... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of medical benefits for retired...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401-14 Inclusion of medical benefits for retired employees in... employer providing such medical benefits by reason of permanent disability. For purposes of the preceding...
Cole, R J
The process of retirement planning is a difficult one for a physician. The Planning process should address the areas of Investment Planning, Estate Planning, and Risk Management. This article examines each of these dimensions with special emphasis on Modern Portfolio Theory as the basis for investment planning.
Full Text Available The need for education in various spheres of life, which allows a person to fully develop his/her personality, is more and more presen t also in our society. The discussed educational programme Discovering Vocational Goals and Forming Strategies· to Realize them qualifies people for autonomous career planning by offer ing them one of the possible ways of making decisions in relation to profession and job. In the course of the realization of the programme the participants are given the chance to think about the kind of work that would suit their interests, capabilities and individual characteristics as weel as the needs in certain environments (possible employers. They are encouraged to make an actual plan, stating how and when the desired objective will be reached. In 1995 the pro gramme was being carried out within nine semi nars organized at the Employment Offices in Maribor and Ptuj. During that time the pro gramme has also been evaluated by Doba - Education Office, which was funded by the Ministry of Work, Family and Social Matters. The paper includes the content of the programme as well as the assessments of the research project. The presented data show that the participants learned the method of career planning and acquired greater self-confidence and motivation to solve their job problem actively.
Fields, Cheryl D.
Options available to college faculty for planning their retirement benefits are described, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, and methods for customizing a pension plan. Data for 1993 on American households owning interest-earning assets (passbook savings, money market deposit accounts, certificates of deposit, checking…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren
The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility. © The Author(s) 2014.
An inevitable reality that all athletes have to face is retirement from competition and this experience can lead an acute sense of loss in the athlete. Professional soccer players are no exception. While retirement traditionally occurs for most non-athletes after a long working career that allows them to plan and anticipate the ...
Morahan, John; Turner, Aaron
Currently, higher education is being roiled by class-action lawsuits filed against high-profile institutions, including MIT, Yale and New York University, over management of their retirement plans. As the lawyers are deployed and the billable hours accrue, it is timely to examine how those who have responsibility for retirement plan…
Schnee, Edward J.; And Others
Greater attention has been focused on the role that employer-sponsored retirement plans and individual savings must play in ensuring retirement income security. Alternative tax retirement planning opportunities currently available to college personnel are explored. (MLW)
Adenutsi, Deodat E.
The central objective of this paper is to explain the concept and relevance of retirement planning within a vibrant Christian organisation such as the Assemblies of God’s Church. In particular, an attempt is made to expose participants to the theoretical relevance and application of the benefits of retirement planning to the church as an employer, and the pastors as employees of the church. Accordingly, issues related to the role of the church and beneficiary pastors and other full-time worke...
Ahmad Zazili Ainol Sarin
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the factors influencing retirement planning among young professionals in private sector. There are three factors identified in this research which includes financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior. Data used for this study are primary and secondary data such as from journal articles, periodicals and textbooks. A questionnaire is distributed and administered to extract data from the respondents consist of executives, non-executives and managers around Klang Valley, aged between 20 - 34 years old. The data is analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability test and Pearson correlation in order to obtain a clear findings and results. The findings show that financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior has a positive association towards retirement planning. Furthermore, it is shown that financial literacy and saving behavior have a significant relationship with retirement planning. It is hope that this study will inform and encourage the young professionals to save and invest for the retirement.
Full Text Available We use a representative survey covering 1,500 households to document the level of financial literacy in Switzerland and to examine how financial literacy is related to retirement planning. We measure financial literacy with standardized questions that capture knowledge about three basic financial concepts: Compound interest, inflation, and risk diversification. We measure retirement planning by the incidence of a voluntary retirement savings account. Our results show that financial literacy in Switzerland is high by international standards--a result which is compatible with the high ranking of Switzerland on the PISA mathematical scales. Financial literacy is lower among low-income, less-educated, and immigrant, non-native-speaking households as well as among women. We find that financial literacy is strongly correlated with voluntary retirement saving. Our results also show that financial literacy is correlated with financial market participation and mortgage borrowing.
... accumulated benefit under the plan is expressed in terms of only one safe-harbor formula measure and no... expressed in terms of any measure other than that same safe- harbor formula measure. Thus, for example, if a... expressed under the terms of the plan as a life annuity payable at normal retirement age (or current age, if...
Julie R. Agnew
Full Text Available Financial literacy and numeracy are closely tied. Furthermore, financial literacy has been shown to relate to important financial behaviors. This study examines the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning using a measure that includes questions requiring numeracy. We implement a customized survey to a representative sample of 1,024 Australians. Overall, we find aggregate levels of financial literacy similar to comparable countries with the young, least educated, those not employed, and those not in the labor force most at risk. Our financial literacy measure is positively related to retirement planning in our sample.
It states that as one moves near retirement, one should calculate his or her net worth, invest in human capital, slow down strenuous activities and start a familiar business and learn to manage it. It suggests some sources of money to start some income generating ventures .It encourages employees to plan to build functional ...
Johan Almenberg; Jenny Säve-Söderbergh
We examine the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning in a representative sample of Swedish adults. We find significant differences in financial literacy between planners and non-planners. Financial literacy levels are also lower among older people, women and those with low education or earnings. When we control for demographic variables we do not find an association between a narrow measure of financial literacy and planning, but with a broader measure the associatio...
Topa, Gabriela; Lunceford, Gregg; Boyatzis, Richard E.
Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP) consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR. PMID:29416519
Full Text Available Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR.
Topa, Gabriela; Lunceford, Gregg; Boyatzis, Richard E
Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP) consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR.
Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.
– In self‐directed retirement plans, farmers are responsible for selecting the types of risky investments toward which the funds in their retirement plan are allocated. Furthermore, farmers do not necessarily purchase sufficient annuities with their savings upon retirement. There is
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I cancel my FERS election if my qualifying retirement coverage error was previously corrected and I now have an election opportunity under... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Making an Election Fers Elections § 839.622 Can I cancel my...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating the amount of qualified retirement benefits for... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION RECORDS TO BE... age of forced retirement. An employee's accumulated contributions are the sum of all contributions...
Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Kilpatrick, Beverly B.
Many women fail to plan for retirement due to economic constraints, interrupted career paths, lower earnings, gender bias, gender-role socialization, self-esteem, role definition, locus of control, or risk tolerance. Retirement education must address women's specific issues regarding financial planning. (SK)
... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...
PLAN COST ANALYSIS ABSTRACT The new military retirement system is advertised to significantly reduce the Department of Defense’s (DOD...200 words) The new military retirement system is advertised to significantly reduce the Department of Defense’s (DOD) monetary outlays over the...determine how changing the value of the following planning assumptions in the MCRMC report will impact the estimated cost savings of this new plan through
Kingma, Kenneth W; Vaughn, Thomas D
Retiring physicians have much to think about for estate planning purposes. The authors stand ready to help physicians sell or close their medical practice, navigate the 2010 Tax Act, take advantage of current planning opportunities, and prepare appropriate estate planning documents. Every estate is unique, so it is important to contact an estate planning advisor before taking any action.
Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty
We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annuities under individual retirement plans. 20... § 20.2039-5 Annuities under individual retirement plans. (a) Section 2039(e) exclusion—(1) In general... annuity” receivable by a beneficiary under an individual retirement plan. The term “individual retirement...
Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David
The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597
sector had a defined benefit pension plan. However, in the 1980s, due to the high cost of funding defined benefit plans, corporations began to favor a...rate in February 2017 was 5.6%. Dave Ramsey (n.d.), a personal finance expert, recommends individuals save at least 15% of their income for retirement...is explicitly clear that “service members are responsible for their personal finances ” (DOD, 2012, p. 15). The FRS offers personal financial
Liu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Ying, Jie; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shou-Qi; Sun, Jiao
To explore the situation of older nurses approaching retirement with regard to their retirement planning, and the relationship of their retirement planning behaviour with the job environment and job satisfaction under their current employment arrangements and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage has become a global phenomenon that can be alleviated by retaining older nurses in service. The Chinese government proposed the "Incremental Delay Retirement Age Policy." However, older nurses face delayed retirement but lack retirement plans. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among a convenience sample of older retiring nurses (n = 152; 84.92% response rate) recruited from every department of four large general hospitals in Changchun, Jilin Province from June to August 2016. The majority of the respondents presented poor retirement planning (n = 122, 80.3%). The independent variables of information exchange with patients, teamwork and personal growth and development explained approximately 16.6% of the variance in retirement planning. Nurse-patient communication and personal growth and development can promote retirement planning, but teamwork is negatively related to retirement planning. Retirement planning by Chinese older nurses is related to certain work-related variables. However, many other work-related variables were not associated with retirement planning and require further research. Overall, Chinese older retiring nurses must improve their retirement planning practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In his book Planning to the Years Ahead, Lester I. Tenney, PhD, professor emeritus at Arizona State University, Tempe, links Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to retirement planning. According to Maslow, economic and security needs can be achieved through a family environment (eg, food clothing, shelter), and social acceptance, self-worth, and self-satisfaction can be achieved from social interaction, work, or leisure activities. After the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter have been achieved, people are able to move to the next level of achieving safety and security. The level of dependency that people have on satisfying these needs through work will determine how well they are at adapting to retirement. The more people depend on work alone, the harder will be the adjustment; people who are less dependent on work will find retirement easier to accept.
The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who
Jonathan R. Kesselman
Full Text Available Current and growing deficiencies in many workers’ ability to maintain their accustomed living standards in retirement have evoked varied proposals for reform of Canada’s retirement income system. This study focuses on proposals for expanding the retirement benefits of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP, and undertakes comparative analysis with proposals for reforms affecting workplace pensions and individual savings. It begins by reviewing key policy questions for the retirement income system and describing essential features of several proposals for CPP benefit expansion. It then uses these “Big CPP” proposals as a basis to assess the design issues for expanding CPP benefits and the implications for other components of the retirement income system. The paper assesses each of the major private and public savings vehicles based on multifaceted criteria for a well-performing retirement income system; a mandatory public scheme with defined benefits ranks most highly on almost all criteria other than individual flexibility. Additional behavioural and institutional factors also support the use of mandatory public pensions: myopia in savings, individual investment behaviour, scale economies and costs of fund management, adverse selection and annuitization costs, the Samaritan’s Dilemma, and labour market incentives. The study provides an overview analysis of key design issues for the expansion of CPP retirement benefits. Major issues include the desirable scale of expansion for both the percentage of insurable earnings and the insurable earnings ceiling; mandatory versus voluntary coverage and options; the allocation of investment return risk; and the phasing-in of higher premiums and benefits. The study then assesses the implications of CPP expansion for other components of the retirement income system: Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, workplace pensions, tax provisions for savings, and individual savings. A Big CPP fits
Full Text Available Governments in many countries are facing the challenge of providing sufficient retirement incomes for apopulation that is ageing as a result of lower mortality and fertility rates. An ageing population placesconsiderable financial stress on government budgets as spending on welfare increases, further compoundedby a proportional reduction in working-age taxpayers. Exposure to financial education programs canpositively influence the retirement planning and savings behaviour of individuals. Research indicates thatseminars, written communications and website information are effective methods in communicating financialeducation. In this study an investigation is conducted into the views of retirement fund members regardingelements of financial education resources made available to them through their retirement fund. Four aspectsare investigated, that is, whether there are differences with respect to members’ views between the genders,older and younger members, levels of qualification, and size of superannuation balances. Empirical evidencesuggests that gender and age are important factors with females and younger people less likely to utiliseeducational information and more at risk of not accumulating sufficient funds for retirement.
... from employer contributions, merely because the present value of the accrued benefit (or any portion... amendments, solely because the present value of the accrued benefit (or any portion thereof) of any... sections 411(a)(11), 411(c), or 417(e), merely because the plan provides that the present value of benefits...
Jennings, Penelope R.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael
While financial planning students are expected to be able to understand client retirement plans, subtle differences in cost-of-living adjustments can have major impact on the success of client retirement plans. This teaching note compares the cost-of-living adjustments in the largest government sponsored retirement systems and a hypothetical…
Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P
Forty-two million individuals work for small employers; 9 million are participating in an employment-based retirement plan, while 33 million are not participating in a plan. This Issue Brief examines the barriers that prevent small employers from sponsoring a retirement plan, their level of knowledge about plans, and changes that might lead to plan sponsorship. It also examines the motivations of small employers that sponsor retirement plans. Small employers identify three main reasons for not offering a plan: employees' preferences for wages and/or other benefits, administrative costs, and uncertain revenue that makes it difficult to commit to a plan. Small employers without plans report being familiar with 401(k) and profit-sharing plans, but little else. Forty-seven percent report never having heard of the savings incentive match plan for employees (SIMPLE), and 55 percent report never having heard of simplified employee pensions (SEPs). There is apparent misunderstanding about retirement plans among small employers that do not sponsor one, especially with regard to costs. For example, 35 percent do not know that a plan can be set up for less than $2,000. What changes would lead to serious consideration of retirement plan sponsorship? In order of reported importance: increased company profits (66 percent), a business tax credit (64 percent), reduced administrative requirements (50 percent), demand from employees (49 percent), allowing key executives to save more in the plan (49 percent), and easing, i.e., lengthening, of vesting requirements (40 percent). Many small employers that sponsor a retirement plan cite business reasons among their motivations. Sixty-eight percent cite a "positive effect on employee attitude and performance" as a major reason for offering a plan. Fifty-six percent cite a "competitive advantage in employee recruitment and retention" as a major reason. Small employers with a retirement plan report direct benefits from sponsorship, but many
Stawski, Robert S.; Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.
Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities…
Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl
This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement and other employee benefit plan... Coverage § 745.9-2 Retirement and other employee benefit plan accounts. (a) Pass-through share insurance. Any shares of an employee benefit plan in an insured credit union shall be insured on a “pass-through...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement and other employee benefit plan... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.14 Retirement and other employee benefit plan accounts. (a) “Pass-through” insurance. Any deposits of an employee benefit plan in an insured depository...
Gubler, Timothy; Pierce, Lamar
Are poor physical and financial health driven by the same underlying psychological factors? We found that the decision to contribute to a 401(k) retirement plan predicted whether an individual acted to correct poor physical-health indicators revealed during an employer-sponsored health examination. Using this examination as a quasi-exogenous shock to employees' personal-health knowledge, we examined which employees were more likely to improve their health, controlling for differences in initial health, demographics, job type, and income. We found that existing retirement-contribution patterns and future health improvements were highly correlated. Employees who saved for the future by contributing to a 401(k) showed improvements in their abnormal blood-test results and health behaviors approximately 27% more often than noncontributors did. These findings are consistent with an underlying individual time-discounting trait that is both difficult to change and domain interdependent, and that predicts long-term individual behaviors in multiple dimensions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T
This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.
...) For the Police and Firefighters Plan, military service as defined in section 4-607 of the DC Code..., under the retirement plans for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters..., police officers, and firefighters in effect as of June 29, 1997, referred to as the ``District Retirement...
retirement authority across all branches of service (USD(P&R), 2011). After World War II, the Navy faced the same overpopulation of the officer ranks...early retirement list were granted their request based upon seniority (USD(P&R), 2011). 2. 1900–1937 Overpopulation of the Navy’s senior officer ranks...remained an issue up until World War I. Consequently, the policy of early retirement, created by the act of March 3, 1899, remained in place until
Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N
We assess whether a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the odds that healthy family members' engage in retirement planning activities. This is a cross-sectional study utilizing individual-level data from the Utah Population Database that have been linked to Medicare records and to responses from a retirement planning survey. Engagement in 3 retirement planning activities was estimated as a function of the number of parents and grandparents diagnosed with AD along with a set of fundamental socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Adults who had a parent with AD were 86% more likely to have seen a professional financial advisor and 40% less likely to plan to retire before age 65. Caregiving costs and/or knowledge of the familial risk of developing AD may provide adult children with a forewarning of their own future financial needs that, in turn, motivates them to engage in retirement planning. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The relationship between financial literacy and financial behavior is important, as individuals are increasingly being asked to take responsibility for their financial wellbeing, especially their retirement. Analyzing of individual savings and attitudes towards retirement planning is important, as these types of investments are a way of preserving security during years of financial vulnerability. Research indicates that individuals who do not save adequately for their retirement, generally have a relatively low level of financial literacy. This research investigates the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning in Croatia. To analyze the relationship between financial literacy and planning for retirement, maximum likelihood logistic regression analysis was used. The paper shows that those who answer financial literacy questions correctly are more likely to have a positive attitude towards retirement planning and are more likely to save for retirement, ensuring them of higher levels of financial security in retirement. The Goodness-of-Fit evaluation for the estimated logit model was performed using the Andrews and Hosmer-Lemeshow Tests.
van Dam, Karen; van der Vorst, Janine D.M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice
This study investigated the early retirement intentions of 346 older Dutch employees by extending the theory of planned behavior with anticipated work conditions. The results showed that employees who felt a pressure from their spouse to retire early had a strong intention to leave the work force
... retirement plans. 2550.404a-2 Section 2550.404a-2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404a-2 Safe..., whether or not such return is guaranteed, consistent with liquidity; (ii) For purposes of paragraph (c)(3...
R.J.G. van Schie (Ron); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)
textabstractIndividuals’ planned retirement age is affected by a trade-off between financial costs (a feasibility oriented consideration) and the number of years in retirement (a desirability oriented consideration). Previous research shows that construal level interventions (i.e., activating a
Kock, Tan Hoe; Yoong, Folk Jee
This article draws upon expected retirement age cohorts as a main determinant to financial planning preparation in Malaysia. The return rate was 55% from 600 questionnaires distributed. Five hypotheses were analyzed using hierarchical and stepwise regression analysis. The results revealed that expected retirement age cohort variables made…
... toward retirement under the Teachers Plan. She had 3 months and 18 days of excess leave without pay as of... benefit payment determined with respect to the individual shall be an amount equal to the deferred... on the day before the commencement of disability retirement benefits.'' Example 3 in Appendix A...
Johnson, Debra J; Shenaq, Deana; Thakor, Manisha
Financial planning is critically important to ensure financial security both during a plastic surgical career and in retirement. Unfortunately, plastic surgery training includes very little in the way of financial planning. The information that is available in the literature is mostly geared toward men. Women, with longer lifespans and more family care responsibilities, have unique needs when it comes to financial planning. Adequate attention must also be paid to life after retirement. A plastic surgical career can be all-encompassing, and thus women need to carefully plan volunteer activities, new hobbies, and even a second career to make their retirement years fulfilling and enjoyable. Key points regarding financial planning during the various phases of a woman plastic surgeon's career are discussed. Options for retirement are presented.
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeitures under a qualified pension plan. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401-7 Forfeitures under a qualified pension plan. (a) General rules. In the case of a trust forming a part of a...
Gupta, Aparna; Li, Lepeng
The level of need and costs of obtaining long-term care (LTC) during retired life require that planning for it is an integral part of retirement planning. In this paper, we divide retirement planning into two phases, pre-retirement and post-retirement. On the basis of four interrelated models for health evolution, wealth evolution, LTC insurance premium and coverage, and LTC cost structure, a framework for optimal LTC insurance purchase decisions in the pre-retirement phase is developed. Optimal decisions are obtained by developing a trade-off between post-retirement LTC costs and LTC insurance premiums and coverage. Two-way branching models are used to model stochastic health events and asset returns. The resulting optimization problem is formulated as a dynamic programming problem. We compare the optimal decision under two insurance purchase scenarios: one assumes that insurance is purchased for good and other assumes it may be purchased, relinquished and re-purchased. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the retirement age.
Thorsen, Sannie; Rugulies, Reiner; Løngaard, Katja
The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors (in particular ageism) at the workplace and older workers' retirement plans, while taking health and workability of the employee into account.......The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors (in particular ageism) at the workplace and older workers' retirement plans, while taking health and workability of the employee into account....
Puryer, J; Patel, A
Aim To investigate the career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol in 2015.Method Cross-sectional survey of 210 clinical undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.Results The response rate was 79%. The majority (81.7%) were 'satisfied' or 'extremely satisfied' with their choice of career. The majority (78.7%) felt men and women are equally likely to succeed in dentistry, although 42.9% felt men had an advantage over women with regards to career success. The majority (81.6%) intend on working within general practice, 11.3% within hospital dental services and 2.1% within community dental services. The majority (70.5%) intend to specialise within dentistry. Only 1.8% of participants intend on providing only National Health Service (NHS) dental treatment whereas the 86.5% would provide both NHS and private dental treatment. Fifteen years after qualifying, 52.2% plan to work part-time, and 37.8% intend on retiring at the age of 60 or below. The majority (86.6%) felt that childcare should be shared equally between both parents. Female students intend to take more time out of their career to concentrate on childcare and felt that having a child would affect their career more than males.Conclusion The anticipated career plans, work-life balance and retirement plans of undergraduates change over time, and further research should be carried out to monitor future career intentions of dental students in order to help with dental workforce planning.
Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal
Research from around the Western World has shown that psychological, socioeconomic and demographic factors can influence levels of financial planning. This study aims to determine how these factors interrelate to predict planning outcomes. Data from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study were used to examine the effects of multiple factors on financial planning for 709 employed Australians nearing retirement. The results showed that higher income, future time perspective (FTP) and financial knowledge independently predicted levels of retirement planning. The effects of FTP and financial knowledge on financial planning were consistent across levels of socioeconomic status. While similar issues in financial planning appeared across socioeconomic status, a 'one size fits all' approach to retirement policy may not be effective. Instead, policy should be targeted towards the diverse needs of different groups. Raising public awareness of FTP and financial knowledge may provide a useful starting point. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research aimed to identify whether students of specialization of a higher education institution of Rio Grande do Sul held a personal financial planning for retirement. Yet, through this study it was sought to determine how these students do their financial planning for retirement, and those who do not realize it why they do not. To develop this study, the method used had quantitative and descriptive approach, the results were obtained through a research conducted in the first half of 2015 with 166 students in 11 courses of specialization of a higher education institution. As a result, it was found that less than half of respondents hold a financial planning for retirement, the majority uses the private pension as a major investment for such planning and that those who do not realize allege the lack of resources to save and invest or, yet, they consider themselves too young to start this planning, but it was found that the vast majority of participants do not realize that financial planning for retirement plan to do it. Still, it was contacted that the level of knowledge of personal finance and items related to social security is greatest among participants who hold a personal financial planning for retirement.
van Rooij, Maarten C. J.; Lusardi, Annamaria; Alessie, Rob J. M.
The complexity of financial decisions that households now face has increased to unprecedented levels. At the same time, households seem to lack the financial knowledge to cope with these decisions, including how to save and invest adequately for retirement. In this paper, we examine the relationship
Stawski, Robert S; Hershey, Douglas A; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M
Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities predict retirement savings practices was examined among 100 working adults. Path analysis techniques were used to test two competing models, both of which were designed to predict savings contributions. Findings provide support for the model in which retirement goal clarity is a significant predictor of planning practices, and planning, in turn, predicts savings tendencies. Two demographic variables-income and age-were also revealed to be important elements of the model, with income accounting for roughly half of the explained variance in savings contributions. The results of this study have implications for the development of age-based models of planning, as well as implications for retirement counselors and financial planners who advise workers on long-term saving strategies.
Jeffrey R. Brown
This paper discusses the role of annuities in retirement planning. It begins by explaining the basic theory underlying the individual welfare gains available from annuitizing resources in retirement. It then contrasts these findings with the empirical findings that so few consumers behave in a manner that is consistent with them placing a high value on annuities. After reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the large literature that seeks to reconcile these findings through richer extensio...
This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5
Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.
Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…
Konicz Bell, Agnieszka Karolina
their retirement savings, this thesis presents some optimization techniques that could be applied by pension providers and financial advisers to provide individuals with such guidelines. For a given objective function and a number of constraints, we search for the optimal solution, which indicates, for example...... investigate the optimal annuity choice under inflation risk, which is often ignored both by practitioners advising on the retirement planning and by scholars investigating the consumption-investment problems. We search for an optimal level of retirement income in real terms, given investment opportunities...... in inflation-linked, nominal, and variable annuities, as well as in stocks and bonds. Our findings show that real annuities are a crucial asset in every portfolio, and that trying to hedge inflation without investing in inflation-linked products leads to a lower and more volatile retirement income. In the last...
Lueken, Roger; Apt, Jay; Sowell, Fallaw
We investigate the resource adequacy requirements of the PJM Interconnection, and the sensitivity of capacity procurement decisions to the choice of reliability metric used to measure resource adequacy. Assuming that plants fail independently, we find that PJM's 2010 reserve margin of 20.5% was sufficient to achieve the stated reliability standard of one loss of load event per ten years, with 0.012 expected loss of load events per year. PJM could reduce reserve margins to 13% and still achieve adequate levels of reliability as measured by the 2.4 Loss of Load Hours metric and the 0.001% Unserved Energy metric, which are used by other U.S. and international systems. A reserve margin of 13–15% would minimize long-run system costs. Reducing reserve margins from 20.5% to 13% in 2010 would have reduced PJM's capacity procurement by 11 GW, the same amount of coal capacity that PJM has identified as at high risk of retirement. We also investigate the risk posed by correlated failures among generators, a risk traditionally not modeled by system planners. We illustrate that three types of correlated failures may increase outage risks: natural gas supply disruptions, reduced reliability among generators during winter months, and the simultaneous shutdown of multiple nuclear generators for regulatory reasons. - Highlights: • We model resource adequacy in the PJM Interconnection. • If plant failures are independent, PJM could retire 11 GW of “at-risk” coal. • If plant failures are correlated, risks of supply shortages may be high.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...
through retirement, we estimate the annual take-home income (i.e., income after taxes ) available to each Marine under the BRS and compare it with take...Marine Corps Manpower Team Resource Analysis Division i Abstract This report examines the impact of the new military blended...retirement system (BRS) on various U.S. Marine Corps force management objectives (FMOs). We estimated the effect of the retirement system changes on active
... regulations which include in the definition of an applicable defined benefit plan any defined benefit plan (or... benefits as the current value of an accumulated percentage of the participant's final average compensation... accumulated percentage of the participant's final average compensation and (2) the benefit attributable to...
... actuary who is a member of the American Academy of Actuaries. Applicants may use qualified outside actuaries, including (but not limited to) actuaries employed by the plan administrator or an insurer providing benefits under the plan. If an applicant uses an outside actuary, the attestation can be submitted...
LATEST DATA: This Issue Brief examines the level of participation by workers in public- and private-sector employment-based pension or retirement plans, based on the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS), the most recent data currently available (for year-end 2010). SPONSORSHIP RATE: Among all working-age (21-64) wage and salary employees, 54.2 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsored a retirement plan in 2010. Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64 (those with the strongest connection to the work force), 61.6 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsors a plan. PARTICIPATION LEVEL: Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64, 54.5 percent participated in a retirement plan. TREND: This is virtually unchanged from 54.4 percent in 2009. Participation trends increased significantly in the late 1990s, and decreased in 2001 and 2002. In 2003 and 2004, the participation trend flattened out. The retirement plan participation level subsequently declined in 2005 and 2006, before a significant increase in 2007. Slight declines occurred in 2008 and 2009, followed by a flattening out of the trend in 2010. AGE: Participation increased with age (61.4 percent for wage and salary workers ages 55-64, compared with 29.2 percent for those ages 21-24). GENDER: Among wage and salary workers ages 21-64, men had a higher participation level than women, but among full-time, full-year workers, women had a higher percentage participating than men (55.5 percent for women, compared with 53.8 percent for men). Female workers' lower probability of participation among wage and salary workers results from their overall lower earnings and lower rates of full-time work in comparison with males. RACE: Hispanic wage and salary workers were significantly less likely than both white and black workers to participate in a retirement plan. The gap between the percentages of black and white plan participants that
Shanafelt, Tait D; Raymond, Marilyn; Kosty, Michael; Satele, Daniel; Horn, Leora; Pippen, John; Chu, Quyen; Chew, Helen; Clark, William Benton; Hanley, Amy E; Sloan, Jeff; Gradishar, William J
To evaluate satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) and career plans of US oncologists. The American Society of Clinical Oncology conducted a survey of US oncologists evaluating satisfaction with WLB and career plans between October 2012 and March 2013. The sample included equal numbers of men and women from all career stages. Of 2,998 oncologists contacted, 1,490 (49.7%) returned surveys. From 1,117 oncologists (37.3% of overall sample) completing full-length surveys, we evaluated satisfaction with WLB and career plans among the 1,058 who were not yet retired. The proportion of oncologists satisfied with WLB (n = 345; 33.4%) ranked lower than that reported for all other medical specialties in a recent national study. Regarding career plans, 270 oncologists (26.5%) reported a moderate or higher likelihood of reducing their clinical work hours in the next 12 months, 351 (34.3%) indicated a moderate or higher likelihood of leaving their current position within 24 months, and 273 (28.5%) planned to retire before 65 years of age. Multivariable analyses found women oncologists (odds ratio [OR], 0.458; P hour, 0.977; P work hours and leave current position on multivariable analysis. Satisfaction with WLB among US oncologists seems lower than for other medical specialties. Dissatisfaction with WLB shows a strong relationship with plans to reduce hours and leave current practice. Given the pending US oncologist shortage, additional studies exploring interactions among WLB, burnout, and career satisfaction and their impact on career and retirement plans are warranted.
...), (9), and (10) and 404(e) shall also apply. (c) Accrual method taxpayers. In the case of a taxpayer using the accrual method of accounting, a contribution to a qualified bond purchase plan will be deemed paid on the last day of the year of accrual if— (1) During the taxable year of accrual the taxpayer...
Nurul Shahnaz Mahdzan
Full Text Available The two objectives of this paper are to examine the effect of financial literacy, risk aversion and expectations on retirement planning; and, to investigate the effect of these antecedents on the retire- ment portfolio allocation. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 270 working individuals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Logistic and ordered probit regressions were employed to analyse the first and second objective, respectively. The results from the logistic regression indicate that future expectations significantly influence the probability of planning for retirement. Meanwhile, individu- als with higher financial literacy and lower risk aversion are more likely to hold risky assets in their retirement portfolios. Subsequently, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA tests were conducted to further examine the differences in financial literacy, risk aversion and expectations, across demographic sub-groups. The study contributes to the literature by holistically incorporating the behavioural aspects that affect retirement planning and by exploring an uncharted issue of retirement planning—namely, the retirement portfolio allocation.
Orel, Nancy A; Ford, Ruth A; Brock, Charlene
Providing care for an aged parent has immediate financial, emotional, psychological, and physical consequences for the primary caregiver. This pilot study of 138 middle aged and older females analyzes the long term financial consequences of providing care to aged relatives for female caregivers. The impact of this disruptive life event (e.g., caring for an aged relative) on retirement planning among middle aged and older adult women was analyzed using quantitative data collected from women residing in the Midwest region of the United States.
Mooney, Anna; Earl, Joanne K; Mooney, Carl H; Bateman, Hazel
The notion of whether people focus on the past, present or future, and how it shapes their behavior is known as Time Perspective. Fundamental to the work of two of its earliest proponents, Zimbardo and Boyd (2008), was the concept of balanced time perspective and its relationship to wellness. A person with balanced time perspective can be expected to have a flexible temporal focus of mostly positive orientations (past-positive, present-hedonistic, and future) and much less negative orientations (past-negative and present-fatalistic). This study measured deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP: Zhang et al., 2013) in a sample of 243 mature adults aged 45 to 91 years and explored relationships to Retirement Planning, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Positive Mood, and Negative Mood. Results indicate that DBTP accounts for unexplained variance in the outcome measures even after controlling for demographic variables. DBTP was negatively related to Retirement Planning and Positive Mood and positively related to Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Negative Mood. Theoretical and practical implications regarding balanced time perspective are discussed.
Full Text Available The notion of whether people focus on the past, present or future, and how it shapes their behavior is known as Time Perspective. Fundamental to the work of two of its earliest proponents, Zimbardo and Boyd (2008, was the concept of balanced time perspective and its relationship to wellness. A person with balanced time perspective can be expected to have a flexible temporal focus of mostly positive orientations (past-positive, present-hedonistic, and future and much less negative orientations (past-negative and present-fatalistic. This study measured deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP: Zhang et al., 2013 in a sample of 243 mature adults aged 45 to 91 years and explored relationships to Retirement Planning, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Positive Mood, and Negative Mood. Results indicate that DBTP accounts for unexplained variance in the outcome measures even after controlling for demographic variables. DBTP was negatively related to Retirement Planning and Positive Mood and positively related to Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Negative Mood. Theoretical and practical implications regarding balanced time perspective are discussed.
Mooney, Anna; Earl, Joanne K.; Mooney, Carl H.; Bateman, Hazel
The notion of whether people focus on the past, present or future, and how it shapes their behavior is known as Time Perspective. Fundamental to the work of two of its earliest proponents, Zimbardo and Boyd (2008), was the concept of balanced time perspective and its relationship to wellness. A person with balanced time perspective can be expected to have a flexible temporal focus of mostly positive orientations (past-positive, present-hedonistic, and future) and much less negative orientations (past-negative and present-fatalistic). This study measured deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP: Zhang et al., 2013) in a sample of 243 mature adults aged 45 to 91 years and explored relationships to Retirement Planning, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Positive Mood, and Negative Mood. Results indicate that DBTP accounts for unexplained variance in the outcome measures even after controlling for demographic variables. DBTP was negatively related to Retirement Planning and Positive Mood and positively related to Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Negative Mood. Theoretical and practical implications regarding balanced time perspective are discussed. PMID:29081757
Full Text Available Drawing on the model on financial planning for retirement (FPR, the aim of this work is to explore how parental economic socialization both directly and indirectly affects FPR through the mediation of financial literacy, financial planning decisions and financial management. Data from a sample of 280 participants aged between 45 and 63 years were used. The results show that parental economic socialization directly and indirectly influences FPR. Moreover, parental economic behavior acts as a positive model for the development of financial literacy and skills and for decisions about FPR. All the variables increased the explained variance of FPR. Lastly, we discuss the process by which parental economic socialization is positively related to financial literacy and skills that impact on FPR, indicating some implications and future lines of research.
Palaci, Francisco; Jiménez, Irene; Topa, Gabriela
Drawing on the model on financial planning for retirement (FPR), the aim of this work is to explore how parental economic socialization both directly and indirectly affects FPR through the mediation of financial literacy, financial planning decisions and financial management. Data from a sample of 280 participants aged between 45 and 63 years were used. The results show that parental economic socialization directly and indirectly influences FPR. Moreover, parental economic behavior acts as a positive model for the development of financial literacy and skills and for decisions about FPR. All the variables increased the explained variance of FPR. Lastly, we discuss the process by which parental economic socialization is positively related to financial literacy and skills that impact on FPR, indicating some implications and future lines of research.
Stewart, F M J; Drummond, J R; Carson, L; Theaker, E D
To gather information from senior dental students about their future career plans, with particular emphasis on work-life balance issues, their attitudes towards the NHS and retirement plans. Senior dental students at the Universities of Dundee and Manchester were asked to complete a voluntary anonymous questionnaire. In all 141 questionnaires were completed, 42 by students in Manchester and 114 in Dundee. On qualification nearly all surveyed intend to work full time but after five years one quarter (26%) of females intend to work part time. This is significantly (p work full time. Although the majority (65%) intend to work in general practice significant numbers (19%) wish to have a career in hospital dentistry and very few (3%) in community dentistry. Senior students seem to show no more commitment to the NHS than those in our previous study of dental school applicants. Only 3% intend to work exclusively for the NHS and 18% intend to work exclusively in the private sector. Surprising numbers had plans to retire or go part time before 60 years of age. Only 20% of the sample intended to continue working full time after the age of 60 years. The mode age that those surveyed intended to start a family was 30 years and a large majority of both sexes thought this would interrupt their professional life. More than half of the sample intend to take time out of dentistry until their children attended primary school (female 63%, male 38%) and 6% (female 6%, male 8%) until secondary school. Many of our findings suggest that future generations of dentists may have a pattern of professional life that will have the effect of reducing their clinical commitment, although it is not possible to determine how significant an effect this will have on the workforce. It may, however, be appropriate to take career intention into account when workforce planning.
Taylor, Kathryn; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael
To report the career destinations, views and future plans of a cohort of senior doctors who qualified in the 1980s. Postal questionnaire survey of all doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1988. The response rate was 69%. We estimated that 81% of the total cohort was working in the NHS, 16 years after qualification; and that at least 94% of graduates who, when students, were from UK homes, were working in medicine. Of NHS doctors, 30% worked part-time. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly (median score 19.9, scale 5-25) but were less satisfied with the amount of leisure time available to them (median score 5.4, scale 1-10). NHS doctors were very positive about their careers, but were less positive about working hours and some other aspects of the NHS. Women were more positive than men about working conditions; general practitioners were more positive than hospital doctors. Twenty-five percent reported unmet needs for further training or career-related advice, particularly about career development. Twenty-nine percent intended to reduce their hours in future, while 6%, mainly part-time women, planned to increase their hours. Overall, 10% of NHS doctors planned to do more service work in future and 24% planned to do less; among part-time women, 18% planned to do more and only 14% less. These NHS doctors, now in their 40s, had a high level of satisfaction with their jobs and their careers but were less satisfied with some other aspects of their working environment. A substantial percentage had expectations about future career development and change.
França, Lucia H F; Hershey, Douglas A
In this investigation, we attempt to replicate the Interdisciplinary Financial Planning Model advanced by Hershey et al. (International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 70, 1-38, 2010) using a sample of Brazilian adults. This model, which was originally tested on individuals from The Netherlands and the United States, posits that psychological, social, and economic forces are key determinants of retirement planning practices and perceptions of saving adequacy. Taken together, fifteen hypotheses were subject to evaluation. Participants were 167 Brazilian working adults, 21-69 years of age, who were married or cohabitating at the time of testing. A path analysis model showed substantial support for the theoretical framework, with all variables found to contribute directly or indirectly to the prediction of financial planning and saving adequacy. Furthermore, two new paths were found to emerge in the Brazilian model that were not observed in the original investigation. This cross-national replication of the Interdisciplinary Financial Planning Model extends research on the topic to a developing country in which relatively few empirical studies of retirement planning have been carried out. Other analyses in the article focus on direct comparisons between the Brazilian model and the models developed based on American and Dutch respondents, with an eye toward better understanding how cultural forces shape the retirement planning process. The discussion focuses on how models of financial planning, such as the Hershey et al. (2010) model, can inform the development of savings-oriented education and intervention programs.
LATEST SCF DATA: This Issue Brief assesses the current status of Americans' savings for retirement by examining the incidence of individual account plans among families, as well as the average amount of assets accumulated in these accounts. The 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), the Federal Reserve Board's triennial survey of wealth, is the basis for this study, as it is a leading source of data on Americans' wealth, provides detailed information on retirement plan incidence and account balances among families, and is the latest available. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: While 2007 SCF is the most comprehensive and current survey of Americans' finances, its timing was unfortunate due to the significant downturn in the economy in 2008 just after the survey was released. To account for that change, this analysis provides estimates of the changes in asset values from the end of 2007 to mid-June 2009 for individual account plan balances. The account balances of the defined contribution plans and IRAs are adjusted based on the asset allocation reported within the plans by using equity market returns and bond market returns from January 1, 2008, to June 19, 2009. MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS: Among all families with a defined contribution plan in 2007, the median (mid-point) plan balance was $31,800, up 16 percent from 2004. According to EBRI estimates, this dropped 16.4 percent (to $26,578) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. Losses were higher for families with more than $100,000 a year in income (down 22 percent) or having a net worth in the top 10 percent (down 28 percent). MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR IRA/KEOGH PLANS: Among all families with an IRA/Keogh plan, the median value of their plan was $34,000 in 2007, up 3 percent from 2004. EBRI estimates this median value dropped 15 percent (to $28,955) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. LESS THAN HALF OF ALL FAMILIES HAVE A RETIREMENT PLAN THROUGH A CURRENT JOB: In 2007, 40.6 percent of
Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara
The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Adams, Gary A.; Rau, Barbara L.
In this article we note that in the coming years, a larger number of people will be experiencing retirement for a longer period of time than ever before and that despite this fact, many will find themselves unprepared for this stage of their lives. We review the literature on retirement preparation, structuring our review around the key questions…
of war as its “ultimate auditor .”16 The value of force management changes must be explained to Marines and their families in terms that: Clearly...neighborhoods, send children to good schools, keep families safe, and buy the things needed for day-to-day living. This is why people work and why...plan appears to be rapidly working its way through the legislative process in a form closely resembling the MCRMC recommendation. As the services
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I cancel my FERS election if I was in the wrong retirement plan at the time I elected FERS coverage and I have an election opportunity under... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Making an Election Fers Elections § 839.621 Can I cancel my...
OBJECTIVES The DOD Office of the Actuary defines the purpose of the system. Doing so establishes a baseline from which to judge the effectiveness of the...system in meeting its ultimate objectives. In the Valuation of the Military Retirement System—September 30, 2011, the DOD Office of the Actuary (2013...increasingly unaffordable” and “unsustainable” with the present rising costs. The OSD Office of the Actuary forecasts the annual retirement payments to
Aldeman, Chad; Aguirre, Paulina S. Diaz
Years of irresponsible budgeting practices have left the Teachers' Retirement System of Louisiana (TRSL) almost $12 billion in debt. Without significant reforms, Louisiana's pension problems are likely to get worse, with further negative consequences for workers and schools. This report shows that schools participating in the TRSL already must…
DiCenzo, Jodi; Fronstin, Paul
Employment-based health and retirement benefit programs have followed a similar path of evolution. The relative decision-making roles of the employer and the worker have shifted from the employer to the worker, and workers are more responsible than perhaps they ever have been for their well being--both in terms of their health in general and their financial security during retirement. This shift has been supported, in part, by legislation--namely ERISA, the HMO Act of 1973, the Revenue Act of 1978, and most recently, the Pension Protection Act. This Issue Brief does not pass judgment on this development or address who should bear the responsibilities of preparing workers for retirement or of rationing health care services. The current trend in health care design is toward increased "consumerism." Consumer-driven health is based on the assumption that the combination of greater cost sharing (by workers) and better information about the cost and quality of health care will engage workers to become better health care decision makers. It is hoped that workers will seek important, necessary, high-quality, cost-effective care and services, and become less likely to engage providers and services that are unnecessary and ineffective from either a quality or cost perspective. As employers look ahead toward continually improved plan design, there may be benefits in considering the lessons learned from studying worker behaviors. Specifically, there is evidence about the effects of choice, financial incentives, and information on worker decision making. As a result of research in this area, many retirement plan sponsors have moved toward plan designs and programs that recognize the benefits of well-designed defaults, simplified choices, required active decision making, framing, and commitment to future improvements. With respect to choice, it is now known that more is not always better and may even be worse in some cases. Just as fewer shoppers actually bought a jar of jelly
Luecke, Randall W; Reinstein, Alan
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 143 requires organizations to recognize a liability for an asset retirement obligation when it is incurred--even if that occurs far in advance of the asset's planned retirement. For example, organizations must recognize future costs associated with medical equipment disposal that carries hazardous material legal obligations.
Puryer, James; Patel, Ashini
Aim: To investigate the career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol in 2015. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 210 clinical undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.Results: The response rate was 79%. The majority (81.7%) were ‘satisfied’ or ‘extremely satisfied’ with their choice of career. The majority (78.7%) felt men and women are equally likely to succeed in dentistry, although 42.9% felt men had an ad...
... Director of the Office of Professional Responsibility as a professional organization or society whose... or societies wishing to be considered as qualified sponsors must request this status from the... in paragraph (f) of this section. (o) Enrolled actuaries. The enrollment and the renewal of...
Arling, Priscilla A.; Kirby, Jill; Saajasto, Kegan
For college graduates entering the workforce, contributing to an employer-sponsored 401(k) retirement plan can be an important way of saving for the future. However, contribution rates for young people in these plans are far below recommended percentages, leading to concerns about future financial stability for these individuals. Prior work has…
Rappaport, Anna M
Employers can and should take steps to support retirement and financial wellness. This article provides a framework for retirement wellness informed by research conducted or supported by the Society of Actuaries. Research insights about Americans' finances, planning, decisions, money management, debt, retiree income shocks and other areas point to ways employers can provide retirement wellness support as a vital part of an overall benefit program. The author suggests several key considerations employers should pay attention to in order to improve retirement wellness.
... employee choice environment and to make the systems and operational changes required for SHOP enrollment... requested that HHS clarify how the transitional employee choice policy would affect the employer... qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of...
Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Pisinger, David; Weissensteiner, Alex
or a joint life, and pay xed or variable benets. We further include transaction costs on stocks and bonds, and surrender charges on pure endowments. We show that despite high surrender charges, annuities are the primary asset class in a portfolio, and that annuity income is never fully consumed, but used...... for rebalancing purposes. We argue that the optimal retirement product for a household is much more complex than any of those available in the market. Every household should be oered an annuity tailored to its needs, using a unique combination of assets and mortality protection levels....
Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Weissensteiner, Alex
a single or a joint life, and pay fixed or variable benefits. We further include transaction costs on stocks and bonds, and surrender charges on pure endowments. We show that despite high surrender charges, annuities are the primary asset class in a portfolio, and that annuity income is never fully...... consumed, but used for rebalancing purposes. We argue that the optimal retirement product for a household is much more complex than any of those available in the market. Every household should be offered an annuity tailored to its needs, using a unique combination of assets and mortality protection levels....
Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego
The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional
Day, David S.; And Others
This article examines the retirement plans and personal characteristics of 273 senior law school faculty, focusing on health status, income, job satisfaction, and preferred age of retirement. The study suggests that early retirement incentives and a "senior faculty" alternative to full retirement are positive institutional options. (DB)
Leandro-Franca, Cristineide; Van Solinge, Hanna; Henkens, Kene; Murta, Sheila Giardini
Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation
... Purchase Plan Actuarial Information,'' which are required to be filed as part of the Form 5500 or Form 5500..., Courts, Crime, Employment taxes, Estate taxes, Excise taxes, Gift taxes, Income taxes, Investigations... its successor). (ii) Multiemployer and certain money purchase plans. For multiemployer and certain...
Kramer, Teresa L; Drummond, Karen L; Curran, Geoffrey M; Fortney, John C
This study examines organizational factors relating to climate and culture that might facilitate or impede the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting behavioral health in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Employees at six FQHCs participating in an evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) initiative for mood disorders and alcohol abuse were interviewed (N=32) or surveyed using the Organizational Context Survey (OCS) assessing culture and climate (N=64). The FQHCs scored relatively well on proficiency, a previously established predictor of successful EBP implementation, but also logged high scores on scales assessing rigidity and resistance, which may hinder implementation. Qualitative data contextualized scores on FQHC culture and climate dimensions. Results suggest that the unique culture of FQHCs may influence implementation of evidence-based behavioral health interventions.
Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.
Contemporary retirement research endeavours to identify the complex antecedents and consequences of retirement decisions and retirement planning. However, few research studies have examined how retirement decisions and planning behaviours have been implemented, nor has there been any significant research investigating the impact of the complex interactions that occur between individual traits and matching or non-matching strategic preferences on retirement outcomes. This research progra...
. 3. Drag LL, et al. Cognitive functioning, retirement status, and age: results from the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among. Senior Surgeons study. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;211(3):303-7. 4. Wang DS, Winfield HN. Survey of urological laparoscopic practice patterns in the Midwest.
...) to ensure reliable data, reduce QHP burden and facilitate consumer use and comprehension. \\3\\ In... stakeholders and in a field test using available health plan data. Listening sessions were also conducted for...
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc... for, or diverted to, purposes other than for the exclusive benefit of those employees or their...
Hershey, Douglas A.; Henkens, Kene; van Dalen, Hendrik P.
Current theoretical models support the existence of interactions between the individual and socio-environmental forces when it comes to the formation and enactment of life plans (Friedman & Scholnick, 1997; Shanahan & Elder, 2002). In this investigation, we examine the social, economic, and psychological forces that impact financial…
.... It reviews the structure of Individual Retirement Accounts and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, which governs private-sector retirement plans and their treatment by the Internal Revenue Code...
Hardy, M A; Quadagno, J
In recent decades, the expanded availability of early retirement incentive plans has allowed an increasing number of workers to retire at an age younger than normally allowed by their pension plans. On the surface, these retirement incentives appear to offer older workers more flexibility in deciding when to retire. However, the offer of early retirement incentives frequently occurs when employers are attempting to reduce employment; therefore, the opportunity for early retirement may be counterbalanced by downsizing goals that place older workers' continued employment in jeopardy. Early retirement incentive programs are thereby characterized by an unusual combination of inducement and coercion. In this study, we examined how the structure of the early retirement program shapes the way older male auto workers evaluate their retirement transitions. We conclude that the structure of the early retirement program, the timing of the retirement decision, and job security are important in framing the retirement transition and in distinguishing levels of satisfaction with the retirement experience.
... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408(q)-1... restrictions that a trustee, custodian, or insurance company is permitted to impose on distributions from... accounts of any of the deemed IRAs is invested in life insurance contracts, regardless of whether the...
... pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plans for the purchase of life insurance contracts and rules for the... income, an endowment, or other contract providing life insurance protection. The rules of this section.... (b) Treatment of cost of life insurance protection. (1) The rules of this paragraph are applicable to...
... due to disability and may also provide for the payment of incidental death benefits through insurance... attainment of a stated age, or upon the prior occurrence of some event such as layoff, illness, disability... same requirements as a profit-sharing plan. (iv) As to inclusion of full-time life insurance salesmen...
Stephen C. Dorner, MSc
Full Text Available Introduction: Under regulations established by the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must meet minimum standards in order to be sold through the federal Marketplace. These standards to become a qualified health plan (QHP include maintaining a provider network sufficient to assure access to services. However, the complexity of emergency physician (EP employment practices – in which the EPs frequently serve as independent contractors of emergency departments, independently establish insurance contracts, etc... – and regulations governing insurance repayment may hinder the application of network adequacy standards to emergency medicine. As such, we hypothesized the existence of QHPs without in-network access to EPs. The objective is to identify whether there are QHPs without in-network access to EPs using information available through the federal Marketplace and publicly available provider directories. Results: In a national sample of Marketplace plans, we found that one in five provider networks lacks identifiable in-network EPs. QHPs lacking EPs spanned nearly half (44% of the 34 states using the federal Marketplace. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the present regulatory framework governing network adequacy is not generalizable to emergency care, representing a missed opportunity to protect patient access to in-network physicians. These findings and the current regulations governing insurance payment to EPs dis-incentivize the creation of adequate physician networks, incentivize the practice of balance billing, and shift the cost burden to patients.
Bastable, C. W.; Brady, Gerald P.
The various retirement income options available to TIAA-CREF participants and federal taxes on each option are explained. The importance of early planning for retirement income is stressed and it is suggested that assessment of future financial needs will indicate the most appropriate settlement mode for retirement. (SF)
The most significant change to private sector as well as civil service employee retirement systems over the past 15 years has been the transition from defined benefit to defined contribution retirement plans...
M.Comm. Pension funds have risen to great prominence in the last two decades because they provide a service that fits the needs of individuals. The community at large are rapidly accepting and demanding facilities for proper retirement planning. Employees contribute towards retirement funds and their contributions are tax deductible while taxable to the employee upon retirement, generally at a lower rate. The employer, who has instituted the retirement fund, owes the fund because the emplo...
Dychtwald, Ken; Erickson, Tamara; Morison, Bob
Companies have been so focused on down-sizing to contain costs that they've largely neglected a looming threat to their competitiveness: a severe shortage of talented workers. The general population is aging and with it, the labor pool. People are living longer, healthier lives, and the birthrate is at a historical low. During the next 15 years, 80% of the native-born workforce growth in North America--and even more in much of Western Europe--is going to be in the over-50 age cohort. When these mature workers begin to retire, there won't be nearly enough young people entering the workforce to compensate. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a shortfall of 10 million workers in the United States in 2010, and in countries where the birthrate is well below the population replacement level (particularly in Western Europe), the shortage will hit sooner, be more severe, and remain chronic. The problem won't just be a lack of bodies. Skills, knowledge, experience, and relationships walk out the door every time somebody retires--and they take time and money to replace. And while the brain drain is beginning now, the problem is going to become much more acute in the next decade or so, when baby boomers--more than one-quarter of all Americans, amounting to 76 million people--start hitting their mid sixties. Based on the results of their yearlong research project, the authors of this article offer recommendations for gaining the loyalty of older workers and creating a more flexible approach to retirement that allows people to continue contributing well into their sixties and seventies. Companies can no longer afford to think of retirement as a onetime event, permanently dividing work life from leisure.
This study examined how retirement planning information search was related to retirement savings of working women. By controlling for sociodemographic variables, the study further explored factors associated with individual information sources for retirement planning. An online survey was developed to collect data from a national population,…
We estimate the effect of benefit rates on individuals’ retirement behaviour. Compared to most other studies in the field, the characterising feature of this paper is to use a cross-country panel data set of individuals (the European Community Household Panel, ECHP) to estimate economic effects...... across countries. A descriptive part of the paper makes clear that retirement via a period of unemployment prior to retirement programmes is quantitatively very important. We find econometric evidence that benefit rates affect retirement and the magnitude of this effect is relatively low if retirement...
This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...
Van Dyck, Delfien; Plaete, Jolien; Cardon, Greet; Crombez, Geert; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of the self-regulation eHealth intervention "MyPlan1.0." to increase physical activity (PA) in recently retired Belgian adults. This study was a randomized controlled trial with three points of follow-up/modules (baseline to 1-week to 1-month follow-up). In total, 240 recently retired…
Full Text Available Since the early 90s, Italy has undergone radical changes in the regulations of the public pension system aimed at mending its main drawbacks and improving sustainability in the long run. The reforms were intended to recover the national economy through a significant reduction of benefits by increasing, particularly for younger people, individual responsibility for the accumulation of retirement wealth. Adopting an enhanced version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, which includes affective reactions, the present paper aims to understand the factors influencing the intention to enroll in a private pension plan through the purchase of longevity annuity coverage on the part of young adults. A purposive sample of 7480 Italian people aged 25–35 participated in the survey. Collected data were analyzed adopting an ordinal logistic regression (OLR model. The findings confirm the predictive power of the TPB in the financial field of longevity annuity buying, show that anticipated affective reactions increase the predictive power of the TPB model, and reveal that the influence of the investigated constructs varies alongside people’s willingness to purchase. The outcomes provide useful recommendations to the policy maker and private companies to favor the adoption of wide-spread desired behaviors among citizenships.
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual retirement annuities. 1.408-3 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-3 Individual retirement annuities. (a) In general. An individual retirement annuity is an annuity contract or endowment contract...
Zick, Cathleen D; Mayer, Robert N; Smith, Ken R
Retirement confidence is a key social barometer. In this article, we examine how personal and parental health histories relate to working-age adults' feelings of optimism or pessimism about their overall retirement prospects. This study links survey data on retirement planning with information on respondents' own health histories and those of their parents. The multivariate models control for the respondents' socio-demographic and economic characteristics along with past retirement planning activities when estimating the relationships between family health histories and retirement confidence. Retirement confidence is inversely related to parental history of cancer and cardiovascular disease but not to personal health history. In contrast, retirement confidence is positively associated with both parents being deceased. As members of the public become increasingly aware of how genetics and other family factors affect intergenerational transmission of chronic diseases, it is likely that the link between family health histories and retirement confidence will intensify. © The Author(s) 2015.
Beshears, John Leonard; Choi, James J.; Hurwitz, Joshua Bayard; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte
What is the socially optimal level of liquidity in a retirement savings system? Liquid retirement savings are desirable because liquidity enables agents to flexibly respond to pre-retirement events that raise the marginal utility of consumption. On the other hand, pre-retirement liquidity is undesirable when it leads to under-saving arising from, for example, planning mistakes or self-control problems. This paper compares the liquidity that six developed economies have built into their employ...
... not exceed $5,000. (4) Actuarial statement in case of mergers. The plan administrator (within the... is a failure to file the actuarial statement described in section 6058(b) at the time and in the... as a tax upon the issuance of notice and demand therefor. (e) Effective dates—(1) Annual registration...
The paper investigated the positive impact of retirement education on the future lives of the adult workers who are .... relationships, assume personal and civic responsibilities, care ... devastating phenomenon and a route to poverty. The retired ...
... and disability benefits); (vii) Section 1.415(b)-1(g)(3) (regarding adjustments to applicable... survivor and disability benefits under governmental plans); (viii) Section 1.415(c)-1(b)(2)(ii) and (3)(iii...)(5) (providing an alternative rule for inclusion of compensation after a severance from employment...
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Barbosa, R.
Systems based on embedded components and applications are today used in all markets. They are planned and developed by all types of institutions with different types of background experience, multidisciplinary teams and all types of capability and maturity levels. Organisational/engineering maturity has an impact on all aspects of the engineering of large and complex systems. An embedded system is a specific computer system designed to perform one or more dedicated functions, usually with real-time constraints. It is generally integrated as part of a more complex device typically composed of specific hardware such as sensors and actuators. This article presents an experimented technique to evaluate the organisation, processes, system and software engineering practices, methods, tools and the planned/produced artefacts themselves, leading towards certification/qualification. The safety and risk assessment of such core and complex systems is explained, described on a step-by- step manner, while presenting the main results and conclusions of the application of the technique to a real case study.
de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur
This paper investigates the relationship between subjective expectations regarding the replacement rate of income at retirement and several measures of pension satisfaction. We use panel data on Dutch employees, analyzed with fixed effects models, allowing for correlation between unobserved
Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.
compensation in their decisions on how long to remain in the service, but financial compensation is not the most important factor. In order to continue...their Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) retirement account to provide members departing the service prior to 20 year retirement eligibility with some portable...employment and promotion/ advancement opportunities. Thus, the BRS will have a neutral effect on gender 4 retention. In order to continue to close
Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T
Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.
The landscape of public education retirement plans is in an upheaval. A variety of economic, demographic, and political factors make it increasingly difficult for defined-benefit pension plans alone to provide educators with an adequate retirement. As a result, for the nearly seven million educators in America's public primary and secondary…
Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.
As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…
The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial
Silvana Pozzebon; Olivia S. Mitchell
In this paper we examine the economic and family determinants of married women's retirement behavior. A model of wives' retirement decisions is developed and tested empirically using data on working married women. Estimated response parameters are compared to those obtained previously for male workers. Our findings are directly relevant to policy questions regarding pension and Social Security reform.
Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail
in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.
Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech
An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...
TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future
Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...
Kojola, Erik; Moen, Phyllis
Standard pathways for work and retirement are being transformed as the large Boomer cohort moves through typical retirement ages during a moment of economic, social and political change. People are delaying retirement and moving into and out of paid work as the standard lock-step retirement becomes less dominant. However, little research has explored how and why Boomers are taking on these diverse pathways in their later careers. Accordingly, we conduct in-depth interviews with working and retired white-collar Boomers, exploring how they are working and the meanings and motivations for their decisions and plans in their later careers. We find that there is no single dominant pattern for retirement, but rather a diverse mix of pathways shaped by occupational identities, finances, health and perceptions of retirement. Boomers express a desire to have control over their time and to find meaning and purpose in either paid or unpaid activities. However, life course transitions, normative cultural scripts, and gender and class locations as well as workplace and social policies constrain their decisions and plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Philip Armour; Mary C. Daly
Long gone are the days when most American workers could rely on their employers to manage their retirement savings. Today, most people handle their retirement portfolios themselves, gaining the right and responsibility to determine their own best strategies. Research on retirement planning suggests, however, that many fall short of consensus targets for optimal savings and investment. While part of the shortfall is explained by information gaps and income constraints, research in behavioral e...
His astute counsel, knowing smile and distinguished eloquence will be missed by many. With a pang of regret, the man himself admits that 'CERN was like a drug for me'. Last week, Jean-Daniel Mandica retired, after 40 years of loyal service. He was the trusted counsellor of every Director of the Administration and Director-General for eighteen years, from 1986 to 2003. Head of the planning unit for the Directorate and the Administration from 1986 to 1996, he was then named Head of the Directorate Services Unit in 1996, a position he held until the end of 2003. Throughout that time, he conducted key tasks for the Organization, such as restructuring the Administration and carrying out audits. His role in the creation of Microcosm and his commitment to CERN's participation in the Universal Exposition at Seville in 1992 contributed in no small part to the spread of the Laboratory's fame. Jean-Daniel Mandica's incomparable knowledge of the Administration, sense of diplomacy and great ability to listen made him a v...
(Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...
... principal's Foreign Service retirement benefit or survivor benefit. If a court directs or implies that a... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN... the Secretary of State. A qualifying court order must— (1) Be consistent with the terms of the Act and...
Management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and bulbs high pressure sodium retired from electrical distribution lines of the Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad
Badilla Sanabria, Daniela; Chaves Morales, Angelica; Rodriguez Mendez, Susan
The Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad has completed a management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and sodium vapor bulbs high pressure, that are retired from electrical distribution lines. The three residues have been characterized and identified in its physical composition, chemical and hazardous properties, generating selection, analysis and proposals for alternative of recovery, treatment or final disposal, viable from an environmental, technical and economic view. A series of recommendations and procedures have been performed using tabs and instructions for the purpose of unifying management practices appropriate in the Area de Sostenibilidad Ambiental of the ICE. (author) [es
MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION...retirement choice in 2016. We start by describing the $30,000 bonus as an early, partial cash -out of the servicemember’s retirement pension. This...30,000 cash -out will be “paid back” later in the form of reduced retirement checks. By providing information on how much this cash -out will cost in
... lender make to a borrower? 617.7130 Section 617.7130 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... must a qualified lender make to a borrower? (a) Required disclosures—in general. A qualified lender... certificates that borrowers are required to purchase are at risk and may only be retired at the discretion of...
Massimo Tarenghi, chronologically MPG/ESO project scientist, NTT project manager, VLT programme manager and first Director, ALMA Director and ESO Representative in Chile, has retired after 35 years at ESO. A brief summary of his achievements is presented.
Office of Personnel Management — A place for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to share information about retirement benefits for new, prospective, and current Federal employees, as well...
Describes career changes and retirement choices made by outgoing "career" superintendents. Choices ranged from teaching and consulting to administering philanthropic organizations and launching a charter-boat business. (MLH)
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Tait, J.; MacFarlane, A; Belkin, N.
Stephen Robertson retired from the Microsoft Research Lab in Cambridge during the summer of 2013 after a long career as one of the most influential, well-liked and eminent researchers in Information Retrieval throughout the world.
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of retirement bonds. 1.405-3 Section 1.405-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.405-3 Taxation of retirement...
... to flexible retirement. It also found that flexible policy will have a positive welfare effect as many employees can then take care of their extended span of dependants for a longer period and employee productivity will also be improved. Key words: Retirement, Mandatory, Flexible, Pension Plan, Extended Family System.
Whitaker, Elizabeth A; Bokemeier, Janet
Financial planning for retirement is a lifelong process constrained by financial literacy, resources, and competing demands for resources across the life course. Further, social structure shapes the availability of options for funding retirement. The social and economic frameworks surrounding retirement planning are changing, and policy makers and researchers question whether retirement expectations have adapted. To explore this question, this research used k-means cluster analysis of a 2010 survey data set to identify natural groupings of Michigan adult preretirees based on their expectations of income sources for retirement. The cluster analysis identified six distinct groups that hold very different expectations. Most had expectations that are not consistent with projected changes in social structure and resource availability and those that did were more likely to occupy traditionally privileged statuses including being White, male, and married. © The Author(s) 2013.
Rafalski, Julia C; Noone, Jack H; O'Loughlin, Kate; de Andrade, Alexsandro L
Retirement research is now expanding beyond the post-World War II baby boomers' retirement attitudes and plans to include the nature of their workforce exit and how successfully they adjust to their new life. These elements are collectively known as the process of retirement. However, there is insufficient research in developing countries to inform the management of their ageing populations regarding this process. This review aims to facilitate national and cross-cultural research in developing and non-English speaking countries by reviewing the existing measures of the retirement process published in English and Portuguese. The review identified 28 existing measures assessing retirement attitudes, planning, decision making, adjustment and satisfaction with retirement. Information on each scale's item structure, internal reliability, grammatical structure and evidence of translations to other languages is presented. Of the 28 measures, 20 assessed retirement attitudes, plans and decision-making, 5 assessed adjustment to retirement and only two assessed retirement satisfaction. Only eight of the 28 scales had been translated into languages other than English. There is scope to translate measures of retirement attitudes and planning into other languages. However there is a paucity of translated measures of retirement decision-making and adjustment, and measures of retirement satisfaction in general. Within the limitations of this review, researchers are provided with the background to decide between translating existing measures or developing of more culturally appropriate assessment tools for addressing their research questions.
Gowan, Mary A.
Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…
... familiar with the implementation of the vessel response plan; and (4) Be trained in the responsibilities of... vessel may designate an organization to fulfill the role of the qualified individual and alternate...
Brett, Thomas D; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Hince, Dana A; Wood, Ian K; Moorhead, Robert G
To ascertain the retirement intentions of a cohort of Australian general practitioners. Postal questionnaire survey of members of four Divisions of General Practice in Western Australia, sent out November 2007 - January 2008. A sample of 178 GPs aged 45-65 years. Intention to work in general practice until retirement; reasons for retiring before age 65 years; factors that might encourage working beyond chosen retirement age; and perceived obstacles to working in general practice. 63% of GPs intended to work to at least age 65 years, with men more likely to retire early. Of 63 GPs intending to retire early, 46% gave pressure of work, exhaustion and burnout as reasons for early retirement. Better remuneration, better staffing levels and more general support were incentives to continue working for 46% of the 64 GPs who responded to the question about incentives, and more flexible working hours, part-time work and reduced workload for 41%. Of 169 participants, 65% gave increasing bureaucracy, poor job satisfaction and disillusionment with the medical system or Medicare as obstacles to working in general practice in Australia, whereas workforce shortage, increasing patient demands and diminishing lifestyle through overwork were obstacles named by 48%. Many GPs are planning to retire early, reflecting an emerging trend among professionals and society generally. Declining job satisfaction, falling workforce numbers, excessive workload and increasing bureaucracy were recurrent concerns of older WA GPs considering premature retirement.
Matthews, Janet R.
During the 1960s, there was extensive hiring of college and university faculty members. This large group of professors are now at or nearing retirement age. Concerns about the economy, the availability of good health insurance, increased life expectancy, and removal of mandatory retirement laws may influence decisions about when to retire.…
Silver, Michelle Pannor; Williams, Sarah A
Some professions foster expectations that individuals cultivate their work identity above all other aspects of life. This can be problematic when individuals are confronted with the expectation that they will readily terminate this identity in later-career stages as institutions seek to cycle in new generations. This study examines the relationship between work identity and retirement by examining multiple generations of academic physicians. This study used a multimethod qualitative design that included document analysis, participant observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with academic physicians from one of the oldest departments of medicine in North America. This study illustrates how participants were predisposed and then groomed through institutional efforts to embrace a career trajectory that emphasized work above all else and fostered negative sensibilities about retirement. Participants across multiple generations described a lack of work-life balance and a prioritization of their careers above nonwork commitments. Assertions that less experienced physicians were not as dedicated to medicine and implicit assumptions that later-career physicians should retire emerged as key concerns. Strong work identity and tensions between different generations may confound concerns about retirement in ways that complicate institutional succession planning and that demonstrate how traditional understandings of retirement are out of date. Findings support the need to creatively reconsider the ways we examine relations between work identity, age, and retirement in ways that account for the recent extensions in the working lives of professionals.
On December 1st, 2002, after thirty- seven years of service, first in Chile and then in Garching, Ms. Christa Euler will leave ESO to enjoy a welldeserved retirement. Among the current staff, she is probably the only person who started her career at ESO just four years after the Organization was founded.
Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903
Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro
, which affect cognitive functioning at old ages, they are invalid as instruments without controlling for schooling. We show by means of simulation and a replication study that unless the model incorporates schooling, the estimated effect of retirement is negatively biased. This explains a large part...... of the “mental retirement” effects which have recently been found...
On 13 December 1990 Prof. Dr. Cornelis (Kees) Kalkman retired from the positions of Professor of Plant Systematics and Scientific Director of the Rijksherbarium/ Hortus Botanicus by presenting his valedictory lecture to the academic community of Leiden University and the assembled Dutch Botanical
The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...
Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S. and others
Degradation of steam generator leads to forced outage and extension of outage, which causes increase in repair cost, cost of purchasing replacement power and radiation exposure of workers. Steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in Uljin 4 in 2002, which made public sensitive to nuclear power plant. To keep nuclear energy as a main energy source, integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. Quantitative relationship between ECT(eddy current test) signal and crack size is needed in assesment of integrity of steam generator in pressurized water reactor. However, it is not fully established for application in industry. Retired steam generator of Kori 1 has many kinds of crack such as circumferential and axial primary water stress corrosion crack and outer diameter stress corrosion crack(ODSCC). So, it can be used in qualifying and improving ECT technology and in condition monitoring assesment for crack detected in ISI(in service inspection). In addition, examination of pulled tube of Kori 1 retired steam generator will give information about effectiveness of non welded sleeving technology which was employed to repair defect tubes and remedial action which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab. for pulled tube examination and modification transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. Non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in semi hot lab. Remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. Electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce radiation exposure and enhance effectiveness of pulled tube examination. Multiparameter algorithm developed at ANL, USA was
The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...
The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...
The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...
The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...
The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...
be made. However, others have argued that past modifications intended to save money have had a deleterious effect on military recruiting and...Savings Plan (TSP) coupled with government matching and early vesting. It will also reduce the defined benefit multiplier for calculating the retirement...In addition, some have argued that past modifications to the system intended to save money have had a deleterious effect on military recruiting and
contributions . Many of the MCRMC recommendations were adopted by Congress in the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2016 (P.L. 114-92) and amended by... contribution plan that would require the services to contribute up to 5% of annual base pay into a retirement account for each servicemember. The...TSP). Under the blended system, the services would begin monthly contributions of 1% of basic pay automatically into the servicemember’s TSP account
Ward, Richard M; Weinman, Robert B
Health care expenses in retirement are the proverbial elephant in the room. Most employees don't know how big the elephant is. As Medicare solvency and retiree health care issues receive increasing attention, it is time to rethink overall benefit approaches and assess what is appropriate and affordable for an organization to help achieve workforce renewal goals and solve delayed retirement challenges. Just as Medicare was never designed to cover all of the post-65 retiree health care costs, neither is a workplace retirement plan designed to cover 100% of preretiree income. Now employers can consider strategies that may better equip retirees to meet both income needs and health care expenses in the most tax-efficient way. By combining defined contribution retirement and health care plans, employers have the power to increase benefits for employees while maintaining total benefits cost.
...), Roth IRAs, and the Uniformed Services Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). This project concentrates on both long-term and short-term investments by exploiting the combination of two types of investment methods...
Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.
Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893
... elects to use NAFI service to qualify for an immediate CSRS or FERS retirement benefit will be reduced to ensure the present value of the benefits payable will be actuarially equivalent to those that would have...
RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY IMPROVED SLIGHTLY IN 2013: Due to the increase in financial market and housing values during 2013, the probability that Baby Boomers and Generation Xers would NOT run short of money in retirement increases between 0.5 and 1.6 percentage points, based on the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) Retirement Readiness Ratings (RRRs). ELIGIBILITY FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN EMPLOYER-SPONSORED DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: RRR values double for Gen Xers in the lowest-income quartile when comparing those with 20 or more years of future eligibility with those with no years of future eligibility, while those in the middle income quartiles experience increases in RRR values by 27.1-30.3 percentage points. FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR THE RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY OF SOME HOUSEHOLDS, ESPECIALLY GEN XERS IN THE LOWEST-INCOME QUARTILE: If Social Security benefits are subject to proportionate decreases beginning in 2033 (according to the values in Figure 8), the RRR values for those households will drop by more than 50 percent: from 20.9 percent to 10.3 percent. LONGEVITY RISK AND STOCHASTIC HEALTH CARE RISK ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HUGE VARIATIONS IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: For both of these factors, a comparison between the most "risky" quartile with the least risky quartile shows a spread of approximately 30 percentage points for the lowest income range, approximately 25 to 40 percentage points for the highest income range, and even larger spreads for those in the middle income ranges. A GREAT DEAL OF THE VARIABILITY IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY COULD BE MITIGATED BY APPROPRIATE RISK-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AT OR NEAR RETIREMENT AGE: For example, the annuitization of a portion of the defined contribution and IRA balances may substantially increase the probability of not running short of money in retirement. Moreover, a well-functioning market in long
Methodology and data for municipal and regional energy and climate plans. Report of the qualifying project Oslofjord Fund; Metode- og datagrunnlag for kommunale og regionale energi- og klimaplaner. Rapport fra kvalifiseringsprosjekt for Oslofjordfondet
Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Roenning, Anne
The main result from this project is evidence of the need for new methods and data for municipal and regional energy and climate plans, to ensure better local support and greater management efficiency in the work. It's probably a great potential to develop tools and data by combining spatial information from public databases with environmental and resource data through GIS tools. This can lead to a significant resource efficiency and quality in the local energy and climate work, based on research-based innovation in the public and private sectors. It can also increase the prioritization of measures for energy conversion and energy efficiency to local and regional conditions. Qualifying project has resulted in the application for master anchored by public users, private companies and research communities in Oestfold / Oslofjord. Shortened version.(eb)
The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...
The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...
On 11 May a new web-based phonebook will take over from the 16-year old XWHO directory. It will provide access to basic contact information for people and services at CERN. A user-friendly interface will allow you to look for people and services using criteria such as first or last name, organisational unit and phone number. All requests submitted to the retired XWHO directory will be redirected to the new phonebook. The new CERN Phonebook's user interface. CERN’s first electronic phonebook was created in 1995. The XWHO directory was first presented in July that year in a CERN Computer Newsletter (CNL) article entitled “Migrating the access to central directory services” by Miguel Marquina and Bernd Pollermann. Since then, it has been used by thousands of people at CERN and around the world looking for contact details of other members of the Organization. The XWHO directory is now retiring and is to be replaced by the new web-based CERN Phonebook. For several month...
Special Meeting concerning the TAXATION OF PENSIONS IN FRANCE Following the pre-retirement seminar held at CERN in March 2001, the Human Resources Division and the CERN Pensioners Association (GAC) are organising a special information session on the Taxation of CERN pensions in France The speaker will be S. Agarrat, a barrister specialising in tax law (practising in Lyon) and the meeting will take the form of a general presentation of the subject, followed by a question-and-answer session. This meeting is intended for CERN pensioners residing in France, as well as for staff due to retire from the Organization in 2001/2002. Registration is not necessary. The meeting will take place on Wednesday, 28 November 2001, from 4.30 p.m. to 6.30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium N.B.: Questions concerning the taxation rules applicable to salaries paid by CERN, in particular questions relating to the CRDS tax, will not be dealt with during this meeting.
The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...
NSTec Environmental Restoration
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative
NSTec Environmental Restoration
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified liquidations. 1.860F-1 Section 1.860F-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860F-1 Qualified liquidations. A plan of...
Martin, Patricia P
One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners
... to implement phased retirement, a new human resources tool that allows full-time employees to work a..., 582, 831, et al. Phased Retirement; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 33912
Fasang, Anette Eva
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Bodily, Gerald P.
Studies on retirement reporting that, compared to people not retired, recent retirees exhibited less income, more physical and mental illness, lower self-esteem, and less life satisfaction have been challenged and new findings have been revealed by longitudinal studies using data from large samples. It appears that perhaps the way individuals…
Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E; Toder, Eric J
The 2008 stock market crash raises concerns about retirement security, especially since the increased prevalence of 401(k) and similar retirement saving plans means that more Americans are now stakeholders in the equity market than in the past. Using a dynamic microsimulation model, this paper explores the ability of alternate future stock market scenarios to restore retirement assets. The authors find that those near retirement could fare the worst because they have no time to recoup their losses. Mid-career workers could fare better because they have more time to rebuild their wealth. They may even gain income if they buy stocks at low prices and get above-average rates of return. High-income groups will be the most affected because they are most likely to have financial assets and to be invested in the stock market.
Clayton Arlen Looney; Andrew M. Hardin
As firms continue to abandon pensions in favor of employee-managed retirement plans, tremendous demands are being placed on the decision-making proficiency of future retirees. As reflected in the equity premium puzzle, individual investors tend to hold overly conservative portfolios that provide meager payoffs over time. Consequently, there is growing concern that the vast majority of retirement accounts might be insufficiently funded when employees reach retirement. Given that most retiremen...
Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla
This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis.
Jack M. Mintz
Full Text Available The 2008-2009 economic crisis dealt a serious blow to Canadians’ retirement savings. While markets have since partially recovered, the ratio of Canadians’ household net-worth relative to disposable income still remains below where it was in 2007. So much wealth that workers had accumulated to prepare for retirement has been wiped away, while the years since 2008 that might have otherwise been spent compounding retirement savings have been spent, instead, on trying to recover losses in a low-interest-rate environment that has limited returns. With large waves of older workers approaching retirement age, and these future retirees projected to live longer than previous cohorts, Canada now faces the very realistic scenario that a significant number of people will reach retirement age without the funds they will need to provide a comfortable post-working-life income. Canadian policy-makers may not have the ability to restore that destroyed wealth. And with most governments already struggling to resolve serious deficits, the situation is not likely to be ameliorated with anything that requires additional spending, or that could reduce tax revenues. But there are policy reforms available that can help at least in better preparing the coming waves of retirees for a financially secure retirement. The reforms need not be far-reaching to have a meaningful impact. And they need not be costly, either. They can include a modest expansion of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP to allow larger contributions — shared by employers and employees, or covered entirely by employees — that would, in turn, allow retiring workers to draw a larger maximum pension, rather than having to rely on the guaranteed income supplement (GIS. CPP contributions could also be made deductible from taxable income, like RRSP investments, to encourage workers to maximize contributions. To minimize an increase in payroll taxes, the eligibility age for CPP benefits could be increased to
Quinn, Joseph F; Cahill, Kevin E
We have entered a new world of retirement income security in America, with older individuals more exposed to market risk and more vulnerable to financial insecurity than prior generations. This reflects an evolution that has altered the historical vision of a financially secure retirement supported by Social Security, a defined-benefit pension plan, and individual savings. Today, 2 of these 3 retirement income sources-pensions and savings-are absent or of modest importance for many older Americans. Retirement income security now often requires earnings from continued work later in life, which exacerbates the economic vulnerability of certain segments of the population, including persons with disabilities, the oldest-old, single women, and individuals with intermittent work histories. Because of the unprecedented aging of our society, further changes to the retirement income landscape are inevitable, but policymakers do have options to help protect the financial stability of older Americans. We can begin by promoting savings at all (especially younger) ages and by removing barriers that discourage work later in life. For individuals already on the cusp of retirement, more needs to be done to educate the public about the value of delaying the receipt of Social Security benefits. Inaction now could mean a return to the days when old age and poverty were closely linked. The negative repercussions of this would extend well beyond traditional economic measures, as physical and mental health outcomes are closely tied to financial security. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Human Resources Department
We would like to take the opportunity to inform you about a new programme related to retirement, organised by the Human Resources Department. Retirement marks the end of a career and the start of a new chapter in life. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared is necessary to cope successfully with this transition. The programme has been developed for staff members and consists of two seminars: Leaving CERN (half day seminar): short presentations by internal speakers, focusing on what options CERN offers at the end of your career: organised once per year, next session scheduled on 24 November 2015, in the afternoon, enrolment and more information on Indico. Preparation for retirement (2-day seminar): interactive workshop (in small groups) delivered by external experts, focusing on how to prepare psychologically as well as practically to cope with all the changes retirement brings: organised regularly in 2016, in English or ...
Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj
Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…
Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian
Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.
Cain, Joanna M; Felice, Marianne E; Ockene, Judith K; Milner, Robert J; Congdon, John L; Tosi, Stephen; Thorndyke, Luanne E
Medical school faculty are aging, but few academic health centers are adequately prepared with policies, programs, and resources (PPR) to assist late-career faculty. The authors sought to examine cultural barriers to successful retirement and create alignment between individual and institutional needs and tasks through PPR that embrace the contributions of senior faculty while enabling retirement transitions at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2013-2017. Faculty 50 or older were surveyed, programs at other institutions and from the literature (multiple fields) were reviewed, and senior faculty and leaders, including retired faculty, were engaged to develop and implement PPR. Cultural barriers were found to be significant, and a multipronged, multiyear strategy to address these barriers, which sequentially added PPR to support faculty, was put in place. A comprehensive framework of sequenced PPR was developed to address the needs and tasks of late-career transitions within three distinct phases: pre-retirement, retirement, and post-retirement. This sequential introduction approach has led to important outcomes for all three of the retirement phases, including reduction of cultural barriers, a policy that has been useful in assessing viability of proposed phased retirement plans, transparent and realistic discussions about financial issues, and consideration of roles that retired faculty can provide. The authors are tracking the issues mentioned in consultations and efficacy of succession planning, and will be resurveying faculty to further refine their work. This framework approach could serve as a template for other academic health centers to address late-career faculty development.
Carr, Nicholas A.; Sages, Ronald A.; Fernatt, Frederick R.; Nabeshima, George G.; Grable, John E.
Prior research has found a relationship between the health habits of individuals and their financial well-being. Little research has been conducted, however, to explore the nature of the health-wealth connection. The purpose of this study was to explore and test the association of physical health behaviors, namely exercise and diet, and health…
van Rooij, Maarten C. J.; Lusardi, Annamaria; Alessie, Rob J. M.
Relying on comprehensive measures of financial knowledge, we provide evidence of a strong positive association between financial literacy and net worth, even after controlling for many determinants of wealth. We discuss two channels through which financial literacy might facilitate wealth
Kutlu Koc, Vesile
Recent pension reforms in industrialized countries are, in part, motivated by the increased life expectancy. As individuals are expected to take more responsibility in their retirement planning and savings decisions, it is important to understand whether they are aware of improvements in life
... by the Board of Actuaries of the Civil Service Retirement System. DATES: The revised present value.... ADDRESSES: Send requests for actuarial assumptions and data to the Board of Actuaries, care of Gregory Kissel, Actuary, Office of Planning and Policy Analysis, Office of Personnel Management, Room 4307, 1900...
... adopted by the Board of Actuaries of the Civil Service Retirement System. DATES: The revised present value.... ADDRESSES: Send requests for actuarial assumptions and data to the Board of Actuaries, care of Gregory Kissel, Actuary, Office of Planning and Policy Analysis, Office of Personnel Management, Room 4307, 1900...
... in the economic assumptions adopted by the Board of Actuaries of the Civil Service Retirement System... data to the Board of Actuaries, care of Gregory Kissel, Actuary, Office of Planning and Policy Analysis...- 335, based on changed economic assumptions adopted by the Board of Actuaries of the CSRS. Those...
Fatemeh Kianpour Ghahfarokhi
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between demographic characteristics and retirement satisfaction in elderly members of registered retirement Education Center in Ahwaz. Methods & Materials: This study was descriptive-correlative. The sample of study includes ninety-six retirees referring to retirement center of Ahvaz Using Convenience of haphazard sampling in year 1388. Participants were requested to fill in Retirement Descriptive Index as well as a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, Simple correlation and regression repeatedly analysis (by SPSS 16 versions. Results: There are significant positive correlation between health, employment, financial status, usefulness feeling, spouse employment with retirement satisfaction and negative correlation between retirement age and spouse retirement with retirement satisfaction. Conclusion: This study reveals that health, re-employment after retirement, having a good financial status and usefulness feeling increase retirement satisfaction. But retirement age and retirement satisfaction decrease it.
Full Text Available The current state of the global market pension was marked by the fact that pension systems in all countries have been strongly affected by the financial and economic crisis that broke out in the world, especially in 2008-2010. Its effects were felt primarily to pension schemes with definedcontributions (DC, the participants in these plans being increasingly skeptical about the ability to afford decent pensions. Type defined contribution plans requires, on the one hand, periods and higher contribution rates, and on the other investment plans and strategies for managing longevity risk appropriate to the market in which they operate and the characteristics of the participants in this market.Currently in the world there are many types of retirement plans, the most important criteria to classify them are pension plan administrator, the connection with the employer participants, method of calculation of the benefit, the perspective of the pension plan, the way the pension plan isfund or through the multi-pillar approach.Keywords: defined benefit (DB type, defined contribution (DC type, pension system, annuity rate
María de los Ángeles AGUILERA VELASCO
Full Text Available A documentary compilation of films about retirement was made. The data of films, in language or subtitles in Spanish, that had an argument related to retirement or that their protagonists evidenced experiences of the retirement were included. The documentary compilation was made through the stages of search and analysis. 54 films were found and organized into nine categories. The oldest film was from 1924 and the most recent of 2017. 61.11% of films were made as of 2010. In five films (9.25% the protagonists wanted to commit suicide when leaving work. Euthanasia (5.55% was performed in three films (5.55%. The problem of retirement in women was found only in four films (7.49%. In 18 films (33.33% the male protagonists went through widowhood. Twenty-one countries participated in productions, the United States produced 21 films (38.88%. It provides a very extensive collection of valuable films that convey great lessons, allow us to reflect and raise awareness of this stage of life. It is recommended to socialize the films through socio-educational interventions and investigations, as well as to begin to inquire scientifically about the relationship between suicide and euthanasia in retirement.
a rhizomatic analytical move, a historization of the present is deployed to map the fabrication of the desired qualified citizen in Chile. The analysis evidences the (re)production of dominant narratives about the “qualified citizen” are and have been entangled with the functioning of school geometry...
Lee, Sok K
A retirement is a rite of passage that requires careful planning, because it forces a retiree to make a shift in the paradigm in life. For 37 years, I was a healing professional, a breadwinner, and a working spouse. I am now a jobless loner, an inactive pensioner, and a homebound spouse. In this retrospective autobiography, I suggest a few points to help my younger colleagues to better their upcoming retirement: professional, financial, social, and familial. To overcome Erikson's identity crisis, I volunteered to be a wounded healer at Warm Springs Indian Reservation. My volunteer medical service at Warm Springs Indian Reservation was a good antidote to creatively overcome my postretirement blues.
For years, the St. Louis school district has experienced the convergence of two trend lines school superintendents hope never to see: rising employee-pension costs and falling student enrollment. Despite years of fully funding its share of the teacher-pension plan, the proportion of the St. Louis district's budget tied up in paying benefits for…
"Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement
Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic
Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco
is married, and amongst these 24 percent has a working wife. This results from dramatic changes in the labor force behaviour of both older men and older women after World War II. These trends signal a need of investigating retirement choices at a household level. Using an absolutely new international micro...... data (SHARE, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe - Release 2), we adopt a duration analysis approach and estimate both single and competing risks models by allowing for a exible speci cation with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Our findings show that joint retirement is signi cantly...... correlated with education, age, and health status, together with partner's employment status, partner's education and partner's health status. We also perform a sensitivity analysis in order to check whether the results on the correlation of health status are robust to two alternative measures of health...
Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.
In this paper, we present an analysis of the Arkansas Teacher Retirement System (ATRS) pension plan and an empirical investigation of the behavioral response to that plan, as well as to a possible reform plan. We begin by describing the plan parameters and discussing the incentives these parameters create. We then estimate the effect of pension…
Dong, Francis Henry
In the wake of recent events, especially the Great Recession of 2007-2009, affecting the economy, resulting in job losses, personal financial distress, and gloomy perceptions of their future well-being, many Americans are concerned about their financial quality of life in retirement. The media is replete with a plethora of advertisements for…
Kerry, Matthew J; Embretson, Susan E
Future time perspective (FTP) is defined as "perceptions of the future as being limited or open-ended" (Lang and Carstensen, 2002; p. 125). The construct figures prominently in both workplace and retirement domains, but the age-predictions are competing: Workplace research predicts decreasing FTP age-change, in contrast, retirement scholars predict increasing FTP age-change. For the first time, these competing predictions are pitted in an experimental manipulation of subjective life expectancy (SLE). A sample of N = 207 older adults (age 45-60) working full-time (>30-h/week) were randomly assigned to SLE questions framed as either 'Live-to' or 'Die-by' to evaluate competing predictions for FTP. Results indicate general support for decreasing age-change in FTP, indicated by independent-sample t -tests showing lower FTP in the 'Die-by' framing condition. Further general-linear model analyses were conducted to test for interaction effects of retirement planning with experimental framings on FTP and intended retirement; While retirement planning buffered FTP's decrease, simple-effects also revealed that retirement planning increased intentions for sooner retirement, but lack of planning increased intentions for later retirement. Discussion centers on practical implications of our findings and consequences validity evidence in future empirical research of FTP in both workplace and retirement domains.
CERN's big Auditorium was packed on Friday 23 November for a 'Simon van der Meer Feest' to mark the formal retirement of the gifted Dutch accelerator physicist who has made so many valuable contributions to his field and to CERN's success
Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels: in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.
Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.
The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…
Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie
A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Elder, Jane D.
Free-lance librarianship is discussed, and retired librarians are urged to start their own information service as a business. Because computer based storage and retrieval systems are not socially, politically, or economically integrated, and one library cannot hold all information, new needs are emerging for information services. For example, a…
Dr Jon D. Stanford; Michael Drew; Bill Stanhope
This paper examines the findings of the research project, 'Retirement Savings: Drivers and Desires', commissioned by the Investment and Financial Services Association Ltd (IFSA) in 2001. The paper investigates retirement savings decision-making and retirement income product stream choice. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of questionnaire data relating to decision-making and product stream choice and discusses these issues in the context of established research findings about retire...
Cho, Hyejin; Suh, Wookyung; Lee, Jiyoung; Jang, Younju; Kim, Minjung
This study investigated a retirement coaching educational program using the mixed method research design. A structured survey was distributed to 48 financial planners who had undergone 50-hour retirement education including retirement coaching. The coaching was conducted in two sessions in 2015. Results revealed that first, the retirement coaching…
Price, William F.
With the trend toward early retirement and the fact that people are living to an older average age, more years of an individual's life will be spent in retirement. To examine personal values as psychological determinants of the retirement preparation process, 206 classified university employees, between the ages of 50 and 65 years of age,…
This paper discusses retirement as a learning process, where learning, be it formal or informal, enables retirees to adjust to the transition from work to retirement. Such discussion is important given the fact that the world population is aging and that more people are retiring in the next few decades. Moreover, people are experiencing an…
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten
The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...
Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen
The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
As mentioned briefly in the previous issue (page 28), last year Gus Voss reached the age of 65 and therefore was released from official duties at DESY from the beginning of this year. However, as a senior scientist, he keeps an office at DESY and will continue his work in all the international committees of which he is a member, as well as giving colleagues and friends around the world the benefit of his advice - ''if requested'', as he likes to phrase it. Gus Voss was leader of DESY's Accelerator Division and as such a Laboratory Director for exactly 22 years. He contributed to planning the first electron synchrotron at DESY back in 1958-9. Then he went to CEA (Cambridge, Massachusetts), where he directed with Ken Robinson the famous bypass electron-positron collider project. He is also well known for his important contributions to accelerator technology, like low beta insertion for storage rings, which he made (again with Ken Robinson) in 1966. In January 1973 he returned to DESY, called by Wolfgang Paul, then chairman of the Board of Directors. He arrived in time to commission and inaugurate the DORIS electronpositron storage ring in 1974 and then directed the design and construction of the bigger PETRA ring, which began operation in 1978. Together with Bjorn Wiik he directed construction of the HERA electronproton collider, in operation since 1992. During the last few years he took strong interest in linear colliders, together with Norbert Holtkamp building a 400 MeV test section to develop new linear collider technology. Voss' position at DESY is taken over by Dieter Trines (52) who contributed to the construction and commissioning of PETRA from 1975. Dieter Trines spent two years in the TASSO Group at PETRA and in 1983 joined the HERA effort as head of the Proton Ring Vacuum Group
Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl
We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the “optimal” health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, while at the same time individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, while retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and because they stay healthier retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster. PMID:22888062
Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Kock, Anders Bredahl; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
This article uses Danish register data to explain the retirement decision of workers in 1990 and 1998. Many variables might be conjectured to influence this decision such as demographic, socioeconomic, financial, and health related variables as well as all the same factors for the spouse in case ...... that this is the case for core variables such as age, income, wealth, and general health. We also point out the most important differences between these groups and explain why these might be present.......This article uses Danish register data to explain the retirement decision of workers in 1990 and 1998. Many variables might be conjectured to influence this decision such as demographic, socioeconomic, financial, and health related variables as well as all the same factors for the spouse in case...
Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Kock, Anders Bredahl; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
This paper uses Danish register data to explain the retirement decision of workers in 1990 and 1998.Many variables might be conjectured to influence this decision such as demographic, socio-economic, financially and health related variables as well as all the same factors for the spouse in case t...... such as age, income, wealth and general health. We also point out themost important differences between these groups and explain why these might be present.......This paper uses Danish register data to explain the retirement decision of workers in 1990 and 1998.Many variables might be conjectured to influence this decision such as demographic, socio-economic, financially and health related variables as well as all the same factors for the spouse in case...
Baker, Hallie E; Brown, Pamela Pitman
The three-legged stool concept is widely used in gerontological and geriatric education as an explanation on how one should fiscally approach his or her retirement. Financial managers, planners, retirees, business owners, even the Social Security Administration uses this metaphor of fiscal soundness in retirement planning. Gerontologists are moving away from the "tripod of retirement income" and "three-legged stool" term, as more often market work is needed for financial security. This activity focuses on the tripod or three-legged stool concepts of retirement planning using active learning, allowing the students to work collaboratively in a group, reflect upon the activity, and most importantly have fun. The game also allows for an expansion of the tripod concepts into the four pillars of economic security, broaching the use of personal assets and the possible need for longer employment. Game scenarios also emphasize macro- and microlevel forces, such as race, gender, health status, education, or marital status, which can influence timing of retirement or the level of retirement income available. The authors include instructions on how to set up the learning experience including worksheets, as well as reflection questions posed throughout the process.
... same department, or at the same location, to the same qualified separate line of business would be an... qualified separate lines of business. 1.414(r)-7 Section 1.414(r)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-7 Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified...
Denier, Nicole; Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M
This study examines the relationship between retirement and cognitive aging. We build on previous research by exploring how different specifications of retirement that reflect diverse pathways out of the labor market, including reason for leaving the pre-retirement job and duration spent in retirement, impact three domains of cognitive functioning. We further assess how early-life factors, including adolescent cognition, and mid-life work experiences, condition these relationships. To do so, we draw on longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study , a cohort study of Wisconsin high school graduates collected prospectively starting in 1957 until most recently in 2011 when individuals were aged 71. Results indicate that retirement, on average, is associated with improved abstract reasoning, but not with verbal memory or verbal fluency. Yet, when accounting for the reason individuals left their pre-retirement job, those who had retired for health reasons had both lower verbal memory and verbal fluency scores and those who had retired voluntarily or for family reasons had improved abstract memory scores. Together, the results suggest that retirement has an inconsistent effect on cognitive aging across cognitive domains and that the conditions surrounding the retirement decision are important to understanding cognitive functioning at older ages.
experience unique stresses associated with parental deployments and frequent relocations that can adversely affect academic performance. A military...publicpolicy.wharton.upenn.edu/live/news/317-an-affordable-and-equitable-retirement-system-for. See also David B. Newman , Mitigating the Inequity of...insurance plans in the style of FEHBP would greatly expand choice in health care and consequently provide beneficiaries demonstrated value, as
Full Text Available Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances for 1989 through 2013 reveal five broad findings. First, overall retirement plan participation was stable or rising through 2007, though overall participation fell noticeably in the wake of the Great Recession and has remained lower. Second, cohort-based analysis of life-cycle trajectories shows that participation in retirement plans is strongly correlated with income, and that the recent decline in participation is concentrated among younger and low- to middle-income families. Third, the shift in the type of pension coverage from defined benefit (DB to defined contribution (DC occurred within—not just across—income groups. Fourth, retirement wealth is less concentrated than nonretirement wealth, so the growth of retirement wealth relative to nonretirement wealth helped offset the increasing concentration in nonretirement wealth. Fifth, the shift from DB to DC had only a modest effect in the other direction because DC wealth is more concentrated than DB wealth.
Full Text Available Increasing life expectancy (LE raises expectations for social participation at later ages. We computed health expectancies (HE to assess the (unequal chances of social/work participation after age 50 in the context of France in 2003. We considered five HEs, covering various health situations which can jeopardize participation, and focused on both older ages and the pre-retirement period. HEs reveal large inequalities for both sexes in the chances of remaining healthy after retirement, and also of reaching retirement age in good health and without disability, especially in low-qualified occupations. These results challenge the policy expectation of an overall increase in social participation at later ages.
Podgursky, Michael; Aud Pendergrass, Susan; Hesla, Kevin
Public school districts are facing twin challenges: maintaining a labor supply of qualified teachers while shoring up the deteriorating system that compensates them. Keeping public-school teachers' pensions plans flush is expensive, and it accounts for a growing share of education spending. In some states, public charter schools provide an…
Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P; Pierron, B
As of 1995, there were 5.3 million small-employer firms (100 or fewer employees) in the United States. These small firms employed 38.0 million individuals, representing 38 percent of all employment. Therefore, low retirement plan coverage among small employers directly affects a sizeable fraction of the national work force. There are a number of reasons why more small employers do not offer retirement plans. Cost and administration-related issues do matter, but for many small employers these take a back seat to other issues. For some, the main driver is the financial reality of running a small business: Their revenue is too uncertain to commit to a plan. For others, the most important reasons for not sponsoring a plan are employee-related, e.g., the workers do not consider retirement savings to be a priority, or the employer's work force has such high turnover that it does not make sense to sponsor a plan. Many nonsponsors are unfamiliar with the different retirement plan types available to them as potential plan sponsors, especially the options created specifically for small employers. For example, most nonsponsors said they have never heard of (36 percent) or are not too familiar with (20 percent) SIMPLE plans for small businesses. Fifteen percent of small employers report that they are very likely to start a plan in the next two years, while 24 percent say this is somewhat likely. Nonsponsors report that the two items most likely to lead to serious consideration of sponsoring a plan are an increase in profits (69 percent) and business tax credits for starting a retirement plan (67 percent). Major drivers of low retirement plan sponsorship among small employers are who they employ and the uncertainty of revenue flows. While issues of administrative cost and burden matter, they are only part of the puzzle. Therefore, the solution is not simply "build it and they will come," by creating simpler and simpler retirement plans geared to small businesses. Rather, it is
Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann
Uncertain time of retirement and uncertain structure of retirement benefits are risk factors for life insurance companies. Nevertheless, classical life insurance models assume these are deterministic. In this paper, we include the risk from stochastic time of retirement and stochastic benefit...... structure in a classical finite-state Markov model for a life insurance contract. We include discontinuities in the distribution of the retirement time. First, we derive formulas for appropriate scaling of the benefits according to the time of retirement and discuss the link between the scaling...... and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...
Raymo, James M.; Sweeney, Megan M
Objectives: This study investigates relationships between perceived levels of work-family conflict and retirement preferences. Methods: Using the large sample of 52-54 year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimate multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next ten years. We examine the association between preferences for retirement and perceived work-family conflict...
Coombs, Jennifer; Hooker, Roderick S; Brunisholz, Kim
To determine predictors of physician assistants (PAs) to retire or to permanently leave clinical practice. The intent was to create a measure of retention and attrition for purposes of forecasting PA supply. All PAs 55 years or older who were nationally certified in 2011 were surveyed. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures utilizing means, standard deviations, range, and proportions for all survey questions. Univariable analysis using χ² test for the categorical variables determined gender differences in participants' intent to retire. A studentized t test analysis for continuous variables was used to compare differences across genders. The estimated time interval until retirement was calculated using reported values from participants and then subtracting their projected retirement age from current age. The same calculation was used for estimating PA career length from date of graduation to retirement. For all analyses, a P value surveyed online; 4767 responded (38%). The mean age was 60 years and the years in clinical practice was 25. When asked to predict a retirement date or age, the mean duration of working beyond age 55 years was 12 years (range 5 to 21). Most respondents reported being confident they were on track to retire with an adequate income. The significant differences that emerged were that men were more confident than women in preparing to retire, having enough money for medical expenses, and being able to live comfortably in retirement. Men more than women stated that, if forced to retire, they were more confident in the preparation to do so. PAs 55 years and older report they are likely to delay retirement from practice until age 67 years, on average. Women were less confident than men in retirement preparation. This age prediction expands career projections and refines forecasting models for the profession. Correlations based on expectation-action chain of events should be developed by periodically measuring how often intent and
... POLICY AND PROCEDURES TO FACILITATE THE RETENTION OF DISPLACED BUSINESSES AND RESIDENTS IN THE... leasing plan which are, in the Corporation's opinion, major. (c) Each Qualified Person on the List, who is... opportunity to occupy Newly Developed Space shall not be limited to the square on which its previous location...
... the day before the qualifying event (that is, the divorce or death) will have been by reason of D's... event, and the reason for the individual's lack of actual coverage (such as the individual's having..., the individual is covered under the group health plan by reason of another individual's election of...
Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M
This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.
Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T; Hietanen, P; Carlsen, K; Gudbergsson, S; Gunnarsdottir, H
This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors. We identified breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1997 and 2002 from either a hospital or a cancer registry in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway (NOCWO study). All patients had been treated with curative intent. Information on employment, co-morbidity and support was collected via a questionnaire. The sample included 1111 working-aged cancer-free survivors who had been employed at the time of diagnosis. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the association of various determinants with early retirement and other non-employment (due to unemployment, subsidized employment or being a homemaker). Low education, low physical quality of life, co-morbidity and pain were associated with both early retirement and other non-employment after cancer. Other non-employed survivors also rated their mental quality of life as lower and experienced anxiety and fatigue more often than all the other survivors. Moreover, they reported a lower level of supervisor support after their diagnosis than the employed survivors. Retired survivors more often reported weak support from colleagues. Differences in ill health and functional status between various groups of non-employed cancer survivors need to be considered when planning policy measures for improving the labour market participation of this population and preventing their early withdrawal from working life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne
Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction with life in retirement. The Global Motivation Scale and measures of satisfaction with retirement were administered to 150 active retired individuals engaged in organized post-retirement activities in a University-based organization. Results revealed that these individuals were mainly characterized by higher levels of intrinsic motivation for knowledge, stimulation and accomplishment, rather than extrinsic dimensions. Regression analysis further demonstrated that intrinsic motivation for both accomplishment and stimulation were positively related to satisfaction with retirement, over and above the significant contribution of time since retirement, anticipated satisfaction with retirement, and subjective health. This exploratory study highlights the motivational mechanisms through which post-retirement behaviors could positively influence satisfaction with life in retirement among active retirees.
Aguirre Gas, Héctor G
Human beings have a natural resistance to think about their old age, both personally and professionally. Governments have targeted efforts to successfully prolong the life of the population, situation which already is a social and economic problem. “Old is a person with physical, intellectual and emotional limitations, who has a reduced autonomy and welfare, as a result of the years lived”. Not everyone ages at the same age; it will depend on health, habits, physical and intellectual activity, nutritional status, vices and attitude towards life. A physician may decide not to continue exercising medicine due to: health problems, because they do not want to, because they do not feel competent, because of the risk of having to deal with a complaint or a lawsuit, to have a new life project, or because they have no patients. The options available for a doctor at the time of retirement will depend on his/her age, health status, stage of the aging process: autonomy, dependency or old age; his/her physical and mental condition, professional development, economic situation and family environment. A doctor may remain independent, join another family or seek shelter in a retirement home.
Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.
Risk from retired surplus facilities has always been assumed to be low at the Hanford Site as the facilities are inactive and have few potentials for causing an offsite hazardous material release. However,the fatal accident that occurred in the spring of 1992 in which an employee fell through a deteriorated roof at the 105-F Reactor Building has raised the possibility that retired facilities represent a greater risk than was originally assumed. Therefore, Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy management have determined that facility risk management strategies and programmatic plans should be reevaluated to assure risks are identified and appropriate corrective action plans are developed. To evaluate risk management strategies, accurate risk information about the current and projected condition of the facilities must be developed. This work procedure has been created to address the development of accurate and timely risk information. By using the evaluation results in this procedure, it will be possible to create a prioritized baseline for managing facility risk until all retired surplus facilities are demolished
... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating qualified...
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified joint and survivor annuities. 1.401(a...)-11 Qualified joint and survivor annuities. (a) General rule—(1) Required provisions. A trust, to...), which is a part of a plan providing for the payment of benefits in any form of a life annuity (as...
Xia, Bo; Zuo, Jian; Skitmore, Martin; Buys, Laurie; Hu, Xin
With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia's central business district (CBD). Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.
Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.
The authors analyze the Arkansas teacher pension plan and empirically gauge the behavioral response to incentives embedded in that plan and to possible reforms. The pattern of pension wealth accrual creates sharp incentives to work until eligible for early or normal retirement, often in one's early fifties, and to separate shortly thereafter. We…
Rygg, D.E.; O'Hare, G.J.
Industry initiatives have been taken to improve procurement practices and commercial dedication programs, formation of procurement engineering groups, emphasis on product quality, and increased engineering involvement in procurement and maintenance of qualified equipment. This poses new challenges for many licensees in terms of resources, product knowledge, and access to information normally held proprietary by equipment suppliers. Alternative approaches to future licensee/Westinghouse relationships which will allow licensees to adapt to the changing environment are discussed. 2 figs
The Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) was created to enable a surviving beneficiary of a retired military service member to continue to receive a portion of the retiree's retirement benefits upon the death of the retiree...
Prast, Henriette; van Soest, Arthur
To meet the challenges of an ageing population, eligibility ages for state pensions have increased, early retirement arrangements have been abolished, and a substantial part of the risk and responsibility for an adequate standard of living after retirement has been shifted from the government,
Dorfman, Lorraine; Kolarik, Douglas
Little attention has been given to the leisure activities of retired professors, whose activity patterns in retirement may be different from those of other occupational groups because of their lifetime commitment to work. This interview study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate: (a) the leisure and professional activities of…
Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.
The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…
Abolhassani, Marzieh; Alessie, Rob
This paper studies the effect of both retirement and unemployment on life satisfaction, using subjective satisfaction indicators from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Moreover, we analyze how accurate individuals anticipate changes in satisfaction around retirement, as well as the correlation
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...
Zuehlsdorff, Harry W.; Baldwin, Cynthia
Preparing for retirement can sometimes be problematic since it means that one is aging and moving into another life cycle change. This paper will review some factors to consider in making the transition a more positive experience. The impact of retirement on older citizens is frequently neglected in the counseling arena. In the current youth…
Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J
In recent decades, employers have increasingly replaced defined benefit (DB) pensions with defined contribution (DC) retirement accounts for their employees. DB plans provide annuities, or lifetime benefits paid at regular intervals. The timing and amounts of DC distributions, however, may vary widely. Most surveys that provide data on the family income of the aged either collect no data on nonannuity retirement account distributions, or exclude such distributions from their summary measures of family income. We use Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data for 2009 to estimate the impact of including retirement account distributions on total family income calculations. We find that about one-fifth of aged families received distributions from retirement accounts in 2009. Measured mean income for those families would be about 15 percent higher and median income would be 18 percent higher if those distributions were included in the SIPP summary measure of family income.
Suedfeld, Peter; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim; Brcic, Jelena
Motivational patterns have been shown to be related to outcomes such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, cooperation, and conformity. They are likely to be important in adaptation to the demands of flying in a space crew. Autobiographical interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts were scored for references to three core motives: the needs for Achievement, Power, and Affiliation. Overall, the cosmonauts mentioned need for Affiliation most often, followed by need for Achievement, with need for Power the least frequently mentioned. However, need for Power increased between reminiscences of one's pre-flight career to those concerning the in-flight and post-flight periods. Imagery related to both other needs decreased. Cosmonauts who had spent less than a year in space mentioned need for Achievement significantly more frequently than those who had spent more than a year. Other space-experience and demographic variables, and changes across pairs of career phases, were not significant. The high scores for need for Affiliation indicate the importance of selecting compatible teams and fostering friendship and cooperation during training and deployment. A relatively flat hierarchical organization would be harmonious with low Power motivation; but the increase during missions indicates a desire for autonomy. After retirement from spaceflight, former space crews should be afforded opportunities for leadership and decision-making to satisfy continuing need for Power. Comparison is made to the same measures applied to a sample of ISS crewmembers, and to the ISS vs. veteran data for 8 cosmonauts who were included in both sets of data.
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and has...
... qualified public accountant for employee benefit plans with fewer than 100 participants. 2520.104-46 Section... Requirements § 2520.104-46 Waiver of examination and report of an independent qualified public accountant for... public accountant to conduct an examination of the financial statements of the plan; (2) Include within...
Quinn, J F
contribution plans, which do not contain the age-specific retirement incentives that many defined benefit plans do. The composition of jobs has shifted from manufacturing to service occupations. Americans are living longer and healthier lives, and many look forward to years to productive activity after age 65. These structural changes have been accompanied by an important cyclical factor: the strength of the American economy over the past decade. This has increased the demand for all types of labor, including older workers. Evidence suggests that there is more than this cyclical factor at work, however, and that new attitudes about work late in life are developing. Labor supply decisions late in life are correlated in expected ways with the individual's health (measured in several ways), age, and pension and health insurance status. Retirement patterns in America are much richer and more varied than the stereotypical one-step view of retirement suggests. Public policy is changing in ways that make continued work late in life more likely. If employers are willing to provide flexible job opportunities to meet the needs of these potential employees, then society can tap a growing pool of older, experienced, and willing workers for years to come.
Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...
Vorchheiner, Alan H; Zaleta, Cynthia O
Much of the discussion on the decumulation phase of retirement savings has focused on the lack of any lifetime annuities. But there is a whole range of options sponsors can employ to facilitate the generation of retirement income and bolster financial wellness. As U.S. employers show no sign of substantially increasing spending on compensation or benefits, it is imperative that human resources professionals help employees--particularly the retiring baby boomers--to maximize what they have saved. This article presents five first-step ideas toward achieving that goal.
Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.
Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .
... retirement benefits, such as preretirement disability benefits not in excess of the qualified disability... benefit that is paid in a form that is not a straight life annuity to take into account the inclusion in...
Full Text Available The study examined retirement adjustment of teacher-retirees in Osun State, and explored the interaction effects of pre-retirement guidance and family in-volvement on retirement adjustment. Exposit-facto design was used. The population comprised retirees from public, civil and private establishments from which 122 teacher-retirees were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. An instrument: Family Involvement, Pre-retirement Guidance and Retirement Adjustment Questionnaire was used for data collection. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that retirees in Osun State are not optimally adjusted, and positive significant interaction effect was found between family involvement and pre-retirement guidance on retirees adjustment, among others. Appropriate policy implications are outlined.
The classical economics perspective is that public policy should be used to allow, not hinder, economic freedom. In some cases it may be possible for government to gently nudge individuals to change their behavior without hindering freedom. One example is a change from the default on pension program enrollment forms from "not contribute" to "contribute." This is generally viewed as a good nudge that gets people to do what the majority of people view as generally the correct behavior. However, a choice to contribute to a pension fund is not always in the individual's best interest - thus, it is a nudge, not a mandate. To maintain personal liberty, individuals should be fully informed about the consequences of their choice and the motives of the political authority. Saving for retirement is a complex issue, and pension contribution decisions are often made with little foresight or information. Pension contribution nudges may not always be freedom preserving because of complexity and unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and limitations of default contribution pension nudges are discussed.
de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna Rm; Hoekstra, Trynke; Geuskens, Goedele A; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J
Objectives Before actual retirement, employees may already distance themselves from work, which could be referred to as "mental retirement". However, trajectories of work motivation, ie, work engagement, have not been studied yet. The present study aimed to (i) identify different trajectories of work engagement among older workers approaching the retirement age, and (ii) examine their associations with actual retirement. Methods In total 3171 employees aged 55-62 years, who participated in the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included in this study. Participants completed questionnaires in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Latent class growth mixture modeling was performed to identify groups of employees with similar three-year trajectories in work engagement. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether trajectory membership was associated with retirement. Results Of the 3171 employees, 16.2% made a transition from work to (early) retirement (N=513). Four trajectories of work engagement were identified: steady high (76.3%), steady low (12.7%), decreasing (6.2%), and increasing (4.8%). A steady low work engagement trajectory was associated with retirement [odds ratio (OR) 1.46], compared to a steady high work engagement trajectory. Although not statistically significant, an increasing work engagement trajectory seemed to be associated with retirement as well (OR 1.60). Conclusions This study did not support the concept of mental retirement before actual retirement, ie, a decrease in work engagement among those facing retirement. However, as one in eight employees did experience steady low work engagement in the years before retirement, interventions promoting work motivation are recommended to support the employability of these employees.
Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Commitee at its meeting on 9 November 2015 and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2016 until 31 March 2017; the Scheme of Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2016 until 31 December 2016. Further information is available from the following sites: - https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/progressive-retirement-programme-prp - https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/part-time-work-pre-retirement-measure-ptp Human Resources Department Tel.: 79257 / 73903
Bertocchi, Marida; Ziemba, William T.
A straightforward guide focused on life cycle investing-namely aging, retirement, and pensions Life cycle investing and the implications of aging, retirement, and pensions continues to grow in importance. With people living longer, the relative and absolute number of retirees is growing while the number of workers contributing to pension funds is declining. This reliable resource develops a detailed economic analysis-at the micro (individual) and macro (economy wide) levels-which addresses issues regarding the economics of an aging population. Topics touched upon include retirement and the associated health care funding of the aged as well as social security and the asset classes that are considered asset-liability choices over time. The probability of achieving adequate return patterns from various investment strategies and asset classes is reviewed Shares rich insights on the aging, retirement, and pensions dilemma An assessment of the resources the real economy will be able to commit to non-workers is prov...
Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E
For decades, policymakers have discussed how to remedy the high poverty rates of older widows. Yet older divorced women are more likely to be poor than older widows, and historical divorce and remarriage trends suggest that in the future a larger share of retired women will be divorced. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to project the retirement resources and wellbeing of divorced women. We find that Social Security benefits and retirement incomes are projected to increase for divorced women and that their poverty rates are projected to decline, due in large part to women's increasing lifetime earnings. However, not all divorced women will be equally well off economic well-being in retirement varies by Social Security benefit type.
...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... difficult. In February 2009, the USPS TM announced its intention to retire the FASTforward system by the end...
Dorfman, Nancy S.
The discussion is confined to the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) and how they have remained effective with the rise of inflation. (Author/BP)
Oude Mulders, J.
Population aging and the resulting retirement-related policy reforms are leading to higher rates of labor market participation among older workers and later retirement ages. In addition, working beyond traditional retirement ages, thereby combining employment with retirement, is also increasingly
.... (a) To satisfy the requirements of § 838.804(b)(1), a court order must contain language identifying...) and (b)(2) of this section, language referring to benefits under another retirement system, such as military retired pay, Foreign Service retirement benefits and Central Intelligence Agency retirement...
... order must contain language identifying the retirement system to be affected. For example, “CSRS,” “FERS... in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, language referring to benefits under another retirement system, such as military retired pay, Foreign Service retirement benefits or Central Intelligence...
... type. (d) OPM also considers a disability retirement application to be withdrawn when the agency... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of...
...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement pay by the Department of Veterans Affairs under Pub. L. 87-875 (sec. 11(b), Pub. L. 85-857) from date...
This paper uses administrative data from millions of 401(k) participants dating back to 1996 as well as several simulation models to determine 401(k) plans' susceptibility to several alleged limitations as well as its potential for significant retirement wealth accumulation for employees working for employers who have chosen to sponsor these plans. What will happen to 401(k) participants after the 2008 market decline will be largely determined by the extent to which the features of automatic enrollment, automatic escalation of contributions, and automatic investment are allowed to play out. Simulation results suggest that the first two features will significantly improve retirement wealth for the lowest-income quartiles going forward, and the third feature (primarily target-date funds) suggest that a large percentage of those on the verge of retirement would benefit significantly by a reduction of equity concentrations to a more age-appropriate level.
served after December 31, 2014. 9 Department of Defense, Valuation of the Military Retirement System, September 30, 2006, DOD Office of the Actuary...provision twice; first in 2014 (P.L. 113-82 §10001; formerly known as South Utah Valley Electric Conveyance Act) to apply only to servicemembers...Actuary, Valuation of the Military Retirement System, September 30, 2014, rev. June 2016. DOD budget authority and outlays in each fiscal year that
Rook, Christopher J.
Prior to the financial crisis mortgage securitization models increased in sophistication as did products built to insure against losses. Layers of complexity formed upon a foundation that could not support it and as the foundation crumbled the housing market followed. That foundation was the Gaussian copula which failed to correctly model failure-time correlations of derivative securities in duress. In retirement, surveys suggest the greatest fear is running out of money and as retirement dec...
Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue
Purpose Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement i...... at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees’ decision on early retirement....
Retirement implies an important change from a working environment to a new lifestyle. Every individual copes with this transition in his own way. In this video, registered already a few years ago, Dr. Sartorius from WHO addresses some of his colleagues close to retirement and explains what situations they can expect to encounter. We make this video available to CERN personnel to stimulate their own thinking on the subject.
reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving...mandated accrual account - ing to fund the military retirement benefit liability and specified the use of the aggregate entry-age normal accounting ...tary retirees; military retirement was a pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) system. The shift to accrual accounting sought to meet the objective of recog- nizing
Kanika Kapur; Jeannette Rogowski
This paper examines the role of employer provided health insurance in the retirement decisions of dual working couples. The near elderly have high-expected medical expenditures; therefore, availability of health insurance is an important factor in their retirement decisions. We determine if access to retiree health insurance for early retirement enables couples to time their retirement together %u2013 a behavior called %u201Cjoint retirement.%u201D We find that wives%u2019 retiree health insu...
Full Text Available Introduction: Phased retirement involves reducing working time in the final years before retirement. The aim of phased retirement is to extend working careers and retain older workers who would otherwise opt for full early retirement. This article investigates the effect of offering phased retirement on early-retirement behaviour in Norway.Method: The data used in the analysis covers the period between 2000 and 2010 and comprises all employees between 61 and 62 years of age (N= 18 174 who were employed in any of the 442 companies that participated in a 2010 survey carried out by the Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research and Respons Analyse AS, a Norwegian research firm. I use a difference-in-differences approach and logistic regression, which enables the measurement of changes in the individual relative risk of retiring full-time on the contractual pension (AFP, avtalefestet pensjon, contractual early-retirement pension, before and after the introduction of phased retirement as a retention measure.Results: The results show that working in a company that offers reduced working hours for older workers does not have an effect on the relative risk of a 61- or 62-year-old withdrawing a full contractual pension in the next two years of their employment. This result is evident both before and after controlling for a range of known individual risk factors, as well as after controlling for company characteristics.Discussion: In the search for suitable measures for retaining older workers, offering phased retirement may still be part of the answer. Though my analysis does not support the idea that more flexible working hours is a decisive factor for those who choose to opt for full early retirement, a possible next step could be to investigate the impact of offering flexible working hours on the employment duration of those who do remain in employment.
Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Hoekstra, T.; Geuskens, G.A.; Burdorf, L.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives Before actual retirement, employees may already distance themselves from work, which could be referred to as "mental retirement". However, trajectories of work motivation, ie, work engagement, have not been studied yet. The present study aimed to (i) identify different trajectories of
The concept of career set is employed as the basis for a framework designed to analyze the impact of women's involvement in multiple careers on their adjustment to retirement. The author concludes that the familial careers engaged in by married, working women have a mediative effect on their transition to retirement. (Author/CT)
Binswanger, J.; Carman, K.G.
Large variations in retirement wealth are common, with some households accumulating hundreds of thousands of dollars and others accumulating next to nothing. We examine to what extent formal planning or simple rules of thumb contribute to these differences in wealth accumulation. In particular, we
Julia Morais Vilela
Full Text Available This is a descriptive exploratory study aimed at understanding the plans and prospects of individuals concerning retirement, building social support network, and activities of daily living and their importance. The study sample was composed of ten civil servants from a Federal University in Minas Gerais state who participated in the Retirement Preparation Program - PPA. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and the application of The Convoy of Social Support. Data were analyzed by discourse analysis based on Pêcheux’s conception. The results showed that women had more concrete plans than men, already engaging in other activities before retiring. It was also found that the social support network of most civil servants was restricted to the family. With respect to activities of daily living, most of the subjects in the sample currently regard their work as the main activity and intend to devote most of their time to volunteer work after retirement. We conclude that the fact that the subjects wish to retire does not mean they are prepared for it; therefore, the participation of Occupational Therapy in PPA allows civil servant to plan life projects that put them into action before their retirement.
Austring, Bennye Düranc; Sørensen, Merete Cornet
UCSJ-delen af den afsluttende rapport fra Nordplus-projektet "Qualified Empathy", der blev gennemført sammen med Metropolia, Helsinki, og NTNU, Trondheim, i 2015 og 15.......UCSJ-delen af den afsluttende rapport fra Nordplus-projektet "Qualified Empathy", der blev gennemført sammen med Metropolia, Helsinki, og NTNU, Trondheim, i 2015 og 15....
Sujatna, Eva Tuckyta Sari; Wahyuni, Sri
The paper titled "Nominal Group as Qualifier to 'Someone'" investigated types of qualifiers which are embedded to the head "someone" in a nominal group. This research was conducted in the light of Systemic Functional Linguistics analysis. The data was analyzed, classified then described using descriptive qualitative method.…
Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the current situation of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic applying the ISCO qualification. Previous studies suggest that educational attainment has an important impact on labour market performance and national competitiveness. Data analyses approved that highly qualified workforce positively influences economic situation of the EU–15 Member States they work in. However, this hypothesis was disapproved for the EU–10+3 Member States joining the EU after 2004. The difference can be explained by the various stage in convergence process since some New Member States are still in transformation period. We positively appraise the significant growth of fraction of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic since 2004, especially in the major group Professionals involving the most qualified workforce. The same trend happened also for the highly qualified foreigners in the Czech Republic, however their attracting still remains a challenge.
Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; de Wind, Astrid; Westerman, Marjan J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Geuskens, Goedele A
Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60-64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement ('push factors'), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement ('pull factors') included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and psychosocial job characteristics on the one hand, and
Siegenthaler, J K; Brenner, A M
Older workers in the United States indicate that they would prefer flexible work arrangements rather than abrupt retirement, yet management has done very little to make this possible. A review of two bodies of literature from the late 1980s is presented: social science writings including sociological, gerontological, and economic literature, and business and management literature. There is a clash between the way jobs are traditionally scheduled and the needs of growing numbers of older workers. Workers continue to be subject to obstacles to phased retirement due to the structuring of health care and pension benefits, downsizing, organizational inflexibility, and "corporate culture." Thus, general views among social scientists regarding the desirability of flexible schedules toward retirement will not produce real changes unless management becomes committed to such changes and they are securely embedded in company policies.
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
changes of taxes, government spending components and the retirement age in politico-economic equilibrium. Growth is driven by capital accumulation and productivity increases fueled by public investment. The closed-form solutions of the model predict taxation and the retirement age in OECD economies...... to increase in response to demographic ageing and per-capita growth to accelerate. If the retirement age were held constant, the growth rate in politico-economic equilibrium would essentially remain unchanged, due to a surge of social security transfers and crowding out of public investment.......We analyze the short and long run effects of demographic ageing - increased longevity and reduced fertility - on per-capita growth. The OLG model captures direct effects, working through adjustments in the savings rate, labor supply, and capital deepening, and indirect effects, working through...
L.M. Magda Hewitt
findings support that limitations impacting on good retirement fund governance are (1 lack of knowledge, (2 lack of experience, (3 independence and (4 lack of capacity of RFTs. Legislative and regulatory framework changed in recent years, resulting in an increased complexity in managing the affairs of retirement funds. A great need for qualified and skilled RFTs was expressed. Practical and managerial implications: Servant leadership qualities proved useful to profile and aid the selection, appointment and training of RFTs in a meaningful way, thereby benefiting the broader South African retirement fund industry and social welfare of all South Africans. The importance of the role human resources practitioners can play to aid their employees to correctly select and appoint a RFT cannot be emphasised enough. Contribution: The many practical contributions of the study were evident from the real and tangible outcomes of using a servant leader’s profile to select, appoint and train prospective RFTs to serve on the BoTs of pension funds, to ensure that social justice is upheld for those members of society who cannot protect themselves.
Nielsen, Torben Heien; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Chetty, Raj
Do retirement savings policies – such as tax subsidies or employer-provided pension plans – increase total saving for retirement or simply induce shifting across accounts? We revisit this classic question using 45 million observations on savings for the population of Denmark. We find that a policy......'s impact on total savings depends critically on whether it changes savings rates by active or passive choice. Tax subsidies, which rely upon individuals to take an action to raise savings, have small impacts on total wealth. We estimate that each $1 of tax expenditure on subsidies increases total saving...... by 1 cent. In contrast, policies that raise savings automatically even if individuals take no action – such as employer-provided pensions or automatic contributions to retirement accounts – increase wealth accumulation substantially. Price subsidies only affect the behavior of active savers who respond...
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annuities under âqualified plansâ and section 403(b) annuity contracts. 20.2039-2 Section 20.2039-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2039-2 Annuities under “qualified plans” and section 403(b) annuity...
Full Text Available Objectives: This research was administered with the aim of studying the relationship between retirement syndrome components with general health symptoms in retired adults in Esfahan city. Methods & Materials: This research carried out in descriptive and correlational method. Research statistical population was the retired adults in Esfahan city, among them, 461 persons for participating to research were selected using stratified random sampling, and then retirement syndrome questionnaire (helplessness and failure, older and idleness, trying and new direction and conflict and confusion and general health questionnaire (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression administered to them. Results: 1 Three components have predictive power for prediction of somatization, consisted of: helplessness and failure, older and idleness, trying and new directions, 2 for prediction of anxiety and insomnia, helplessness and failure, trying and new direction, older and idleness have significant predictive power, 3 For prediction of social dysfunction, helplessness and failure, and trying and new directions have significant predictive power, 4 For prediction of depression also, helplessness and failure and trying and new directions have significant predictive power. Conclusion: The finding of this research revealed that, helplessness and failure along with trying and new direction are the two components which must be considered in retired adults. Therefore, it is essential for this two dimensions established counseling centers related to retirement centers for helping retired adults.
Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 27 November 2014 and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2015 until 31 March 2016; the Scheme of Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2015 until 31 December 2015. Further information is available at the following sites: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/node/447 https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/node/484 Human Resources Department Tel. 79257 / 73903
Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Commitee at its meeting on 5 December 2013 and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2014 until 31 March 2015; the Scheme of Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2014 until 31 December 2014. Further information is available from the following sites: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_prp_fr.asp https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_pTp_fr.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/ 73903
Human Resources Department
Following recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2011 until 31 March 2012; and the Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2011 until 31 December 2011. Further information is available from the following sites: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_prp.asp https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_pTp.asp Tel. 73903
Following recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 2 December 2011 and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2012 until 31 March 2013; and the Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2012 until 31 December 2012. Further information is available from the following sites: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_prp.asp https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_pTp.asp Tel. 73903 Human Resources Department
Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Commitee at its meeting on 4 December 2012 and approval by the Director-General, please note that: the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, from 1 April 2013 until 31 March 2014; and the Scheme of Part-Time Work as a Pre-retirement Measure has also been extended by one year, from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2013. Further information is available from the following sites: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_prp_fr.asp https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/retraite/proc_pTp_fr.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 73903
22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...VALUE OF THE TSP ...........16 D. ELEMENTS OF RETIRE TOOL ANALYSIS .....................................18 1. Cash Flow Analysis...23 3. Cash Flow Comparison ...............................................................24 4. Volatility Analysis
What shapes the size of a personal network of family and friends? We concentrates here on the effect of retirement from the work force. Retirement provides time to develop personal relationships; but it deprives from a potential supply of colleague friends. We draw evidence from a new question on the number of confidants in the 4th wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The survey allows to take into account many potential determinants of personal relations. A first re...
Full Text Available In light of recent policies aiming to promote the prolongation of working life, one of the key questions is how people have adjusted their retirement expectations (i.e., realistic plans and preferences (i.e., wishes and desires. We explore which social groups plan to continue working after the statutory retirement age, and whether they wish to do it or whether it is a forced choice (‘involuntary’ work. Overall, almost all employed late career workers plan to work until or beyond retirement age in Estonia, especially men and those who have more educational and health resources. Still, results of a joint analysis of plans and wishes indicate that two groups have a higher risk of ‘involuntary’ work. First, a higher education combined with a low job satisfaction predicts staying longer in the labour despite the wish to retire as early as possible. Second, individuals who have poor health and a low job satisfaction often wish to retire as early as possible but stay in the labour market until reaching to the compulsory retirement age. Thus, policy measures increasing merely the statutory retirement age create tensions, especially among those not satisfied with their jobs. More analytical work and policy measures are needed to provide solutions at the workplace level that would enable a prolonged work career.
...) civilian acquisition workforces. The greater need for workforce planning is expected to arise from an unusually heavy workforce turnover, itself due to a large number of expected retirements among older employees in a workforce...
Michinov, Estelle; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne
The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of retirees' social identity and its impact on satisfaction with retirement. From social identity theory formulations, we assumed that (1) retiree-identity was comprised of three distinct components (cognitive, evaluative, and affective), and (2) only the affective component would play a role…
Montizaan, R.M.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.
This paper investigates whether employers can induce employees to postpone retirement by offering access to training courses that maintain job proficiency. We use unique, matched employer-employee surveys for the Dutch public sector, which include detailed information on a wide range of HR practices
Full Text Available One consequence of demographic change is a longer average remaining lifetime after retirement. Many people, however, remain able and willing to continue work after reaching the statutory retirement age. Given the predicted shortage of skilled workers in the future, post-retirement activities have the potential to contribute to both organisations and society. This article elaborates the prerequisites for productivity in retirement age and the changed nature of retirement at present.It also quantifies the extent to which activities are continued at retirement age. Paid employment still occurs beyond the applicable retirement age, whereby with increasing age, self-employed persons and assistant family members make up the lion’s share of the statistics. An empirical study shows the concrete situation of active retirees and the prerequisites for post-retirement activities. At the explorative level, individual experiences of the transition into retirement, the reasons for and the framework of post-retirement activities, motivational factors in job design, and physical and intellectual demands before and after retirement are characterised. The qualitative data indicate that retirement entails changes towards more flexible structures in everyday life. Decisive reasons for taking up post-retirement activities are the desire to help, pass on knowledge or remain active; personal development and contact with others; and gaining appreciation and recognition. Flexible job design and freedom to make decisions constitute major elements in shaping post-retirement working activities. Offering autonomy, skill variety, and task significance is important for the design of post-retirement activities. The paper closes with identifying relevant research fields and the concrete need to take action at individual, organisational, and societal levels. All in all, the transition from working life to retirement should be made flexible enough to do greater justice to the
Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa
Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...
Full Text Available With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia’s central business district (CBD. Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.
Human Resources Department
Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 8 November 2004, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2005 until 31 March 2006; of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure with effect from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128
Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 25 January 2006, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2006 until 31 March 2007; of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2006, i.e. until 31 December 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128
Upon the proposal of the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 25 November 2002, the Director-General has approved the extension for one year of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2003, and of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for requested effective dates commencing not later than 1 January 2004. Human Resources Division Tel. 72808/74128
... mandatory retirement age); (2) early optional retirement eligibility; (3) enhanced annuity provisions (to... barred from reemployment in any position except a primary position after age 60. Service by a reemployed... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers...
... that gender does not constitute a barrier in the adult lives in retirement. The study concluded that retirement education is a panacea for positive crisis-free retirement life. It was recommended that counselors should emphasize the need for retirees to understand the factors capable of causing stress and broken homes.
O'Connor, Lisa G.
This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…
Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha
Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extraordinary retirement losses. 1773.41 Section 1773... Documentation § 1773.41 Extraordinary retirement losses. The CPA's workpapers must contain an analysis of retirement losses, including any required approval by a regulatory commission with jurisdiction in the matter...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation to...
.... It demonstrates that the inequity of the military retirement system is compounded by the fact that although the system does not comply with the minimum standards required of private-sector retirement...
Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca
By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in healthpromoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum
Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R
Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Davies, E.M.M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Flynn, M.
In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination
Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven
The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.
Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Khoshknab, Masood Fallahi
According to recent studies, the level of international interest in bridge employment, as return to work after retirement, has been growing. This study aimed to explore the experiences of retired nurses in Iran with regard to making a decision about whether or not to seek bridge employment. A qualitative study using a content analysis approach was conducted in an urban area of Iran. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 Iranian male and female retired nurses chosen using purposive sampling. During the data analysis, two main themes were identified as the participants' thoughts supporting the decision of seeking bridge employment. The first theme was entitled motivational factors with categories of ``serving the society,'' ``maintaining and promoting health,'' ``tendency toward flexible work,'' and ``maintaining the role and activity.'' The second theme was entitled forcing factors with categories of ``ardent desire to work (pluralistic ignorance)'' and ``financial need.' ' While some Iranian retired nurses were not motivated to seek work for health reasons, most preferred to return to work after retirement. They were motivated to seek bridge employment out of a desire to serve the society, to promote their own physical and mental health, to continue to use their expertise and maintain the worker role, and because of financial needs and perceived societal expectations. Nurses seeking employment later in life tended to look for job flexibility and less stressful work. Therefore, the management of bridge employment by healthcare system authorities can be useful in making use of the invaluable experiences of retired nurses.
Full Text Available This study examined retirement decisions among people who had left working life before 65 years of age and those working beyond 65 years in an extended working life. The results were used to make a model about their considerations, weighting and decision making, and important factors and themes in working beyond 65 years of age or retiring before 65. The interviewees seemed to have considered and weighed their own best life balance to finally result in their identity as (older worker or early retiree. They included their work situation and social surroundings in descriptions of their planning and retirement decision making. The most important themes in these descriptions were (i personal health and well-being; (ii personal finances; (iii possibilities for social inclusion; and (iv possibilities for self-crediting by meaningful activities. Those identifying themselves as older workers had possibilities in their life situation to manage their work in relation to their functional ageing and health situation; felt important to others and socially included in the workplace; and did meaningful tasks and felt empowered in their working life. Those who had left the working life before 65 years of age describe a better possibility to this outside the working life and left as soon as they acquire a sufficient pension. The results and model presented here on how people perceive their identity as older worker or early retiree will hopefully contribute to understanding retirement planning and to the formulation of strategies to extend working life.
... was transitioned from the Military Departments. The Defense Supply Center Columbus currently has management responsibility for over 300 Qualified Products Lists and 4 Qualified Manufacturers Lists...
Madland, David; Rowell, Alex
Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian dental workforce is ageing and current shortages have been predicted to worsen with the retirement of the growing contingent of older dentists. However, these predictions have been based on retirement trends of previous generations and little is known about the retirement intentions of today's older dentists. Methods The Dentist Retirement Intentions Survey was mailed to 768 NSW Australian Dental Association members aged over 50 and achieved a response rate of 20%. T-tests, ANOVAs and multivariate regression were used to analyse the data. Results On average, participants intend to retire at the age of 66, although they would prefer to do so earlier (p Conclusions The current generation of older dentists intends to retire later than their predecessors. Most wish to remain involved in dentistry in some capacity following retirement, and may assist in overcoming workforce shortages, either by practising part time or training dental students.
Bingley, Paul; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Jørgensen, Michael
There are large differences in labor force participation rates by health status. We examine to what extent these differences are determined by the provisions of Disability Insurance and other pension programs. Using administrative data for Denmark we find that those in worse health and with less...... schooling are more likely to receive DI. The gradient of DI participation across health quintiles is almost twice as steep as for schooling - moving from having no high school diploma to college completion. Using an option value model that accounts for different pathways to retirement, applied to a period...... spanning a major pension reform, we find that pension program incentives in general are important determinants of retirement age. Individuals in poor health and with low schooling are significantly more responsive to economic incentives than those who are in better health and with more schooling. Similar...
The fifth pre-retirement seminar has been a great success. The various sessions covered questions relating to rules and regulations, as well as financial and health issues, health insurance, residence permits and the psychological aspects of retirement. You will no doubt have noticed that the car parks near the Main Building were particularly full last week. In fact it was almost impossible to find a parking spot. A prestigious speaker? A sensational lecture series? Nothing of the sort. It was all due to the pre-retirement seminar, the fifth of its kind since 1993, which never fails to be a success. 'We sent out a thousand invitations to CERN staff aged 55 and above and received 500 positive replies' says William Blair, who has been organising the seminars for the Human Resources (HR) Division for the last eight years in collaboration with the CERN Pensioners Association and the Staff Association. The Main Auditorium was not big enough to accommodate everyone and the discussions also had to be retransmitted l...
Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria
The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified investments. 1.936-10 Section 1.936... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.936-10 Qualified investments. (a) In general. [Reserved] (b) Qualified investments in Puerto Rico. [Reserved] (c) Qualified investment in certain...
Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt
In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329
Eleanor M. M. Davies
Full Text Available In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.
Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt
In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.
Full Text Available Objectives: Retirement impacts different dimensions of life such as physical, psychological, social, economic, and spiritual aspects. Since identification of the factors promoting or demoting health situation of retirees is important; this study aimed to determine the level of retirement syndrome in Babol retirees. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 205 retirees aged over 50 years. Data were gathered by a questionnaire consisting of 2 sections; Demographic characteristics and retirement syndromes. Retirement syndrome questionnaire consisted of 40 questions in 5-point scale (“never” to “always” in 4 dimensions of “helplessness and failure”, “older and idleness”, “trying and new directions”, and “conflict and confusion”. Data were analyzed by SPSS. The Pearson and Spearman tests were used to evaluate the within group variables. To analyze the data, the correlation coefficient test, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed. The significant level for all tests was set at 0.05. Results: About 53% of the participants were male and 47% female with an average (SD age 61.13(5.87 years. Means(SD scores of “helplessness and failure”, “older and idleness”, “trying and new directions”, and “conflict and confusion” were 2.08(0.52, 3.73(0.51, 3.47(0.65 and 2.49(0.56, respectively. There were a direct significant association between “feeling helplessness” and “conflict and confusion” (P<0.0001 and a reverse relationship between “older and idleness” and “trying and new directions” (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Findings of this research showed that retirees of Babol County partly suffer from retirement syndrome. Therefore, paying attention to them and promotion of the retirees’ situation seems necessary.
Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure
Zijdemans, J.; Cruijssen, H. J.; Wijker, J. J.
To achieve qualification is in general a very expensive exercise. For solar arrays this is done by a dedicated test program through which final qualification is achieved. Due to severe competition on the solar array market, cheaper means are looked for to achieve a qualified product for the customers. One of the methods is to drastically limit the environmental test program and to qualify the solar-array structure against its environmental loads by analysis. Qualification by analysis is possible. The benefits are that a significant amount of development effort can be saved in case such a powerful tool is available. Extensive testing can be avoided thus saving time and money.
Pension reforms all across Europe have a common theme: to reduce the generosity of the pay-as-you-go public pension pillar threatened by population aging, and to build up new pillars by private saving through occupational and individual pension plans. The extent of such retirement saving varies a great deal across Europe. This variation reflects, among other factors, the differences in public pension sys-tems, taxation and capital market regulations. The first part of this paper looks at this...
..., financing fees, organizational costs, rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working... all development costs for the project. The taxpayer's certification should be sufficiently detailed to enable the Agency to ascertain the nature of the costs that will make up the total financing package...
... locate mobile or portable oil storage containers to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b). (iii...). Construct all bulk storage container installations (except mobile refuelers and other non-transportation-related tank trucks), including mobile or portable oil storage containers, so that you provide a secondary...
... Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Makerâ and âQualified Block Positionerâ. 240.3b-8 Section 240.3b-8... “Qualified Block Positioner”. For the purposes of Regulation U under the Act (12 CFR part 221): (a) The term... inventory turnover in such security. (c) The term Qualified Block Positioner means a dealer who (1) is a...
..., construction or reconstruction its fair market value. The party must obtain the prior written permission of the... appraisal to be the fair market value of the vessel, at the time of the acquisition, or the actual cost...: (i) The acquisition, construction or reconstruction of a qualified agreement vessel; (ii) The...
Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista
In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified management. 108.110... management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of SBA, that its current or proposed management team... or proposed management team has sufficient qualifications, SBA will consider information provided by...
Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif
and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men......The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that income...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...
Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta
The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.
Greuningen, M. van; Heiligers, P.J.M.; Velden, L.F.J. van der
Background: Workforce planning for general practitioners needs to be informed by data on retirement intentions of GPs and factors that influence them. Several studies have investigated the association of explanatory factors with intentions to leave practice and actual leaving (e.g. in the UK, USA,
Kocourek, D.; Pertold, Filip
Roč. 61, č. 5 (2011), s. 467-483 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : early retirement * labor market participation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1226_kocourek.pdf
Malkiel, Burton G.
The basic provisions of the TIAA-CREF retirement plans are outlined and the impact of inflation and falling stock prices on annuities and bonds are investigated. Major factors that should be considered when allocating contributions to TIAA-CREF funds are discussed. (SF)
... adequate types and quantities of qualified fire chemical products available to accomplish fire management... made from these lists. To initiate an evaluation, product manufacturers (or authorized suppliers) enter... Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities''. A risk assessment, performed at manufacturer expense...
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and lo...
Venti, Steven; Wise, David A
The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement - the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits - to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical "pathways" through which education may indirectly influence early retirement - health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways.
EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directives have long included requirements for the involvement of qualified experts, the definition of which has scarcely changed since at least 1976. The Directive requirement, in the definition of qualified expert,, for competent authorities to recognise the capacity to act as a qualified expert has been interpreted by Member States in widely differing ways, ranging from the minimalist or case by case to the highly detailed and prescriptive. In the United Kingdom (UK), the qualified expert for occupational radiation protection is the radiation protection adviser and the competent authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, which largely implemented the 1980 BSS Directive, required an employer to appoint one or more radiation protection advisers for the purpose of advising him as to the observance of these Regulations and other health and safety matters in connection with ionising radiation. The Regulations addressed the question of recognition by forbidding an employer to appoint a person as a radiation protection adviser unless: that person was suitably qualified and experienced; the employer had notified the Health and Safety Executive in writing of the intended appointment at least 28 days in advance, giving the name of the person and particulars of his qualifications and experience and the scope of the advice he would be required to give; and the employer had received from HSE an acknowledgement in writing of the notification. This system allowed HSE to follow up and query any apparently unsuitable potential appointments while applying a light overall administrative touch. The Approved Code of Practice supporting the Regulations included advice on the qualifications, experience and qualities that the employer should look for in a suitable radiation protection adviser
... individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan. 1.404(e)-1A Section 1.404(e)-1A...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(e)-1A Contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan. (a) In...
Giannone, Zarina A; Haney, Colleen J; Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Despite evidence identifying adjustment difficulties among retiring athletes, research investigating factors that contribute to post-retirement complications is limited. Athletic identity may be an important determinant of adverse adaptation to sport retirement. The purpose of this study was to address the influence of athletic identity on post-retirement depression and anxiety symptoms among varsity athletes. An anonymous, online survey regarding athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms was completed by 72 self-identified varsity athletes during their final season of competition and 3 months after retiring from sport. After controlling for the effects of pre-retirement anxiety symptoms, endorsement of an athletic identity significantly predicted anxiety symptoms in the post-retirement period. A similar, but non-significant, pattern was observed for depressive symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that athletes' degree of athletic identity may be a risk factor for the emergence of psychiatric distress in the months following their retirement from sport. Identity-focused screening or intervention during athletes' sport careers could potentially mitigate some of the psychological difficulties associated with sport retirement.
Olesen, Kasper; Rugulies, Reiner; Rod, Naja Hulvej
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that retirement may have beneficial effects on health outcomes. In this study we examined whether the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) was reduced following retirement in a Danish population sample. METHODS: Participants were 617 511 Danish workers, born...... of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.16) when comparing retirees with active workers of the same age. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the hypothesis that retirement reduces risk of MI. On the contrary, we find that retirement is associated with a modestly increased risk of MI....
Reeuwijk, K.G.; Wind, A. de; Westerman, M.J.; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Geuskens, G.A.
Background: Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early
Reeuwijk, K.G.; de Wind, A.; Westerman, M.J.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Geuskens, G.A.
Background: Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early
... System; Opportunity for Annuitants to Elect Survivor Annuity Benefits for Same-Sex Spouses AGENCY: Office... survivor annuities for their spouses under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and Federal Employees... survivor annuities for their spouses based on their recognized marital status. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Onyura, Betty; Bohnen, John; Wasylenki, Don; Jarvis, Anna; Giblon, Barney; Hyland, Robert; Silver, Ivan; Leslie, Karen
There is scant empirical work exploring academic physicians' psychosocial adjustment during late-career transitions or on the factors that influence their retirement decisions. The authors examine these issues through the lens of sociopsychological identity theory, specifically examining how identity threat influences academic physicians' decisions about retirement. Participants were academic physicians at a Canadian medical school and were recruited via e-mail requests for clinical faculty interested in discussing late-career and retirement planning issues. Participants included 15 males and 6 females (N = 21; mean age = 63, standard deviation = 7.54), representing eight specialties (clinical and surgical). Data were collected in October and November 2012 via facilitated focus groups, which were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized, then analyzed using thematic analysis. Four primary themes were identified: centrality of occupational identity, experiences of identity threat, experiences of aging in an indifferent system, and coping with late-career transitions. Identity threats were manifested in apprehensions about self-esteem after retirement, practice continuity, and clinical competence, as well as in a loss of meaning and belonging. These identity challenges influenced decisions on whether to retire. Organizational and system support was perceived as wanting. Coping strategies included reimagining and revaluing various aspects of the self through assimilating new activities and reprioritizing others. Identity-related struggles are a significant feature of academic physicians' considerations about late-career transitions. Understanding these challenges, their antecedents, and their consequences can prepare faculty, and their institutions, to better manage late-career transitions. Individual- and institution-level implications are discussed.
... alternate must: (1) Be located in the United States; (2) Speak fluent English; (3) Be familiar with the... facility may designate an organization to fulfill the role of the qualified individual and the alternate...
Gadourek, I; van Gelder, B A
The four dimensions of the attitudes towards retirement (see Bela A. van Gelder in this journal) of 553 male older employees from the northern Netherlands were analyzed in relation to over 250 predictor-variables by means of stepwise regressions and other techniques of multivariate analysis. A simple recursive model of Palmore, George and Fillenbaum served as a theoretical guideline. It was tested by means of a path-analysis as applied to 20 variables (see figure I). Many of over 100 hypotheses derived from the model and from the literature pertaining to the matter were upheld by the findings: Single persons, widowers, or persons not happily married, appeared more afraid of retirement. If married, the spouse's judgment (as perceived by the interviewee) was another factor of importance. Age also affected the attitude: the closer one approaches retirement, the less positive the attitude (though age showed little variation in our sample). Social status affected the attitude indirectly: manual workers performing physically exacting (dirty, irregular, etc.) jobs, who have been working for the same firm (or: service) over a long period of time, who started earning money early in life--these were positive in their attitude towards retirement (needless to say that all these findings concern the attribute of lower status jobs). Finally, the pattern of and the attitude towards leisure played a decisive role: employees with strong work-involvement, with less intensive and rich leisure time, with intensive ties with people from their work-scene--these showed more negative attitudes towards retirement than their counterparts.
This qualitative research study explores the experience of graduating social workers making the transition from university training into work as qualified social work practitioners. Most studies in this area look at the practice readiness of the newly qualified professional. This study looks at the participants’ experience in the work place. How do participants experience this journey of transition? What skills, particularly reflective practice and supervision, learned in training, are import...
Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David
The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.
... by an enrolled actuary (as defined by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) affirming... expectations, and represent the actuary's best estimate of the plan's projected experiences. [59 FR 66159, Dec...
Sailí Rodríguez Fuentes
Full Text Available Introduction: the process of professionalization of the teacher is a subject of contemporary conjuncture, which is debated and investigated by researchers from dissimilar edges. Objective: to contribute to the professionalization process of qualified teachers of Technical and Vocational Education through a pedagogical strategy. Materials and methods: The materialist dialectic is used as a general method, allowing the study of the object as a process, the determination of its components, as well as its contradictions. theoretical methods: the historical and logical to delve into the regularities and qualities of reality in the polytechnic centers. Essential empirical methods were used: the documentary analysis that included the professional model; study plans, to obtain authentic and reliable information for research, interviews with students with the purpose of analyzing the manifestations of the professionalization process of the students and the direction of the process by the teachers, the observation of teaching activities allowed to diagnose the object , the demonstration of the problem, as well as the results of the practice of the strategy to be implemented. Results: a pedagogical strategy is designed and implemented to perfect the competent professional performance modes in the qualified professors. Conclusions: it contributed to the improvement of the professionalization process in favor of the competent professional modes of action.
Pit, S W; Hansen, V
The Australian general practice workforce is ageing. This and a trend towards higher exit intentions and earlier retirement make it increasingly important to identify those work and personal factors affecting intention to leave, which are amenable to change. To assess the various work, occupational and individual health factors associated with early retirement intentions among Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) that may be amenable to intervention. A cross-sectional study of GPs practising in rural Australia. Odds ratios of early retirement intentions across work, occupational and individual health factors were calculated. There were 92 participants (response rate 56%), and 47% of responders intended to retire before 65. GPs with medium to high burnout levels had higher odds of intending to retire. Increased job satisfaction and work ability scores were associated with decreased retirement intentions, whereas increased physical and mental work ability demands were associated with an increase in retirement intentions. Absenteeism was not related to retirement intentions but presenteeism was. GPs reporting any work-related sleep problems were found to have a 3-fold increase in the odds of early retirement intentions. The odds of early retirement intentions also increased with higher psychological distress, worsening general health and longer working hours. From a health policy reform perspective, the greatest impact on reducing early retirement intentions among ageing GPs could potentially be made by intervening in areas of working hours, burnout and work-related sleep issues, followed by job satisfaction, psychological distress, health, general workability and mental and physical work ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kim, Joung Soo; Han, Joung Ho; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Seong Sik; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
The tubes of the steam generator retired form Kori unit 1 have many different kinds of failures, such as denting pitting, wastage, ODSCC, PWSCC.Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) submitted a research proposal for the steam generator to the Korea Institute S and T Evaluation and Planning (KSITEP). The KISTEP requested Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to review the proposal by organizing a committee which should be composed of the specialists of the related domestic research institutes. Opinions of the committee on the objectives, research fields, economic benefit and validity in the research proposal were reviewed and suggested optimal research fields to be fulfilled successfully for the retired steam generator. Also, the rolls for the participants in the research works were allocated, which is critical in order to do the project effectively. 6 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)
Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner
This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... maximum entry age (to permit a career to be completed by mandatory retirement age); (2) Early optional... barred from reemployment in any position except a primary position after age 60. Service by a reemployed... the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2008. The Act provides early retirement and...
Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky
This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible borrower... association or agricultural credit association is in default, such institution may, but shall not be required...
These choices may also pose a threat to a member's financial wellbeing in retirement. Behavioural economics and finance helps to explain the choices made by these stakeholders in the retirement industry. The authors explain this concept in the context of industry stakeholders and the unique South African economic and ...
Azzara, Judith R.
A retired elementary principal who was actively tied to her community for decades explains how to put a positive spin on retirement. New retirees should treasure their gifts and talents, develop new ones, take advantage of travel opportunities, mentor a new principal, and/or go back to college. (MLH)
This paper estimates the causal impact of retirement on the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adults aged 50-69 years old, on the probability of being either overweight or obese and on the probability of being obese. Based on the 2004, 2006 and 2010-2011 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement
Olesen, Kasper; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Madsen, Ida E.H.
by reduced prevalence of hospital treatment for depression and antidepressant purchase. METHODS: Participants were 245 082 Danish workers who retired between 2000 and 2006. Information on retirement, hospital treatment and antidepressant purchases were obtained from Danish national registers. The yearly...
Many Nigerian workers are scared at the mention of the word retirement. This is because of the unpleasant experiences of the past retirees in terms of the delay and difficulties encountered in getting their retirement benefits – gratuity and pension. Unfortunately, some retirees have died out of frustration and in abject poverty ...
Skip to main content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Comp All Other Programs Features Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Services Seminars Benefits > Reality Investing Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB
Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.
This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data
Biggs, John H.
In the late 1990s, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation made grants to study people's attitudes toward retirement and to determine what factors influenced their decisions to retire. Although faculty were not talking to college administrators or human-resources departments about health care, the researchers found to their surprise that when they…
Purcell, James; McGill, Robin; Brodeur, Philip; Hall, Erin
The relationship between employer and employee has changed significantly over the past 40 years. One of the greatest changes in this relationship is in the nature of employee retirement. While pension reform at public and private colleges has helped ensure institutional financial viability, retirement security for employees has declined. With the…
Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt
The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…
... value or over the fair market value at the time of such retirement if greater, but only if— (i) The... such productive use without disposition as, for example, by being placed in a supplies or scrap account... timing of the retirement, the estimated useful life used in computing depreciation, and whether the asset...
Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T
This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among...... employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors....
This article addresses the conduct of employers who are associated with retirement funds, who have failed to pay their employees' contributions into such retirement funds. In particular, the article responds to the critique levelled at the approach adopted by both our courts and the office of the Pension Funds Adjudicator ...
van den Bogaard, L.; Henkens, K.; Kalmijn, M.
Retirement is an event that often brings about great changes in a person's personal and social life. For many people, work is not only a way to fill time and earn money, but also important for their identity and meaning in life. After retirement, these benefits of work are lost, and it is expected
van den Bogaard, L.; Henkens, K.; Kalmijn, M.
Retirement is an event that often brings about great changes in a person’s personal and social life. For many people, work is not only a way to fill time and earn money, but also important for their identity and meaning in life. After retirement, these benefits of work are lost, and it is expected
Kalwij, Adriaan; Alessie, Rob; Knoef, Marike
The success of policies aimed at keeping older workers in employment until the statutory retirement age in part depends on the health of these workers. For this reason we examine to what extent pathways to statutory retirement other than employment are associated with adverse health conditions as
Full Text Available Prolonging professional activity constitutes one of the possible solutions for alleviating negative consequences of demographic changes/population ageing. Devising effective tools motivating employees to remain professionally active must take into account preferences associated with retirement age. The following constitute the objectives of the present paper: 1 identification of preferences in the retirement age for various age groups; 2 indication of potential consequences behind particular preferences; 3 formulation of guidelines for human resources management in organizations. In order to achieve these objectives, the results of the study encompassing 2076 respondents, specialists employed in various departments of Polish innovative companies, were analysed. On average, for each evaluated age group, the preferred retirement age was much lower than the statutory retirement age in Poland (65 years . In case of women in 45+ age groups, the average retirement age was observed to be higher than 60 years (the new statutory threshold.
Farquhar, Jamie C; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z H
This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either increasing effort and commitment when possessing favorable opportunities or disengaging when opportunity is unfavorable. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that the highest baseline levels of activity (e.g., volunteering, traveling) and retirement satisfaction were observed among participants who perceived favorable opportunities for addressing their life regrets and had high levels of engagement. Longitudinal analyses showed that this pattern was also associated with increases in activity engagement. In contrast, disengagement protected individuals with unfavorable opportunity from 3-year declines in retirement satisfaction. These findings indicate that adaptive regulation of regrets can both contribute to gains and prevent losses in the early stages of retirement, which may have lasting consequences on retirees' quality of life.
Mihai Robert PAŞNICU
Full Text Available The paper aims to shed light on the policies and consequences of the current retirement age in Romania. The retirement age has been repeatedly incremented in Romania in the last couple of years in order to try to compensate for the fact that the country has a low general employment rate, only 30% of the population, while having 20% of the total population aged 65+. By using an econometric model we will first prove the existence of an optimal retirement age that might vary for each and every one of us, after which we will explore different possibilities of exploiting this information in order to improve the current retirement programs. Mainly, we will look at the possible solution of eliminating the mandatory retirement age in certain work sectors through a comparison analysis.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals. PMID:25843985
Full Text Available Employers are the key actors in defining conditions for retirement, as well as the conditions for retaining employees; their role, however, is still not well recognised and expressed in theoretical frameworks. In order to better understand individual retirement and to design successful ageing policies we should consider the behaviour and attitudes of employers.The article presents the organisational perspective on retirement and contributes to a theoretical consideration of the role of employers and work environments in the retirement process. It discusses the classic economic approaches, including the deferred payment model, and in referring to sociology of economy and management sciences it presents the employer’s perspective in relations with older workers. The main goal of the article is to consider the retirement process as an effect of employer-employee relations.
Full Text Available The relationship between gender and retirement in Spain is paradoxical. The female employment rate between the ages of 55 and 64 is slightly more than half that of the male rate, whilst the average retirement age amongst women is much higher. Using event-history analysis techniques, this paper analyses whether this puzzling gender difference is due to compositional or selection effects. Data comes from a special retirement module within the 2006 Spanish Labour Force Survey (Encuesta de Población Activa, EPA.It applies a novel methodological framework, contrasting the results from a naïve survival analysis with those from a duration- selection model. The results suggest that women retire later than men above all because, from a fi nancial point of view, they cannot afford to retire any earlier.
Rappaport, Anna M
Retirement wellness is the result of retiring at an appropriate age, saving enough and managing risks appropriately. One of the major risks that often is not addressed effectively is the long-term care (LTC) risk, i.e., the risk of needing help due to physical or cognitive limitations. In 2014, the Society of Actuaries issued a call for papers on the link between LTC and retirement security. This article will discuss the topic of LTC and retirement security broadly, drawing from several of the papers. Some of the topics include the impact of LTC on the individual, family members and caregivers; modeling results showing the impact of LTC on assets needed for a secure retirement; alternative methods of financing LTC; the link between housing decisions and LTC; and some ideas for the future.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.
Bogan, Vicki L; Fertig, Angela R
The questionable ability of the U.S. pension system to provide for the growing elderly population combined with the rising number of people affected by depression and other mental health issues magnifies the need to understand how these household characteristics affect retirement. Mental health problems have a large and significant negative effect on retirement savings. Specifically, psychological distress is associated with decreasing the probability of holding retirement accounts by as much as 24 percentage points and decreasing retirement savings as a share of financial assets by as much as 67 percentage points. The magnitude of these effects underscores the importance of employer management policy and government regulation of these accounts to help ensure households have adequate retirement savings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah
Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…
After discussion at TREF on 29 October 2003, the Management proposes in this document a modification affecting one of the general principles of the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), decided by the Council in December 1996 and introduced in April 1997. This modification would authorise the Director-General, in exceptional cases, as indicated in section 3 below, and, with the staff member's consent, to cancel his or her participation in the PRP and to reinstate the staff member in his or her original contractual situation. No modifications to the Staff Rules and Regulations are required. The proposal set out in section 3 of the present document is submitted by the Management, after consultation of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, for recommendation by the Finance Committee to the Council and for approval by the Council, to enter into force as of 1 January 2004.
Holt, Annie; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter
This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia. An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs. Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills. RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified transportation fringes. 1.132-9... Qualified transportation fringes. (a) Table of contents. This section contains a list of the questions and answers in § 1.132-9. (1) General rules. Q-1. What is a qualified transportation fringe? Q-2. What is...
... choose members for the qualified expert panel in accordance with selection criteria listed in paragraph... whether the proposed qualified expert panel meets the selection criteria prior to the panel beginning its... Committee Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. (b) Criteria for the selection of a qualified expert panel. (1) A...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit by qualified public accountant. 621.4... REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.4 Audit by qualified public accountant. (a) Each institution shall, at least annually, have its financial statements audited by a qualified public accountant in accordance with...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9002.11 Section 9002.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.11 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense means...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualified hoisting engineer; qualifications. 75... Persons § 75.155 Qualified hoisting engineer; qualifications. (a)(1) A person is a qualified hoisting engineer within the provisions of subpart O of this part, for the purpose of operating a steam-driven hoist...
Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca
By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in health-promoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum
Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung
This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…
Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D; Rohwedder, Susann
In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior.
Department of Defense Authorization Act increases basic pay further in order to close the gap with civilian wages (P.L. 96-342). • 1993—The National...separates calculations based on gender (Office of the Actuary, 2015a). Following the life expectancy chart for the assumed retirement ages and using...a weighted average of the gender demographics of the enlisted and officer population within DOD yields the following (OSD, 2104): • Enlisted
Full Text Available The rising number of European retirement migrants on the Mediterranean coasts, especially in the EU countries shows that the practical and scientific relevance of the new forms of migration in Europe is on the rise. "Retirement migration" evolved from a descriptive term to a candidate for a scientific or a research concept, at least if the use of the term IRM (international retirement migration is considered. However, it is necessary to solve several problems before this term can really become a coherent concept, useful for the research and explanation of the "new" migration phenomena. The author claims that the studies usually do not distinguish clearly between the migration of the elderly and retirement migration. The naming of the concept in this case mixes the characteristics of the migrants with the reasons for migration. The author shows that the usually mentioned reasons for retirement migration cannot be clearly formulated as factors which explain retirement migration. Further on, retirement as such is not a pull, push or staying put factor. Migration rates of retired, although rising, are still lower than the migration rates of the working age population and the Mediterranean coasts are also a destination for professionals who have the means to detach the job from the working place. Only a combination of conditions that enable migration and migration decisions, as well as a combination of motives and perceptions of reasons for migration, can partially "explain" retirement migration. One of the problems that has to be solved before retirement migration is affirmed as a concept is the treatment of the temporal and spatial dimension of the mobility of the retirement migrants. The author shows that a clear positioning of retirement migration on the temporal scale of mobility is hardly possible. Retirement migration is too wide and too complex a phenomenon to be easily localised in the temporal continuum. A similar problem emerges when the
Wouter de Tavernier
Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.
... qualified electric vehicle. A qualified electric vehicle is a motor vehicle that meets the requirements of section 30(c). Accordingly, a qualified electric vehicle does not include any motor vehicle that has ever been used (for either personal or business use) as a non-electric vehicle. (b) Recapture of credit for...
Lee, Ayoung; Cho, Joonmo
We examined the effects of the differences in the retirement sequence (i.e., who retires first between spouses) on satisfaction in Korea of patriarchal culture. Our empirical study demonstrates that households where men retired first had a much lower satisfaction than households where women retired first. In addition, men were found to show lower satisfaction than wives in both households where women retire first and the households where men retire first. Retirement sequence affecting their satisfaction at the point when only one of the spouses is retired continues to affect their satisfaction after both of them are retired. This means that the difference in the couple's retirement sequence has an ongoing effect on their later happiness. The analysis of the effect of a couple's retirement sequence on the satisfaction in their old life may be useful for improving an individual and couples' quality of life in countries with similar cultures.
Kim, J. H.; Jang, D. C.; Song, K. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, C. S.; Kim, D. H.; Im, Y. K.; Kim, H. D. [Hanil Nuclear Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)
It is a field study to develop and verify maintenance technologies such as verification and technology development of ECT (Eddy current test) using failure, heat tube excavation and field pressure test regarding the utilization of retired steam generator using 2 units of Retired Steam Generator in Kori 1 that was replaced for the first time in Korea in 1998. Since May, 2003, our team has investigated Retired Steam Generator which was stored in Radioactive waste warehouse in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Kori unit no.1 Branch, in order to study natural fault ECT signal acquisition, maintenance technology verification, small tubes/samples abstraction. A temporal task zone was made focusing on 'Man Way at the bottom of Chamber 'A'.' The purpose of the study is to establish Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment Plan by setting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goal systematically, which is the basic concept of Radiological Protection and reduction in exposure of radiological workers to radioactive materials with proper Radiological Protection countermeasures according to the changes in radioactivity, to prevent expansion from contamination and to manage 'Radioactive Waste Reduction Activities' effectively.
Full Text Available The Health and Retirement Study (HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37,000 individuals in 23,000 households over age 50 in the United States. Fielded biennially since 1992, it was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with aging. HRS covers four broad topic areas—income and wealth; health, cognition, and use of health care services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, the National Death Index, and employer-provided pension plan information. In 2006, data collection expanded to include biomarkers and genetics and greater depth in psychosocial well-being and social context. This blend of economic, health, and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about aging and retirement. HRS prioritizes rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data—public, sensitive, and restricted—can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu.
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
Social insurance for the elderly is judged responsible for the widely observed trend towards early retirement. In a world of laissez-faire or in a first-best setting, there would be no such trend. However, when first-best instruments are not available, because health and productivity are not observable, the optimal social insurance policy may imply a distortion on the retirement decision. The main point we make is that while there is no doubt that retirement systems induce an excessive bias t...
Mihai Robert, PAŞNICU
The paper aims to shed light on the policies and consequences of the current retirement age in Romania. The retirement age has been repeatedly incremented in Romania in the last couple of years in order to try to compensate for the fact that the country has a low general employment rate, only 30% of the population, while having 20% of the total population aged 65+. By using an econometric model we will first prove the existence of an optimal retirement age that might vary for each and every o...
Retirement System. Military Retitement, Retirement. Military Pension 16. SECURilY CLASSIFICAnONOF: 17. UMITAllON OF 18.NUMBeR L ou::rUI’\\1 b.RDOI~ .. T c...Board’s public release of their retirement proposal, the ensuing media attention, the growing concerns over the budget deficit and growing national debt...value. As NPV decreases, there is a point where value begins to drop rapidly , but eventually levels off and reverts to more moderate decreases in
In this paper we study consumption around the age of retirement. We consider a model where consumption and leisure are non-separable and retirement is endogenous. We consider the case where non-separabilities come from the existence of fixed costs to work. We show that the existence of unobserved...... heterogeneity related to these non-separabilities will lead to biases of the OLS estimators of structural parameters of demand systems conditioned on retirement. These estimates give bounds to the true fixed costs. We estimate the model with French data and compute the bounds of these structural parameters...
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Krawczyk, Richard; Simons, Rainee N.; Williams, Wallace D.; Robbins, Neal R.; Dibb, Daniel R.; Menninger, William L.; Zhai, Xiaoling; Benton, Robert T.
The L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. Model 999HA traveling-wave tube (TWT), was developed for use as a high-power microwave amplifier for high-rate transmission of data and video signals from deep space to Earth (see figure). The 999HA is a successor to the 999H a non-space qualified TWT described in High-Power, High-Efficiency Ka-Band Traveling-Wave Tube (LEW-17900-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2007), page 32. Operating in the 31.8-to-32.3 GHz frequency band, the 999HA has been shown to generate 252 W of continuous- wave output power at 62 percent overall power efficiency a 75-percent increase in output power over the 999H. The mass of the 999HA is 35 percent less than that of the 999H. Moreover, taking account of the elimination of a Faraday cage that is necessary for operation of the 999H but is obviated by a redesign of high-voltage feed-throughs for the 999HA, the overall reduction in mass becomes 57 percent with an 82 percent reduction in volume. Through a series of rigorous tests, the 999HA has been qualified for operation aboard spacecraft with a lifetime exceeding seven years. Offspring of the 999HA will fly on the Kepler and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions.
Monahan, Amy B.
There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…
Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal
BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...... early voluntary retirement. This study examined whether depressive symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with early retirement intentions. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional (n = 4041) and a prospective (n = 2444) population from a longitudinal study on employees...... of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...
Henning, Charles A
.... The change to the system that has generated the most recent legislative activity involves whether some or all military retirees should be allowed to receive both military retired pay and any VA...
Löckenhoff, Corinna E
The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.
Richman, Judith A; Zlatoper, Kenneth W; Zackula Ehmke, Jennifer L; Rospenda, Kathleen M
This study assesses the degree to which sexual harassment (SH), generalized workplace abuse (GWA), and psychological workload (PWL) impact drinking behaviors in retirement. A mail survey was completed at four points in time by a cohort of 1654 employees initially drawn from a university workplace. Questionnaires assessed experiences of SH, GWA, PWL and drinking behaviors. Hypotheses were tested involving (1) the extent to which SH, GWA, and PWL experienced while working were associated with frequency and quantity of drinking in retirement, (2) the extent to which drinking levels of retirees differed from those of current employees experiencing similar stress levels, and (3) the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. Retirees reporting earlier stressful work environments report higher levels of alcohol consumption during retirement compared to those retirees reporting less stressful earlier work environments. Gender moderated these relationships. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a residual effect of workplace stress during retirement.
... retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as gas plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected in rates and must be...
... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as carrier property and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...
... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as electric plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...
the child-to-teacher ratio or the size of the institution and early retirement (ERP). However, working conditions measured by the social background of the children and the share of trained day-care teachers have a significant effect on the probability of early retirement. Finally, a poor health condition......This paper studies the role of working conditions and health for elderly female day-care teachers’ decision to enter early retirement. Entry into retirement is analysed in a duration framework that allows for unobserved heterogeneity in the baseline hazard. Data are from a Danish longitudinal data...... set based on administrative register records for 1997-2006. Working conditions is measured by four indicators. First, work pressure is measured by the child-to-teacher ratio, which varies across municipalities and over time. Second, working conditions is measured by the proportion of children...
Estelle James; Alejandra Cox Edwards
Postponing retirement will become increasingly important as a means to increase the labor force, its output and old age security, as populations age. Recent research has focused on incentives stemming from the social security system that influence the worker’s decision to retire. Defined benefit systems (both public and private) often contain penalties for postponing access to pensions or continuing to work while receiving a pension. In contrast, the tight link between contributions and accum...
Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina
We consider optimal asset allocation of a pension saver with uncertain lifetime. The objective is to maximize the expected utility of the retirement savings. The model accounts for characteristics of a pension saver given by her mortality risk, risk attitude, type of retirement contract, trading costs, taxes, and uncertain labor income. The problem is solved using a combination of a multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP) model and stochastic optimal control, such that the practical a...
majority of officers are male. Data for life expectancies were extrapolated from the DOD Office of the Actuary Life Expectancy Rate. This rate was...All the data for annuity payments were based on the DOD Office of the Actuary Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System Fiscal Year 2013...represent the possible payouts at a certain YOS and rank. Information on estimated age of retirement and estimated life expectancy based on DOD actuary
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances of elderly male workers by 8%, and that this increase in the baseline retirement probability is not affected by eligibility to early exit programs and persists even after accounting for selection due to take-up of disability pension. Neither is it affected by the relatively long duration of sickness benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program ( fleksjob ) but this effect is on the margin of being significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark.
Jenkins, S.C.; Cabe, R.; Stauffaeher, J.J.
This paper reports that cogeneration of electricity and useful thermal energy by industrials along the Gulf Coast grew significantly more rapidly than in other parts of the country during and immediately following World War II as a result of the concentration of chemical and plastics processing facilities there. In 1982, Texas passed its version of PURPA, the Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) and designated those non-utility generators from which public utilities must purchase electricity as Qualifying Cogenerators. In 1991, there were nearly 7,500 MW of QF power generated for inside-the-fence use or firm capacity sale to utilities, with the two largest utilities in Texas purchasing over half that amount
Full Text Available This note offers reflections on qualified market access (QMA—the practice of linking trade agreements to values such as human rights, labour standards, or environmental protection. This idea has been suggested by political theorists as a way of fulfilling our duties to the global poor and of making the global economic system more just, and it has influenced a number of concrete policies, such as European Union (EU trade policies. Yet, in order to assess its merits tout court, different perspectives and disciplines need to be brought together, such as international law, economics, political science, and philosophy. It is also worth reflecting on existing practices, such as those of the EU. This note summarises some insights about QMA by drawing such research together and considers the areas in which further research is needed, whilst reflecting also on the merits of interdisciplinary exchanges on such topics.
Abdelhalim, Bencheikh; Mohamed, Bouafia
One of the most important properties of a laser resonator is the highly collimated or spatially coherent nature of the laser output beam. Laser beam diameter and quality factor M 2 are significant parameters in a wide range of laser applications. This is because the spatial beam quality determines how closely the beam can be focused or how well the beam propagates over long distances without significant dispersion. In the present paper we have used three different methods to qualify the spatial structure of a laser beam propagating in free space, the results are obtained and discussed, and we have found that the Wigner distribution function is a powerful tool which allows a global characterization of any kind of beam
...,'' ``Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Eligibility Determinations; Exchange Standards for Employers... plans,'' ``health insurance coverage,'' ``small employer,'' ``qualified employer,'' and ``qualified... shares common leadership with a pre-existing issuer be barred from sponsoring a CO- OP; another suggested...
Filbay, Stephanie R; Bishop, Felicity; Peirce, Nicholas; Jones, Mary E; Arden, Nigel K
Retired professional cricketers shared unique experiences and may possess specific psychological attributes with potential to influence quality of life (QOL). Additionally, pain and osteoarthritis can be common in retired athletes which may negatively impact QOL. However, QOL in retired athletes is poorly understood. This study explores the following questions from the personal perspective of retired cricketers: How do retired cricketers perceive and experience musculoskeletal pain and function in daily life? Are there any psychological attributes that might enhance or hinder retired cricketers' QOL? A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were subject to inductive, thematic analysis. A data-driven, iterative approach to data coding was employed. All participants had lived and played professional cricket in the UK and were living in the UK or abroad at the time of interview. Eighteen male participants, aged a mean 57±11 (range 34-77) years had played professional cricket for a mean 12±7 seasons and had been retired from professional cricket on average 23±9 years. Fifteen participants reported pain or joint difficulties and all but one was satisfied with their QOL. Most retired cricketers reflected on experiences during their cricket career that may be associated with the psychological attributes that these individuals shared, including resilience and a positive attitude. Additional attributes included a high sense of body awareness, an ability to self-manage pain and adapt lifestyle choices to accommodate physical limitations. Participants felt fortunate and proud to have played professional cricket, which may have further contributed to the high QOL in this group of retired cricketers. Most retired cricketers in this study were living with pain or joint difficulties. Despite this, all but one was satisfied or very satisfied with their QOL. This may be partly explained by the positive psychological attributes that these retired cricketers
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino
Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries across three continents. A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.
de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J
OBJECTIVES: Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement
Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement
Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The start of retirement is an important stage in an (older) adult's life and can affect physical activity (PA) and/or sedentary behaviors, making it an ideal period to implement health interventions. To identify the most optimal timing of such interventions it is important to determine how PA and sedentary behaviors change not only when making the transition to retirement, but also during the first years of retirement. The main study aim was to examine whether PA and sedentary behaviors change differently in retiring adults compared with recently retired adults. A second aim was to examine potential moderating effects of gender and educational level. A longitudinal study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium. Baseline measurements took place in 2012-2013 and follow-up data were collected 2 years later. In total, 446 adults provided complete data at both time points. Of the participants 105 adults were not retired at baseline but retired between baseline and follow-up (i.e. retiring) and 341 were already retired at baseline (i.e. recently retired). All participants completed a questionnaire on PA, sedentary behaviors, socio-demographic factors and physical functioning. Repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted in SPSS 22.0. to analyze the data. Leisure-time cycling increased over time in retiring adults, but decreased in recently retired adults (p moderate-to-vigorous PA decreased strongly in retiring adults, while slight increases were found in recently retired adults (p moderating effects were found. Future interventions should focus on PA and/or specific sedentary behaviors in retiring adults, but should definitely include long-term follow-up, as recently retired adults seem to be prone to lapse into an unhealthy lifestyle. Specific attention should be paid to low-educated adults as they are particularly susceptible to a decrease in PA and increased TV viewing time and computer use.
Rijs, K.J.; Cozijnsen, R.; Deeg, D.J.H.
Health consequences of retirement have not been included in the current public debate about increasing the age at retirement, which might be due to the fact that studies aimed at health consequences of retirement show ambiguous results. The literature indicates that various contextual
Delfien Van Dyck
Full Text Available Abstract Background The start of retirement is an important stage in an (older adult’s life and can affect physical activity (PA and/or sedentary behaviors, making it an ideal period to implement health interventions. To identify the most optimal timing of such interventions it is important to determine how PA and sedentary behaviors change not only when making the transition to retirement, but also during the first years of retirement. The main study aim was to examine whether PA and sedentary behaviors change differently in retiring adults compared with recently retired adults. A second aim was to examine potential moderating effects of gender and educational level. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium. Baseline measurements took place in 2012–2013 and follow-up data were collected 2 years later. In total, 446 adults provided complete data at both time points. Of the participants 105 adults were not retired at baseline but retired between baseline and follow-up (i.e. retiring and 341 were already retired at baseline (i.e. recently retired. All participants completed a questionnaire on PA, sedentary behaviors, socio-demographic factors and physical functioning. Repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted in SPSS 22.0. to analyze the data. Results Leisure-time cycling increased over time in retiring adults, but decreased in recently retired adults (p < 0.01. (Voluntary work-related walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA decreased strongly in retiring adults, while slight increases were found in recently retired adults (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01. Passive transport decreased more strongly in recently retired than in retiring adults (p < 0.05, and computer use increased more in retiring adults than in the recently retired group (p < 0.001. Low-educated recently retired adults had the strongest decrease in walking for transport (p < 0.05 and strongest increase in TV viewing time (p < 0.01 and computer
...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice... business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements of § 1.414(r...
Winter, Paul A.; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Rodriguez, Glenn
Staffing the nation's community colleges with qualified faculty is an emerging problem. The problem results from massive retirements among members of the post-WW II "baby boom" generation and intense competition from other sectors of the economy for scarce human talent. This study was a faculty-recruitment simulation designed to investigate the…
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified human service organizations. 604.7... organizations. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to a qualified human service organization (QHSO) for... disabilities; or (3) With low income. (b) If an organization serving persons described in paragraph (a) of this...
... lowest qualified benchmark is determined using the adjusted applicable stock price, as defined in § 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In.... Under section 1092(d)(3)(B)(i)(I), stock is personal property if the stock is part of a straddle that...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. [55 FR 36820...
... period Column C—Additions (1)—Charged to costs and expenses (2)—Charged to other accounts—describe Column... qualifying accounts and reserves by descriptive title. Group (a) those valuation and qualifying accounts... accounts. 210.12-09 Section 210.12-09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the procedure...
... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying income. 1.7704-3 Section 1.7704-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7704-3 Qualifying income. (a) Certain investment income—(1...
... accounting whereby (1) payments shall reduce the basis of the property on the day such payments are actually... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section...-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.6 Tax treatment of qualified...
... compound interest from the due date of the payment at a rate not less than the appropriate discount rate is... retained interest conferring a distribution right that was previously valued as a qualified payment right (a “qualified payment interest”), the taxable estate or taxable gifts of the individual holding the...
... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1018b Medicare qualified government employment. (a) General. The work of a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicare qualified government employment. 404...
... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying sales. 52.4682-2 Section 52.4682-2... TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-2 Qualifying sales. (a) In general—(1) Special rules applicable to certain sales. Special rules apply to sales of ODCs in the following cases: (i) Under section...
Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.
Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Levi, Christopher R; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Schofield, Peter W; Zafonte, Ross; Shultz, Sandy R; Lin, Alexander P; Stanwell, Peter
The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation. MRS voxels were placed in posterior cingulate grey matter and parietal white matter. Neurometabolite concentrations were quantified using LCModel. It was hypothesized that retired athletes would differ on N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, choline, glutamate, and glutathione. Retired players had significantly lower concentrations of grey matter glutathione (p=0.02, d=0.91). They did not significantly differ in concentrations of other neurometabolites. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depression, anxiety, or cognitive functioning. The retired athletes reported significantly greater alcohol use (pcognitive performance and self-reported psychological functioning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chandler, Rebecca C; Robinson, Oliver C
A retirement village consists of a collection of privately owned or leased flats or maisonettes for elderly adults that are supported by a central hub that provides catering, medical care and social activities. There have been studies of the psychological experience and impacts of such environments, however, there is lack of research that links the retirement village experience to overarching theories of eudaimonic wellbeing, and that uses qualitative methods to find out about how wellbeing manifests for the individual. This study used Ryff's (1989) model of wellbeing as a framework for analysis, while aiming to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences and sources of wellbeing in residents of two retirement villages in the South East of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 residents. Thematic analysis revealed a dialectical tension to retirement village living: while facilitating all six core components of eudaimonic wellbeing as conceptualized by Ryff's model, individuals living within the retirement villages also experience challenges to wellbeing on the same dimensions. An integrative model of these tensions between positive and negative experiences is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The subject of this study is focused on new migration tendencies of retired guest workers. This paper represents one part of a study conducted during 2014 in eastern Serbia and Vienna regarding life strategies of retired labor migrants. In domestic (Serbian social sciences this subject was neglected, but recently it has attracted global social scientific attention with an idea of interdisciplinary merge of migration and age studies. To the day, global literature has only covered retired migrant laborers return to their home countries, but recent studies show changes in migration tendencies of retired laborers of many different nationalities, who have spent their work age in Western Europe. These new migration patterns were called “oscillatory movement” or as a new, alternative “third option”. They are only a form of seasonal and circular migrations which present the most dominant fashion of modern migrant mobility in Europe. Therefore we wanted to see what is the situation with labor migrants from Serbia – do they return to Serbia once they retire or not, and what are their reasons for choosing to live on “two addresses”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177035: Antropološko proučavanje Srbije – od kulturnog nasleđa do modernog društva
Lancee, Bram; Radl, Jonas
Although there are numerous studies on the role of social connections in early working life, research that examines how social connectedness matters in the later stages of a career is scarce. The present study analyzes to what extent social connectedness affects the timing of the transition from work to retirement. We draw on data from the German Socioeconomic Panel Study (GSOEP) from the years 1985-2009 (N = 10,225), and we apply techniques of event history analysis. Social connectedness includes social gatherings with friends, relatives, and neighbors (informal participation) as well as engagement in voluntary and civic associations and local politics (formal participation). The findings demonstrate that social connectedness matters for the transition from work to retirement, but its impact depends on the type of participation. Whereas informal participation results in earlier retirement, formal participation delays labor force withdrawal. The findings suggest a trade-off between informal participation and work in later life, which leads people with frequent social contacts to opt for early retirement. By contrast, the fact that formal participation is associated with postponed retirement points to employment benefits of volunteering and civic engagement among older workers.
Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.
This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.
A waste repository for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste, labelled IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure), is planned at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. It relies greatly on the durability of concrete for a minimum of 500 years of service life. A research program based on laboratory testing to design a durable concrete and predict its useful engineered service life is in progress. Durability of concrete depends on its resistance of deterioration from both internal and external causes. Since the rate of degradation depends to a major extent on the rate of ingress of aggressive ions into concrete, laboratory testing is in progress to establish the diffusion rates of ions, especially chlorides, sulphate and carbonate ions. A total of 1000 concrete specimens and 500 paste specimens are being exposed at 22 and 45 degrees C to twenty-five different combinations of corrosive agents, including CO 2 . Procedures to measure the ionic profile and to determine the factors controlling diffusion of ions in the various concretes have been developed. The paper presents the initial results from the research program and the longevity predictions to qualify concretes for the IRUS waste repository, based on twelve months of diffusion testing on laboratory specimens
Background Interest in the impact of burnout on physicians has been growing because of the possible burden this may have on health care systems. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada. Methods Using an economic model, the costs related to early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of physicians were compared for those who were experiencing burnout against a scenario in which they did not experience burnout. The January 2012 Canadian Medical Association Masterfile was used to determine the number of practicing physicians. Transition probabilities were estimated using 2007–2008 Canadian Physician Health Survey and 2007 National Physician Survey data. Adjustments were also applied to outcome estimates based on ratio of actual to planned retirement and reduction in clinical hours. Results The total cost of burnout for all physicians practicing in Canada is estimated to be $213.1 million ($185.2 million due to early retirement and $27.9 million due to reduced clinical hours). Family physicians accounted for 58.8% of the burnout costs, followed by surgeons for 24.6% and other specialists for 16.6%. Conclusion The cost of burnout associated with early retirement and reduction in clinical hours is substantial and a significant proportion of practicing physicians experience symptoms of burnout. As health systems struggle with human resource shortages and expanding waiting times, this estimate sheds light on the extent to which the burden could be potentially decreased through prevention and promotion activities to address burnout among physicians. PMID:24927847
Noelia Morales Romo
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of options and alternatives related to retirement in Spain during a global economic crisis. By dealing with qualitative and quantitative data we formulate answers to prior questions related to retirement social protection. We address four main topics: pension coverage, related mainly to the sum and benefi ciaries; age, by focusing on the moment of retirement; the need for an early retirement or the possibility of postponing the age of compulsory retirement; the fi nancing of the pensions system through public funds or private pension plans, and, fi nally, we raise questions on the future of retirement pensions. Last, we provide some clear conclusions about the questions raised. Keywords: Retirement. Social payments. Social protection. Pensions. Public policies. Welfare state. El texto aborda las percepciones sobre las opciones y alternativas en materia de jubilación en España en un momento de difícil coyuntura económica mundial. A partir de numerosos datos cualitativos y cuantitativos se trata de responder a cuestiones fundamentales en relación a la protección social en materia de jubilación. Los aspectos fundamentales sobre los que versa el artículo son cuatro: la cobertura de las pensiones tratando especialmente la cuantía y los benefi ciarios, la edad, centrándose en cuándo es adecuado jubilarse, la necesidad o conveniencia de las prejubilaciones o la posibilidad de postergar la edad de jubilación obligatoria, la fi nanciación del sistema de pensiones haciendo hincapié tanto en los fondos públicos como en los planes privados de pensiones y por último nos cuestionaremos sobre el futuro de las pensiones. Para fi nalizar realizaremos unas claras conclusiones sobre todas las cuestiones planteadas. Palabras claves: Jubilación. Prestaciones. Protección social. Pensiones. Políticas públicas. Estado de bienestar.
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of payments; examples of qualified campaign expenses and non-qualified campaign expenses. 9004.4 Section 9004.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES...
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Schwaba, Ted
We examined the course of self-esteem during the transition to retirement in a sample of 690 retirees (ages 51-81) and a propensity-score matched-comparison group of 515 nonretirees drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal study in the Netherlands. The average retiree decreased in self-esteem in the 5 years before retirement and remained stable in self-esteem in the 5 years following retirement. We also found significant individual differences in retirees' self-esteem trajectories but failed to identify moderators that may account for these individual differences. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and future research on life span self-esteem development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Strobl, H; Brehm, W; Tittlbach, S
During the transition period between occupation and retirement, different mental challenges may arise as a consequence of the numerous changes and necessary reorientation to the following phase of life. Personal well-being is a precondition to cope with these challenges. Interviews with physically active people in the transition period between occupation and retirement, concerning the importance of physical activity in coping with mental challenges, were conducted. Physical activity is meant to affect well-being and the physical condition in a positive way. In addition, it should foster social contacts and make it easier to manage everyday life. Moreover, it is a measure of personal success during advanced age. Because of its influence on various physical, mental, and social aspects, physical activity can help a person to cope with mental challenges in the transition period between occupation and retirement.
Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina
We consider optimal asset allocation of a pension saver with uncertain lifetime. The objective is to maximize the expected utility of the retirement savings. The model accounts for characteristics of a pension saver given by her mortality risk, risk attitude, type of retirement contract, trading...... costs, taxes, and uncertain labor income. The problem is solved using a combination of a multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP) model and stochastic optimal control, such that the practical application is emphasized. Both solutions are integrated into the SLP formulation. The decisions...... schemes are considered with different payout possibilities: lump sum payment at retirement and payment in installments. Richard’s model is extended by introducing deferred labor income linear taxation of contributions to the pension savings. The first year decisions account moreover for aspects...
Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi
This study aimed to investigate whether hospitalisation is associated with increased risk of disability retirement differently across four occupational classes. 170,510 employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland were followed from 1990 to 2013 using national registers for hospitalisations and disability retirement. Increases in the risk of disability retirement after hospitalisation for any cause, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, mental disorders, malignant neoplasms, respiratory diseases and injuries were assessed across four occupational classes: professional, semi-professional, routine non-manual and manual, using competing risks models. In general, hospitalisation showed a slightly more increased risk of disability retirement in the lower ranking occupational classes. Hospitalisation among women for mental disorders showed a more increased risk in the professional class (hazard ratio 14.73, 95% confidence interval 12.67 to 17.12) compared to the routine manual class (hazard ratio 7.27, 95% confidence interval 6.60 to 8.02). Occupational class differences were similar for men and women. The risk of disability retirement among women increased most in the routine non-manual class after hospitalisation for musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and most in the professional class after hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases. The corresponding risks among men increased most in the two lowest ranking classes after hospitalisation for injuries. Ill-health as measured by hospitalisation affected disability retirement in four occupational classes differently, and the effects also varied by the diagnostic group of hospitalisation. Interventions that tackle work disability should consider the impact of ill-health on functioning while taking into account working conditions in each occupational class.
Cangelosi, J D; McAlhany, J W
Given the demographic trends, which indicate a need for facilities to accommodate a rapidly increasing and healthier elderly population, our study provides relevant and timely information for builders and health care administrators who are considering the initial construction of or addition to a congregate retirement facility. Though a congregate retirement facility must satisfy the demands of its residents for services and activities, cost considerations make it equally important for builders and administrators to offer only those services that are essential to meet those demands successfully. A multitude of services and activities may seem attractive to the general population and to investors as they formulate plans for new congregate facilities, but there is little need to provide or fund services and activities that are not used or demanded. Our findings show that the elderly target market for congregate facilities is primarily concerned with "necessity" services such as transportation, shopping, security, health care, and appearance, rather than the availability of a multitude of nonessential recreational and cultural activities. In summary, congregate facilities currently offer numerous activities and services that are not being used and are not important to residents or potential residents. Our exploratory research examines an area that has not been studied extensively and the findings are important in planning for the future. By using these findings, administrators and planners of congregate facilities should be able to determine effectively the types of services and activities that will satisfy the demands of the elderly during their retirement.
Biggs, John H.
Two proposals before Congress threaten to offset the delicate balance in pension plan design. The significance of the normal retirement feature in plan design, some possible program design changes, and how the pension arrangements of higher education institutions would be affected are discussed. (MLW)
Kypraiou, Aspa; Sarafis, Pavlos; Tsounis, Andreas; Bitsi, Georgia; Andreanides, Elias; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia; Malliarou, Maria
Retirement is a turning point in human life, resulting in changes to physical and mental health status. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that are related with depression and anxiety symptoms in Greek male veterans after retirement. A total of 502 veterans participated in a cross-sectional study. Beck Depression Inventory for depression assessment and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for anxiety assessment were used. The Ethics Committee of the Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly granted permission for conducting the research, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Questionnaires were filled in electronically using a platform that was made for the specific research. Mean values, standard deviations, Student t test, nonparametric cluster analysis of variance, Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients, and linear regression were conducted, using the Statistical Program for Social Services version 19.0. Severe depression was found in 3.8% of veterans with a mean score of 6.78, whereas 23.2% displayed mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression. Mean score of state anxiety was found to be 36.55 and of trait anxiety 33.60. Veterans who were discharged because of stressful working conditions, those who have a high body mass index, consume regularly alcohol, smoke and were not satisfied by changes in their everyday life after retirement had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety, although those who retired because of family problems had significantly more symptoms of depression. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that dissatisfaction related to lifestyle changes had statistically significant effect on symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stressful working conditions as a leading cause for retirement had statistically significant effect on depression. Finally, according to linear regression analyses results, those who were satisfied with their professional evolution had 1.80 times lower score in
Bass, S A
Work to retirement in Japan is a sequential transition for the most part, and Japan permits mandatory retirement by firms at age 60. But many older people work beyond the age of 60, many more than in other industrialized countries. A number of hypotheses are examined, having to do with pensions, health, opportunity, interest in working, cultural attitudes (including the concept of ikigai), and public policy initiatives (such as employment policy and the Silver Human Resource Centers). Japan's cultural attitudes and existing policies appear to have set Japan on a unique course in considering the aging of its population. To what extent should other nations emulate Japan?