient government subsidy considerably affects the operation mechanism of public hospitals. However, solely increasing this subsidy cannot address the inappropriate incentives of public hospitals in China. The most crucial step in setting the direction of reforms in public hospitals in China is transforming inappropriate incentives by implementing a new evaluation index system for directors and physicians in public hospitals.

  18. The Design of Everyday Hate: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Aumer-Ryan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history artists, poets, and writers have been interested in the nature of hate. Scientists from a variety of disciplines have also attempted to unravel its mysteries. Yet in spite of abundant theorizing and research, most modern scholars still complain that little is known about this complex emotion. In this study, a new approach has been taken. Following Heider’s (1958 observation that scientists can often learn a great deal by exploring people’s “common-sense” or “naïve psychologies,” students at the University of Texas and participants from a number of Internet sites were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the nature of emotion. Using grounded theory and employing mixed-method analyses (qualitative and quantitative, four questions were explored: (1 What do people mean by hate? (2 Whom do they hate? (3 Why do people hate the people they do? (4 How do people attempt to deal with such feelings? From participants’ answers, a theory concerning everyday hate was generated.

  19. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF A ROLLING HOOP WITH MASS UNBALANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanzhu; XUE Yun

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of a rolling hoop with an unbalanced point mass under the influence of gravity is discussed. The whole process from rolling to hopping of the hoop is analyzed qualitatively. The conditions of slipping, hopping and touching down of the hoop are obtained. It is shown that the hoop cannot maintain a pure rolling before hopping up, and the slippage is unavoidable. The hoop has neither vertical velocity nor vertical acceleration at the moment when the normal constraint force vanishes. The hopping motion of the hoop can occur only when the derivative of the vertical acceleration with respect to time is positive. It requires that the angular velocity of the hoop should be larger than a critical value, and the mass point should be located in the fourth quadrant of the hoop circle at the moment of hopping. The whole process of the pure rolling, rolling with slipping,hopping and falling motions of the hoop is shown in the phase plane, and the physical explanation of the hopping motion is given.

  20. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, U H; Lundman, B

    2004-02-01

    Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

  1. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Rolston, John D.; Ivan, Michael E.; Kuperman, Rachel A.; Chang, Edward F.; Gupta, Nalin; Sullivan, Joseph E.; Auguste, Kurtis I.

    2015-01-01

    Object Resection is a safe and effective treatment option for children with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, but some patients continue experience seizures after surgery. While most studies of pediatric epilepsy surgery focus on predictors of postoperative seizure outcome, these factors are often not modifiable, and the reasons for surgical failure may remain unclear. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents who received focal resective surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of factors associated with persistent postoperative seizures were conducted. Results Records were reviewed from 110 patients, ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years at the time of surgery, who underwent a total of 115 resections. At a mean 3.1-year follow-up, 76% of patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel Class I outcome). Seizure freedom was predicted by temporal lobe surgery compared with extra-temporal resection, tumor or mesial temporal sclerosis compared with cortical dysplasia or other pathologies, and by a lower preoperative seizure frequency. Factors associated with persistent seizures (Engel Class II–IV outcome) included residual epileptogenic tissue adjacent to the resection cavity (40%), an additional epileptogenic zone distant from the resection cavity (32%), and the presence of a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome (28%). Conclusions While seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery may be improved by the use of high-resolution neuroimaging and invasive electrographic studies, a more aggressive resection should be considered in certain patients, including hemispherectomy if a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome is suspected. Family counseling regarding treatment expectations is critical, and reoperation may be warranted in select cases. PMID:25127098

  2. Clinical features distinguishing grief from depressive episodes: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; McCraw, Stacey; Paterson, Amelia

    2015-05-01

    The independence or interdependence of grief and major depression has been keenly argued in relation to recent DSM definitions and encouraged the current study. We report a phenomenological study seeking to identify the experiential and phenomenological differences between depression and grief as judged qualitatively by those who had experienced clinical (n=125) or non-clinical depressive states (n=28). Analyses involving the whole sample indicated that, in contrast to grief, depression involved feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, being endless and was associated with a lack of control, having an internal self-focus impacting on self-esteem, being more severe and stressful, being marked by physical symptoms and often lacking a justifiable cause. Grief was distinguished from depression by the individual viewing their experience as natural and to be expected, a consequence of a loss, and with an external focus (i.e. the loss of the other). Some identified differences may have reflected the impact of depressive "type" (e.g. melancholia) rather than depression per se, and argue for a two-tiered model differentiating normative depressive and grief states at their base level and then "clinical" depressive and 'pathological' grief states by their associated clinical features. Comparative analyses between the clinical and non-clinical groups were limited by the latter sub-set being few in number. The provision of definitions may have shaped subjects׳ nominated differentiating features. The study identified a distinct number of phenomenological and clinical differences between grief and depression and few shared features, but more importantly, argued for the development of a two-tiered model defining both base states and clinical expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative phase space reconstruction analysis of supply-chain inventor time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Wu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The economy systems are usually too complex to be analysed, but some advanced methods have been developed in order to do so, such as system dynamics modelling, multi-agent modelling, complex adaptive system modelling and qualitative modelling. In this paper, we considered a supply-chain (SC system including several kinds of products. Using historic suppliers’ demand data, we firstly applied the phase space analysis method and then used qualitative analysis to improve the complex system’s performance. Quantitative methods can forecast the quantitative SC demands, but they cannot indicate the qualitative aspects of SC, so when we apply quantitative methods to a SC system we get only numerous data of demand. By contrast, qualitative methods can show the qualitative change and trend of the SC demand. We therefore used qualitative methods to improve the quantitative forecasting results. Comparing the quantitative only method and the combined method used in this paper, we found that the combined method is far more accurate. Not only is the inventory cost lower, but the forecasting accuracy is also better.

  4. Qualitative Research in the CJA/RCV: An 18-Year Analysis (1995-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Áine M; Green, Maureen

    2016-03-01

    Some researchers have suggested that qualitative research is increasing in the gerontology field, but little systematic analysis has tested this assertion. Using the Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement as a case study, we analysed articles reporting on original research from 1995 to 2012. One in four articles were qualitative, and results in three-year intervals show a clear increase in qualitative research findings during this 18-year time frame: (a) 1995-1997: 10 per cent; (b) 1998-2000: 19 per cent; (c) 2001-2003: 25 per cent; (d) 2004-2006: 25 per cent; (e) 2007-2009: 29 per cent; and (f) 2010-2012: 43 per cent. In all time intervals (with the exception of 2004-2006), French language articles were more likely to use a qualitative research design compared to English language articles. Topics, methodologies, and data collection strategies are also discussed.

  5. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  6. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  7. Three-way methods for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative two-way data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Hendrik Albert Lambertus

    1989-01-01

    A problem often occurring in exploratory data analysis is how to summarize large numbers of variables in terms of a smaller number of dimensions. When the variables are quantitative, one may resort to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). When qualitative (categorical) variables are involved, one may

  8. Modeling Virtual Healthcare Systems: Methods for Qualitative Case Analysis and Sociometry of Institutional Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Séror, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for the qualitative analysis of virtual institutional infrastructures serving complex healthcare systems. Methodologies considered include case analysis, grounded theory, and sociometry. The discussion is illustrated with references to case analyses of diverse healthcare systems. Particular attention is focused on ideological values expressed in market dynamics and system control structures.

  9. Modeling virtual healthcare systems: methods for qualitative case analysis and sociometry of institutional infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séror, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for the qualitative analysis of virtual institutional infrastructures serving complex healthcare systems. Methodologies considered include case analysis, grounded theory, and sociometry. The discussion is illustrated with references to case analyses of diverse healthcare systems. Particular attention is focused on ideological values expressed in market dynamics and system control structures.

  10. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  11. Three-way methods for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative two-way data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Hendrik Albert Lambertus

    1989-01-01

    A problem often occurring in exploratory data analysis is how to summarize large numbers of variables in terms of a smaller number of dimensions. When the variables are quantitative, one may resort to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). When qualitative (categorical) variables are involved, one may

  12. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  13. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  14. Qualitative website analysis of information on birth after caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, Valerie L; Whitelaw, Natalie; Cumming, Grant P; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Black, Mairead

    2015-08-19

    The United Kingdom (UK) caesarean section (CS) rate is largely determined by reluctance to augment trial of labour and vaginal birth. Choice between repeat CS and attempting vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) in the next pregnancy is challenging, with neither offering clear safety advantages. Women may access online information during the decision-making process. Such information is known to vary in its support for either mode of birth when assessed quantitatively. Therefore, we sought to explore qualitatively, the content and presentation of web-based health care information on birth after caesarean section (CS) in order to identify the dominant messages being conveyed. The search engine Google™ was used to conduct an internet search using terms relating to birth after CS. The ten most frequently returned websites meeting relevant purposive sampling criteria were analysed. Sampling criteria were based upon funding source, authorship and intended audience. Images and written textual content together with presence of links to additional media or external web content were analysed using descriptive and thematic analyses respectively. Ten websites were analysed: five funded by Government bodies or professional membership; one via charitable donations, and four funded commercially. All sites compared the advantages and disadvantages of both repeat CS and VBAC. Commercially funded websites favoured a question and answer format alongside images, 'pop-ups', social media forum links and hyperlinks to third-party sites. The relationship between the parent sites and those being linked to may not be readily apparent to users, risking perception of endorsement of either VBAC or repeat CS whether intended or otherwise. Websites affiliated with Government or health services presented referenced clinical information in a factual manner with podcasts of real life experiences. Many imply greater support for VBAC than repeat CS although this was predominantly conveyed through subtle

  15. Life With and Without Coding: Two Methods for Early-Stage Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Aiming at Causal Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gläser, Jochen; Laudel, Grit

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at "mechanismic" explanations poses specific challenges to qualitative data analysis because it must integrate existing theory with patterns identified in the data. We explore the utilization of two methods—coding and qualitative content analysis—for the first steps in the

  16. Life With and Without Coding: Two Methods for Early-Stage Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Aiming at Causal Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gläser, Jochen; Laudel, Grit

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at "mechanismic" explanations poses specific challenges to qualitative data analysis because it must integrate existing theory with patterns identified in the data. We explore the utilization of two methods—coding and qualitative content analysis—for the first steps in the

  17. Qualitative analysis of the Clock Drawing Test by educational level and cognitive profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a qualitative scale for the Clock Drawing Test (CDT may add information about the pattern of errors committed. Objective: To translate and adapt the Modified Qualitative Error Analysis of Rouleau into Brazilian Portuguese and to examine the pattern of errors according to educational level and cognitive profile. Method: 180 adults (47-82 years completed the CDT. Participants were stratified into age and educational levels and separated between those with and without changes in cognitive screening tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Verbal Fluency. Results: No significant differences were found in CDT scores among age groups. Among participants without cognitive impairment, those with lower education often presented graphic difficulties, conceptual deficits and spatial deficits. Participants with cognitive deficits, demonstrated more frequently conceptual and spatial errors. Conclusion: The qualitative analysis of the CDT may contribute to the identification of cognitive changes. Education level has to be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  18. Qualitative Research in the Condition of Underestimated Time – In Need of “Shortcuts.” The Organization of Research Process Using the Computer-Aided Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Brosz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the organization of research process using NVivo software. Described researches were conducted in the condition of underestimated time. The use of CAQDA (computer-aided qualitative data analysis and proper research management enabled fitting into the timeframe imposed by the contracting institution. The work distribution and its management, preparation of properly formatted documents, and complementation of qualitative database with the collection of attributes based on standardized data significantly improved the elaboration of results.

  19. Qualitative Analysis for Rheodynamic Model of Cardiac Pressure Pulsations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-cong Liu; Bei-ye Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we give a rigorous mathematical and complete parameter analysis for the rheodynamic model of cardiac and obtain the conditions and parameter region for global existence and uniqueness of limit cycle and the global bifurcation diagram of limit cycles.We also discuss the resonance phenomenons of the perturbed system.

  20. QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOOSPHERE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

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    Yermolenko V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the total problems of formation and development of the knowledge economy, we highlighted the environmental aspect and the comparative analysis of the fundamental ideas of the knowledge economy and the noosphere concept development in terms of their complementarity

  1. Concept analysis of competency in nursing: Qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Bagheri Nesami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 23 Sep ,2008; Accepted 3 Dec ,2008 AbstractBackground and Purpose: Competency is a complicated and an ambiguous concept. It is also a challenging subject in the health care arena, which is significant in different aspects of nursing, such as education, clinic and management. There are ambiguities about it, thus, in this article, researchers conducted analysis of this concept. Materials and methods: This research is a concept analysis by the hybrid method. This model has three steps. In literature review stage, 475 related articles exist in databases up to September 2007 were analyzed and evaluated. As to the importance of educational system in the training of nursing courses, 5 educators were interviewed in the field work stage. After listening to tapes, results were Tran scripted and content analysis was done. In the last stage, holistic analysis was carried out.Results: Best definition and properties of competency was selected based on literature reviews. In the field work stage, categories and attributes, same as literature reviews stage, were emerged with interviewing of nursing educators, in addition to holistic view properties, in relation to attitude domain and creativity of management domain. In the last stage, a hybrid model was delivered.Conclusion: In the Iranian field of nursing, educational planning, implementing competency instrument, nurses and students evaluation can be performed according to this study criterion. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(67:35-42 (Persian

  2. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caifeng; Du, Jing; Fang, Hua; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Lin

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3-5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (pquantitative analysis, malignant lesions showed significantly higher (p=0.031) and faster enhancement (p=0.025) than benign ones, and its time to peak was significantly shorter (p=0.002). The areas under the ROC curve for qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis were 0.910 (A(z1)), 0.768 (A(z2)) and 0.926(A(z3)) respectively. The values of A(z1) and A(z3) were significantly higher than that for A(z2) (p=0.024 and p=0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A(z1) and A(z3) (p=0.625). The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Modes of analysis in qualitative research in health: critical perspective and spoken reflexions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Manuel; Gálvez Toro, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    There is a consistent theoretical and methodological foundations on qualitative health research provided mainly by social sciences. However, this existent overlap between social and health aspects is a wide multidisciplinary field still underexplored. This article offers an overview of the main paradigms, methodologies and theoretical tendencies of qualitative research analyses within the health sciences context. Based on an initial classification, two opposite extremes for setting the bounds of the qualitative analysis continuum--from designs focusing on data description, which are purely exploratory, to those which go into theorizing processes so as to draw out interpretations and inferences--are discussed. Qualitative research is an important tool in the analysis of health problems from a social and cultural point of view. Adopting different procedures such as content and speech analysis, qualitative research approaches communication patterns and examines the diverse language ideologies. Sociological and anthropological traditions provide unique methodologies which allow to know the context where the phenomena appear and set out theoretical proposals in order to explain them, for example ethnomethodology or analytical induction. Lastly, some keys are suggested for developing a common area, out of which new epistemological perspectives may be set out based on different disciplines coming together.

  4. Qualitative diagnosis for transients analysis on nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorre, J.P.; Dorlet, E.; Evrard, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major aims of an intelligent monitoring system, is the supervision task which assist the operator in understanding what occurs on a process. Failures hypotheses must be located and the inferring process must be explained. This paper demonstrate a second generation expert system (SEXTANT) decided to the transients analysis on PWR nuclear reactors. This system detects failures by simulating the process with a numerical model. A diagnosis module uses an even graph built from a causal graph model of the plant to generate hypotheses, and a numerical model to validate these hypotheses. Hypotheses are stored into scenarios which are concurrent possible interpretations of the process evolution. The approach is illustrated by an application for the analysis of the house load operation on a pressurized water reactor. (authors). 9 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Saccharum spontaneum (L. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. known as Kasa (Family: Poaceae is a traditional herb, it has excellence medicinal value; has been advocated in the treatment gynaecological troubles, respiratory disease. Roots are used as galactagogue and diuretic and in ayurveda system roots are also used as astringent, emollient, refrigerant, diuretic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles and sexual weakness. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis as well as extractive value and quantitative phytochemical screening of different extractives were studied. The major components of the extractives like total phenolic, total flavonoids were also estimated respectively. The characteristic of microscopy, physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and quantitative chemical screening were performed in root extractives of the plant material as a mean of authentication.

  6. Requirements for nurse supervisor training: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Khadijeh; Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Salimi, Tahere

    2016-01-01

    Supervisors should have certain characteristics and adequate preparation for their roles. Yet, there are no well-educated experts knowing about the supervisor's role and responsibilities and how to train them. So, this research was conducted with the purpose of finding the factors affecting nursing supervisor training. This research is an inductive content analysis. Participants were 25 in number, consisting of nurses and supervisors in Shahid Sadoughi University hospitals. The participants were chosen by a purposive sampling method. Data collection was done by semi-structured interviews and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings included two main themes: Firstly, establishment of a supervisory infrastructure that includes "making the appointments and retention of supervisors, clarifying the duties and authority of supervisor, developing supervisory culture, specializing supervision, and conducting practice-based training" and secondly, comprehensive supervisory competencies that include "acquiring scientific, managing, communicative, professional, ethical, pedagogical, and supporting adequacy." Clinical supervisor has a major role in ensuring the quality of nursing care. This leads to improvements in patient care and nurses' personal and professional development. So, it is necessary that for effective supervision in nursing, first an infrastructure is provided for supervision and then the comprehensive competency of a supervisor is enhanced to apply effective supervision.

  7. Qualitative Secondary Analysis in Austere Times: Ethical, Professional and Methodological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Coltart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates in qualitative secondary analysis (QSA have sought to move beyond polarising arguments in order to develop more nuanced perspectives on the epistemological, analytical and practical opportunities and challenges associated with its methods. This is generally to be welcomed, although there are also signs of unhelpful primary/secondary divisions finding new forms of expression. Focusing on definitional issues and wider contexts of QSA helps to explain the possible sources of ongoing tensions while affording tentative insights into potential opportunities and synergies across the primary/secondary spectrum. Building on work undertaken within the Timescapes Qualitative Longitudinal study, the article also highlights some under-examined costs and risks that may come along with new opportunities created by secondary analysis. Issues of over-privileging secondary analysis claims, making and the timing of qualitative secondary analysis are foregrounded as requiring further consideration if researchers are to take seriously lingering suspicions and fears about qualitative secondary analysis and not dismiss them as simply reactionary or self-serving. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301181

  8. Optimising qualitative longitudinal analysis: Insights from a study of traumatic brain injury recovery and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maritime shipping as a high reliability industry: A qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarelli, T.; Roberts, K.; Bea, R.

    1994-10-01

    The maritime oil shipping industry has great public demands for safe and reliable organizational performance. Researchers have identified a set of organizations and industries that operate at extremely high levels of reliability, and have labelled them High Reliability Organizations (HRO). Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster of 1989, public demands for HRO-level operations were placed on the oil industry. It will be demonstrated that, despite enormous improvements in safety and reliability, maritime shipping is not operating as an HRO industry. An analysis of the organizational, environmental, and cultural history of the oil industry will help to provide justification and explanation. The oil industry will be contrasted with other HRO industries and the differences will inform the shortfalls maritime shipping experiences with regard to maximizing reliability. Finally, possible solutions for the achievement of HRO status will be offered.

  10. Enhancing genomic laboratory reports: A qualitative analysis of provider review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Stuckey, Heather; Green, Jamie; Feldman, Lynn; Zallen, Doris T.; Bonhag, Michele; Segal, Michael M.; Fan, Audrey L.; Williams, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the responses of physicians who reviewed provider and patient versions of a genomic laboratory report designed to communicate results of whole genome sequencing. Semi‐structured interviews addressed concept communication, elements, and format of example genome reports. Analysis of the coded transcripts resulted in recognition of three constructs around communication of genome sequencing results: (1) Providers agreed that whole genomic sequencing results are complex and they welcomed a report that provided supportive interpretation information to accompany sequencing results; (2) Providers strongly endorsed a report that included active clinical guidance, such as reference to practice guidelines, if available; and (3) Providers valued the genomic report as a resource that would serve as the basis to facilitate communication of genome sequencing results with their patients and families. Providers valued both versions of the report, though they affirmed the need for a provider‐oriented report. Critical elements of the report included clear language to explain the result, as well as consolidated yet comprehensive prognostic information with clear guidance over time for the clinical care of the patient. Most importantly, it appears a report with this design has the potential not only to return results but also serves as a communication tool to help providers and patients discuss and coordinate care over time. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26842872

  11. Qualitative analysis of young adult ENDS users' expectations and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite extensive research into the determinants of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) uptake, few studies have examined the psychosocial benefits ENDS users seek and experience. Using a consumer ritual framework, we explored how ENDS users recreated or replaced smoking practices, and considered implications for smoking cessation. Design In-depth interviews; data analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 16 young adult ENDS users (age M=21.4, SD=1.9; 44% female). Results Participants reported using different ENDS to achieve varying outcomes. Some used ‘cigalikes’ to recreate a physically and visually similar experience to smoking; they privileged device appearance over nicotine delivery. In contrast, others used personally crafted mods to develop new rituals that differentiated them from smokers and showcased their technical expertise. Irrespective of the device they used, several former smokers and dual users of cigarettes and ENDS experienced strong nostalgia for smoking attributes, particularly the elemental appeal of fire and the finiteness of a cigarette. Non-smoking participants used ENDS to maintain social connections with their peers. Conclusions Participants used ENDS to construct rituals that recreated or replaced smoking attributes, and that varied in the emphasis given to device appearance, nicotine delivery, and social performance. Identifying how ENDS users create new rituals and the components they privilege within these could help promote full transition from smoking to ENDS and identify those at greatest risk of dual use or relapse to cigarette smoking. PMID:28270392

  12. Pharmacist educators in family medicine residency programs: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgenson Derek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 25-29% of North American family medicine residency programs utilize a pharmacist to teach residents. Little is known about the impact that these pharmacist educators have on residency training. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of residents, residency directors and pharmacists within Canadian family medicine residency programs that employ a pharmacist educator to better understand the impact of the role. Methods Recruitment from three cohorts (residents, residency directors, pharmacists within family medicine residency programs across Canada for one-on-one semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis of anonymized transcript data. Results 11 residents, 6 residency directors and 17 pharmacist educators participated in interviews. Data themes were: (1 strong value of the teaching with respect to improved resident knowledge, confidence and patient care delivery; (2 lack of a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum; (3 desire for expansion of pharmacist teaching; (4 impact of teaching on collaboration; (5 impact of teaching on residency program faculty; and (6 lack of criticism of the role. Conclusions The pharmacist educator role is valued within residency programs across Canada and the role has a positive impact on several important aspects of family medicine resident training. Suggestions for improvement focused on expanding the teaching role and on implementing a formal curriculum for pharmacist educators to follow.

  13. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  14. Transdisciplinary care in the emergency department: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kelli; Crawford, Kimberley; Jones, Tamsin; Blight, Renee; Trenham, Catherine; Williams, Allison; Griffiths, D; Morphet, Julia

    2016-03-01

    In response to increasing demands some emergency departments have introduced transdisciplinary care coordination teams. Such teams comprise staff from multiple disciplines who are trained to perform roles outside their usual scope of practice. This study aimed to critically evaluate the patient, carer and ED staff perceptions of the transdisciplinary model of care in an emergency department in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital. The evaluation of the transdisciplinary team involved interviews with patients and carers who have received the transdisciplinary team services, and focus groups with emergency nursing and transdisciplinary team staff. Analysis of the data revealed that the transdisciplinary model provided an essential service, where staff members were capable of delivering care across all disciplines. The ability to perform comprehensive patient assessments ensured safe discharge, with follow-up services in place. The existence of this team was seen to free up time for the emergency nursing staff, enabling them to see other patients, and improving department efficiency while providing quality care and increasing staff satisfaction. This study identified several important factors which contributed to the success of the transdisciplinary team, which was well integrated into the larger emergency department team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First-Hand Accounts of Sensory Perceptual Experiences in Autism: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert S. P.; Quigney, Ciara; Huws, Jaci C.

    2003-01-01

    Five first-hand Web page accounts of unusual sensory perceptual experiences written by persons with high-functioning autism were selected for qualitative analysis. Four core categories emerged: turbulent sensory perceptual experiences; coping mechanisms; enjoyable sensory perceptual experiences; and awareness of being different, suggesting they…

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  17. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  18. Noticing in Task Performance and Learning Outcomes: A Qualitative Analysis of Instructional Effects in Interlanguage Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to provide an in-depth qualitative analysis of instructional effects in L2 pragmatics by exploring the manner in which Japanese EFL learners' noticing of target English request forms is constrained by different types of treatment tasks and the subsequent effect of the learners' noticing on their learning outcomes. Following the…

  19. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

  20. XbD Video 3, The SEEing process of qualitative data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the third video in the Experience-based Designing series. It presents a live classroom demonstration of a nine step qualitative data analysis process called SEEing: The process is useful for uncovering or discovering deeper layers of 'meaning' and meaning structures in an experience...

  1. Understanding the physical attractiveness literature: Qualitative reviews versus meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The target article is a qualitative review of selected findings in the physical attractiveness literature. This commentary explains why the meta-analytic approach, frequently used by other attractiveness reviewers, is preferable for drawing unbiased conclusions about the effects of attractiveness. The article's main contribution is affording a foundation for subsequent meta-analysis of the studies discussed in a subjective fashion.

  2. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  3. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  4. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  5. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

  6. Patients covertly recording clinical encounters: threat or opportunity? A qualitative analysis of online texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsulukidze, M.; Grande, S.W.; Thompson, R.; Rudd, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters has generated controversial media reports. This study aims to examine the phenomenon and analyze the underlying issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of online posts, articles, blogs, and forums

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  8. The Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Though social inclusion is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life, people with disabilities continue to face many barriers. The purpose of this qualitative meta-analysis was to describe the elements and experiences of social inclusion for people with disabilities. The study analyzed data from 15 primary research reports through thematic…

  9. The Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Though social inclusion is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life, people with disabilities continue to face many barriers. The purpose of this qualitative meta-analysis was to describe the elements and experiences of social inclusion for people with disabilities. The study analyzed data from 15 primary research reports through thematic…

  10. XbD Video 3, The SEEing process of qualitative data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the third video in the Experience-based Designing series. It presents a live classroom demonstration of a nine step qualitative data analysis process called SEEing: The process is useful for uncovering or discovering deeper layers of 'meaning' and meaning structures in an experience...

  11. Qualitative analysis of the interdisciplinary interaction between data analysis specialists and novice clinical researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Roberto Zammar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inherent complexity of statistical methods and clinical phenomena compel researchers with diverse domains of expertise to work in interdisciplinary teams, where none of them have a complete knowledge in their counterpart's field. As a result, knowledge exchange may often be characterized by miscommunication leading to misinterpretation, ultimately resulting in errors in research and even clinical practice. Though communication has a central role in interdisciplinary collaboration and since miscommunication can have a negative impact on research processes, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet explored how data analysis specialists and clinical researchers communicate over time. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted qualitative analysis of encounters between clinical researchers and data analysis specialists (epidemiologist, clinical epidemiologist, and data mining specialist. These encounters were recorded and systematically analyzed using a grounded theory methodology for extraction of emerging themes, followed by data triangulation and analysis of negative cases for validation. A policy analysis was then performed using a system dynamics methodology looking for potential interventions to improve this process. Four major emerging themes were found. Definitions using lay language were frequently employed as a way to bridge the language gap between the specialties. Thought experiments presented a series of "what if" situations that helped clarify how the method or information from the other field would behave, if exposed to alternative situations, ultimately aiding in explaining their main objective. Metaphors and analogies were used to translate concepts across fields, from the unfamiliar to the familiar. Prolepsis was used to anticipate study outcomes, thus helping specialists understand the current context based on an understanding of their final goal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The communication between clinical

  12. Qualitative analysis of the interdisciplinary interaction between data analysis specialists and novice clinical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Shah, Jatin; Ferreira, Ana Paula Bonilauri; Cofiel, Luciana; Lyles, Kenneth W; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-02-24

    The inherent complexity of statistical methods and clinical phenomena compel researchers with diverse domains of expertise to work in interdisciplinary teams, where none of them have a complete knowledge in their counterpart's field. As a result, knowledge exchange may often be characterized by miscommunication leading to misinterpretation, ultimately resulting in errors in research and even clinical practice. Though communication has a central role in interdisciplinary collaboration and since miscommunication can have a negative impact on research processes, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet explored how data analysis specialists and clinical researchers communicate over time. We conducted qualitative analysis of encounters between clinical researchers and data analysis specialists (epidemiologist, clinical epidemiologist, and data mining specialist). These encounters were recorded and systematically analyzed using a grounded theory methodology for extraction of emerging themes, followed by data triangulation and analysis of negative cases for validation. A policy analysis was then performed using a system dynamics methodology looking for potential interventions to improve this process. Four major emerging themes were found. Definitions using lay language were frequently employed as a way to bridge the language gap between the specialties. Thought experiments presented a series of "what if" situations that helped clarify how the method or information from the other field would behave, if exposed to alternative situations, ultimately aiding in explaining their main objective. Metaphors and analogies were used to translate concepts across fields, from the unfamiliar to the familiar. Prolepsis was used to anticipate study outcomes, thus helping specialists understand the current context based on an understanding of their final goal. The communication between clinical researchers and data analysis specialists presents multiple challenges that can lead to

  13. Analyzing Data Generated Through Deliberative Dialogue: Bringing Knowledge Translation Into Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Cole, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a knowledge translation strategy that can serve to generate rich data and bridge health research with action. An intriguing alternative to other modes of generating data, the purposeful and evidence-informed conversations characteristic of DD generate data inclusive of collective interpretations. These data are thus dialogic, presenting complex challenges for qualitative analysis. In this article, we discuss the nature of data generated through DD, orienting ourselves toward a theoretically grounded approach to analysis. We offer an integrated framework for analysis, balancing analytical strategies of categorizing and connecting with the use of empathetic and suspicious interpretive lenses. In this framework, data generation and analysis occur in concert, alongside engaging participants and synthesizing evidence. An example of application is provided, demonstrating nuances of the framework. We conclude with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the framework, suggesting how it may be relevant in other qualitative health approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Qualitative analysis of interviews of future non-affective psychotic disorder patients and non-psychiatric controls: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Rubinstein

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this unique historical-prospective qualitative analysis of interviews performed before the onset of psychosis, confirmed previous findings of premorbid abnormality of future non-affective psychosis patients. Using qualitative analysis enabled obtaining a more in-depth understanding of the real-life experience of the premorbid period among patients with non-affective psychotic disorders.

  15. Employing the Matrix Method as a tool for the analysis of qualitative research data in the business domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses three issues: 1. It explains the characteristics and the process of the analysis of empirical, qualitative data. 2. It introduces a method for qualitative analysis, as relevant to business research, i.e., the Matrix Method. 3. It presents a coherent approach about structuring

  16. Employing the Matrix Method as a tool for the analysis of qualitative research data in the business domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses three issues: 1. It explains the characteristics and the process of the analysis of empirical, qualitative data. 2. It introduces a method for qualitative analysis, as relevant to business research, i.e., the Matrix Method. 3. It presents a coherent approach about structuring

  17. Qualitative versus quantitative radiographic analysis of foot deformities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, David E; Davids, Jon R; Roush, Thomas F; Pugh, Linda I

    2008-01-01

    quantitative radiographic analysis of the segmental alignment of the involved foot and ankle in children with hemiplegic CP is possible and is more precise and reliable than traditional qualitative techniques. Quantitative techniques can identify a wider range of foot segmental malalignments and should facilitate deformity analysis, preoperative planning, assessment of outcome, and comparison of results between centers.

  18. TQ-bifurcations in discrete dynamical systems: Analysis of qualitative rearrangements of the oscillation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of bifurcations is defined in discrete dynamical systems, and methods for their diagnostics and the analysis of their properties are presented. The TQ-bifurcations considered are implemented in discrete mappings and are related to the qualitative rearrangement of the shape of trajectories in an extended space of states. Within the demonstration of the main capabilities of the toolkit, an analysis is carried out of a logistic mapping in a domain to the right of the period-doubling limit point. Five critical values of the parameter are found for which the geometric structure of the trajectories of the mapping experiences a qualitative rearrangement. In addition, an analysis is carried out of the so-called "trace map," which arises in the problems of quantum-mechanical description of various properties of discrete crystalline and quasicrystalline lattices.

  19. Calibration transfer based on maximum margin criterion for qualitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Peng, Silong; Bi, Yiming; Tang, Liang

    2012-12-21

    A traditional multivariate calibration transfer method such as piecewise direct standardization (PDS) is usually applied to quantitative analysis. To make the method apply to qualitative analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we propose an improved calibration transfer method based on the maximum margin criterion (CTMMC). The new method not only considers the spectral changes under different conditions, but also takes into account the geometric characteristics of spectra from different classes, so the transformed spectra from different classes will be separated as far as possible, and this will improve the performance of the follow-up qualitative analysis. A comparative study is provided between the proposed method CTMMC and other traditional calibration transfer methods on two data sets. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than previous methods.

  20. Qualitative Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Cnidium monnieri Using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Jia; Yi-min Li; Xin Zhai; Yang Yang; Chun-yan Li; Qiao-yan Zhang; Lu-ping Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the coumarins constituents in Cnidium monnieriand classify ten samples into three groups and this helpful chemical information could be used for thefurther pharmacological and clinical study on C.monnieri.Methods Qualitative analysis of coumarins in C.monnieri was detected by UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS.Quadrupole TOF/MS in either full scan mode or extracted ion mode was used for the qualitative analysis of the constituents.Relative peak area of each component was used for the hierarchical cluster analysis.Results According to UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS data,chemical structures of 28 coumarins in the fruits of C.monnieri were identified,including 19 simple coumarins,seven linear coumarins,and two angular coumarins.Among these constituents,ten coumarins were firstly identified in C.monnieri In addition,hierarchical cluster analysis suggested that C.monnierifrom different regions could be classified into four groups,and this clustering was correlated to the distribution significantly,Xuzhou could be regarded as the genuine producing area.Conclusion UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS is a viable method for qualitative analysis and quality evaluation of coumarins from the fruit of C.monnieri.Coumarins in C.monnieri exists intra-species variance,which indicates significant meaning for the quality control and choice of famous region drug for C.monnieriin the clinic medication.

  1. Piltdown Man: Combining the Instruction of Scientific Ethics and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John B.

    1999-11-01

    In combination with lectures on scientific method and the problems of scientific misconduct in a freshman chemistry course at The University of Alabama, a laboratory experiment was developed to allow students to feel some of the sense of scientific discovery associated with the exposure of the Piltdown Man fraud. This is accomplished by modifying a commonly performed freshman chemistry laboratory experiment, qualitative analysis of group III metal ions. Pieces of chalk are treated with chromium, manganese, and iron to simulate the treatment used to forge the Piltdown "fossils"; students can use techniques in qualitative analysis schemes for the group III ions to determine whether the samples are "forgeries" and if so which metal ion(s) were used.

  2. Qualitative analysis of experiences of members of a psychoeducational assertiveness group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This study describes qualitatively a psychoeducational assertiveness intervention for 20 women's perceptions of positive and negative experiences, undertaken to identify whether therapeutic mechanisms operating in group therapy as described by Yalom might be inferred. There were 14 90-min. weekly sessions organized around educational material. Two groups were conducted with 10 university women each (M= 20.9 yr., SD= 1.9). Qualitative analysis of the 20 interviews identified five of Yalom's therapeutic mechanisms, namely, self-understanding, universality, acceptance, catharsis, and self-disclosure. The positive experiences were group cohesiveness, self-understanding, self-disclosure, positive views about the self and learning, and cognitive benefits. Self-disclosing at the early stages of group development was the most frequently reported negative experience or difficulty in the group. Although participants stated they improved interpersonal communication skills, analysis suggested the cultural context was an important mediator of assertive behavior.

  3. Qualitative analysis of Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ cations using thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Soner

    2004-03-01

    The M(DEDTC)2 (M = Cu, Co, or Ni) and M(PyDTC)2 (M = Cu or Co) complexes prepared by reactions of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and ammonium pyrollidinedithiocarbamate with metal (II) nitrates are examined for qualitative analysis and separation using thin-layer chromatography systems. These complexes and their mixtures are spotted to the activated thin layers of silica gel 60GF254 (Si-60GF254) with a 250-microm thickness. Pure toluene and a toluene-cyclohexane mixture (3:1, v/v) are used as mobile phases for running of the complexes. These chromatographic systems are successfully used for qualitative analysis of corresponding metal cations and separation of components in both M(DEDTC)2 and M(PyDTC)2 complex mixtures.

  4. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  5. Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Radulescu, Vicentiu D

    2015-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth

  6. REGION QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEMS ON TIME SCALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We first investigate some basic properties of dynamic equations on time scales,and propose contained curves to describe the jump direction of the discrete points.Then we perform qualitative analysis regarding the planar predator-prey systems on time scales,thereby obtain two theorems of this system.At last,we emulate application examples to discuss the parameters of the system.

  7. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

  8. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci

    2010-12-01

    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Qualitative content analysis experiences with objective structured clinical examination among Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Korean nursing students with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessment regarding the 12 cranial nerves using qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the subjective experiences of nursing baccalaureate students after taking the OSCE. Convenience sampling was used to select 64 4th year nursing students who were interested in taking the OSCE. The participants learned content about the 12 cranial nerve assessment by lectures, demonstrations, and videos before the OSCE. The OSCE consisted of examinations in each of three stations for 2 days. The participants wrote information about their experiences on sheets of paper immediately after the OSCE anonymously in an adjacent room. The submitted materials were analyzed via qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified into two themes and seven categories. One theme was "awareness of inner capabilities", which included three categories: "inner motivation", "inner confidence", and "creativity". The other theme was "barriers to nursing performance", which included four categories: "deficiency of knowledge", "deficiency of communication skill", "deficiency of attitude toward comfort", and "deficiency of repetitive practice". This study revealed that the participants simultaneously experienced the potential and deficiency of their nursing competency after an OSCE session on cranial nerves. OSCE also provided the opportunity for nursing students to realize nursing care in a holistic manner unlike concern that OSCE undermines holism. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss. However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function.

  11. Life With and Without Coding: Two Methods for Early-Stage Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Aiming at Causal Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gläser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research aimed at "mechanismic" explanations poses specific challenges to qualitative data analysis because it must integrate existing theory with patterns identified in the data. We explore the utilization of two methods—coding and qualitative content analysis—for the first steps in the data analysis process, namely "cleaning" and organizing qualitative data. Both methods produce an information base that is structured by categories and can be used in the subsequent search for patterns in the data and integration of these patterns into a systematic, theoretically embedded explanation. Used as a stand-alone method outside the grounded theory approach, coding leads to an indexed text, i.e. both the original text and the index (the system of codes describing the content of text segments are subjected to further analysis. Qualitative content analysis extracts the relevant information, i.e. separates it from the original text, and processes only this information. We suggest that qualitative content analysis has advantages compared to coding whenever the research question is embedded in prior theory and can be answered without processing knowledge about the form of statements and their position in the text, which usually is the case in the search for "mechanismic" explanations. Coding outperforms qualitative content analysis in research that needs this information in later stages of the analysis, e.g. the exploration of meaning or the study of the construction of narratives. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130254

  12. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  13. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

  14. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

  15. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows.

  16. Parafoveal OCT Angiography Features in Diabetic Patients without Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, Mathilde M; Sikorav, Anne; Semoun, Oudy; Miere, Alexandra; Jung, Camille; Courbebaisse, Blandine; Srour, Mayer; Freiha, Joseph G; Souied, Eric H

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of OCT angiography (OCTA) for detecting infraclinical lesions in parafoveal capillaries in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR). This prospective observational cross-sectional case-control study analyzed the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP and DCP) on macular OCTA scans (3 × 3 mm) centered on the fovea. We compared 22 diabetic patients (34 eyes included) without DR diagnosis on color fundus photographs, with 22 age- and gender-matched nondiabetic controls (40 eyes included). Qualitative analysis concerned morphological ischemic capillary alterations. Quantitative analysis measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size, parafoveal capillary density, and enlargement coefficient of FAZ between SCP and DCP. Neither the qualitative nor quantitative parameters were significantly different between both groups. No microaneurysms or venous tortuosity was observed in any of the analyzed images. On the SCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.322 ± 0.125 mm(2) in diabetic patients and 0.285 ± 0.150 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.31. On the DCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.444 ± 0.153 mm(2) in cases and 0.398 ± 0.138 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.20. OCTA did not detect infraclinical qualitative or quantitative differences in parafoveal capillaries of diabetic patients without DR in comparison with nondiabetic controls.

  17. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  18. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-11-01

    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  19. [A qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes and a systematic supportive learning instruction of spelling disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvacho Del Toro, Irene M

    2016-09-01

    This paper explains how a qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes (Oldenburger Fehleranalyse, Thomé & Thomé, 2014) may be used to select learning materials according to individual needs. The pre-post design with control group serves to evaluate the effects of an intervention that is systematic and learning supportive for pupils with a diagnosed spelling disorder (ages 12 to 14; 6th-8th grade). Therapists of the experimental group were instructed to apply a series of linguistic and psycholinguistic criteria when creating the material for instruction and when carrying out the therapy. Therapists of the control group carried out the intervention without attending to these criteria, although they did have knowledge about the pupil’s profile in spelling mistakes. The intervention included 20 sessions. The ANOVA shows improvement for both groups (HSP, May 2012): (F(1, 14) = 15,05, p = .002, η2 = .518). For the experimental group it is stronger, and the difference in achievement gain is significant (F(1, 14) = 4,70, p = .048; η2 = .25). These results support a combination of qualitative analysis and a high qualification for therapists that relates specifically to orthography and its instruction. For some pupils the changes in the qualitative profiles reveal persistent support requirements in phonology or grammar instruction.

  20. The Qualitative and Numerical Analysis of the Cosmological Model Based on Phantom Scalar Field with Self

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the cosmological model based on phantom scalar field on the ground of qualitative analysis of the system of the cosmological model's differential equations and show that as opposed to models with classical scalar field, such models have stable asymptotic solutions with constant value of the potential both in infinite past and infinite future. We also develop numerical models of the cosmological evolution models with phantom scalar field in this paper. {\\bf keywords}: cosmological model, phantom scalar field, quality analysis, asymptotic behavior, numerical simulation, numerical gravitation.\\\\ {\\bf PACS}: 04.20.Cv, 98.80.Cq, 96.50.S 52.27.Ny

  1. Marginal Vertical Fit along the Implant-Abutment Interface: A Microscope Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mobilio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the marginal vertical fit along two different implant-abutment interfaces: (1 a standard abutment on an implant and (2 a computer-aided-design/computer-aided-machine (CAD/CAM customized screw-retained crown on an implant. Four groups were compared: three customized screw-retained crowns with three different “tolerance” values (CAD-CAM 0, CAD-CAM +1, CAD-CAM −1 and a standard titanium abutment. Qualitative analysis was carried out using an optical microscope. Results showed a vertical gap significantly different from both CAD-CAM 0 and CAD-CAM −1, while no difference was found between standard abutment and CAD-CAM +1. The set tolerance in producing CAD/CAM screw-retained crowns plays a key role in the final fit.

  2. Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model: $\\Lambda\

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative analysis of the system of differential equations of the standard cosmological model it is shown that in the case of zero cosmological constant this system has a stable center corresponding to zero values of potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has an oscillating character and changes from $-2$ (braking), to $+1$ (acceleration). Average value of the cosmological acceleration is negative and is equal to $-1/2$. Oscillations of the cosmological acceleration happen on the background of rapidly falling Hubble constant. In the case of nonzero value of the cosmological constant depending on its value there are possible three various qualitative behavior typ...

  3. An Analysis on Performance of Decision Tree Algorithms using Student’s Qualitative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Miranda Lakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision Tree is the most widely applied supervised classification technique. The learning and classification steps of decision tree induction are simple and fast and it can be applied to any domain. In this research student qualitative data has been taken from educational data mining and the performance analysis of the decision tree algorithm ID3, C4.5 and CART are compared. The comparison result shows that the Gini Index of CART influence information Gain Ratio of ID3 and C4.5. The classification accuracy of CART is higher when compared to ID3 and C4.5. However the difference in classification accuracy between the decision tree algorithms is not considerably higher. The experimental results of decision tree indicate that student’s performance also influenced by qualitative factors.

  4. Qualitative Comparative Analysis: A Hybrid Method for Identifying Factors Associated with Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Baldwin, Julie; Hampel, Heather; DeBate, Rita D

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed over 25 years ago to bridge the qualitative and quantitative research gap. Upon searching PubMed and the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, this review identified 30 original research studies that utilized QCA. Perceptions that QCA is complex and provides few relative advantages over other methods may be limiting QCA adoption. Thus, to overcome these perceptions, this article demonstrates how to perform QCA using data from fifteen institutions that implemented universal tumor screening (UTS) programs to identify patients at high risk for hereditary colorectal cancer. In this example, QCA revealed a combination of conditions unique to effective UTS programs. Results informed additional research and provided a model for improving patient follow-through after a positive screen.

  5. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2016-02-01

    The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training.

  7. Patient and Partner Experiences With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and CPAP Treatment: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Aloia, Mark S; Martire, Lynn M; Buysse, Daniel J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for sleep apnea from the patients' and their partners' perspective. This qualitative research study explored patients' and partners' experiences of CPAP and facilitators and barriers to CPAP use, and elicited suggestions for a first-time CPAP user program. Data from 27 participants were collected via four sleep apnea patient and four partner focus groups. Qualitative content analysis identified five themes: knowledge of sleep apnea, effects of sleep apnea, effects of CPAP, barriers and facilitators of CPAP, and ideas for a new user support program. Patients and partners emphasized the importance of partner involvement in the early CPAP treatment period. These data suggest consideration of a couple-oriented approach to improving CPAP adherence.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Quality of Life of Individuals With Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O; McCune, Ashley M; Mandal, Konoy; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the quality of a broad range of life domains using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Forty-eight individuals seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder (mean age = 29.8 years, female = 100%, white = 96.4%) from 2007 to 2009 completed the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; a medical chart review confirmed diagnosis and treatment history. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) and bulimia nervosa (n = 24) were compared. Body mass index (kg/m(2)), treatment history, number of comorbid psychiatric conditions, and eating disorder severity were used to predict quality of life. Finally, an inductive content analysis was performed on qualitative QOLI responses to contextualize the quantitative findings. Participants with anorexia nervosa, compared to those with bulimia nervosa, reported significantly less satisfaction with the domain of relatives (F 1,46 = 5.35; P = .025); no other significant group differences were found. The only significant predictor of QOLI global score was number of previous treatments (F 1,41 = 8.67; P = .005; R (2) = 0.175). Content analysis of qualitative data yielded complementary findings to the quantitative data; interesting group differences emerged for satisfaction with health with implications for measuring quality of life domains. Across several life domains, individuals seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appear to have similar levels of satisfaction, as evidenced by numeric and descriptive responses. Satisfaction with relatives, however, appears to differ between groups and suggests a specific target for intervention among patients in treatment for anorexia nervosa (eg, a family-based intervention such as the Maudsley approach). The use of quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as the QOLI, provides more clinically meaningful, contextualized information about quality of life than traditional self-report assessments

  9. Qualitative analysis of seized cocaine samples using desorption electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Natasha; Tahtouh, Mark; Kelly, Tamsin; Beavis, Alison; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of compounds found in seized drug material. In this study, DESI-MS was utilized in the screening analysis of illicit cocaine samples. The technique was also applied to the geographical origin determination of these samples. The limit of detection was determined to be 24.3 µg (or 3.47 µg/mm(2) ) and the analysis time was less than 1 minute per sample. The intra-day and inter-day precision for the detection of cocaine was 11 % and 42 %, respectively; therefore the quantitative data provided by DESI-MS was limited in its use for accurate determination of cocaine concentration in a sample. Using the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer, the presence of cocaine and impurities detected were confirmed by accurate tandem MS data. The qualitative chemical profiles obtained using DESI-MS were compared to two popular analysis techniques, GC-MS and LC-MS. The effects of a range of adulterants including caffeine, procaine, levamisole, lignocaine, paracetamol, and atropine on the detectability of cocaine were also investigated. It was found that the addition of these adulterants in a cocaine sample did not prevent the detection of the analyte itself (there was slight enhancement in some samples), which was useful in drug detection. The detection of truxillines in the seized samples by DESI-MS aided in the preliminary determination of geographical origin, i.e., Bolivian, Peruvian or Colombian leaf origin. The application of DESI-MS to the qualitative analysis and screening of seized cocaine samples demonstrates the potential and applicability of the technique to the fast chemical profiling of illicit samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rochelle; Fleisig, Glenn; Elliott, Bruce; Lyman, Stephen; Osinski, Edmund

    2003-07-01

    Baseball pitching must be performed with correct technique if injuries are to be avoided and performance maximized. High-speed video analysis is accepted as the most accurate and objective method for evaluation of baseball pitching mechanics. The aim of this research was to develop an equivalent qualitative analysis method for use with standard video equipment. A qualitative analysis protocol (QAP) was developed for 24 kinematic variables identified as important to pitching performance. Twenty male baseball pitchers were videotaped using 60 Hz camcorders, and their technique evaluated using the QAP, by two independent raters. Each pitcher was also assessed using a 6-camera 200 Hz Motion Analysis system (MAS). Four QAP variables (22%) showed significant similarity with MAS results. Inter-rater reliability showed agreement on 33% of QAP variables. It was concluded that a complete and accurate profile of an athlete's pitching mechanics cannot be made using the QAP in its current form, but it is possible such simple forms of biomechanical analysis could yield accurate results before 3-D methods become obligatory.

  11. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  12. InterviewStreamliner, a minimalist, free, open source, relational approach to computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInterviewStreamliner is a free, open source, minimalist alternative to complex computer-assisted qualitative data analysis packages. It builds on the flexibility of relational database management technology.

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Primers, Tracers, Igniters, Incendiaries, Boosters, and Delay Compositions on a Micro Scale by Use of Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingredients of primers, tracers, igniters, incendiaries, boosters, and delay compositions are given over the range 2.5 to 50 microns. The qualitative analysis of seven typical compositions is demonstrated.

  14. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  15. Antecedents of Coping with the Disease in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to many physical and mental disorders that occur in multiple sclerosis patients, identifying the factors affecting coping based on the experiences of patients using qualitative study is essential to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to explore the antecedents of coping with the disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted on 11 patients with multiple sclerosis in 2015 in Tehran, Iran. These patients were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and coded. These data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis. The rigor of qualitative data using the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln were assessed. Results: Five main categories were revealed: (1 social support, (2 lenience, (3 reliance on faith, (4 knowledge of multiple sclerosis and modeling, and (5 economic and environmental situation. Each category had several distinct sub-categories. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that coping with multiple sclerosis is a complex, multidimensional and contextual concept that is affected by various factors in relation to the context of Iran. The findings of the study can provide the healthcare professionals with deeper recognition and understanding of these antecedents to improve successful coping in Iranian patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  16. Antecedents of Coping with the Disease in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Ali; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Due to many physical and mental disorders that occur in multiple sclerosis patients, identifying the factors affecting coping based on the experiences of patients using qualitative study is essential to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to explore the antecedents of coping with the disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. This is a qualitative study conducted on 11 patients with multiple sclerosis in 2015 in Tehran, Iran. These patients were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and coded. These data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis. The rigor of qualitative data using the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln were assessed. Five main categories were revealed: (1) social support, (2) lenience, (3) reliance on faith, (4) knowledge of multiple sclerosis and modeling, and (5) economic and environmental situation. Each category had several distinct sub-categories. The results of this study showed that coping with multiple sclerosis is a complex, multidimensional and contextual concept that is affected by various factors in relation to the context of Iran. The findings of the study can provide the healthcare professionals with deeper recognition and understanding of these antecedents to improve successful coping in Iranian patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  17. A human factors systems approach to understanding team-based primary care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Swedlund, Matthew P

    2016-12-01

    Research shows that high-functioning teams improve patient outcomes in primary care. However, there is no consensus on a conceptual model of team-based primary care that can be used to guide measurement and performance evaluation of teams. To qualitatively understand whether the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model could serve as a framework for creating and evaluating team-based primary care. We evaluated qualitative interview data from 19 clinicians and staff members from 6 primary care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university. All health care clinicians and staff in the study clinics completed a survey of their communication connections to team members. Social network analysis identified key informants for interviews by selecting the respondents with the highest frequency of communication ties as reported by their teammates. Semi-structured interviews focused on communication patterns, team climate and teamwork. Themes derived from the interviews lent support to the SEIPS model components, such as the work system (Team, Tools and Technology, Physical Environment, Tasks and Organization), team processes and team outcomes. Our qualitative data support the SEIPS model as a promising conceptual framework for creating and evaluating primary care teams. Future studies of team-based care may benefit from using the SEIPS model to shift clinical practice to high functioning team-based primary care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A psycho-educational intervention for depressed women: a qualitative analysis of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Ma Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Acevedo, Maricarmen; Berenzon, Shoshana; Mondragón, Liliana; Rubí, Norma Angélica

    2004-12-01

    Yalom (1995) has stated that psycho-educational interventions could be made more effective by incorporating a focus on the interpersonal process. A qualitative analysis is proposed to investigate the degree of fidelity with which a psycho-educational intervention for women with depressive symptoms was delivered and to identify Yalom's significant therapeutic mechanisms operating in group therapy. The intervention consisted of six 2 two-hour weekly sessions organized around educational material. Eight groups were conducted with 5-19 participants each. A qualitative analysis was undertaken based on Kvale's (1996) technique of 'categorization of meanings' for the transcribed registers of audiotaped recordings. The analysis led to the definition of five major group process categories: establishment of rules, educational exchange, experiential exchange, reflexive work designed to achieve cognitive and behavioural change, and limitations on the exchange process. It showed that the facilitators largely adhered to the goals of the intervention, its strategies and model, and that the main limitations concerned facilitators' and participants'speaking for over-long periods of time and facilitators' failure to cover all the material due to lack of time. The subsequent analysis identified four of Yalom's categories: installation of hope, didactic instruction, catharsis, and universality. In support of Yalom's assertion, we concluded that this exercise was useful in that it highlighted important therapeutic factors that could be more purposefully manipulated in the future.

  19. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  20. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  1. [Application of DPLS-based LDA in corn qualitative near infrared spectroscopy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Wang, Hui-rong; Li, Wei-jun; Jin, Xiao-xian

    2011-07-01

    NIR technology is a rapid, nondestructive and user-friendly method ideally suited for Qualitative analysis. In this paper the authors present the use of discriminant partial least Squares (DPLS)-based linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in corn qualitative near infrared spectroscopy analysis. Firstly, a training set including 30 corn varieties (each variety has 20 samples) was used to build the DPLS regression model, and 28 principal components (DPLS-PCs) were obtained from original spectrum. Secondly, the DPLS-PCs scores of the training set were extracted as DPLS features. Thirdly, LDA was applied to the DPLS features, determining 26 principal components (LDA-PCs). A test sample was first projected onto the DPLS-PCs and then onto the LDA-PCs, and finally 26 DPLS+LDA features were obtained. The recognition results were obtained by minimum distance classifier. DPLS+LDA method achieved 96.18% recognition rate, while traditional DPLS regression method and DPLS feature extraction method only achieved 85.38% and 95.76% recognition rate respectively. The experiment results indicated that DPLS +LDA method is with better generalization ability compared with traditional DPLS regression method and NIRS analysis by DPLS+LDA method is an efficient way to discriminate corn species.

  2. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Calvo Silvosa, Anxo, E-mail: calvo@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Financeira e Contabilidade, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain); Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo, E-mail: gwig@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. {yields} The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. {yields} However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. {yields} The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  3. Driving lean and green project outcomes using BIM: A qualitative comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Ahuja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by a plethora of external and internal influences, the construction industry has independently embraced lean principles and green initiatives. Prima facie significant synergies have been reported between these two paradigms. It is foreseen that when tapped and adopted in unison, these paradigms may yield additional benefits for the construction projects. This synergy is investigated in this research. Further this study identifies and proposes Building Information Modelling (BIM as an enabler for gaining lean and green project outcomes. The study uses crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA method for exploring the causal combinations of different BIM capabilities and asserts that causal combinations of four BIM capabilities: MEP system modelling, energy and environment analysis, constructability analysis and structural analysis, when implemented on construction projects can lead to lean and green outcomes. With the help of sixteen cases it is shown that adoption of BIM leads to improved project outcomes especially ones targeting lean and green aspects.

  4. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Galan-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany) to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user foru...

  5. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of stability and instability dynamics of positive lattice solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Y; Fibich, G; Ilan, B; Weinstein, M I

    2008-10-01

    We present a unified approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of stability and instability dynamics of positive bright solitons in multidimensional focusing nonlinear media with a potential (lattice), which can be periodic, periodic with defects, quasiperiodic, single waveguide, etc. We show that when the soliton is unstable, the type of instability dynamic that develops depends on which of two stability conditions is violated. Specifically, violation of the slope condition leads to a focusing instability, whereas violation of the spectral condition leads to a drift instability. We also present a quantitative approach that allows one to predict the stability and instability strength.

  7. Restless legs syndrome: a qualitative analysis of psychosocial suffering and interdisciplinary attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Maria José V; Coin-Carvalho, João E; Carvalho, Luciane B C; Varela, Maite V; Potasz, Clarisse; Prado, Lucila B F; do Prado, Gilmar F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate psychosocial factors related to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome. Fifteen patients were interviewed at the Neuro-Sono Outpatient Clinic, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The results were submitted to a qualitative analysis. We identified four content categories: illness description, illness history, illness experience, and relationships. Lack of control over the body and lack of recognition by professionals produce stigma and lead patients to suffering. The research underscores the relevance of psychosocial factors to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome and the importance of having interdisciplinary teams when attending patients with restless legs syndrome.

  8. Tagungsbericht: 18. Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Galan-Diaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In der ersten Märzwoche 2016 trafen sich ca. 120 Forschende aus 12 Ländern (u.a. Japan, Syrien, den USA und der Türkei) in Berlin, um sich über Nutzungsmöglichkeiten qualitativer Software zu informieren. Die 18. Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) erlaubte im Rahmen verschiedener Workshops sowie mittels einer Poster-Session und  von Nutzer/innenforen, Best-Practice-Beispiele (auch informell) zu diskutieren.  Hinzu kamen Keynotes von  John CRESWELL bzw. Udo KUCKART...

  9. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF A SERIE OF CEMENT BY X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk Yildirim, Sema; BULMUŞ, Tuğba

    2009-01-01

    Cement is now widely used in every aspect of daily life due to the development of technology and ecological consciousness. In this study, the qualitative analysis of a serie of cement samples were made by using X-ray powder diffraction. The powder diffraction patterns of samples were taken by using copper radiation [λ(CuKα) = 1.54056Å] at room temperature by the RIGAKU type D-MAX 220 model X-ray diffractometer. The data obtained from the powder diffraction patterns was evaluated and the subst...

  10. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...

  11. Interaction between international trade and economic growth: evidence from qualitative comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Seda Bilman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between international trade and growth is one of the most popular debates in international economics literature. Although there are numerous theoretical approaches and empirical studies about the issue, the direction of the causality and the magnitude of the interaction still remain unclear. In this study, qualitative comparative analysis introduced by Ragin (1987 is applied, different from the previous empirical studies on the topic. The results present the conditions for growth in the country groups involved. The findings imply that trade policy is still of great importance in terms of stimulating growth in developing countries, while it has little importance in developed countries.

  12. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  13. Part process analysis: a qualitative method for studying provider-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Sissel; Malterud, Kirsti

    2003-01-01

    Communication between patients and healthcare providers is vital for quality care. Complaints about doctors often arise from unfortunate communication. Research methods suited for the study of relationship and interaction are essential to understand how communication can be improved. The principles and procedures of a qualitative research method with the capacity to explore details and foundations of interaction between patients and doctors is presented. Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye's Part Process Analysis Method is a qualitative approach for studying communication at the microlevel. Attention is drawn both to verbal dialogue and to body communication, and the method is particularly suited for studying relationships and change. The application of the Part Process Analysis Method is described, exemplified by material from a group discussion between participants and leaders in a group-based treatment programme for women with chronic muscle pain. How the method can be used to explore reciprocity, relationships, and development is demonstrated in this context. The Part Process Analysis Method is proposed as a useful tool for studying communication between doctor and patient, providing knowledge about relationships and reciprocity, aspects that are important both in doctors' medical work and for patients' feeling of being understood.

  14. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ammonium salts of hexamethylenetetramine and 1,10-phenanthroline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Stankeviciene, Laimute; Stankevicius, Antanas; Janusiene, Laima

    2003-01-01

    By use of chemical and physicochemical methods the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteriostatic agents N-carbamoylmethylhexamethylenetetraamonium chloride (U-77) and 1-propyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium iodide (X-50) was carried out. The color reactions of these salts with various agents, e. g., concentrated acids, precipitants, oxidizers, indicators, ninhydrin, salts of heavy metals were assesssed. Some characteristic color reactions were found for analysis of quaternary ammonium salts. Experimental results indicate that interaction of N-carbamoylmethyhexamethylenetetraammonium chloride with silver nitrate leads to precipitate of the free silver in the form of a mirror under the proper conditions. It is a result of degradation of hexamethylenetetramine to formaldehyde and its oxidation, which is accompanied by reduction of silver ion to free silver. By use of thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry the physicochemical properties of compounds were tested. The suitability of qualitative methods, such as argentometry, mercurimetry, iodometry, extraction photometric analysis was detected. The results suggest, that the most suitable and precise method is argentometry.

  15. Comparative study of contrast-enhanced ultrasound qualitative and quantitative analysis for identifying benign and malignant breast tumor lumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Gao, Yun-Hua; Li, Ding-Dong; Gao, Yan-Chun; Hou, Ling-Mi; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    To compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) qualitative and quantitative analysis in the identification of breast tumor lumps. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of CEUS for 73 cases of breast tumor lumps were retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate approaches. Logistic regression was applied and ROC curves were drawn for evaluation and comparison. The CEUS qualitative indicator-generated regression equation contained three indicators, namely enhanced homogeneity, diameter line expansion and peak intensity grading, which demonstrated prediction accuracy for benign and malignant breast tumor lumps of 91.8%; the quantitative indicator-generated regression equation only contained one indicator, namely the relative peak intensity, and its prediction accuracy was 61.5%. The corresponding areas under the ROC curve for qualitative and quantitative analyses were 91.3% and 75.7%, respectively, which exhibited a statistically significant difference by the Z test (Pqualitative analysis to identify breast tumor lumps is better than with quantitative analysis.

  16. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of fluoxetine hydrochloride by 19F NMR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bai-Qin; Kong, Er-Li; Xue, Xiao-Di; Zhao, Shou-Qian; Lin, Shrong-Shi

    2012-05-01

    The chemical shift of fluoxetine hydrochloride appears at delta 14.15 in 19F NMR analysis. The delta moved upfield slightly from 14.158 to 14.145 when the concentration of solution became diluted from 2.00 to 0.05 mmol x L(-1). Spiking test was suggested to confirm the existence of the compound for qualitative analysis. 19F NMR detection sensitivity test illustrated that a concentration of 17 mg in 1 L water could be detected while the sample was scanned 500 times with optimum parameters. In quantitative analysis, standard curve of concentration versus fluorine signal intensity was proposed to determine the amount of fluoxetine. Long capillary tube containing trifluoroacetic acid was used as internal standard for the integration measurements and straight line was obtained with good fitting. Direct additions of trifluoroethanol to fluoxetine solutions gave a poorer standard curve.

  17. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation.

  18. MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

  19. Learning to do qualitative data analysis: an observational study of doctoral work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sarah; Seale, Clive

    2007-12-01

    Using examples from written assignments and supervisory dialogues, the authors report a longitudinal observational case study of a doctoral research project, focusing on the teaching and learning of qualitative data analysis on a project that involved coding and analysis of nursing talk. Written drafts contain concrete exemplars illustrating the problems and solutions discussed in supervisions. Early problems include the difficulty of knowing where to start with coding, ambiguities in the definition of codes, inaccurate reporting and recording of data, failure to distinguish researcher and actor categories, and overinterpretation of evidence. Solutions to these problems required their accurate identification, communication of practical solutions, and care in the interactional management of delivery and receipt of feedback. This detailed analysis informs readers of sources of validity, rigor, and, eventually, creativity in carrying out a social research project. It also assists in explicating an apprenticeship model for the learning of research skills.

  20. Media deliberation on intra-EU migration. A qualitative approach to framing based on rhetorical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Cârlan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how the model of deliberation proposed by Isabela and Norman Fairclough can be used for a better clarification and understanding of the framing processes in media – especially in opinion articles. We thus aim at integrating theoretical contributions from critical discourse analysis and argumentation theory with standard approaches to framing, originating in media studies. We emphasize how a rhetorical approach to framing can provide analytical insights into framing processes and complement the typical quantitative approaches with qualitative analysis based on textual reconstruction. Starting from an issue-specific approach to framing, we discuss a particular case of framing of intra-EU migration, analyzing four opinion articles selected from a larger corpus of Romanian, British and French media. We highlight, along our analysis, various methodological options and analytical difficulties inherent to such an approach.

  1. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan; Luthe, Tobias; Wyss, Romano; Tørnblad, Silje H; Evers, Yvette; Curran, Marina Martin; Williams, Richard J; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  2. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semantic verbal fluency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Bautista, A G; Rodríguez-Camacho, M; Martínez-Juárez, I E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y

    2017-08-29

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) perform poorly on semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks. Completing these tasks successfully involves multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. Therefore, quantitative analysis of SVF (number of correct words in one minute), conducted in most studies, has been found to be insufficient to identify cognitive dysfunction underlying SVF difficulties in TLE. To determine whether a sample of patients with TLE had SVF difficulties compared with a control group (CG), and to identify the cognitive components associated with SVF difficulties using quantitative and qualitative analysis. SVF was evaluated in 25 patients with TLE and 24 healthy controls; the semantic verbal fluency test included 5 semantic categories: animals, fruits, occupations, countries, and verbs. All 5 categories were analysed quantitatively (number of correct words per minute and interval of execution: 0-15, 16-30, 31-45, and 46-60seconds); the categories animals and fruits were also analysed qualitatively (clusters, cluster size, switches, perseverations, and intrusions). Patients generated fewer words for all categories and intervals and fewer clusters and switches for animals and fruits than the CG (P.05). Our results suggest an association between SVF difficulties in TLE and difficulty activating semantic networks, impaired strategic search, and poor cognitive flexibility. Attention, inhibition, and working memory are preserved in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A qualitative analysis of decision-making for total knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Richardson, Marsha; Kroll, Tony L; Sharf, Barbara F

    2010-06-01

    Variation in the utilization of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for patients with osteoarthritis has been well documented. Conceivably, patient preferences may play a major role in these differences; however, this has not been adequately assessed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of decision-making factors influencing preferences for TKA in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We conducted 6 focus groups of patients with knee osteoarthritis from diverse ethnic backgrounds attending primary care clinics affiliated to the largest private outpatient institution in Houston, TX. All groups were lead by race-concordant facilitators. The group discussions were centered on factors considered to be important in the decision-making for TKA. Thematic analysis was conducted, using a grounded theory approach aided by qualitative software. Several themes emerged from the groups' discussions. Positive and negative personal experiences played a major role in decision-making. Generally, participants had good expectations about improved function and quality of life, but a number of fears were identified, the most prevalent being fear of a lengthy recovery, followed by fear of complications and of anesthesia. Additional emerging themes included trust in surgeon, financial concerns, and worries about general health. The attitudes and beliefs of patients with knee osteoarthritis about TKA are largely based on personal experiences, expectations, and fears, and they are largely influenced by their close social environment. These findings emphasize the need for open doctor-patient communication around individual experiences to achieve satisfactory shared decision-making for TKA.

  5. Heroin shortage in Coastal Kenya: A rapid assessment and qualitative analysis of heroin users’ experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Sasha; Miles, Gillian; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Muthui, Mercy; Needle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While relatively rare events, abrupt disruptions in heroin availability have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality risk among those who are heroin dependent. A heroin shortage occurred in Coast Province, Kenya from December 2010 to March 2011. This qualitative analysis describes the shortage events and consequences from the perspective of heroin users, along with implications for health and other public sectors. Methods As part of a rapid assessment, 66 key informant interviews and 15 focus groups among heroin users in Coast Province, Kenya were conducted. A qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken in Atlas.ti. to identify salient themes related to the shortage. Results Overall, participant accounts were rooted in a theme of desperation and uncertainty, with emphasis on six sub-themes: (1) withdrawal and strategies for alleviating withdrawal, including use of medical intervention and other detoxification attempts; (2) challenges of dealing with unpredictable drug availability, cost, and purity; (3) changes in drug use patterns, and actions taken to procure heroin and other drugs; (4) modifications in drug user relationship dynamics and networks, including introduction of risky group-level injection practices; (5) family and community response; and (6) new challenges with the heroin market resurgence. Conclusions The heroin shortage led to a series of consequences for drug users, including increased risk of morbidity, mortality and disenfranchisement at social and structural levels. Availability of evidence-based services for drug users and emergency preparedness plans could have mitigated this impact. PMID:26470646

  6. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    Full Text Available This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  7. Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla De Stefano

    Full Text Available The themes of qualitative assessments that characterize the experience of family members offered the choice of observing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR of a loved one have not been formally identified.In the context of a multicenter randomized clinical trial offering family members the choice of observing CPR of a patient with sudden cardiac arrest, a qualitative analysis, with a sequential explanatory design, was conducted. The aim of the study was to understand family members' experience during CPR. All participants were interviewed by phone at home three months after cardiac arrest. Saturation was reached after analysis of 30 interviews of a randomly selected sample of 75 family members included in the trial. Four themes were identified: 1- choosing to be actively involved in the resuscitation; 2- communication between the relative and the emergency care team; 3- perception of the reality of the death, promoting acceptance of the loss; 4- experience and reactions of the relatives who did or did not witness the CPR, describing their feelings. Twelve sub-themes further defining these four themes were identified. Transferability of our findings should take into account the country-specific medical system.Family presence can help to ameliorate the pain of the death, through the feeling of having helped to support the patient during the passage from life to death and of having participated in this important moment. Our results showed the central role of communication between the family and the emergency care team in facilitating the acceptance of the reality of death.

  8. ASPECT OF LANGUAGE ON A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENT’S EVALUATION INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismanto Ismanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the characteristics of good student’s evaluation instrument. There are at least two requirements that must be met. Those are valid and reliable. The validity of the instrument can be seen from the instrument's ability to measure what should be measured. The fact the existence of the validity of an instrument may be a grain fill, the response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and the consequences of the implementation of the charging instrument. Analysis of the content is then known as content validity, i.e. rational analysis of the domain to be measured to determine the representation of each item on the instrument with the ability to be measured. Content validity is submitting pieces of blue print and items of the instrument to the experts to be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  9. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples.

  10. Optimal climate policy is a utopia. From quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-20

    The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate-economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that does more harm than good. An alternative approach is to focus the attention on extreme events, structural change and complexity. It is argued that a qualitative rather than a quantitative CBA that takes account of these aspects can support the adoption of a minimax regret approach or precautionary principle in climate policy. This means: implement stringent GHG reduction policies as soon as possible.

  11. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  12. Magnetotelluric (MT) data smoothing based on B-Spline algorithm and qualitative spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handyarso, Accep; Grandis, Hendra

    2017-07-01

    Data processing is one of the essential steps to obtain optimum response function of the Earth's subsurface. The MT Data processing is based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm which converts the time series data into its frequency domain counterpart. The FFT combined with statistical algorithm constitute the Robust Processing algorithm which is widely implemented in MT data processing software. The Robust Processing has three variants, i.e. No Weight (NW), Rho Variance (RV), and Ordinary Coherency (OC). The RV and OC options allow for denoising the data but in many cases the Robust Processing still results in not so smooth sounding curve due to strong noise presence during measurement, such that the Crosspower (XPR) analysis must be conducted in the data processing. The XPR analysis is very time consuming step within the data processing. The collaboration of B-Spline algorithm and Qualitative Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain could be of advantages as an alternative for these steps. The technique is started by using the best coherency from the Robust Processing results. In the Qualitative Spectral Analysis one can determine which part of the data based on frequency that is more or less reliable, then the next process invokes B-Spline algorithm for data smoothing. This algorithm would select the best fit of the data trend in the frequency domain. The smooth apparent resistivity and phase sounding curves can be considered as more appropriate to represent the subsurface. This algorithm has been applied to the real MT data from several survey and give satisfactory results.

  13. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  14. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrow Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Films: Cultural Processes in the Mirror of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dahl

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A special qualitative psychological analysis of movies developed by Wilhelm SALBER is practiced at the Psychological Institute of the University of Cologne for more than 40 years. This kind of film-analysis does not have an end in itself, but also aids as access to research cultural structures. In this respect movies are seismographs of cultural trends expressing general visions and images of future development. They indicate as well the status of society in its genesis and complexity as developmental perspectives, providing information about crisis, narrowing scope of action and its immanent self-healing power. Comparable to the process of dream-interpretation, the "manifest" film narration is expanded with the associations and in-depth descriptions of the audience in order to reconstruct the latent "Komplexentwicklung," the development of psychological lines. Suspense and spellbound is based on activating a meaningful transformational experience—only movies stimulate such a process which touch the heart of the viewers. The psychological analysis works out the morphological dramaturgy of the film-experience, which is shaped into a specific dynamic figure. Paradox insoluble problem-constellations are the driving forces in this moving process. The mere examination of the screenplay or the film-story does not take into consideration that the audience is always part of the scene. Viewers modify the story in a characteristic way while they are watching it—according to the dynamic of the psychological process they are going through. A combination of joining in and maintaining an observing distance—as in therapy, in advertising or in education—is an integral part of this interplay. Because the significant factors work unconsciously, it is necessary to apply a specific qualitative method in order to be able to grasp this. Short exemplary analyses of the movies The Piano, Fight Club, Dogville, Punch-Drunk Love, Catch Me If You Can, The Hours

  16. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  17. Qualitative Tourism Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Martini, Annaclaudia; Garcia, Luis-Manuel; Lowry, Linda

    Conducting qualitative research in tourism studies entails engaging with an entire approach, a set of methods that shape project design, conceptual frameworks, data analysis, and anticipated outcomes. Standard qualitative methods are individual interviews, focus groups and ethnography. Solicited

  18. What motivates individuals with ADHD? A qualitative analysis from the adolescent's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, Sarah; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Mies, Gabry; Glorie, Nathalie; Lemiere, Jurgen; Van der Oord, Saskia; Danckaerts, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with ADHD appear to respond differently to incentives than their peers. This could be due to a general altered sensitivity to reinforcers. However, apart from differences in the degree of motivation, individuals with ADHD might also be motivated by qualitatively different factors. This study aimed to harvest a range of motivational factors and identify ADHD-related qualitative differences in motivation, from the adolescent's point of view. Semi-structured interviews allowing participants to describe what motivates them in daily life were conducted with young adolescents (9-16 years) with and without ADHD. Thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo software. Major themes relating to motivation were identified from the interview data. These were: (1) achieving a sense of togetherness; (2) feeling competent; (3) fulfilling a need for variation; (4) gaining pleasure from applying effort to achieve a goal; (5) valuing social reinforcement; (6) desiring to be absorbed/forget problems; (7) feeling free and independent, (8) attaining material reinforcement; and (9) an enjoyment of bodily stimulation. The theme structure was very similar for both groups. However, individuals with ADHD differed in some specifics: their focus on the passing of time, the absence of preference for predictable and familiar tasks, and their less elaborate description of the togetherness theme. A broad range of motivational themes was identified, stretching beyond the current focus of ADHD research and motivational theories. Similarities and differences in motivational values of individuals with and without ADHD should be taken into account in reward sensitivity research, and in psychological treatment.

  19. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Nayereh Azam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  20. The impact of vascular comorbidities on qualitative error analysis of executive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Libon, David J; Ashley, Angela V; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Goldstein, Felicia C

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular comorbidities (VC) perform worse across measures of verbal reasoning and abstraction when compared to patients with AD alone. We performed a qualitative error analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Similarities zero-point responses in 45 AD patients with varying numbers of VC, including diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Errors were scored in set if the answer was vaguely related to how the word pair was alike (e.g., dog-lion: "they can be trained") and out of set if the response was unrelated ("a lion can eat a dog"). AD patients with 2-3 VC did not differ on Similarities total score or qualitative errors from AD patients with 0-1 VC. When analyzing the group as a whole, we found that increasing numbers of VC were significantly associated with increasing out of set errors and decreasing in set errors in AD. Of the vascular diseases investigated, it was only the severity of diastolic blood pressure that significantly correlated with out of set responses. Understanding the contribution of VC to patterns of impairment in AD may provide support for directed patient and caregiver education concerning the presentation of a more severe pattern of cognitive impairment in affected individuals.

  1. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Nayereh Azam Hagikhani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila

    2012-08-27

    Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12-20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  2. PCR-based approach for qualitative molecular analysis of six neurotropic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferese, R; Scorzolini, L; Campopiano, R; Albano, V; Griguoli, A M; Giardina, E; Scala, S; Ryskalin, L; D'Alessio, C; Zampatti, S; Fantozzi, R; Storto, M; Fornai, F; Gambardella, S

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, polymerase chain reaction analysis is frequently required to improve the detection of pathogen infections in central nervous system as a potential cause of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The goal of this paper is to set up a fast, cheap and reliable molecular approach for qualitative detection of six neurotropic pathogens. A method based on PCR has been designed and implemented to guarantee the qualitative DNA detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSVI/II), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RUBV) and Toxoplasma gondii in the cerebrospinal fluid, where otherwise they are barely detectable. Each PCR assay was tested using dilutions of positive controls, which demonstrated a sensitivity allowing to detect up to 102 copies/ml in PCR and 10 copies/ml in real-time PCR for each pathogen. Once been set up, the protocol was applied to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid from 100 patients with suspected infectious diseases of the central nervous system and 50 patients without any infection. The method allowed to identify 17 positive cerebrospinal fluid with polymerase chain reaction and 22 with real-time PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. Therefore, application of RT PCR allows a fast and sensitive evaluation of neurotropic DNA pathogens in the course of diagnostic routine within neurological units.

  3. PhD students’ expectations from their supervisors: A qualitative content analysis

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    SH Rimaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of research in PhD programs increases if supervisors become aware of students' expectations from them. This qualitative study aimed to explore expectations of PhD students from their supervisors was done.   Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted on 22 graduated PhD students of Iran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. The samples were purposefully selected and interviewed. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim.   Results: After analyzing and coding data, it was found that PhD students have four main expectations from their supervisors. These expectations consist of scientific support including help with selection of subject, preparation and registration of proposal, data collection and support for writing and examination of the thesis. Developing scientific skills and help with preparing manuscripts were other expectations. Emotional-social support with five categories including relationship between supervisor-student, general expectations of supervisor, supervisor personality characteristics, needed emotional skills and social activities related to thesis and finally providing adequate resources including financial support and access to facilities inside and outside the university were among the other expectations.   Conclusion: PhD students need to scientific, emotional, social and material supports from their supervisors in the process of performing thesis. These expectations should be told to supervisors.

  4. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  5. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX.

  6. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U. S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n=4 and staff (n=33 from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, should be utilized and instruction in basic interpersonal skills may prove useful. The development of a detailed leadership assessment and development process for public health practitioners is indicated.

  7. Qualitative Analysis after Instrumentation Using Manual Stainless Steel and Rotary Nickel Titanium Instruments

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    Key Fabiano Souza PEREIRA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare qualitatively the instrumentation (areastouched by the endodontic instruments with manual stainless steeland rotary nickel titanium files.Method: 32 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars with a singlecanal and a single apical foramen were examined in vitro. Thecanals were instrumented by the crown-down technique using Ktypefiles and taper .04 Profile files, obtaining a surgical diametercorresponding to a #30 instrument. Next, impression material wasinjected into the root canals. After material setting, the teeth weredecalcified to obtain canal impression. To evaluate the quality ofroot canal instrumentation, the images of the impressions weretransmitted to a 29-inch tv using a video camera coupled to anoperative microscope at ×20 magnification and moderate lightintensity. The examined surfaces were classified as EXCELLENT(smooth surfaces indicating that the walls were touched by theinstrument, GOOD (surfaces with irregularities and REGULAR(surfaces with irregularities, presence of anatomic complexities,like isthmuses, accessory canals, delta, etc.Results: The analysis of the root thirds and surfaces showed apredominance of the REGULAR classification of instrumentationfor both types of instruments. The worst results were found on thepalatal surface and apical third.Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05 between the manual stainless steel and rotary nickeltitanium instrumentation techniques when the impressions of theroot thirds and surfaces were analyzed qualitatively.

  8. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  9. Strategies in Using a Qualitative Database for the Analysis of Problem-centered Interviews

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    Thomas Kühn

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of several examples from our longitudinal study "Transitions to Employment," dealing with the shaping of biography of young adults and typical transition-patterns from education to employment, we discuss the use of a text databank in the evaluation of problem-centered interviews. First, we explain the structure of the project's "databank of biographical interviews with young adults" which is founded on a thematic and temporarily differentiating system of categories recording job- and family-related actions and orientations. We present different ways of using the databank in qualitative evaluation. The manner how certain cases and categories of the databank are selected and included in the analysis depends on the objective and the problem's complexity. Our examples show that the use of a databank is an important possibility to support the evaluation of qualitative interviews, facilitating a thematic directed access and thus allowing the handling of data which are particularly extensive. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003183

  10. Don't Blame the Software: Using Qualitative Data Analysis Software Successfully in Doctoral Research

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    Michelle Salmona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the learning experiences of doctoral candidates as they use qualitative data analysis software (QDAS. Of particular interest is the process of adopting technology during the development of research methodology. Using an action research approach, data was gathered over five years from advanced doctoral research candidates and supervisors. The technology acceptance model (TAM was then applied as a theoretical analytic lens for better understanding how students interact with new technology. Findings relate to two significant barriers which doctoral students confront: 1. aligning perceptions of ease of use and usefulness is essential in overcoming resistance to technological change; 2. transparency into the research process through technology promotes insights into methodological challenges. Transitioning through both barriers requires a competent foundation in qualitative research. The study acknowledges the importance of higher degree research, curriculum reform and doctoral supervision in post-graduate research training together with their interconnected relationships in support of high-quality inquiry. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603117

  11. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A

    2016-07-06

    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Erdjan

    2017-01-01

    The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology. This chapter deals with the experimental details of preanalytical steps using multidimensional protein separation combined with MS analysis of WS and GCF to achieve detailed protein composition at qualitative and quantitative levels. These approaches are interfaced with gold standard "stable-isotope" labeling technologies for large-scale quantitative MS analysis which is a prerequisite to determine accurate alterations in protein levels as a function of disease progression. The latter incorporates two stable-isotope chemistries one specific for cysteine containing proteins and the other universal amine-specific reagent in conjunction with oral fluids in health and periodontal disease to perform quantitative MS analysis. In addition, specific preanalytical steps demanded by the oral fluids such as GCF and WS for sample preparations to overcome limitations and uncertainties are elaborated for reliable large-scale quantitative MS analysis.

  13. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the

  14. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan

    2003-05-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  16. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  17. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  18. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  19. Qualitative Analysis and Travelling Wave Solutions for the Chaffee-Infante Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Liu; Yun, Zhu; Yuanzheng, Wang

    2013-04-01

    This paper employs the theory of planar dynamical systems and undetermined coefficient method to study travelling wave solutions to the Chaffee-Infante equation. By qualitative analysis, global phase portraits of the dynamic system corresponding to the equation are obtained for different parameter conditions. Furthermore, the relations between the properties of travelling wave solutions and the diffusion coefficient λ of the equation are investigated. In addition, all possible kink profile solitary wave solutions and approximate damped oscillatory solutions to the equation are obtained by using undetermined coefficient method. Error estimates indicate that the approximate solutions are meaningful. Based on these studies, the main contribution in this paper is to reveal the diffusion effect on travelling wave solutions to the Chaffee-Infante equation.

  20. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

  1. Interviews with the dead: using meta-life qualitative analysis to validate Hippocrates' theory of humours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretion, F; Conjur, G S; Attitude, S P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hippocrates devised his theory of the 4 humours (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) 24 centuries ago. Since then, medicine has evolved into a complex body of confusing and sometimes contradictory facts. The authors, seeing a need to determine the validity of his theory, hired a psychic. METHODS: The psychic interviewed 4 eminent ancient physicians, including Hippocrates. A randomized double-blind cross-over design was used for this meta-life qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All of the interviewees agreed that the theory of humours is an accurate model to explain disease and personality. INTERPRETATION: Hiring a psychic to conduct after-death interviews with key informants is a useful way to validate scientific theories. PMID:9875254

  2. DEFINING A COHERENT ORGANISA-TIONAL VISUAL IDENTITY – A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. RIZEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, any organisation should carefully design its commu-nication strategy as it reflects on its overall image. On one hand, this article aims to define what a good visual identity means by highlighting the elements of a good visual identity through a qualitative analysis of more than three dozen visual identities documents from organisations from different industries, private companies, governmental agencies and NGOs. Moreover, by observing different perspectives on what organisations consider as a desired visual identity, the article suggests directions for improving the visual identity documentation. Finally, as the most common elements of visual identity are identified, the authors briefly draft a strategy for creating a visual identity.

  3. Understanding gendered expectations and exemptions experienced by male double-duty caregivers: a qualitative secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ana Paula; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Leipert, Beverly

    2012-09-01

    There is growing evidence that family caregivers who are also employed face challenges in balancing the multiple demands associated with family caregiving. Health professionals who are family caregivers, defined in this study as double-duty caregivers (DDCs), are expected to use their professional knowledge in the provision of family care. The purpose of this qualitative secondary analysis was to explore how gendered expectations and exemptions affect the caregiving experiences and personal health of male nurses caring for family members. Being a male DDC created intersecting gendered expectations and exemptions. These coexisting and at times conflicting expectations and exemptions, constituted by the overarching theme of the determinants of care, directly influenced the health of male DDCs as they experienced tension when negotiating their dual role. The findings have direct implications for health-care policy and practice, research, and theory development.

  4. Negative Religious Rhetoric in the Lives of Black Cisgender Queer Emerging Adult Men: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Walker, Ja'Nina J; Torres, Vanessa M

    2016-12-02

    Given the intersection of racial, religious, and sexual identities for Black queer populations, the current study examines sexuality related religious rhetoric. Twenty Black cisgender queer men were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. Using thematic analysis, the research team identified four themes: negative religious rhetoric, personal consequences of negative religious rhetoric, social consequences of negative religious rhetoric, and growth from negative religious rhetoric. Participants explained the pervasiveness of negative religious rhetoric within their churches and family structures. Men also conveyed how negative religious rhetoric frames societal ideologies around same-sex behavior often condoning violence toward queer populations. Although men had negative experiences, participants articulated the importance of using oppression as a platform for growth. Black cisgender queer men are present within religious institutions, however, such negative religious rhetoric may negatively affect their mental and physical health. Researchers, clinicians, and clergy should consider the ways negative religious rhetoric marginalizes queer populations.

  5. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay.

  6. Varying total population enhances disease persistence: Qualitative analysis on a diffusive SIS epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Peng, Rui; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs qualitative analysis on an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion system with a linear source in spatially heterogeneous environment. The main feature of our model lies in that its total population number varies, compared to its counterpart proposed by Allen et al. [2]. The uniform bounds of solutions are derived, based on which, the threshold dynamics in terms of the basic reproduction number is established and the global stability of the unique endemic equilibrium is discussed when spatial environment is homogeneous. In particular, the asymptotic profile of endemic equilibria is determined if the diffusion rate of the susceptible or infected population is small or large. The theoretical results show that a varying total population can enhance persistence of infectious disease, and therefore the disease becomes more threatening and harder to control.

  7. A Coding Scheme Development Methodology Using Grounded Theory For Qualitative Analysis Of Pair Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Salinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of quantitative studies of pair programming (the practice of two programmers working together using just one computer have partially conflicting results. Qualitative studies are needed to explain what is really going on. We support such studies by taking a grounded theory (GT approach for deriving a coding scheme for the objective conceptual description of specific pair programming sessions independent of a particular research goal. The present article explains why our initial attempts at using GT failed and describes how to avoid these difficulties by a predetermined perspective on the data, concept naming rules, an analysis results metamodel, and pair coding. These practices may be helpful in all GT situations, particularly those involving very rich data such as video data. We illustrate the operation and usefulness of these practices by real examples derived from our coding work and present a few preliminary hypotheses regarding pair programming that have surfaced.

  8. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various elements in chromite ore by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Shi-li; Wang, Xiao-hui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Kind of the elements in chromite ore was firstly determined by ICP-AES. Twenty nine elements, such as Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Zn, Ca and Ni, were contained in the chromite sample based on the qualitative analysis. Then the contents of main elements Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, T, Si, Mn and V were measured. The chromite samples processing procedures have two steps, the first is decomposition by nitrate carbonate and sodium tetraborate at 950 degrees C for 30 min, then leaching by dilute hydrochloric acid at 80 degrees C for 10 min. The method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the RSDs between 0.48% and 2.05% and the recovery rates between 90.5% and 111.3%.

  9. Introduction to the KWALON Experiment: Discussions on Qualitative Data Analysis Software by Developers and Users

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    Jeanine C. Evers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this introduction to the KWALON Experiment and related conference, we describe the motivations of the collaborating European networks in organising this joint endeavour. The KWALON Experiment consisted of five developers of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA software analysing a dataset regarding the financial crisis in the time period 2008-2009, provided by the conference organisers. Besides this experiment, researchers were invited to present their reflective papers on the use of QDA software. This introduction gives a description of the experiment, the "rules", research questions and reflective points, as well as a full description of the dataset and search rules used, and our reflection on the lessons learned. The related conference is described, as are the papers which are included in this FQS issue. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101405

  10. Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Sato-Berrú, R.; Sahagún, L. R.

    2005-09-01

    Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5 nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila from aged tequilas. The first three PCs of the Raman spectra, that provide the 99% of the total variance of the data set, were used for the samples classification. The PCA1 and PCA2 are related with the water (or ethanol) content of the sample, whereas the PCA3 is related with the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra.

  11. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

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    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  12. International publications about sustainability: a review of articles using the technique of qualitative content analysis

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    Cristiane Froehlich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify articles related to sustainability in international publications and analyze the categories that emerge from these studies through the use of the technique of qualitative content analysis in order to identify the main approaches, author contributions and theoretical gaps and suggestions for further studies. For application of the technique have been rising about 20 articles in Journals that feature sustainability impact factor relevant, and used the three basic steps for content analysis of the publications listed by Bardin (1977: (a pre-analysis; (b material exploration and; (c treatment data, inference and interpretation. The main results show that the major theories that are related to sustainability are: the resources and capabilities theory, institutional theory, stakeholders theory, the theory of market orientation, theory of supply chain and competitive advantage and both seek to help and explain the factors that facilitate or hinder the practice of corporate sustainability. In addition, some suggestions for further research were identified and analysis of the results presented in this study

  13. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork in low-acuity settings: a qualitative analysis.

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    van Schaik, Sandrijn M; O'Brien, Bridget C; Almeida, Sandra A; Adler, Shelley R

    2014-06-01

    Working effectively in interprofessional teams is a core competency for all health care professionals, yet there is a paucity of instruments with which to assess the associated skills. Published medical teamwork skills assessment tools focus primarily on high-acuity situations, such as cardiopulmonary arrests and crisis events in operating rooms, and may not generalise to non-high-acuity environments, such as in-patient wards and out-patient clinics. We undertook the current study to explore the constructs underlying interprofessional teamwork in non-high-acuity settings and team members' perspectives of essential teamwork attributes. We used an ethnographic approach to study four interprofessional teams in two different low-acuity settings: women's HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) clinics and in-patient paediatric wards. Over a period of 17 months, we collected qualitative data through direct observations, focus groups and individual interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative thematic analysis, following an iterative process: data from our observations (20 hours in total) informed the focus group guide and focus group data informed the interview guide. To enhance the integrity of our analysis, we triangulated data sources and verified themes through member checking. We conducted seven focus groups and 27 individual interviews with a total of 39 study participants representing eight professions. Participants emphasised shared leadership and collaborative decision making, mutual respect, recognition of one's own and others' limitations and strengths, and the need to nurture relationships. Team members also discussed tensions around hierarchy and questioned whether doctor leadership is appropriate for interprofessional teams. Our findings indicate that there are differences in teamwork between low-acuity and high-acuity settings, and also provide insights into potential barriers to effective interprofessional teamwork. Our study delineates essential

  14. Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Carla; Normand, Domitille; Jabre, Patricia; Azoulay, Elie; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Lapostolle, Frederic; Baubet, Thierry; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Javaud, Nicolas; Borron, Stephen W.; Vicaut, Eric; Adnet, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background The themes of qualitative assessments that characterize the experience of family members offered the choice of observing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a loved one have not been formally identified. Methods and Findings In the context of a multicenter randomized clinical trial offering family members the choice of observing CPR of a patient with sudden cardiac arrest, a qualitative analysis, with a sequential explanatory design, was conducted. The aim of the study was to understand family members’ experience during CPR. All participants were interviewed by phone at home three months after cardiac arrest. Saturation was reached after analysis of 30 interviews of a randomly selected sample of 75 family members included in the trial. Four themes were identified: 1- choosing to be actively involved in the resuscitation; 2- communication between the relative and the emergency care team; 3- perception of the reality of the death, promoting acceptance of the loss; 4- experience and reactions of the relatives who did or did not witness the CPR, describing their feelings. Twelve sub-themes further defining these four themes were identified. Transferability of our findings should take into account the country-specific medical system. Conclusions Family presence can help to ameliorate the pain of the death, through the feeling of having helped to support the patient during the passage from life to death and of having participated in this important moment. Our results showed the central role of communication between the family and the emergency care team in facilitating the acceptance of the reality of death. PMID:27253993

  15. Hydrological threats to riparian wetlands of international importance - a global quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christof; Flörke, Martina; De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-06-01

    Riparian wetlands have been disappearing at an accelerating rate. Their ecological integrity as well as their vital ecosystem services for humankind depend on regular patterns of inundation and drying provided by natural flow regimes. However, river hydrology has been altered worldwide. Dams cause less variable flow regimes and water abstractions decrease the amount of flow so that ecologically important flood pulses are often reduced. Given growing population pressure and projected climate change, immediate action is required. However, the implementation of counteractive measures is often a complex task. This study develops a screening tool for assessing hydrological threats to riparian wetlands on global scales. The approach is exemplified on 93 Ramsar sites, many of which are located in transboundary basins. First, the WaterGAP3 hydrological modeling framework is used to quantitatively compare current and future modified flow regimes to reference flow conditions. In our simulations current water resource management seriously impairs riparian wetland inundation at 29 % of the analyzed sites. A further 8 % experience significantly reduced flood pulses. In the future, eastern Europe, western Asia, as well as central South America could be hotspots of further flow modifications due to climate change. Second, a qualitative analysis of the 93 sites determined potential impact on overbank flows resulting from planned or proposed dam construction projects. They take place in one-third of the upstream areas and are likely to impair especially wetlands located in South America, Asia, and the Balkan Peninsula. Third, based on the existing legal/institutional framework and water resource availability upstream, further qualitative analysis evaluated the capacity to preserve overbank flows given future streamflow changes due to dam construction and climate change. Results indicate hotspots of vulnerability exist, especially in northern Africa and the Persian Gulf.

  16. Hydrological threats to riparian wetlands of international importance – a global quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schneider

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Riparian wetlands have been disappearing at an accelerating rate. Their ecological integrity as well as their vital ecosystem services for humankind depend on regular patterns of inundation and drying provided by natural flow regimes. However, river hydrology has been altered worldwide. Dams cause less variable flow regimes and water abstractions decrease the amount of flow so that ecologically important flood pulses are often reduced. Given growing population pressure and projected climate change, immediate action is required. However, the implementation of counteractive measures is often a complex task. This study develops a screening tool for assessing hydrological threats to riparian wetlands on global scales. The approach is exemplified on 93 Ramsar sites, many of which are located in transboundary basins. First, the WaterGAP3 hydrological modeling framework is used to quantitatively compare current and future modified flow regimes to reference flow conditions. In our simulations current water resource management seriously impairs riparian wetland inundation at 29 % of the analyzed sites. A further 8 % experience significantly reduced flood pulses. In the future, eastern Europe, western Asia, as well as central South America could be hotspots of further flow modifications due to climate change. Second, a qualitative analysis of the 93 sites determined potential impact on overbank flows resulting from planned or proposed dam construction projects. They take place in one-third of the upstream areas and are likely to impair especially wetlands located in South America, Asia, and the Balkan Peninsula. Third, based on the existing legal/institutional framework and water resource availability upstream, further qualitative analysis evaluated the capacity to preserve overbank flows given future streamflow changes due to dam construction and climate change. Results indicate hotspots of vulnerability exist, especially in northern Africa and the

  17. Qualitative data analysis using the n Vivo programe and the application of the methodology of grounded theory procedures

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    Niedbalski Jakub

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to identify the capabilities and constraints of using CAQDAS (Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software programs in qualitative data analysis. Our considerations are based on the personal experiences gained while conducting the research projects using the methodology of grounded theory (GT and the NVivo 8 program. In presented article we focusedon relations between the methodological principles of grounded theory and the technical possibilities of NVivo 8. The paper presents our opinion about the most important options available in NVivo 8 and their application in the studies based on the methodology of grounded theory.

  18. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA

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    B. N. VEDHA HARI, AKHILA SRAVYA DANTU, P. SHANKARGURU, D. RAMYA DEVI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana divaricata is a common shrub found in the tropical regions and is often used for medicinal purposes, particularly the flowers of the plant. The present study is conducted to compare and identify the phytochemical constituents by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Qualitative Phytochemical analysis and to determine the anthelmentic activity of fresh and dried flower extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract is obtained using two different methods like cold maceration and hot solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus, first with petroleum ether followed by hydroalcohol as solvents. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Flavanoids, Steroids, Proteins, Carbohydrates and Tannins. The Rf value of TLC is calculated and compared with standard values and analysis proved the presence of the phytochemical constituents. The anthelmentic activity studies are performed using Indian earth worms. For this, the concentrated extract is diluted to various concentrations, and the effect of each solution is studied by measuring the time taken for paralysis and death of the earth worms. It is found to show significant anthelmentic activity at various concentrations compared with that of the standard drug Metronidazole.

  19. Qualitative analysis of WMS-III Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction in temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Lacritz, L H; Barnard, H D; Van Ness, P; Agostini, M; Diaz-Arrastia, R; Cullum, C M

    2004-06-01

    Clinical observation of performance on the Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproduction (VR) subtests from the WMS-III has revealed some variability in retention rates across stories and figures. This paper examined the degree to which this variability occurs in lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to a matched group from the WMS-III standardization sample, and explored whether analysis of qualitative aspects of LM and VR performance yield additional lateralizing information in TLE. Analysis of LM and VR scaled scores revealed differences between the TLE groups for LM, but not VR scores. All subjects benefited from repetition of LM Story B, with greater improvement in story retention in the Left versus Right TLE group. Variability in VR recall across figures was seen in all groups, with a bimodal distribution of retention rates for each figure and a sizable percentage of each group completely forgetting two or more figures. These results suggest that more careful analysis of individual LM story performance may be useful in some patients with TLE, whereas variability in VR retention across figures is common and should not be over interpreted.

  20. Obstacles and problems of ethical leadership from the perspective of nursing leaders: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2017-01-01

    In the nursing profession, leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care. Ethics is an essential component of leadership qualifications and the ethical leader can help create an ethical atmosphere, offer ethical guidance, and ensure the occupational satisfaction of personnel through prioritizing moralities. However, some issues prevent the implementation of this type of leadership by nursing leaders. The aim of this study was to identify and describe some problems and obstacles in ethical leadership faced by nursing leaders, and to help them achieve more accurate information and broader perspective in this field. The present study was conducted using a qualitative approach and content analysis. A total of 14 nursing managers and educators were selected purposefully, and deep and semi-structured interviews were conducted with them. Content analysis was performed using an inductive approach. Three main categories were obtained after data analysis: ethical, cultural and managerial problems. "Ethical problems" pertain to doubt in ethical actions, ethical conflicts and ethical distress; "cultural problems" include organizational and social culture; and "managerial problems" are connected to organizational and staff-related issues. Nursing leaders put forth various aspects of the problems associated with ethical leadership in the clinical setting. This style of leadership could be promoted by developing suitable programs and providing clear-cut strategies for removing the current obstacles and correcting the organizational structure. This can lead to ethical improvement in nursing leaders and subsequently the nurses.

  1. Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study

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    Rahnama Mozhgan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes emerged from the data analysis: 1 God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God, 2 Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes and 3 Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources. Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources.

  2. The Qualitative Analysis of Theoretic Curves Generated by Linear Viscoelasticity Constitutive Equation

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    A. V. Khohlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a one-dimensional linear integral constitutive equation of viscoelasticity with an arbitrary creep compliance function in order to reveal its abilities to describe the set of basic rheological phenomena pertaining to viscoelastoplastic materials at a constant temperature. General equations and basic properties of its quasi-static theoretic curves (i.e. stress-strain curves at constant strain or stress rates, creep, creep recovery, creep curves at piecewise-constant stress and ramp relaxation curves generated by the linear constitutive equation are derived and studied analytically. Their dependences on a creep function and relaxation modulus and on the loading program parameters are examined.The qualitative properties of the theoretic curves are compared to the typical properties of viscoelastoplastic materials test curves to reveal the mechanical effects, which the linear viscoelasticity theory cannot simulate and to find out convenient experimental indicators marking the field of its applicability or non-applicability. The minimal set of general restrictions that should be imposed on a creep and relaxation functions to provide an adequate description of typical test curves of viscoelastoplastic materials is formulated. It is proved, in particular, that an adequate simulation of typical experimental creep recovery curves requires that the derivative of a creep function should not increase at any point. This restriction implies that the linear viscoelasticity theory yields theoretical creep curves with non-increasing creep rate only and it cannot simulate materials demonstrating an accelerated creep stage. It is also proved that the linear viscoelasticity cannot simulate materials with experimental stress-strain curves possessing a maximum point or concave-up segment and materials exhibiting equilibrium modulus dependence on the strain rate or negative rate sensitivity.Similar qualitative analysis seems to be an important

  3. Diabetes complications in youth: qualitative analysis of parents' perspectives of family learning and knowledge.

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    Buckloh, Lisa M; Lochrie, Amanda S; Antal, Holly; Milkes, Amy; Canas, J Atilio; Hutchinson, Sally; Wysocki, Tim

    2008-08-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes face long-term risks of health complications of the disease. Little is known about patients' and parents' knowledge, acquisition of information, and family communication regarding these complications. This paper reports qualitative analyses of parental focus-group discussions of this topic. A total of 47 participants (30 mothers, 14 fathers, and 3 others) representing 33 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years with type 1 diabetes participated in 1 of 13 focus groups. Open-ended questions focused on the type and amount of information about long-term complications presented to parents by health care professionals at different time points, as well as the way that information was presented. Questions also elicited details about parent-child communication and exposure to misconceptions about diabetes complications. Qualitative analysis of the transcribed focus groups revealed that participants experienced significant anxiety about diabetes complications, with a shift from concern about daily management tasks to concern about long-term complications over time. Participants desired a flexible, collaborative educational approach, especially regarding the timing and type of information, relative to the child's age and duration of diabetes. Many parents wanted more sensitive communication and emotional support from health care providers. Motivating children appeared to be a particular challenge; family burnout with regard to diabetes care over time was reported. Knowledge was gained in many ways, yet misinformation was uncommon. Obtaining information about long-term complications is an important process that changes over the course of the disease and with the child's developmental level. More research is needed, especially regarding youth knowledge, learning, and beliefs about diabetes complications.

  4. A qualitative analysis of the nutritional requirements of palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, C I; Linklater, G T

    2011-10-01

    The National Health Servive (NHS) Quality Improvement Scotland developed nutritional Clinical Standards to address the problem of malnutrition in hospitals. NHS palliative care units are obliged to incorporate these standards into nutritional aspects of care. The nutritional needs of this patient population are under-researched. The present study aimed to explore patients' views of nutrition, to begin to understand their concerns and to determine whether such standards meet the needs of patients in the palliative care setting. A qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in an NHS Palliative Care Unit. Six inpatients were involved in one-to-one interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to qualitative data analysis in accordance with a previous framework. A recurring theme that emerged was that of change and uncertainty. Four main areas subject to change were: disease state, symptoms, oral dietary intake and weight. Each change could exert control over, or be controlled by, the patient. When patients were eventually unable to exert control, they accepted the change, either willingly or enforced, thereby unintentionally setting their own targets. The present study enables a deeper understanding of the concerns that palliative care patients have regarding their oral dietary intake and weight. Their 'malnutrition' not only refers to physical malnutrition alone, but also incorporates psychological and social 'malnutrition'. When applying standards or protocols regarding nutritional care, these wider issues must be taken into account to meet patients' nutritional needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Comparison of an analog and digital quantitative and qualitative analysis for the fit of dental copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Katharina; Ostertag, Silke; Ostertag, Michael; Walter, Michael H; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike

    2015-02-01

    Precision in fit is crucial for dental crowns and bridges. Most analyses of fit are based on analog 2D techniques. Aim of this in-vitro study was to compare an analog and a digital quantitative and qualitative analysis for the fit of CAD/CAM fabricated dental copings. A prepared steel canine served as master die. CAD surface models, varying in data density, were purposely enlarged in height (Ez), circumference (Exy) and both of these aspects at once (Exyz). Two titanium copings for each variation were produced. The silicone-replica-technique was applied to analyze the fit by means of a 2D analog light microscope measurement (LMM) and a 3D computer-assisted measurement using an optical digitizing system (ODKM97), respectively. In most cases, restorations based on the low data density showed a better fit than those based on high data density. Original size low density data showed the lowest marginal and axial values in the quantitative 2D analyses (LMM and ODKM97). The 3D measurements (ODKM97) revealed best fit of the low density original size specimens, whereas the Ez specimens showed the highest values. Noticeable variations in fit were detected marginally and axially depending on the specific measurement point (mesial, distal, oral, or buccal) for both measurement systems. The analog 2D replica technique revealed a loss of information due to the necessary cutting process. By contrast, the digital computer-based method provided 3D quantitative and qualitative results without data loss over the complete surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature ( T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours ( t sun), and wind speed ( U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  7. Cognitive and Situational Precipitants of Loneliness Among Patients With Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Abonour, Rafat; Robertson, Michael J; Champion, Victoria L; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    To identify situations and thoughts that may precipitate or protect against loneliness experienced by patients with cancer. 
 Qualitative. 
 The hematology/oncology clinic at the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, an outpatient oncology center in Indianapolis. 
 Purposive sample of 15 patients undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 
 Individual, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted. Theoretical thematic analysis was used to analyze interview data.
 Factors that appeared to precipitate loneliness included several situations (e.g., physical isolation, social constraints such as criticism) and thoughts (e.g., unmet expectations for visits or questions about health, belief that others do not understand their cancer experience). Several situations (e.g., social support, normal routine) and thoughts (e.g., beliefs that time alone is desirable and that others' discomfort with cancer-related discussions is normative) appeared to protect against loneliness. Certain social situations were loneliness-inducing for some patients and not for others, suggesting that patients' thoughts about their situations, rather than the situations themselves, have the greatest impact on their loneliness. 
 The current study fills gaps in loneliness theory by identifying cancer-related situations and thoughts that patients associate with their loneliness. Consistent with theory, patients reported feeling lonely when they had negative thoughts about their social situations. 
 Findings inform nursing assessment and intervention strategies to incorporate into care plans. For instance, when conducting assessments, nurses should be more attentive to patients' satisfaction with their social environment than actual characteristics of the environment. Normalizing patients' experiences and encouraging positive thoughts about others' behavior may reduce patients' loneliness.

  8. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil.

  9. How organizational learning is associated with patient rights: a qualitative content analysis

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    Shahin Heidari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, patient rights, particularly receiving favorable health care based on modern knowledge, informed consent, and privacy, are important issues in health care delivery systems. Organizational learning is considered an important factor influencing health care quality and patient rights. However, there is little evidence regarding this issue. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the role of organizational learning in patient rights from clinical nurses’ viewpoint. Design: This qualitative study was conducted through conventional content analysis. In total, 18 nurses who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study through purposive sampling with maximum variation. Data were gathered through 20 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, which continued until data saturation was achieved. Data collection also included constant and simultaneous comparative analyses. Results: Data analysis led to four major themes: conservation of patient safety, providing favorable care, being the patient's advocate, and informing the patients. All the participants believed that organizational learning could play a vital role in respecting patient rights and interests. Conclusions: Participants believed that their efforts to conduct organizational learning, tried to improve respecting the patient rights via conservation of patient safety, trying to improve quality of care, being an advocate, and informing the patient. It would be appreciable if nursing managers honored the commitment of the nurses for learning, highlight their role as defenders of patient rights, and encourage them to initiate organizational learning.

  10. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Teck Yew; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; van den Toorn, Henk; Giansanti, Piero; Cristobal, Alba; Toonen, Pim; Schafer, Sebastian; Hübner, Norbert; van Breukelen, Bas; Mohammed, Shabaz; Cuppen, Edwin; Heck, Albert J R; Guryev, Victor

    2013-12-12

    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtained peptide evidence for 26,463 rat liver proteins. We validated 1,195 gene predictions, 83 splice events, 126 proteins with nonsynonymous variants, and 20 isoforms with nonsynonymous RNA editing. Quantitative RNA sequencing and proteomics data correlate highly between strains but poorly among each other, indicating extensive nongenetic regulation. Our multilevel analysis identified a genomic variant in the promoter of the most differentially expressed gene Cyp17a1, a previously reported top hit in genome-wide association studies for human hypertension, as a potential contributor to the hypertension phenotype in SHR rats. These results demonstrate the power of and need for integrative analysis for understanding genetic control of molecular dynamics and phenotypic diversity in a system-wide manner. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Proteome Characteristics Extracted from In-Depth Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Analysis

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    Teck Yew Low

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtained peptide evidence for 26,463 rat liver proteins. We validated 1,195 gene predictions, 83 splice events, 126 proteins with nonsynonymous variants, and 20 isoforms with nonsynonymous RNA editing. Quantitative RNA sequencing and proteomics data correlate highly between strains but poorly among each other, indicating extensive nongenetic regulation. Our multilevel analysis identified a genomic variant in the promoter of the most differentially expressed gene Cyp17a1, a previously reported top hit in genome-wide association studies for human hypertension, as a potential contributor to the hypertension phenotype in SHR rats. These results demonstrate the power of and need for integrative analysis for understanding genetic control of molecular dynamics and phenotypic diversity in a system-wide manner.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Offenders' Emotional Responses to Perpetrating Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Carolyn L; Swartout, Kevin M; Cook, Sarah L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to understand sexual assault perpetrators' emotional responses to perpetration to facilitate treatment development and to better understand processes that may give rise to repeat perpetration. Sixty-one firsthand narratives of sexual assault perpetration, posted on Reddit.com, were analyzed using qualitative text analysis. The analysis revealed four primary emotional responses to perpetrating sexual assault: shame, guilt, depression, and anger. Each emotional response was associated with different contextual features that appeared in the narratives. Shame co-occurred with perpetrator alcohol use and consent confusion, guilt co-occurred with perpetrators' stated self-growth, anger co-occurred with denial of responsibility and hostility toward women, and depressed affect co-occurred with social isolation following perpetration. The findings indicate certain emotional responses may be more adaptive than others for protecting against repeat perpetration. This research has important implications for the treatment of perpetrators and supports the idea that self-image and perceived social context may be important treatment targets.

  14. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

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    Kirsty Ryninks

    Full Text Available To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal.Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  15. Undergraduate nursing student mentors' experiences of peer mentoring in Korea: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mi-Ra; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2017-04-01

    Although mentoring involves the achievement of a mutual relationship between mentors and mentees, most studies have focused on the effects of mentoring on the mentees rather than that on the mentors, which necessitates the need to identify mentors' experiences to provide original resources for mentoring. The purpose of this study was to explore the mentoring experience of nursing students who participated as mentors in a mentoring learning program, to offer evidence-based resources for nursing educators to develop mentoring programs and to use mentorship as an educational method. A qualitative content analysis of transcribed focus groups was conducted to describe and explore the undergraduate nursing students' mentoring experiences. This study was conducted in two nursing schools in South Korea. Fifteen student mentors from the peer mentoring program participated in the present study. They were aged between 21 and 24years, and 87% of the participants were female. The experiences of the mentors were explored through focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed by content analysis. The mentors' experiences could be summarized by the core theme, "Self-growth as a leader," consisting of the following themes: taking pride, guiding mentees, coping with conflicts, and building leadership. The themes and codes derived from mentors' experiences would provide evidence-based guidelines and resources for nursing educators and professionals in related disciplines regarding successful peer mentoring, which could facilitate self-growth and foster the development of leadership skills in undergraduate students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision-making in rectal and colorectal cancer: systematic review and qualitative analysis of surgeons' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broc, Guillaume; Gana, Kamel; Denost, Quentin; Quintard, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Surgeons are experiencing difficulties implementing recommendations not only owing to incomplete, confusing or conflicting information but also to the increasing involvement of patients in decisions relating to their health. This study sought to establish which common factors including heuristic factors guide surgeons' decision-making in colon and rectal cancers. We conducted a systematic literature review of surgeons' decision-making factors related to colon and rectal cancer treatment. Eleven of 349 identified publications were eligible for data analyses. Using the IRaMuTeQ (Interface of R for the Multidimensional Analyses of Texts and Questionnaire), we carried out a qualitative analysis of the significant factors collected in the studies reviewed. Several validation procedures were applied to control the robustness of the findings. Five categories of factors (i.e. patient, surgeon, treatment, tumor and organizational cues) were found to influence surgeons' decision-making. Specifically, all decision criteria including biomedical (e.g. tumor information) and heuristic (e.g. surgeons' dispositional factors) criteria converged towards the factor 'age of patient' in the similarity analysis. In the light of the results, we propose an explanatory model showing the impact of heuristic criteria on medical issues (i.e. diagnosis, prognosis, treatment features, etc.) and thus on decision-making. Finally, the psychosocial complexity involved in decision-making is discussed and a medico-psycho-social grid for use in multidisciplinary meetings is proposed.

  17. Women's Experiences With Flap Failure After Autologous Breast Reconstruction: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kristen S; Gillis, Joshua; Williams, Jason G; LeBlanc, Martin; Bezuhly, Michael; Chorney, Jill M

    2016-10-06

    Clinical experience suggests that flap failure after autologous breast reconstruction can be a devastating experience for women. Previous research has examined women's experiences with autologous breast reconstruction with and without complications, and patients' experiences with suboptimal outcomes from other medical procedures. The authors aimed to examine the psychosocial experience of flap failure from the patient's perspective. Seven women who had experienced unilateral flap failure after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap surgery in the past 12 years completed semistructured interviews about their breast cancer treatments, their experiences with flap failure, the impact of flap failure on their lives, and the coping strategies they used. Interpretive phenomenological analysis, a type of qualitative analysis that provides an in-depth account of participant's experiences and their meanings, was used to analyze the interview data. From these data, patient-derived recommendations were developed for surgeons caring for women who have experienced flap failure. Three main themes (6 subthemes) emerged: coming to terms with flap failure (coping with emotions, body dissatisfaction); making meaning of flap failure experience (questioning, relationship with surgeon); and care providers acknowledging the emotional experience of flap failure (experience of being treated "mechanically," suggestions for improvement). In conclusion, flap failure in breast reconstruction is an emotionally difficult experience for women. Although there are similarities to other populations of patients experiencing suboptimal outcomes from medical procedures, there are also unique aspects of the flap failure experience. A better understanding of women's experiences with flap failure will assist in providing more appropriate supports.

  18. Researchers’ perceptions of ethical challenges in cluster randomized trials: a qualitative analysis

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    McRae Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs pose ethical challenges for investigators and ethics committees. This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1 ethical challenges in CRTs; (2 the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3 the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs. Methods Descriptive qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 20 experienced CRT researchers. Results Informants expressed concern over the potential for bias that may result from requirements to obtain informed consent from research participants in CRTs. Informants suggested that the need for informed consent ought to be related to the type of intervention under study in a CRT. Informants rarely expressed concern regarding risks to research participants in CRTs, other than risks to privacy. Important issues identified in the research ethics literature, including fair subject selection and other justice issues, were not mentioned by informants. The ethics review process has had positive and negative impacts on CRT conduct. Informants stated that variability in ethics review between jurisdictions, and increasingly stringent ethics review in recent years, have hampered their ability to conduct CRTs. Many informants said that comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs would be helpful to researchers and research ethics committees. Conclusions Informants identified key ethical challenges in the conduct of CRTs, specifically relating to identifying subjects, seeking informed consent, and the use of gatekeepers. These data have since been used to identify topics for in-depth ethical analysis and to guide the development of comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs.

  19. Qualitative analysis of repaired filtering blebs with anterior segment-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Ibáñez, M; Pérez-Torregrosa, V T; Olate-Pérez, A; Almor Palacios, I; Gargallo-Benedicto, A; Osorio-Alayo, V; Barreiro Rego, A; Duch-Samper, A

    2017-08-01

    To provide a qualitative analysis of filtering blebs after being surgically repaired due to late blebs leaks. Blebs were studied 6 months after surgical reparation using AS-OCT Triton (Topcon(®)). An analysis was made of the morphological pattern and internal structures of blebs, including the covering, in 10 patients. The images were obtained using OCTs at a wavelength of 1050nm. According to the Hirooka classification, three different patterns were found in the structure of blebs, which made it possible to correlate them with their functionality. A full covering was observed in 70% of the cases, and they showed sub-epithelial cysts (cystoid pattern). Two cases showed a full conjunctival retraction without Tenon's covering. The walls were thin, with a de-structured bleb (diffuse pattern) being visualised. In the third group, the image showed a partial conjunctival retraction with Tenon's covering. There were some sub-epithelial diffuse cysts with walls following a laminar pattern. Using AS-OCT, it is possible to study the bleb's characteristics in detail, as well as the cover, in the case of blebs requiring repair due to late leaks, using conjunctival advancement. It allows for the early visualisation of conjunctival retractions that were not visible in a slit lamp, and to predict the functionality of the blebs by their morphology. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated Techniques for the Qualitative Analysis of Ecological Models: Continuous Models

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    Lynn van Coller

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The mathematics required for a detailed analysis of the behavior of a model can be formidable. In this paper, I demonstrate how various computer packages can aid qualitative analyses by implementing techniques from dynamical systems theory. Because computer software is used to obtain the results, the techniques can be used by nonmathematicians as well as mathematicians. In-depth analyses of complicated models that were previously very difficult to study can now be done. Because the paper is intended as an introduction to applying the techniques to ecological models, I have included an appendix describing some of the ideas and terminology. A second appendix shows how the techniques can be applied to a fairly simple predator-prey model and establishes the reliability of the computer software. The main body of the paper discusses a ratio-dependent model. The new techniques highlight some limitations of isocline analyses in this three-dimensional setting and show that the model is structurally unstable. Another appendix describes a larger model of a sheep-pasture-hyrax-lynx system. Dynamical systems techniques are compared with a traditional sensitivity analysis and are found to give more information. As a result, an incomplete relationship in the model is highlighted. I also discuss the resilience of these models to both parameter and population perturbations.

  1. Exergaming Through the Eyes of Patients with Heart Failure: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Mårtensson, Jan; Strömberg, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Exergaming appears to be a promising tool to increase exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Therefore, it is important to obtain more in-depth knowledge about preferences, attitudes, use, and abilities in regard to exergaming. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of patients with HF when using an exergame platform at home. A qualitative descriptive study using content analysis was conducted on interviews with 14 patients with HF (6 women, ages ranging between 56 and 81 years). The patients were recruited from three centers in Sweden included in a randomized controlled study. These patients had access to an exergame platform at home and were advised to exergame for 30 minutes per day. The analysis resulted in three categories describing patients' experience of exergaming: (1) making exergaming work, (2) added value of exergaming, and (3) low appeal of exergaming. This is the first study that explores how patients with HF experience using an exergame platform at home. The study provided important information on what aspects to discuss when initiating an exergame platform at home and following patients who may want to use an exergame platform at home. The results also revealed that this technology may be suitable for some patients, while others prefer other kinds of physical activity.

  2. Patients covertly recording clinical encounters: threat or opportunity? A qualitative analysis of online texts.

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    Maka Tsulukidze

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters has generated controversial media reports. This study aims to examine the phenomenon and analyze the underlying issues.We conducted a qualitative analysis of online posts, articles, blogs, and forums (texts discussing patients covertly recording clinical encounters. Using Google and Google Blog search engines, we identified and analyzed 62 eligible texts published in multiple countries between 2006 and 2013. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: 1 a new behavior that elicits strong reactions, both positive and negative, 2 an erosion of trust, 3 shifting patient-clinician roles and relationships, and 4 the existence of confused and conflicting responses. When patients covertly record clinical encounters - a behavior made possible by various digital recording technologies - strong reactions are evoked among a range of stakeholders. The behavior represents one consequence of an erosion of trust between patients and clinicians, and when discovered, leads to further deterioration of trust. Confused and conflicting responses to the phenomenon by patients and clinicians highlight the need for policy guidance.This study describes strong reactions, both positive and negative, to the phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters. The availability of smartphones capable of digital recording, and shifting attitudes to patient-clinician relationships, seems to have led to this behavior, mostly viewed as a threat by clinicians but as a welcome and helpful innovation by some patients, possibly indicating a perception of subordination and a lack of empowerment. Further examination of this tension and its implications is needed.

  3. Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachempati, Prashanti; Kiran Kumar, K S; Sumanth, K N

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student's reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3(rd) and 4(th) year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed. Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke. The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions. Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology.

  4. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

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    A. F. Van Loon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought. In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a

  5. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  6. Qualitative analysis of coal combusted in boilers of the thermal power plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Đurić Slavko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked into the qualitative analysis of coals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B-H. The analysis includes the following characteristics: moisture (W, ash (A, combustible matter (Vg and lower heating value (Hd. From the statistic parameters we have determined: absolute range (R, arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (S and variations coefficient (Cv. It has been shown that the coal characteristics (W, A, Vg, Hd have normal distribution. The analysis show that there are considerable deviations of ash characteristics: moisture (36.23%, ash (34.21%, combustible matter (16.15% and lower heating value (25.16% from the mean value which is shown by the variations coefficient (Cv. Large oscilations of mass portions: W, A, Vg and Hd around the mean value can adversely influence the function of a boiler plant and an electric filter plant in thermal power plants in B-H in which the mentioned types of coal burn. Large ash oscilations (34.21% around the mean value point out to the inability of application of dry procedures of desulphurisation of smoke gasses (FGD due to the additional quantity of ash. It has been shown that the characteristics of Bosnian types of coal do not deviate a lot from the characteristics of coal in the surrounding countries (coals of Serbia and Monte Negro. The results can be used in analysis of coal combustion in thermal power plants, optimisation of electrical-filtre, reduction of SO2 in smoke gas and other practical problems.

  7. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

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    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  8. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

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    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  9. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

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    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  10. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  11. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): A Guide to a Good Qualitative Research Approach

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    Alase, Abayomi

    2017-01-01

    As a research methodology, qualitative research method infuses an added advantage to the exploratory capability that researchers need to explore and investigate their research studies. Qualitative methodology allows researchers to advance and apply their interpersonal and subjectivity skills to their research exploratory processes. However, in a…

  12. Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation in Counseling Psychology: Strategies for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences…

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

  14. Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Chao, Maria T; Connelly, Erin; Locke, Adrianna

    2013-10-29

    Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients' perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients' perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Patients' perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially reduce access barriers for those who might not

  15. Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis

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    Kelley Maureen C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate

  16. Evidence-based health information from the users’ perspective – a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine

  17. Science: Introduction to Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, Introduction to Biochemistry. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives are stated for each of the secondary school units included in this package of instructional guides prepared for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. All four units are concerned with chemistry: "Introduction of Chemistry,""Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Analysis," and "Introduction…

  18. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  19. In search of content validity: facet analysis as a qualitative method to improve questionnaire design : An application in health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, J.A.; Boeije, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two scales are examined for the measurement of self-regulation. The item content is evaluated for its specific usefulness for measuring self-regulation of obesity patients. Qualitative facet analysis (QFA), an application of Guttmann’s Facet Theory, is used to investigate whether item

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Faculty and Student Perceptions of Effective Online Class Communities Using Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Rebecca; Welch, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative approach in understanding factors that are evident in effective online class communities. Instructors and students in the same class were asked about their perceptions regarding what constitutes an effective online experience. The analysis was done using both Herzberg's (1962, 1965) motivator-hygiene factors…

  1. "Cause That's the Only Skills in School You Need": A Qualitative Analysis of Revenge Goals in Poor Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, Lena; Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment, and retaliation is a factor driving youth violence. However, revenge might be an important social tool adolescents use to achieve (self-)justice in environments where institutionalized interventions from authorities such as teachers or police are limited. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50…

  2. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  3. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  4. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  5. Hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation to analyze the market position from data with two qualitative and p-2 quantitative variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanjar, Irlandia

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the market position will be easier, efficient, and informative when based on a perceptual map, that can display objects and characteristics. With perceptual map we can identify the information about the objects similarity, the characteristics relationships, and relationship between the object and the characteristics. Characteristics of the object are usually more than two variables, those variables that sometimes are qualitative and some are quantitative. Based on that this paper introduce a method of analysis called hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation (HCAC), this method is the incorporation of correspondence analysis (CA) with biplot of correlation, where the mapped of two qualitative variables is using CA, and for quantitative variables is using correlations. HCAC produces a perceptual map that displays the object, the qualitative characteristics, and quantitative characteristics in a single map, without changing the quantitative data into qualitative data, so that the information obtained is more complete. A reference for mapping quality is counted from the first and second cumulative percent of eigenvalues where resulting from CA.

  6. Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

  7. Exploring the Nonformal Adult Educator in Twenty-First Century Contexts Using Qualitative Video Data Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Ellis-Hervey, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how "YouTube" creates a unique, nonformal cyberspace for Black females to vlog about natural hair. Specifically, we utilized qualitative video data analysis techniques to understand how using "YouTube" as a facilitation tool has the ability to collectively capture and maintain an audience of more than a…

  8. What Are We Teaching in Diversity and Social Justice Courses? A Qualitative Content Analysis of MSW Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Gita R.; Hudson, Kimberly D.; Self, Jen M.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity and social justice are central to social work and related curricular content is mandated by accreditation standards. However, research regarding diversity and social justice courses remains limited. This study aimed to better understand how these courses are conceptualized through a qualitative content analysis of course descriptions and…

  9. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  10. In search of content validity: facet analysis as a qualitative method to improve questionnaire design : An application in health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, J.A.; Boeije, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two scales are examined for the measurement of self-regulation. The item content is evaluated for its specific usefulness for measuring self-regulation of obesity patients. Qualitative facet analysis (QFA), an application of Guttmann’s Facet Theory, is used to investigate whether item

  11. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  12. The Reviews Are in: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Consumer Perspectives on Apps for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Fogarty, Andrea S; Boydell, Katherine; Christensen, Helen

    2017-04-07

    The delivery of mobile health (mHealth) services is acceptable to mental health consumers. However, despite the benefits of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, anonymity, and ability to tailor content to individual needs, consumer engagement remains a hurdle for uptake and continued use. This may be unsurprising as few studies have examined app content from the consumer perspective or assessed consumer preferences for the content of apps for mental health management. An opportunity to examine consumer perspectives exists in using naturally generated data that is publically available in the Google Play and Apple app stores. Whereas commercial developers routinely use this data, to date there has been no in-depth evaluation within scientific research. The aim of our study was to explore what consumers consider useful content for mental health management apps, identify unmet needs, and understand user expectations of mental health apps within the context of apps for bipolar disorder. Publically available English language consumer reviews of 48 apps for bipolar disorder were used as data, providing a total of 2173 reviews. Review text was coded and analyzed using a team approach to qualitative content analysis. Results were presented in 2 forms: (1) a quantitative summary of the 9 major and minor themes and (2) a qualitative synthesis of key thematic findings. The majority of reviews were for symptom monitoring apps (87.94%, 1911/2173). The qualitative content analysis revealed 5 main themes: (1) laudatory talk, comments regarding the app's benefits including helpfulness and successful design features (74.00% of reviews, 1608/2173); (2) unfavorable feedback, negative reviews largely concerning unmet needs, privacy and technical issues, and potential dangers of app use (25.54%, 555/2173); (3) conceptions of community, referring to both communities of users with mental ill-health accessed via the app and a community created among app users and developers (24.25%, 527

  13. Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachempati, Prashanti; Kiran Kumar, K. S.; Sumanth, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student’s reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3rd and 4th year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke. Results: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions. Conclusions: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology. PMID:28031603

  14. Understanding patient-to-worker violence in hospitals: a qualitative analysis of documented incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith E; Hamblin, Lydia; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Ager, Joel; Luborsky, Mark

    2015-02-01

    To explore catalysts to, and circumstances surrounding, patient-to-worker violent incidents recorded by employees in a hospital system database. Violence by patients towards healthcare workers (Type II workplace violence) is a significant occupational hazard in hospitals worldwide. Studies to date have failed to investigate its root causes due to a lack of empirical research based on documented episodes of patient violence. Qualitative content analysis. Content analysis was conducted on the total sample of 214 Type II incidents documented in 2011 by employees of an American hospital system with a centralized reporting system. The majority of incidents were reported by nurses (39·8%), security staff (15·9%) and nurse assistants (14·4%). Three distinct themes were identified from the analysis: Patient Behaviour, Patient Care and Situational Events. Specific causes of violence related to Patient Behaviour were cognitive impairment and demanding to leave. Catalysts related to patient care were the use of needles, patient pain/discomfort and physical transfers of patients. Situational factors included the use/presence of restraints; transitions in the care process; intervening to protect patients and/or staff; and redirecting patients. Identifying catalysts and situations involved in patient violence in hospitals informs administrators about potential targets for intervention. Hospital staff can be trained to recognize these specific risk factors for patient violence and can be educated in how to best mitigate or prevent the most common forms of violent behaviour. A social-ecological model can be adapted to the hospital setting as a framework for prevention of patient violence towards staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashree Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934 suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg′s angle (2q of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of monomers in polyesters for food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenz, Fabrian; Linke, Susanne; Simat, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Polyesters (PESs) are gaining more importance on the food contact material (FCM) market and the variety of properties and applications is expected to be wide. In order to acquire the desired properties manufacturers can combine several FCM-approved polyvalent carboxylic acids (PCAs) and polyols as monomers. However, information about the qualitative and quantitative composition of FCM articles is often limited. The method presented here describes the analysis of PESs with the identification and quantification of 25 PES monomers (10 PCA, 15 polyols) by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis. Accurate identification and quantification were demonstrated by the analysis of seven different FCM articles made of PESs. The results explained between 97.2% and 103.4% w/w of the polymer composition whilst showing equal molar amounts of PCA and polyols. Quantification proved to be precise and sensitive with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 6.0% for PES samples with monomer concentrations typically ranging from 0.02% to 75% w/w. The analysis of 15 PES samples for the FCM market revealed the presence of five different PCAs and 11 different polyols (main monomers, co-monomers, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)) showing the wide variety of monomers in modern PESs. The presented method provides a useful tool for commercial, state and research laboratories as well as for producers and distributors facing the task of FCM risk assessment. It can be applied for the identification and quantification of migrating monomers and the prediction of oligomer compositions from the identified monomers, respectively.

  17. Coping Strategies to Hinder Intention to Leave in Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high clinical challenges, differences in coping strategies, and high workload in nurses, there is a need to develop strategies to keep them in the profession. The aim of the present study was to explore the Iranian nurses’ coping strategies to deal with intention to leave. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was used to obtain rich data. We performed 13 in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Urmia Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran, selected through purposive sampling. Constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Three categories and eleven subcategories emerged during data analysis. The extracted categories and sub-categories consisted of (I Self-empowerment (practical knowledge increase, responsibility, finding identification of the nurse, balancing work and life, seek support and humanitarian interests, (II Self-controlling (tolerance, avoidance, the routine-based performance, and (III Pursuing opportunities for advancement and promotion (community development, planning for higher education. Conclusion: Nurses make attempts to individually manage problems and stressors perceived from bedside that have led them to leave the bedside; these efforts have been effective in some cases but sometimes they are ineffective due to discontinuous training and relative competence in terms of how to manage and deal with problems. It is suggested that nurses should learn strategies scientifically to meet the challenges of bedside. Through enabling and supporting behaviors and creating opportunities for growth and professional development, nursery managers can help nurses to stay and achieve improvement of the quality of cares.

  18. Using qualitative comparative analysis in a systematic review of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Jacobs, Sara; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E

    2016-05-04

    Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a non-probabilistic method that uses mathematical set theory to study complex phenomena; it has been proposed as a potential method to complement traditional evidence synthesis in reviews of complex interventions to identify key intervention components or implementation features that might explain effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The objective of this study was to describe our approach in detail and examine the suitability of using QCA within the context of a systematic review. We used data from a completed systematic review of behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence to conduct two substantive analyses using QCA. The first analysis sought to identify combinations of nine behavior change techniques/components (BCTs) found among effective interventions, and the second analysis sought to identify combinations of five implementation features (e.g., agent, target, mode, time span, exposure) found among effective interventions. For each substantive analysis, we reframed the review's research questions to be designed for use with QCA, calibrated sets (i.e., transformed raw data into data used in analysis), and identified the necessary and/or sufficient combinations of BCTs and implementation features found in effective interventions. Our application of QCA for each substantive analysis is described in detail. We extended the original review findings by identifying seven combinations of BCTs and four combinations of implementation features that were sufficient for improving adherence. We found reasonable alignment between several systematic review steps and processes used in QCA except that typical approaches to study abstraction for some intervention components and features did not support a robust calibration for QCA. QCA was

  19. Prioritizing qualitative research in surgery: A synthesis and analysis of publication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Appelson, Jessica R; Changoor, Navin R; Davis, W Austin; Haider, Adil H; Morris, Megan A

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 2 decades, researchers have recognized the value of qualitative research. Little has been done to characterize its application to surgery. We describe characteristics and overall prevalence of qualitative surgical research. We searched PubMed and CINAHL using "surgery" and 7 qualitative methodology terms. Four researchers extracted information; a fifth researcher reviewed 10% of abstracts for inter-rater reliability. A total of 3,112 articles were reviewed. Removing duplicates, 28% were relevant (N = 878; κ = 0.70). Common qualitative methodologies included phenomenology (34.3%) and grounded theory (30.2%). Interviews were the most common data collection method (81.9%) of patients (64%) within surgical oncology (15.4%). Postdischarge was the most commonly studied topic (30.8%). Overall, 41% of studies were published in nursing journals, while 8% were published in surgical journals. More than half of studies were published since 2011. Results suggest qualitative surgical research is gaining popularity. Most is published in nonsurgical journals, however, utilizing only 2 methodologies (phenomenology, grounded theory). The surgical journals that have published qualitative research had study topics restricted to a handful of surgical specialties. Additional surgical qualitative research should take advantage of a greater variety of approaches to provide insight into rare phenomena and social context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Key Elements of a Family Intervention for Schizophrenia: A Qualitative Analysis of an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, Jaime; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Leff, Julian

    2016-11-29

    Schizophrenia is a complex biopsychosocial condition in which expressed emotion in family members is a robust predictor of relapse. Not surprisingly, family interventions are remarkably effective and thus recommended in current treatment guidelines. Their key elements seem to be common therapeutic factors, followed by education and coping skills training. However, few studies have explored these key elements and the process of the intervention itself. We conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the records from a pioneering family intervention trial addressing expressed emotion, published by Leff and colleagues four decades ago. Records were analyzed into categories and data explored using descriptive statistics. This was complemented by a narrative evaluation using an inductive approach based on emotional markers and markers of change. The most used strategies in the intervention were addressing needs, followed by coping skills enhancement, advice, and emotional support. Dealing with overinvolvement and reframing were the next most frequent. Single-family home sessions seemed to augment the therapeutic work conducted in family groups. Overall the intervention seemed to promote cognitive and emotional change in the participants, and therapists were sensitive to the emotional trajectory of each subject. On the basis of our findings, we developed a longitudinal framework for better understanding the process of this treatment approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  1. Between-Sex Differences in Romantic Jealousy: Substance or Spin? A Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Fussell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes (“threat appraisal”, “emotional episodes”, “sex-specific threat” and “forgive and forget” and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  2. Qualitative performance and economic analysis of low cost solar fish driers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Keke Mustapha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative performance and economic analysis of five low cost solar driers were evaluated at the Zoology and Physics Laboratories of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The solar driers were constructed from mosquito net, plastic, aluminum and glass with black stone inserted in it. The driers were found to be better than the other driers because they are cheap, reliable, safe to use, easy to repair, well insulated, and cost effective. The solar driers are compact, efficient with drying of fish with lowest moisture content achieved within a few days and the dried products of good quality, with long shelf life, highly acceptable to consumers. The driers save man-hour, money, use renewable energy, with no operational or maintenance costs. The driers have a long life span, with net income to fisher folks very high and the payback time for the driers very low. The adoption of the driers will contribute to the economy of rural populace in the developing countries where there is no electricity and the challenges of deforestation are becoming prominent. The improved low cost solar driers will ensure food safety and security and assist in combating climate change resulting from burning of wood and fossil fuel.

  3. Incentives and barriers to OER adoption: A qualitative analysis of faculty perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Belikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, 218 U.S faculty responses regarding Open Educational Resources (OER were qualitatively analyzed. Ten categories emerged in the coding process. The top three categories that indicated barriers to the adoption of OER were need more information (faculty wanted more information before they would be willing to adopt OER, lack of discoverability (faculty wanted to be able to easily find repositories of OER, and confusing OER with digital resources (faculty were unaware of the difference between digital resources and OER. The top incentives identified in this analysis to overcome these barriers include student cost benefits (saving students money, student pedagogical benefits (faculty being able to make changes to OER to improve course content and instruction, and institutional support for the adoption of OER (whether in the form of course load reduction, curricular research assistance, or library support for finding and adopting OER. Future research is needed to better understand how to address and overcome these barriers to OER adoption.

  4. Qualitative, quantitative and structural analysis of non- coding regions of classical swine fever virus genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen of the swine fever. Understanding of the replication and expression of its genome is the basis for research of the pathogenicity for CSFV and development of antiviral drug. The noncoding regions (NCRs) of CSFV are the main regulatory regions for replication and expression. Qualitative, quantitative and structural analysis of 3′ NCRs and 5′ NCRs was done in order to locate the regulatory region in the NCRs and to character the NCRs. The sites, conserved sequences and structural elements related to the initiation of replication and expression were extracted from 17 3′ NCRs and 56 5′ NCRs. Those cis-elements may be initial recognition sites for replication, binding sites for transcription factors of host cell and interacting sites for initiation of protein synthesis, based on which a mechanism for the replication and expression of CSFV was brought forth. This research offers the direction for further experiment and lays down a basis for the research on hepatitis C virus (HCV), other pestiviruses and plus-strand RNA viruses.

  5. Florida Department of Health Workers’ Response to 2004 Hurricanes: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Reissman, Dori B.; Scharf, Ted; Shultz, James M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examinations of the demands on public health workers after disaster exposure have been limited. Workers provide emergency care while simultaneously risking injury, damage to personal property, and threats to their own and their family’s safety. We examined the disaster management experiences of 4323 Florida Department of Health workers 9 months after their response to 4 hurricanes and 1 tropical storm during a 7-week period in August and September of 2004. Methods Participants completed a self-report questionnaire focused on work performance, mental and physical health, daily functioning, sleep disturbance, physiological arousal, and injury and work demand at the time of the hurricanes, and answered open-ended questions that described their experiences in more detail. Results A qualitative analysis conducted from the write-in data yielded 4 domains: (1) work/life balance; (2) training for disaster response role; (3) workplace support; and (4) recovery. Conclusions Study findings highlighted a number of concerns that are important to public health workers who provide emergency care after a disaster and, in particular, multiple disasters such as during the 2004 hurricane season. The findings also yielded important recommendations for emergency public health preparedness. PMID:24618166

  6. Florida Department of Health workers' response to 2004 hurricanes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Fullerton, Carol S; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Reissman, Dori B; Scharf, Ted; Shultz, James M; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Examinations of the demands on public health workers after disaster exposure have been limited. Workers provide emergency care while simultaneously risking injury, damage to personal property, and threats to their own and their family's safety. We examined the disaster management experiences of 4323 Florida Department of Health workers 9 months after their response to 4 hurricanes and 1 tropical storm during a 7-week period in August and September of 2004. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire focused on work performance, mental and physical health, daily functioning, sleep disturbance, physiological arousal, and injury and work demand at the time of the hurricanes, and answered open-ended questions that described their experiences in more detail. A qualitative analysis conducted from the write-in data yielded 4 domains: (1) work/life balance; (2) training for disaster response role; (3) workplace support; and (4) recovery. Study findings highlighted a number of concerns that are important to public health workers who provide emergency care after a disaster and, in particular, multiple disasters such as during the 2004 hurricane season. The findings also yielded important recommendations for emergency public health preparedness.

  7. Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration.

  8. [Social network analysis and high risk behavior characteristics of recreational drug users: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Zhenhong; Jiang, Zhenxia; Fu, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Dapeng; Liu, Hui; Hu, Yifei

    2014-11-01

    To understand the characteristics of recreational drug users' behaviors and social network, as well as their potential impact to the transmission of sexual transmitted infections (STI). Qualitative interview was used to collect information on rough estimation of population size and behavior change before and after recreational drug use. A total of 120 participants were recruited by convenient sampling from April to October, 2013 in a community of Qingdao city. Blood specimens were taken for HIV/syphilis serological testing and social network analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of their behavior and social network. All participants used methamphetamine and 103 of them showed social connection. The prevalence of syphilis and HIV were 24.2% (29/120) and 2.5% (3/120) respectively. The estimated size of recreational drug users was big with a wide diversity of occupations and age range, and males were more frequent than females. Drug use may affect condom use and frequent drug users showed symptom of psychosis and neuro-toxicities. The size of social network was 2.45 ± 1.63 in the past 6 months, which indicated an increasing trend of the sexual partner number and risky behaviors. Recreational drug use could increase the size of social network among sex partners, the frequency of risky sexual behaviors and syphilis prevalence, which indicate a high risk of HIV/STI among this population as well as a huge burden of disease prevention and control in the future.

  9. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed.

  10. Participatory health research within a prison setting: a qualitative analysis of 'Paragraphs of passion'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. On worries, concerns and dangers among spanish population: a qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.; Cebrian, A.L.; Menard, M. [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sola, R.; Prades, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents qualitative findings on the principal worries, concerns and dangers surrounding risk perception extracted from the Cross-cultural Survey carried out within RISKPERCOM' research project (Risk Perception and Communication). A questionnaire was mailed to arandom sample of the Spanish population allowing a study of amplification/attenuation with regard to the tenth anniversary as well as investigating management and communication issues related to radiological matters. The questionnaires were mailed to the adult population from 18 to 75 years of age, where 48.9% males and 51.1 % females. The number of questionnaires obtained for each wave were 490. The response rate was around 69%. At this paper we present the principal concerns, worries and dangers perceived by the Spanish population as identified through three open questions. The items were grouped in different categories; national political situation, economical concern, personal/social concerns, environmental concerns, global concerns... These categories are associated through correspondence analysis to socio-demographical variables as sex, age, education, political orientation an environmental attitude. (authors)

  12. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use.

  13. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers’ responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John; Hoek, Janet; Darroch, Ella; Wood, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many of the approximately 8000 New Zealand retailers selling tobacco are small stores that tobacco companies have represented as victims of policy measures designed to reduce smoking. Despite this depiction, many retailers experience considerable ambivalence in selling tobacco, a product they know harms their customers. We explored how retailers perceived the proposed introduction of standardised (or ‘plain’) packaging and their assessment of arguments made by tobacco companies in submissions on proposed standardised packaging legislation. Participants Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we recruited and interviewed 23 retailers of dairies (small convenience stores), small supermarkets, and service stations. Analyses Data were analysed using a protocol-driven approach; this stance enabled direct analysis of tobacco companies’ arguments, particularly those purporting to represent retailers’ concerns. Results Retailers were concerned about the financial implications of standardised packaging and the effects it may have on their ability to provide rapid and efficient customer service. However, few thought standardised packaging would foster illicit trade or spawn further regulation; most placed public health goals ahead of tobacco companies’ ‘rights’, and many supported government intervention to protect population health. Conclusions Retailers held ambivalent views on standardised packaging; while they were concerned about short-term effects on their business, they recognised the harm smoking causes. Policymakers and health researchers could collaborate more effectively with retailers by assisting them to create financially viable roles more compatible with public health objectives. PMID:26553840

  14. Quality of life in end - stage renal disease: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilou P.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The presenting of views both of haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients concerning the meaning of quality of life in general, the factors that affect individual’s quality of life as well as the dimensions which patients themselves consider that they affect their quality of life. Material and Method: For data collection, semi-directed interviews were selected. The three questions which were answered by patients were referring to the meaning of quality of life as well as to the influence factors. The factors which affect patients’ quality of life, according to them, were also investigated. As far as the material of the specific qualitative analysis is concerned, 20 patients with end-stage renal disease participated. Specifically, 10 haemodialysis patients and 10 peritoneal dialysis patients. The interviews took place in November 2006. Results: Four patients in haemodialysis considered that not only the lack of independence but also the restrictions on entertainment are two of the most important factors that affect their everyday life. Regarding peritoneal dialysis patients, seven of them reported that the support of family affect their quality of life. Conclusions: The time which patient with chronic renal failure spends in the artificial kidney disease is an essential barrier for a normal life.

  15. Examining experiences of transition, instability and coping for young offenders in the community: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Rebecca A; Priest, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This article explores experiences of transition, instability and coping using a qualitative approach with young offenders within a specialist forensic child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Participants were four young people (aged 14-17 years) on community orders under the supervision of local youth offending teams (YOTs). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Three main themes were identified: (i) people and places; (ii) growth; and (iii) managing difficult experiences. Findings suggest that young offenders are exposed to a wide range of challenging contextual factors including unpredictable or inadequate home environments, numerous transitions (between family members/foster placements and schools), limited engagement with educational settings and a lack of social support, supporting the findings of Paton et al. Findings also portrayed a sense of participants' 'psychological growth' with development along a trajectory from a young child 'acting out' in response to the environments in which they were living; through a more reflective stage, in which they were able to begin to consider the situations they found themselves in; before reaching a position in which they were able to look beyond their day-to-day circumstances with some hope that their lives could be different in the future. Furthermore, accounts revealed that these young people had a limited range of functional coping strategies and had largely negative experiences of services. Clinical implications and the need for further research developing professionals' understanding of the influence of early experiences on young offenders' behaviour are discussed.

  16. A qualitative analysis of communication between members of a hospital-based multidisciplinary lung cancer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, S; Callen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore how patient information is communicated between health professionals within a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team and to identify mechanisms to improve these communications. A qualitative method was employed using semi-structured in-depth interviews with a representative sample (n = 22) of members of a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team including medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Analysis was undertaken using a thematic grounded theory approach to derive key themes to describe communication patterns within the team and how communication could be improved. Two themes with sub-themes were identified: (1) characteristics of communication between team members including the impact of role on direction of communications, and doctors' dominance in communications; and (2) channels of communication including, preference for face-to-face and the suboptimal roles of the Multidisciplinary Team Meeting and the hospital medical record as mediums for communication. Traditional influences of role delineation and the dominance of doctors were found to impact on communication within the multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team. Existing guidelines on implementation of multidisciplinary cancer care fail to address barriers to effective team communication. The paper-based medical record does not support team communications and alternative electronic solutions need to be used. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Qualitative and kinetic analysis of torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass using DSC-TGA-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Acharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion technique to improve the fuel properties of lignocellulosic biomass by treating at temperature 200 ℃-300 ℃ in the minimum oxygen environment for a reasonable residence time. In this study, thermal decomposition and thermal activities of miscanthus and wheat straw during the torrefaction at 200 ℃, 275 ℃, and 300 ℃ in a nitrogen environment for 45 minutes of residence time are analyzed in a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (micro TGA with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a macro-TGA. The output of the micro TGA is fed into the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR and qualitative analysis of the gaseous product is carried out. The composition of different gas products during the torrefaction of biomass are compared critically and kinetics were analyzed. It is found that the weight loss due to degradation of initial biomass in second stage (torrefaction process is a much faster conversion process than the weight loss process in the first stage (drying process. The weight loss of biomass increases with increase in the residence time and torrefaction treatment temperatures. The yield after torrefaction is a solid bio-coal product. The torrefied product were less reactive and has nearly 25% better heating value than the raw biomass. Between the two feedstocks studied, torrefied miscanthus proved to be a more stable fuel than the torrefied wheat straw. The major gaseous components observed during torrefaction are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-Dibromethylene.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in perennial ryegrass using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Barajas, Milton C; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo; González-Martin, Inmaculada; Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R

    2017-04-18

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in forage quality control because it is faster, cleaner and less expensive than conventional chemical procedures. In Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), one of the most important forage grasses, the infection by asymptomatic Epichloë fungal endophytes alters the plant nutritional quality due to the production of alkaloids. In this research, we developed a rapid method based on NIRS to detect and quantify endophyte alkaloids (peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline) using a heterogeneous set of L. perenne plants obtained from wild grasslands and cultivars. NIR spectra from dried grass samples were recorded and classified according to the absence or presence of alkaloids, based on reference methods. The best discriminant equations for detection of alkaloids classified correctly 94.4%, 87.5% and 92.9% of plants containing peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline, respectively. The quantitative NIR equations obtained by modified partial least squares (MPLS) algorithm had coefficients of correlation of 0.93, 0.41, and 0.76 for peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline respectively. NIRS is a suitable tool for qualitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in grasses and for the accurate quantification of peramine and ergovaline. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Positive changes among patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Adams, Rebecca N; Helft, Paul R; O'Neil, Bert H; Shahda, Safi; Rattray, Nicholas A; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed positive changes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers following diagnosis. We compared self-reported positive changes within patient-caregiver dyads as well as self-reports and patient reports of positive changes in caregivers. Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and 23 caregivers. A theoretical thematic analysis of interview transcripts was framed by posttraumatic growth theory. Patients and caregivers described five positive changes: closer relationships with others, greater appreciation of life, clarifying life priorities, increased faith, and more empathy for others. Additionally, only caregivers reported better health habits following the cancer diagnosis, and a minority of patients and caregivers reported no positive changes. In about half of cases, patients reported at least one positive change that was identical to that of their caregiver. However, in most cases, patient and caregiver reports of the caregiver's positive change were discrepant. Findings suggest that positive changes are a shared experience for many patient-caregiver dyads and obtaining both patient and caregiver reports of caregiver positive changes provides a more comprehensive understanding of their experience. Interventions may capitalise on positive changes to promote meaningful living in the context of advanced cancer.

  20. Psychotherapists, researchers, or both? A qualitative analysis of psychotherapists' experiences in a practice research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Nelson, Dana L; Boutselis, Mary A; Chiswick, Nancy R; Damer, Diana D; Hemmelstein, Neal A; Jackson, Jeffrey S; Morford, Marolyn; Ragusea, Stephen A; Roper, J Gowen; Spayd, Catherine; Weiszer, Tara; Borkovec, Thomas D

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the experiences of psychotherapists who, as part of a practice research network (PRN), collaborated with researchers in designing and conducting a psychotherapy study within their own clinical practices. A qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with these psychotherapists led to the delineation of several benefits (e.g., learning information that improved their work with clients and feeling that they were contributing to research that would be useful for psychotherapists) and difficulties for them and their clients (e.g., time and effort required to integrate research protocol into routine clinical practice) that psychotherapists associated with their participation in the PRN. Also identified were a number of strategies used by psychotherapists to address obstacles that they encountered, as well as general recommendations for future PRN studies. As a whole, the experiences of these psychotherapists are likely to provide valuable lessons for the survival and growth of what is viewed by many as a promising pathway for building a stronger bridge between practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Kertzman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed.

  2. Qualitative analysis of Camel Snus' website message board--users' product perceptions, insights and online interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia Ann; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, RJ Reynolds began test-marketing Camel Snus, a new smokeless tobacco (SLT) product. Promotion included use of a brand website, a relatively new marketing channel used by tobacco companies, which allowed visitors to learn about the product and discuss it with others on the website's message board. Our study aimed to examine early experiences with and perceptions of Camel Snus as described by board contributors and also to consider the use and benefits of the message board for both consumers and the company. We conducted a qualitative analysis, coding each message in Atlas.Ti and analysing it for emerging themes and patterns. Messages were also coded for demographic information where evident, such as tobacco use status and geographical location. Descriptive data and illustrative quotes are presented. Board participants described being introduced to Camel Snus through free samples. Favourable evaluations were posted by current smokers who had never tried SLT before as well as current users of other SLT brands. Messages indicated both initiation of dual product use among smokers and product substitution. Participants used the board to advise each other on how to use the product, where to get more, suggest ways RJ Reynolds could improve the product and to encourage RJ Reynolds to release it nationally. Camel Snus has appeal for at least some smokers and SLT users. Camel Snus' website message board may have been a doubly beneficial marketing feature in both connecting product users and providing product feedback to the company during test-marketing.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of four species of Curcuma rhizomes using twice development thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J S; Guan, J; Yang, F Q; Liu, H G; Cheng, X J; Li, S P

    2008-11-04

    The rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma longa are used as Ezhu or Jianghuang in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Due to their similar morphological characters, it is difficult to distinguish their origins of raw materials used in clinic. In this study, a simple, rapid and reliable twice development TLC method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the four species of Curcuma rhizomes. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60F(254) plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (80:4:0.8, v/v/v) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase for twice development. The TLC markers were colorized with 1% vanillin-H(2)SO(4) solution. The four species of Curcuma were easily discriminated based on their characteristic TLC profiles, and simultaneous quantification of eight compounds, including bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumine, curcumenol, curcumol, curdione, furanodienone and curzerene, in Curcuma were also performed densitometrically at lambda(scan)=518nm and lambda(reference)=800 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (r(2)>0.9905) within test ranges. Therefore, the developed TLC method can be used for quality control of Curcuma rhizomes.

  4. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C

    2017-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health.

  5. TLC--densitometric method for qualitative analysis of betamethasone and its related compounds in pharmacautical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina

    2014-01-01

    A new simple and rapid TLC-densitometric procedure for the separation and identification of betamethasone and its related substances, betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate, betamethasone-17-valerate, betamethasone-21-valerate and also betamethasone disodium phosphate was developed. One of the chromatographic systems proposed in this study, which has been satisfactory applied in separation of four pairs of examined compounds was silica gel 60F254 (E. Merck, Art. 1.05554) and a mixture containing chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (99.5%) in volume composition 28:5:0.5. Densitometric measurements were done using densitometer TLC Scanner 3 at 246 nm. The proposed method was checked in terms of its specificity for the determination of betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate and betamethasone disodium phosphate in commercially available products containing both compounds, separately, as active ingredients. The results showed that the method is suitable for qualitative analysis of betamethasone derivatives in simple and combined pharmaceuticals in various dosage forms e.g., lotion and injection solution. It also can be applied in quality control of pharmaceutical formulations of betamethasone and its related compounds in form of salts and esters.

  6. Iranian Nurses' Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients' care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses' status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran's council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses' status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including "the policy making framework", "perceived status of nurses in policy making", and "the manner of nurses' participation in policy making". The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran's macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications.

  7. Parental knowledge in pediatric otolaryngology surgical consultations: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodzinsky, Ayala Y; Hong, Paul; Chorney, Jill MacLaren

    2015-07-01

    To understand the source of parents' knowledge prior to and desire for further information following pediatric otolaryngology surgical consultations. Mixed-methods approach using descriptive and qualitative content analysis of interviews with parents following otolaryngology consultations for children under the age of 6 years was performed. The children were being seen for either tonsillitis, obstructive sleep apnea, otitis media, and/or sinusitis/nasal obstruction. Forty-one parents completed a phone interview two weeks following their child's surgical consultation. The majority of parents indicated that their primary care physician referred their child for either: investigation of symptoms (50%), to have a specific discussion about surgery (27.5%), or because other treatment options were no longer working (20%). Many parents (56.5%) indicated that the Internet was their primary source of information prior to the appointment. Most parents (93%) wanted more information; majority of these parents noted that a technology-based mode of delivery of information available prior to the appointment would be most desirable. Desired information was most often regarding the surgical procedure, including risks and benefits, and symptoms of concern prior to surgery. This study provides a description of parental knowledge and information sources prior to their child's surgical consultation and continued desire for information. This information may lead to decreased knowledge barriers and increased communication to facilitate shared decision-making between the provider and parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Traumatic brain injury caregivers: A qualitative analysis of spouse and parent perspectives on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Sander, Angelle M; Brickell, Tracey A; Lange, Rael T; Carlozzi, Noelle E

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to examine how family caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) describe their quality of life in the context of their caregiving role. Fifty-two caregivers of adults with moderate or severe TBI (n = 31 parents, n = 21 partners/spouses; 77% female; mean age = 57.96 years, range = 34-78 years) were recruited from three data collection sites to participate in focus groups. Thematic content analysis was used to identify two main meta-themes: Caregiver Role Demands and Changes in Person with TBI. Prominent sub-themes indicated that caregivers are (1) overburdened with responsibilities, (2) lack personal time and time for self-care, (3) feel that their life is interrupted or lost, (4) grieve the loss of the person with TBI, and (5) endorse anger, guilt, anxiety, and sadness. Caregivers identified a number of service needs. A number of sub-themes were perceived differently by partner versus parent caregivers. The day-to-day responsibilities of being a caregiver as well as the changes in the person with the TBI present a variety of challenges and sources of distress for caregivers. Although services that address instrumental as well as emotional needs of caregivers may benefit caregivers in general, the service needs of parent and partner caregivers may differ.

  10. Sucrose quantitative and qualitative analysis from tastant mixtures based on Cu foam electrode and stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Guohua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Jian; Zheng, Le

    2016-04-15

    Quantitative and qualitative determination of sucrose from complex tastant mixtures using Cu foam electrode was investigated in this study. Cu foam was prepared and its three-dimensional (3-D) mesh structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu foam was utilized as working electrode in three-electrode electrochemical system. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning results exhibited the oxidation procedure of sucrose on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results indicated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sucrose from four tastant mixtures with low limit of detection (LOD) of 35.34 μM, 49.85 μM, 45.89 μM, and 26.81 μM, respectively. The existence of quinine, NaCl, citric acid (CA) and their mixtures had no effect on sucrose detection. Furthermore, mixtures containing different tastants could be discriminated by non-linear double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance (DCSSR) output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak parameters of CV measurement data. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener analysis of commercial food.

  11. Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

    2015-06-01

    To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

  12. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-03-29

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  13. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  14. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  15. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitative 3D breast magnetic resonance imaging fibroglandular tissue analysis and correlation with qualitative assessments: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Richard; Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-04-01

    The amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) has been linked to breast cancer risk based on mammographic density studies. Currently, the qualitative assessment of FGT on mammogram (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to intra and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective quantitative FGT measurement tool for breast MRI that could provide significant clinical value. An IRB approved study was performed. Sixty breast MRI cases with qualitative assessment of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT were randomly selected for quantitative analysis from routine breast MRIs performed at our institution from 1/2013 to 12/2014. Blinded to the qualitative data, whole breast and FGT contours were delineated on T1-weighted pre contrast sagittal images using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm which combines the region-based active contours and a level set approach. FGT (%) was calculated by: [segmented volume of FGT (mm(3))/(segmented volume of whole breast (mm(3))] ×100. Statistical correlation analysis was performed between quantified FGT (%) on MRI and qualitative assessments of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT. There was a significant positive correlation between quantitative MRI FGT assessment and qualitative MRI FGT (r=0.809, n=60, Pqualitative MRI FGT assessment and mammographic density assessment (r=0.725, n=60, Pqualitative assessment categories of FGT correlated with the calculated mean quantitative FGT (%) of 4.61% (95% CI, 0-12.3%), 8.74% (7.3-10.2%), 18.1% (15.1-21.1%), 37.4% (29.5-45.3%). Quantitative measures of FGT (%) were computed with data derived from breast MRI and correlated significantly with conventional qualitative assessments. This quantitative technique may prove to be a valuable tool in clinical use by providing computer generated standardized measurements with limited intra or inter-observer variability.

  17. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  18. Qualitative analysis of catechins from green tea GMB-4 clone using HPLC and LC-MS/MS

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    Erna Susanti

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods were successfully tuned for the qualitative analysis of green tea extract with EGCG and ECG. Four major catechins were separated and identified by LC-MS/MS, such as EGCG, epigallocatechin, ECG and epicatechin. The result of HPLC analysis showed that EGCG and ECG were main components from catechins isolation of green tea GMB-4 clone.

  19. Transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus: qualitative investigation by in vivo HRT II confocal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Aldo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Paradiso, Anna Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This was a qualitative investigation of corneal microstructural modifications in keratoconic patients undergoing experimental transepithelial crosslinking (TE CXL). Ten patients with keratoconus intolerant to gas-permeable rigid contact lenses were enrolled. Corneal thickness was in the range 350-390 µm at the thinnest point measured by Visante AC optical coherence tomography system (Zeiss, Jena, Germany). All patients underwent TE CXL with 0.1% riboflavin-15% dextran solution supplemented with TRIS plus sodium EDTA (Ricrolin TE, Sooft Italia) according to Siena protocol. In vivo Heidelberg retinal tomograph II laser scanning confocal analysis (Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany) was performed with the following follow-up: preoperative and postoperative assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months. The following morphologic parameters were evaluated: epithelium, subepithelial, and anterior stroma nerve plexi, keratocytes apoptosis, stromal changes, and the endothelium. After TE CXL, epithelial cells showed apoptosis, with mosaic alterations gradually disappearing. Keratocytes apoptosis was variable, superficial, and uneven, with a maximum depth of penetration at about 140 µm, measured from the surface of epithelium. Treatment respected subepithelial and stromal nerves that did not disappear. No variation in cell count or endothelial mosaic was observed. In vivo confocal analysis of corneal modifications induced by TE CXL showed a limited apoptotic affect of this treatment, about one-third of classic epi-off crosslinking procedure. The TE CXL respected sub-basal and anterior stroma nerve fibers, resulting safe for corneal endothelium. According to limited penetration, its mid- to long-term efficacy needs to be determined in different clinical settings related to patient age and keratoconus progression.

  20. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID

  1. A qualitative model structure sensitivity analysis method to support model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.

    2014-11-01

    The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.

  2. Coding and data analysis during qualitative empirical research in Practical Theology

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    Petria M. Theron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I dedicate this article to Prof. George Lotter, who has been instrumental in the formation of more than 90 postgraduate students in practical theological studies at the North-West University (NWU. Under his guidance, a significant amount of empirical research has been conducted. This is in line with a movement among scholars, both national and international, towards a more empirical approach in Practical Theology. It is therefore indispensable that both lecturers and students in Practical Theology should further develop their empirical research capacities. In this article, it is argued for a more systematic approach during the coding and data analysis phase of qualitative research and the article concludes with a proposed model for coding and data analysis in practical theological studies.Kodering en data-analise tydens kwalitatiewe empiriese navorsing in Praktiese Teologie. Hierdie artikel word aan prof. George Lotter opgedra. Deur die jare was hy instrumenteel in die vorming van meer as 90 nagraadse studente in Praktiese Teologie by die Noord-Wes Universiteit (NWU. Baie empiriese navorsing het onder sy leiding plaasgevind. Dit is in ooreenstemming met die nasionale en internasionale tendens van ’n meer empiriese benadering in Praktiese Teologie. Dit is dus van die uiterste belang dat Praktiese Teologie-dosente en -studente se vaardighede in empiriese navorsing verder ontwikkel moet word. In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat ’n meer sistematiese benadering gevolg moet word tydens die kodering en die data-analisefase van kwalitatiewe navorsing. ’n Model vir die kodering en data-analise vir navorsing in Praktiese Teologie word ook voorgestel.

  3. Medical students writing on death, dying and palliative care: a qualitative analysis of reflective essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Jason W; Dikomitis, Lisa; Gadoud, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Medical students and doctors are becoming better prepared to care for patients with palliative care needs and support patients at the end of life. This preparation needs to start at medical school. To assess how medical students learn about death, dying and palliative care during a clinical placement using reflective essays and to provide insights to improve medical education about end-of-life care and/or palliative care. Qualitative study in which all reflective essays written by third-year medical students in 1 year from a UK medical school were searched electronically for those that included 'death', 'dying' and 'palliative care'. The anonymised data were managed using QSR NVivo 10 software, and a systematic analysis was conducted in three distinct phases: (1) open coding; (2) axial coding and (3) selective coding. Ethical approval was received. 54 essays met the inclusion criteria from 241 essays screened for the terms 'death', 'dying' or 'palliative'; 22 students gave consent for participation and their 24 essays were included. Saturation of themes was reached. Three overarching themes were identified: emotions, empathy and experiential and reflective learning. Students emphasised trying to develop a balance between showing empathy and their emotional state. Students learnt a lot from clinical encounters and watching doctors manage difficult situations, as well as from their refection during and after the experience. Reflective essays give insights into the way students learn about death, dying and palliative care and how it affects them personally as well as the preparation that is needed to be better equipped to deal with these kinds of experiences. Analysis of the essays enabled the proposal of new strategies to help make them more effective learning tools and to optimise students' learning from a palliative care attachment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.

  5. General practitioners' perceptions of COPD treatment: thematic analysis of qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Katrine Rutkær; Egerod, Ingrid; Valentiner, Laura Staun; Lange, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of COPD is mainly managed by general practitioners (GPs). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is available to patients with COPD in the local community by GP referral, but in practice, many patients do not participate in rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to explore 1) GPs' perceptions of their role and responsibility in the rehabilitation of patients with COPD, and 2) GPs' perceptions of how patients manage their COPD. The study was based on a qualitative design with semi-structured key-informant interviews with GPs. Investigator triangulation was applied during data generation, and analysis was done using thematic analysis methodology. Our main findings were that GPs relied on patients themselves to take the initiative to make clinic appointments and on professionals at health centers to provide the PR including consultations on lifestyle changes. The GPs experienced that patients chose to come to the clinic when they were in distress and that patients either declined or had poor adherence to rehabilitation when offered. The GPs were relieved that the health centers had taken over the responsibility of rehabilitation as GPs lacked the resources to discuss rehabilitation and follow up on individual plans. Our study suggested a potential self-reinforcing problem with the treatment of COPD being mainly focused on medication rather than on PR. Neither GPs nor patients used a proactive approach. Further, GPs were not fully committed to discuss non-pharmacological treatment and perceived the patients as unmotivated for PR. As such, there is a need for optimizing non-pharmacological treatment of COPD and in particular the referral process to PR.

  6. Análise qualitativa: teoria, passos e fidedignidade Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability

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    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio busca-se aprofundar a reflexão sobre o processo de análise na pesquisa qualitativa a partir de autores referenciais e da experiência da própria autora. O texto está organizado em forma de decálogo por meio do qual é tratado o tema processualmente. A hipótese é de que uma análise para ser fidedigna precisa conter os termos estruturantes da investigação qualitativa que são os verbos: compreender e interpretar; e os substantivos: experiência, vivência, senso comum e ação social. A seguir a proposta avança por 10 passos que se iniciam na construção científica do objeto pela sua colocação no âmbito do conhecimento nacional e internacional, na elaboração de instrumentos que tornem concretos os conceitos teóricos, na execução de um trabalho de campo que envolva empaticamente o investigador no uso de vários tipos de técnicas e abordagens, tornando-o um construtor de relações, de observações e de uma narrativa em perspectiva. Por fim, a autora trata da análise propriamente dita, mostrando como o objeto, que já vem pensado em todas as etapas anteriores, deve se tornar um construto de segunda ordem, em que predomine a lógica dos atores em sua diversidade e não apenas as suas falas, dentro de uma narrativa teorizada, contextualizada, concisa e clara.This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in

  7. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  8. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  9. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

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    Mazzocato Pamela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED. However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis

  10. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of sustainable household water treatment interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Daniel; Pande, Saket; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Household water treatment (HWT; such as boiling, chlorination, solar or UV disinfection with lamps, etc.) is one of the technologies that can be used to reach this target. However, there is a big challenge to scale up the widespread implementation of this technology. Even though there are many HWT products on the market, sustainable uptake of this method (compliance) is unsatisfying. Researchers have shown that its compliance rate has often declined over time. Since there are many factors that influence the compliance rate, it is desirable to know the best combination of causal factors (pathway) that give the highest compliance based on the success stories reported in the literature. The motivation of this research is to find the pathways characteristic of local people that influence the compliance rate of HWT, using QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis). The comparative analysis is essentially a meta-analysis of HWT interventions and factors, possibly, behind successful or unsuccessful HWT uptake reported in literature. This thus helps to identify the characteristics of target communities that are willing to adopt HWT intervention, irrespective of the type of HWT. Out of 102 case studies reported in literature, 36 are selected from developing countries where an HWT intervention lasted for at least 12 months were selected and analyzed. Factors such as education level, perception about water quality, local beliefs, sanitation coverage, existing water treatment, type of water source, ability to pay, willingness to pay, existing local supply chain, and accessibility to water treatment were examined. Preliminary results show that 1) a combination of no prior HWT intervention in the community with a general perception of water quality being poor often leads to uptake of HWT technology, 2) education

  11. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2011-11-15

    Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed

  12. Exploring patient priorities among long-term conditions in multimorbidity: A qualitative secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A lack of agreement between health-care providers and patient priorities can impact the health-care provider–patient relationship, treatment concordance and potentially health outcomes. Evidence suggests that people living with multiple morbidities do prioritise among their long-term conditions. However, the evidence revealing the underlying reasons behind this prioritisation remains limited. Given the potential implications for day-to-day self-management activity and ultimately patient outcomes, this study aims to explore how and why people with multimorbidity prioritise some long-term conditions over others and what the potential implications may be for self-management activity, and in turn, suggest how such information may help clinicians negotiate the management of multimorbidity patients. Methods: A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted utilising four existing data sets collated from the three research centres involved. Purposive sampling provided a sample of 41 participants who had multimorbidity. The research team collectively coded and analysed the data thematically. Results: All participants, except two, identified one ‘main’ priority long-term condition. Current priorities were arrived at by participants making comparisons between their long-term conditions, specifically by trading off the various attributes, impacts and perceived consequences of their individual long-term conditions. Two main themes emerged as to why participants identified a particular main long-term condition: (a proximate issues surrounding barriers to functional health and (b prioritisation of long-term conditions perceived to have a particular future risk. Conclusions: The recent focus on multimorbidity within the medical literature reflects its prevalence. It is therefore important to understand the complexities of the multimorbidity illness experience. We have added to the limited literature on condition prioritisation by

  13. PROFILE OF ACADEMICALLY BACKWARD STUDENTS AND PROBABLE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

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    Ubhale Ashish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Academic backwardness exists almost in every institute. In institutes providing professional education, the problem is on higher scale with more seriousness and complications. For the academic backwardness, multiple reasons like financial, family, personal stressors are contemplated. This study is an attempt to recognize the problem areas in these students which will help us to take some preventive measures. AIMS: To find the probable causes of repeated failure in the university examination at an individual, family and institutional level. OBJECTIVES: To find prevalence of psychological morbidity. To identify stressors. To identify the reasons for irregularity. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective cohort type of study, done in a Rural Medical college. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Academically backward students identified according to MUHS criteria. Data collection done from previous college records, open ended semi structured proforma with a personal individual interview with GHQ. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Qualitative research methodology was used. RESULTS: Poor study pattern, poor concentration and time management issues were observed in 45.45%. Poor English comprehension, personal illness, family problems, poor coping in negative stressful emotional life events, boredom in repeating the same subject studies were also noted. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was observed in 40.91%. Substance use was observed in 18.18%.59.1% were found to have more general health problems on GHQ. At family level parental divorce, interpersonal stressors with parents and at institutional level, poor attendance in revision classes and practical’s were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological problems were more prevalent as compared to previously reported studies, which may be attributed to the fact that the study group consisted only of academically backward students.

  14. Model-based analysis for qualitative data: an application in Drosophila germline stem cell regulation.

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    Michael Pargett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery in developmental biology is often driven by intuition that relies on the integration of multiple types of data such as fluorescent images, phenotypes, and the outcomes of biochemical assays. Mathematical modeling helps elucidate the biological mechanisms at play as the networks become increasingly large and complex. However, the available data is frequently under-utilized due to incompatibility with quantitative model tuning techniques. This is the case for stem cell regulation mechanisms explored in the Drosophila germarium through fluorescent immunohistochemistry. To enable better integration of biological data with modeling in this and similar situations, we have developed a general parameter estimation process to quantitatively optimize models with qualitative data. The process employs a modified version of the Optimal Scaling method from social and behavioral sciences, and multi-objective optimization to evaluate the trade-off between fitting different datasets (e.g. wild type vs. mutant. Using only published imaging data in the germarium, we first evaluated support for a published intracellular regulatory network by considering alternative connections of the same regulatory players. Simply screening networks against wild type data identified hundreds of feasible alternatives. Of these, five parsimonious variants were found and compared by multi-objective analysis including mutant data and dynamic constraints. With these data, the current model is supported over the alternatives, but support for a biochemically observed feedback element is weak (i.e. these data do not measure the feedback effect well. When also comparing new hypothetical models, the available data do not discriminate. To begin addressing the limitations in data, we performed a model-based experiment design and provide recommendations for experiments to refine model parameters and discriminate increasingly complex hypotheses.

  15. User-driven conversations about dialysis through Facebook: A qualitative thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salim; Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Afzal, Arfan R; Tam-Tham, Helen; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most popular social networking sites in the world, Facebook has strong potential to enable peer support and the user-driven sharing of health information. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the wall posts of a public Facebook group focused on dialysis to identify some of the major themes discussed. We searched Facebook using the word 'dialysis'. A Facebook group (Dialysis Discussion Uncensored) with the highest number of members was selected amongst publicly available forums related to dialysis and operated in English (http://www.facebook.com/groups/DialysisUncensored). Two researchers independently extracted information on features of the group including purpose, group members and the user-generated posts on the group wall. Posts were further analysed to develop major themes. Characteristics of a Facebook group based on its participants and activities are presented. Three themes are described with representative quotations. In a period of 2 weeks, we found 1257 wall posts with total of 31 636 likes and 15 972 comments. All messages were in English, and the majority of the participants were dialysis patients. However, we observed the participation of family members and care providers as well. Posts were categorized into three major themes: sharing information, seeking and providing emotional and social support and sharing experience. Findings of this study provide an example of how a social networking platform can enable patients and their families to share information and to encourage peer-based support for managing dialysis-related experiences. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Care coordination at a pediatric accountable care organization (ACO): A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Baria; Miller, Sophia; Patel, Anup D; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2017-08-01

    Care coordinators may help manage care for children with chronic illness. Their role in pediatric epilepsy care is understudied. We aimed to qualitatively describe the content of a care coordination intervention for children with epilepsy. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews and one focus group with care coordinators at a pediatric accountable care organization (ACO) in Ohio. The care coordinators used a modified version of a published care coordination checklist for children with epilepsy (Patel AD, 2014). We analyzed transcripts using thematic analysis. We focused on (1) the content of the intervention; and (2) perceptions of facilitators and barriers to improve outcomes, with an emphasis on epilepsy specific facilitators and barriers. Care coordinators interacted with children and families in multiple contexts (phone calls, physician visits, home visits), and included relationship building (developing rapport and trust between families and the health system), communication (transmission of information between the child, family, physician, and other care providers), and service (help with housing, transportation, scheduling, liaison with community resources, etc.). Facilitators and barriers of care coordination included factors related to parents, physicians, health system, payers, and community. Epilepsy-specific barriers included stigma (felt & enacted) and the anxiety associated with clinical uncertainty. Epilepsy related facilitators included a seizure action plan, written educational materials, and an epilepsy specific care coordination checklist. In addition to facilitators and barriers common to many care coordination programs, pediatric epilepsy care coordinators should be particularly aware of epilepsy stigma and clinical uncertainty. A care coordination checklist and epilepsy focused educational materials written to accommodate people with low health literacy may provide additional benefit. Further research is required to understand the effect

  17. Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Salehi Shahrabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran′s air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen′s participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders.

  18. What leads Indians to participate in clinical trials? A meta-analysis of qualitative studies.

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    Jatin Y Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. CONCLUSION: We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India.

  19. Enhancing medical students' reflectivity in mentoring groups for professional development - a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela

    2017-07-14

    Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of

  20. Patient profiles as organizing HIV clinicians' ART adherence management: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, Isabelle; Engler, Kim; Lessard, David; Wong, Leo; Lènàrt, Andràs; Raffi, Francois; Spire, Bruno; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2017-08-01

    The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on optimal clinical management and patient adherence. Little is known about patient characteristics that clinicians consider in the management of ART adherence. Exploring this issue, five focus groups were conducted with 31 HIV-clinicians from across France. A qualitative typological analysis suggests that clinician management of patient adherence is based on characteristics that coalesce into seven patient profiles. For the "passive" patient, described as taking ART exactly as prescribed without questioning their doctor's expertise, a directive and simple management style was preferred. The "misleading" patient is characterized as concerned with social desirability and as reporting no adherence difficulties for fear of displeasing their doctor. If clinical outcomes are suboptimal, the clinicians' strategy is to remind them of the importance of open patient-clinician communication. The "stoic" patient is described as requesting and adequately taking the most potent ART available. Here, clinicians emphasize assessment of side effects, which the patient may minimize. The "hedonistic" patient's festive lifestyle and sexual risk-taking are seen as compromising adherence; with them, clinicians stress the patient's responsibility for their own health and that of their sexual partners. The "obsessive" patient is portrayed as having an irrational fear of ART failure and an inability to distinguish illusory from genuine adherence barriers. With this patient, clinicians seek to identify the latter. The "overburdened" patient is recognized as coping with life priorities that interfere with adherence and, with them, a forgiving ART is favored. The "underprivileged" patient is presented as having limited education, income and housing. In this case, clinicians seek to improve the patient's living conditions and access to care. These results shed light on HIV clinicians' ART adherence management. The value of these

  1. Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lindsey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP, the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs (i.e., e-referrals, lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and

  2. A qualitative analysis of acute skin toxicity among breast cancer radiotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; Ouellette, Suzanne C; Dilorenzo, Terry A; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment-induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on QOL. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of QOL. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women's experiences. Generally African American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Implications of results are as follows: (1) skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of QOL, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; (2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and (3) participants' own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective--a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlviken, Rønnaug M; Fridlund, Bengt; Mathisen, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible condition mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The phenomenon is associated with emotional and physical stressful trigger events. Evidence-based patient counselling should be based on disease-specific knowledge of patient experiences. The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective. The study design was explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, 1 day to 9 months after hospitalisation. The transcriptions underwent qualitative content analysis. The main theme that emerged was Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a continuous process of making sense and adapting. To begin with, understanding and coping with signs and symptoms were described as having a diversity of signs and symptoms, taking actions towards signs and symptoms, receiving treatment for suspected ST/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis and finally being diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Understanding the context of illness was expressed as getting treated for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis and having previous stressful conditions of life. The changing perspective that emanated was a combination of having prospects and expectations and experiencing limitations. Finally, managing to live with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was manifested as returning home with the illness and receiving follow-up health care. Information on regaining prior health status and capacity within a short-term perspective may not be accurate. These women struggle and require education and counselling from healthcare professionals to comprehend and manage having a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis. Women experiencing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a target group for holistic and individual health care with a longer duration of follow-up. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Physician coaching to enhance well-being: a qualitative analysis of a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Suzanne; Kingsolver, Karen; Rosdahl, Jullia

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States increasingly confront stress, burnout, and other serious symptoms at an alarming level. As a result, there is growing public interest in the development of interventions that improve physician resiliency. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceived impact of Physician Well-being Coaching on physician stress and resiliency, as implemented in a major medical center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 physician-participants, and three coaches of a Physician Well-being Coaching pilot focused on three main areas: life context, impacts of coaching, and coaching process. Interviewees were physicians who completed between three and eight individual coaching sessions between October 2012 and May 2013 through the Physician Well-being Coaching pilot program. Qualitative content analysis of the 11 physician interviews and three coach interviews using Atlas.ti to generate patterns and themes. Physician Well-being Coaching helped participants increase resilience via skill and awareness development in the following three main areas: (1) boundary setting and prioritization, (2) self-compassion and self-care, and (3) self-awareness. These insights often led to behavior changes and were perceived by physicians to have indirect but positive impact on patient care. Devaluing self-care while prioritizing the care of others may be a significant, but unnecessary, source of burnout for physicians. This study suggests that coaching can potentially help physicians alter this pattern through skill development and increased self-awareness. It also suggests that by strengthening physician self-care, coaching can help to positively impact patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Palliative Care Bedside Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis of Medical Students' Reflective Writings after Clinical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojí, Rocío; Noguera-Tejedor, Antonio; Pikabea-Díaz, Fernando; Carrasco, José Miguel; Centeno, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    A mandatory course in palliative care (PC) is organized for all final-year medical students at the University of Navarre. It consists of 24 lectures, 4 workshops, and 1 scheduled five hour clinical PC service experience at two different sites. In the 48 hours after the visit and related to the clinical experience, each student has to complete a 500-word reflective writing (RW) piece. To investigate how a brief PC clinical experience helps equip the medical student. Qualitative study of RW. Two researchers produced a content analysis of students' RW. They collaboratively developed themes and categories with a constant review of the classification tree and an exhaustive collection of quotes. Differences between services were analyzed (λ(2)). One hundred sixty-seven RW were analyzed from the 197 students on the course (response rate 85%). Six major themes emerged: All the students identified central aspects of PC work dynamics; students acquired specific PC knowledge (86%); the personal influence of the experience was reported (68%); students described how patients and their caregivers deal with the patients' illness (68%); students talked about the essence of PC and essential aspects of medicine (42%); students reported spontaneously having changed their assumptions about PC (15%); and they realized that the experience was relevant to all clinical practice. Categories such as teamwork, the expression of patients' and caregivers' feelings, and family devotion showed statistical differences between services (λ(2) p < 0.05). A short bedside clinical experience in PC, encouraging student reflection, provides a deeper understanding of PC and even of core medicine values. The data we gather cannot explain only new skill acquisition but seems to suggest a life-changing personal experience for the student.

  6. The qualitative analysis of biochemical content in textbooks of elementary school

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    K. W.M. Etcheverria et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biochemistry is the science that deals with the metabolic functions of living beings. In its concepts, it uses chemistry and biology to study the interactions of organisms with the environment. For basic education students is often complex the association of biochemistry with their daily lives, especially in elementary school where they have their first contact with science in school and the didactic book will serve as an important tool for research. Thus, this work aims to analyze qualitatively content related to biochemistry in science books of the final years of elementary school. Methods: We analyzed six science books used in elementary school, and the following criteria were examined: clarity and language presented on the inserted content; resolutions and images shown subtitles, and interdisciplinarity of matters. Results and discussion: The books of the sixth and fifth years were those who achieved the expected learning goals. The first of then made a very good presentation of the content and the images, addressing the subject in an interdisciplinary way. However, the second one is well below in the analyzed criteria, bringing the matter in a vague writing, and failing in associate the content with other assumptions themes. The images had a very low quality and their explanations were difficult to associate. Conclusion: We can say that the biochemistry content are complex, however its development from the beginning of primary education contributes to overcoming the complexity of their understanding. The analysis of the books brought a result that was expected. Only one book had significantly positive results in all analyzed characteristics, the other books had some very good aspects, but in several details, they were vague and poorly contextualized. Approaching the school sciences to the student every day we can demystify scientific knowledge and its production.

  7. Coding and data analysis during qualitative empirical research in Practical Theology/Kodering en data-analise tydens kwalitatiewe empiriese navorsing in Praktiese Teologie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petria M Theron

    2015-01-01

    .... In this article, it is argued for a more systematic approach during the coding and data analysis phase of qualitative research and the article concludes with a proposed model for coding and data analysis in practical theological studies.

  8. Liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry for qualitative analysis of herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Fei Chen; Hai-Tang Wu; Guang-Guo Tan; Zhen-Yu Zhu; Yi-Feng Chai

    2011-01-01

    With the expansion of herbal medicine (HM) market, the issue on how to apply up-to- date analytical tools on qualitative analysis of HMs to assure their quality, safety and efficacy has been arousing great attention. Due to its inherent characteristics of accurate mass measurements and multiple stages analysis, the integrated strategy of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS) is well-suited to be performed as qualitative analysis tool in this field. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the potential of this integrated strategy, including the review of general features of LC-IT-MS and LC-TOF-MS, the advantages of their combination, the common procedures for structure elucidation, the potential of LC-hybrid-IT-TOF/MS and also the summary and discussion of the applications of the integrated strategy for HM qualitative analysis (2006-2011). The advantages and future developments of LC coupled with IT and TOF-MS are highlighted.

  9. Tackling reliability and construct validity: the systematic development of a qualitative protocol for skill and incident analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Trevor Nicholas; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2017-03-01

    It is important to understand factors contributing to and directly causing sports injuries to improve the effectiveness and safety of sports skills. The characteristics of injury events must be evaluated and described meaningfully and reliably. However, many complex skills cannot be effectively investigated quantitatively because of ethical, technological and validity considerations. Increasingly, qualitative methods are being used to investigate human movement for research purposes, but there are concerns about reliability and measurement bias of such methods. Using the tackle in Rugby union as an example, we outline a systematic approach for developing a skill analysis protocol with a focus on improving objectivity, validity and reliability. Characteristics for analysis were selected using qualitative analysis and biomechanical theoretical models and epidemiological and coaching literature. An expert panel comprising subject matter experts provided feedback and the inter-rater reliability of the protocol was assessed using ten trained raters. The inter-rater reliability results were reviewed by the expert panel and the protocol was revised and assessed in a second inter-rater reliability study. Mean agreement in the second study improved and was comparable (52-90% agreement and ICC between 0.6 and 0.9) with other studies that have reported inter-rater reliability of qualitative analysis of human movement.

  10. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Galan-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user forum. The conference also hosted three seminal keynote speakers in two presentations: John CRESWELL, and Udo KUCKARTZ and Stefan RÄDIKER, who shared, respectively, the state of the art of mixed methods and the ways that software can support these approaches. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170146

  11. 浅析质的研究方法%Analysis of Qualitative Research Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成建兰

    2014-01-01

    质的研究的理论基础是现象学的解释主义,与量化研究所不同的是,它具有自然、归纳性、描述性、解释性和动态性等特点。质的研究有其特殊的研究方法。质的研究是与定量研究互补的,在教育研究的众多领域都有广泛的应用前景。%Qualitative research is based on the phenomenological interpretation, whcin is a natural, inductive, descriptive, explanatory and dynamic. Qualitative research have their own unique methods. Qualitative research and quantitative research can complement each other, and it has broad application prospects in various fields of educational research.

  12. A comparative analysis of three online appraisal instruments' ability to assess validity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Karin; Lockwood, Craig; Pearson, Alan

    2010-12-01

    The concept of validity has been a central component in critical appraisal exercises evaluating the methodological quality of quantitative studies. Reactions by qualitative researchers have been mixed in relation to whether or not validity should be applied to qualitative research and if so, what criteria should be used to distinguish high-quality articles from others. We compared three online critical appraisal instruments' ability to facilitate an assessment of validity. Many reviewers have used the critical appraisal skills program (CASP) tool to complete their critical appraisal exercise; however, CASP appears to be less sensitive to aspects of validity than the evaluation tool for qualitative studies (ETQS) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool. The ETQS provides detailed instructions on how to interpret criteria; however, it is the JBI tool, with its focus on congruity, that appears to be the most coherent.

  13. The impact of vascular comorbidities on qualitative error analysis of executive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lamar, Melissa; Libon, David. J.; Ashley, Angela V.; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I.; Goldstein, Felicia C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular comorbidities (VC) perform worse across measures of verbal reasoning and abstraction when compared to patients with AD alone. We performed a qualitative error analysis of WAIS-III Similarities zero-point responses in 45 AD patients with varying numbers of VC including diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Errors were scored in set if the answer was vaguely related to the word pair (e.g., doglion: ‘the...

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of adenovirus type 5 vector-induced memory CD8 T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Holst, Peter Johannes; Steengaard, Sanne Skovvang

    2013-01-01

    adenoviral boosting and, importantly, the generated secondary memory cells cannot be qualitatively differentiated from those induced by primary infection with replicating virus. Quantitatively, DNA priming prior to Ad-vaccination will lead to even higher numbers of memory cells. In this case, the vaccination...... infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. We found that localized immunization with intermediate doses of Ad vector induce a moderate number of functional CD8 T cells, which qualitatively match those found in LCMV-infected mice. Numbers of these cells may be efficiently increased by additional...

  15. Qualitative research: Data analysis framework generating grounded theory applicable to the crisis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.

    The shortage of qualified teachers, and the quality and quantity of the science taught in precollege institutions are two focal issues in today's national crisis in science education. This article delineates aspects of qualitative research having the potential of providing guidance to change agents in designing effective strategies to mitigate the crisis. A discursive approach to qualitative research involving the method of collecting and simultaneously analyzing data known as grounded theory is described. Role theory and schools as organizations composed of interactive subsystems are defined as suitable frameworks within which to analyze data.

  16. Qualitative analysis of seized synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones by gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Seongshin; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; Almirall, José R

    2015-02-01

    Designer drugs are analogues or derivatives of illicit drugs with a modification of their chemical structure in order to circumvent current legislation for controlled substances. Designer drugs of abuse have increased dramatically in popularity all over the world for the past couple of years. Currently, the qualitative seized-drug analysis is mainly performed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in which most of these emerging designer drug derivatives are extensively fragmented not presenting a molecular ion in their mass spectra. The absence of molecular ion and/or similar fragmentation pattern among these derivatives may cause the equivocal identification of unknown seized-substances. In this study, the qualitative identification of 34 designer drugs, mainly synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, were performed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques, including electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) only focusing on qualitative seized-drug analysis, not from the toxicological point of view. The implementation of CI source facilitates the determination of molecular mass and the identification of seized designer drugs. Developed multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode may increase sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of seized designer drugs. In addition, CI mass spectra and MRM mass spectra of these designer drug derivatives can be used as a potential supplemental database along with EI mass spectral database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Qualitative Analysis of the Performance of Introverts and Extraverts on Standard Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vidhu; Kumar, Dalip

    1976-01-01

    Does measurement of intelligence through a concolidated score imply that two or more subjects obtaining the same score are also undergoing the same mental process? Introverts are supposed to opt for accuracy and extraverts for speed. Attempts to investigate the qualitative differences between extraverts and introverts on an intelligence test.…

  18. What motivates individuals with ADHD? A qualitative analysis from the adolescent's point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, S.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Mies, G.W.; Glorie, N.; Lemiere, J.; Oord, S. van der; Danckaerts, M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD appear to respond differently to incentives than their peers. This could be due to a general altered sensitivity to reinforcers. However, apart from differences in the degree of motivation, individuals with ADHD might also be motivated by qualitatively different factors. This

  19. Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  1. School Uniforms: A Qualitative Analysis of Aims and Accomplishments at Two Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Smith, Suzanne; Perry, Lynsey

    2006-01-01

    Employing rigorous qualitative research methodology, we studied the implementation of two schools' uniform policies. Their primary intents were to eliminate competition, teach young people to dress appropriately, decrease nonacademic distractions, and lower the parental clothing costs. The young people differed with adults regarding whether or not…

  2. Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, T.Y.; van Heesch, S.; van den Toorn, H.; Giansanti, P.; Cristobal, A.; Toonen, P.; Schafer, S.; Hubner, N.; van Breukelen, B.; Mohammed, S.; Cuppen, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Guryev, V.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtain

  3. Music in the Early Childhood Curriculum: Qualitative Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nancy H.; Durham, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study employed grounded theory to explore how a university-based summer practicum experience with community children (N = 55) revealed and shaped pre-service teachers' (N = 24) understanding of young children and their musical skills and dispositions; how early childhood music curriculum is designed; and supports and barriers to…

  4. An Analysis of the Qualitative Characteristics of Management Commentary Reporting by New Zealand Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikram Chatterjee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The narrative section of annual reports has considerable value to its user groups, such as financial analysts and investors (Barlett & Chandler 1997; International Accounting Standards Board (IASB 2006; Tiexiera 2004. This narrative section including chirpersons’/presidents’ statement contains twice the quantity ofinformation than the financial statements section (Smith & Taffler 2000. However, the abundance of information does not necessarily enhance the quality of such information (IASB 2006. This issue ofqualitative characteristics has been long foregone by researchers. This issue has attracted the attention of IASB (2006. Following the dearth in research in regard to qualitative characteristics of reporting this paper explores whether investors’ required qualitative characteristics as outlined by the IASB (2006 have beensatisfied in the management commentary section of New Zealand companies’ annual reports. Our result suggests that the principal stakeholders’, that is, investors’ qualitative characteristics requirements have been partially met in this section of annual reports. The qualitative characteristic of ‘relevance’ and ‘supportability’ have been satisfied in more annual reports compared to that of ‘balance’ and ‘comparability’.

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  6. Qualitative Analysis of the Barriers College Students with Disabilities Experience in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Students with disabilities are increasingly enrolling in colleges and universities. However, many institutions are still unprepared to support them beyond the basic federal mandate of equal access and reasonable accommodations. This qualitative study utilized a nontraditional media of reflective journaling to capture the anecdotal experiences of…

  7. Sense of Presence Experiences and Meaning-Making in Bereavement: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to…

  8. How College Students Understand Their Self-Control Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliburn Allen, Cara; Glanzer, Perry

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown the importance of the positive benefits of high-levels of self-control for both individuals and society. Yet, we know only a limited amount about how college students understand and apply self-control. This qualitative study examined how a national sample of 75 students defined self-control, whether or not they believed…

  9. Barriers to Employment as Experienced by Disabled People: A Qualitative Analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…

  10. Barriers to Employment as Experienced by Disabled People: A Qualitative Analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  12. Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using a qualitative methodology, the author examined the sociorecreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting. Participants: In all, 91 college students from a public, 4-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods: The author conducted semistructured interviews between May 2004…

  13. Attitudinal Outcomes of a Multicultural Learning Community Experience: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Warner, Susan C.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Johnson, Courtney B.; Firebaugh, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating the long-term effects of learning communities on students is scarce. This qualitative study focuses on the results of 24 in-depth interviews with students three years after participating in a first year learning community at a private, selective Midwestern university. Interview questions were designed to probe students'…

  14. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  15. Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  17. Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using a qualitative methodology, the author examined the sociorecreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting. Participants: In all, 91 college students from a public, 4-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods: The author conducted semistructured interviews between May 2004…

  18. Bachelors of Science in Nursing Students and a Qualitative Analysis of Their Medication Administration Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of medication knowledge and skills is detrimental to the safety and welfare of patients. Lack of pharmacology knowledge and skills is detrimental to the safety and welfare of patients. In a southern baccalaureate nursing program, students demonstrated deficiencies in their medication knowledge and skill proficiency. This qualitative study…

  19. The Function of Qualitative Analysis: Perspective from a Escuela Normal in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla A., Juan Fidel

    The function of qualitative research in education is examined, taking into account the curriculum development of one institution, the Escuela Normal Veracruzana, Jalapa (Mexico), which is one of the oldest teacher training colleges (dating from 1886) still functioning in Mexico. Although this academic institution never traditionally promoted the…

  20. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  1. A qualitative analysis to optimize a telemonitoring intervention for heart failure patients from disparity communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezaris, R; Schwartz, R M; Taylor, T N; DiMarzio, P; Nouryan, C N; Murray, L; McKenzie, G; Ahern, D; Castillo, S; Pecinka, K; Bauer, L; Orona, T; Makaryus, A N

    2016-06-24

    The use of telemonitoring is a promising approach to optimizing outcomes in the treatment of heart failure (HF) for patients living in the community. HF telemonitoring interventions, however, have not been tested for use with individuals residing in disparity communities. The current study describes the results of a community based participatory research approach to adapting a telemonitoring HF intervention so that it is acceptable and feasible for use with a lower-income, Black and Hispanic patient population. The study uses the ADAPT-ITT framework to engage key community stakeholders in the process of adapting the intervention in the context of two consecutive focus groups. In addition, data from a third focus group involving HF telemonitoring patient participants was also conducted. All three focus group discussions were audio recorded and professionally transcribed and lasted approximately two hours each. Structural coding was used to mark responses to topical questions in the interview guide. This is the first study to describe the formative process of a community-based participatory research study aimed at optimizing telehealth utilization among African-American and Latino patients from disparity communities. Two major themes emerged from qualitative analyses of the focus group data. The first theme that arose involved suggested changes to the equipment that would maximize usability. Subthemes identified included issues that reflect the patient populations targeted, such as Spanish translation, font size and medical jargon. The second theme that arose involved suggested changes to the RCT study structure in order to maximize participant engagement. Subthemes also identified issues that reflect concerns of the targeted patient populations, such as the provision of reassurances regarding identity protection to undocumented patients in implementing an intervention that utilizes a camera, and that their involvement in telehealth monitoring would not replace their

  2. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Olds, Timothy; Pettigrew, Simone; Yeatman, Heather; Hyde, Jim; Dragovic, Christine

    2014-02-11

    Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong 'likeability' with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses′ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000. However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296. The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0

  4. Malnutrition in elder care: qualitative analysis of ethical perceptions of politicians and civil servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have paid attention to ethical responsibility related to malnutrition in elder care. The aim was to illuminate whether politicians and civil servants reason about malnutrition in elder care in relation to ethical responsibility, and further about possible causes and how to address them. Method Eighteen elected politicians and appointed civil servants at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden were interviewed. They worked at a planning, control and executive level, with responsibility for both the elder care budget and quality of care. Qualitative method was used for the data analysis. Results Two themes emerged from their reasoning about malnutrition related to ethical responsibility. The theme assumed role involves the subthemes quality of care and costs, competent staff and govern at a distance. Old and ill patients were mentioned as being at risk for malnutrition. Caregivers were expected to be knowledgeable and stated primary responsible for providing adequate nutritional care. Extended physician responsibility was requested owing to patients' illnesses. Little was reported on the local management's role or on their own follow-up routines. The theme moral perception includes the subthemes discomfort, trust and distrust. Feelings of discomfort concerned caregivers having to work in a hurried, task-oriented manner. Trust meant that they believed for the most part that caregivers had the competence to deal appropriately with nutritional care, but they felt distrust when nutritional problems reappeared on their agenda. No differences could be seen between the politicians and civil servants. Conclusion New knowledge about malnutrition in elder care related to ethical responsibility was illuminated by persons holding top positions. Malnutrition was stressed as an important dimension of the elder care quality. Governing at a distance meant having trust in the staff, on the one hand, and discomfort and distrust when

  5. Malnutrition in elder care: qualitative analysis of ethical perceptions of politicians and civil servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihlgren Mona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have paid attention to ethical responsibility related to malnutrition in elder care. The aim was to illuminate whether politicians and civil servants reason about malnutrition in elder care in relation to ethical responsibility, and further about possible causes and how to address them. Method Eighteen elected politicians and appointed civil servants at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden were interviewed. They worked at a planning, control and executive level, with responsibility for both the elder care budget and quality of care. Qualitative method was used for the data analysis. Results Two themes emerged from their reasoning about malnutrition related to ethical responsibility. The theme assumed role involves the subthemes quality of care and costs, competent staff and govern at a distance. Old and ill patients were mentioned as being at risk for malnutrition. Caregivers were expected to be knowledgeable and stated primary responsible for providing adequate nutritional care. Extended physician responsibility was requested owing to patients' illnesses. Little was reported on the local management's role or on their own follow-up routines. The theme moral perception includes the subthemes discomfort, trust and distrust. Feelings of discomfort concerned caregivers having to work in a hurried, task-oriented manner. Trust meant that they believed for the most part that caregivers had the competence to deal appropriately with nutritional care, but they felt distrust when nutritional problems reappeared on their agenda. No differences could be seen between the politicians and civil servants. Conclusion New knowledge about malnutrition in elder care related to ethical responsibility was illuminated by persons holding top positions. Malnutrition was stressed as an important dimension of the elder care quality. Governing at a distance meant having trust in the staff, on the one hand, and

  6. 35Year Research History of Cytotoxicity and Cancer: a Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, characterized by irregular cell growth. Cytotoxicity or killing tumor cells that divide rapidly is the basic function of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, these agents can damage normal dividing cells, leading to adverse effects in the body. In view of great advances in cancer therapy, which are increasingly reported each year, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the papers published between 1981 and December 2015, with a closer look at the highly cited papers (HCPs), for a better understanding of literature related to cytotoxicity in cancer therapy. Online documents in the Web of Science (WOS) database were analyzed based on the publication year, the number of times they were cited, research area, source, language, document type, countries, organizationenhanced and funding agencies. A total of 3,473 publications relevant to the target key words were found in the WOS database over 35 years and 86% of them (n=2,993) were published between 20002015. These papers had been cited 54,330 times without self citation from 1981 to 2015. Of the 3,473 publications, 17 (3,557citations) were the most frequently cited ones between 2005 and 2015. The topmost HCP was about generating a comprehensive preclinical database (CCLE) with 825 (23.2%) citations. One third of the remaining HCPs had focused on drug discovery through improving conventional therapeutic agents such as metformin and ginseng. Another 33% of the HCPs concerned engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendritic polymers, PTX/SPIOloaded PLGAs and cell derived NPs to increase drug effectiveness and decrease drug toxicity in cancer therapy. The remaining HCPs reported novel factors such as miR205, Nrf2 and p27 suggesting their interference with development of cancer in targeted cancer therapy. In conclusion, analysis of 35year publications and HCPs on cytotoxicity in cancer in the present report provides opportunities for

  7. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xu; Chen, Yun-Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-11-20

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses' lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0.557 (P proteinuria value (HDP: r = 0.685; PE: r = 0.521), liver enzyme value (HDP: r = 0.519; PE: r = 0.501), and creatinine value (HDP: r = 0.511; PE: r = 0.398) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes both in PE and HDP, and the corresponding logistic regression equation can be produced. The 24-h proteinuria value is still an important diagnostic criterion

  8. [Application of NIR Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Lotus Seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng-yin; Fu, Xia-ping; You, Gui-rong; He, Jin-cheng

    2015-10-01

    By extracting the Near Infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectral characteristics from the post-harvest lotus seeds in different storage periods, the quantitative and qualitative analysis were applied to lotus seeds with the Soluble Solids Content (SSC) and dry matter content (DM) as criteria. The results of the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and distance discrimination (DA) models showed that the absorption spectra of lotus seeds and lotus kernels has clear relations to their SSC and DM. The PLSR models of SSC and DM of lotus seeds had the best performance in 5 941-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region in this study. Their correlation coefficients of prediction were 0.74 and 0.82, and the correlation coefficients of calibration were 0.82 and 0.84, and the correlation coefficients of leave one out cross validation were 0.72 and 0.71. The PLSR model of SSC of lotus kernels was better in 7 891-9 310 cm(-1) spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.79, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.84, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.77. The PLSR model of DM of lotus kernels is better in the full spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.92, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.89, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.82. For lotus seeds, the DA model in 5 400-7 885 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 84.2%. And for lotus kernels, the DA model in 9 226-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 90.8%. For dry lotus kernels, the discriminant accuracy of the DA model is 98.9% in the optimal spectral region. All kernels with membrane and plumule were correctly discriminated. This research shows that the NIR spectroscopy technique can be used to determine SSC and DM content of lotus seeds and lotus kernels, as well as to discriminate their freshness and also to discriminate dry lotus

  9. A qualitative analysis of interprofessional healthcare team members' perceptions of patient barriers to healthcare engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rhea E; Doty, Amanda; Casten, Robin J; Rovner, Barry W; Rising, Kristin L

    2016-09-20

    Healthcare systems increasingly engage interprofessional healthcare team members such as case managers, social workers, and community health workers to work directly with patients and improve population health. This study elicited perspectives of interprofessional healthcare team members regarding patient barriers to health and suggestions to address these barriers. This is a qualitative study employing focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 39 interprofessional healthcare team members in Philadelphia to elicit perceptions of patients' needs and experiences with the health system, and suggestions for positioning health care systems to better serve patients. Themes were identified using a content analysis approach. Three focus groups and 21 interviews were conducted with 26 hospital-based and 13 ambulatory-based participants. Three domains emerged to characterize barriers to care: social determinants, health system factors, and patient trust in the health system. Social determinants included insurance and financial shortcomings, mental health and substance abuse issues, housing and transportation-related limitations, and unpredictability associated with living in poverty. Suggestions for addressing these barriers included increased financial assistance from the health system, and building a workforce to address these determinants directly. Health care system factors included poor care coordination, inadequate communication of hospital discharge instructions, and difficulty navigating complex systems. Suggestions for addressing these barriers included enhanced communication between care sites, patient-centered scheduling, and improved patient education especially in discharge planning. Finally, factors related to patient trust of the health system emerged. Participants reported that patients are often intimidated by the health system, mistrusting of physicians, and fearful of receiving a serious diagnosis or prognosis. A suggestion for mitigating these

  10. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and

  11. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  12. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  13. "I Have a Love-Hate Relationship with ATLAS.ti"™: Integrating Qualitative Data Analysis Software into a Graduate Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Trena M.; Bennett, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    While research on teaching qualitative methods in education has increased, few studies explore teaching qualitative data analysis software within graduate-level methods courses. During 2013, we required students in several such courses to use ATLAS.ti™ as a project management tool for their assignments. By supporting students' early experiences…

  14. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  15. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  16. "I Have a Love-Hate Relationship with ATLAS.ti"™: Integrating Qualitative Data Analysis Software into a Graduate Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Trena M.; Bennett, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    While research on teaching qualitative methods in education has increased, few studies explore teaching qualitative data analysis software within graduate-level methods courses. During 2013, we required students in several such courses to use ATLAS.ti™ as a project management tool for their assignments. By supporting students' early experiences…

  17. Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  18. Quantitative analysis of spiny neurons in the adult human caudate nucleus: can it confirm the current qualitative cell classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstonošić, Bojana; Milošević, Nebojša T; Marić, Dušica L; Babović, Siniša S

    2015-09-01

    The caudate nucleus, as a part of the striatum (neostriatum or dorsal striatum), is involved in the control of cognitive, motor and limbic functions. The majority of the caudate nucleus cells are projection spiny neurons, whose activity is determined by excitatory inputs from the cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and brainstem. A qualitative analysis of human caudate nucleus neurons involves the description of the structure and features of cells, and accordingly, their classification into an appropriate type. The aim of this study is to determine the justification of the current qualitative classification of spiny neurons in the precommissural head of the human caudate nucleus by quantifying morphological properties of neurons. After the qualitative analysis of microscopic images of the Golgi-impregnated caudate nucleus neurons, five morphological properties of cells were measured/quantified. In terms of the dendritic field area, caudate nucleus neurons were divided into two subgroups: small and large neurons. In our sample of 251 projection nerve cells, 58.17 % (146) were small and 41.83 % (105) were large neurons. These data show that suggested groups of spiny neurons in the human caudate nucleus differ in their morphology. Since the structure and function of cells are closely correlated, it is possible that these morphologically different types of neurons may represent different functional groups.

  19. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of the Leadership Style of a Vice-Chancellor in a Private University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Tan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used Bolman and Deal’s framework to examine the leadership frames of a vice-chancellor in a private university in Malaysia. Qualitative methods comprised interviews with the vice-chancellor and six of his staff reporting directly to him, document analysis, and observations. Atlas.ti was used to code the leadership frames. Content analysis revealed that the vice-chancellor exhibited three frames, showing a multi-frame leadership style. It reflects the vice-chancellor implements an effective leadership style and a high level of cognitive ability, which is important for the organizational effectiveness.