Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar
variables that can assess the quality of a system or health service and rated according to their characteristics in structure, process and outcome. The evaluation of the process includes the quality of services provided by health professionals individually or in groups and refer to professional qualifications, organization and coordination of the work process of teams. The evaluation of the structure includes environmental conditions and equipment in which the services are provided and the results are evaluated starting from the verification of changes in health status of a population that can be attributed to the care process.Among the theoretical and conceptual landmarks of the PHC highlights the publication “Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology”, by Professor Barbara Starfield, in 1998, translated into Portuguese and published in Brazil in 2002. The book provides evidence on the role of PHC in health systems, evidence of its impact on population health, and compares the cost-effectiveness between countries with different forms and different degrees of implementation of this strategy, and propose a structure for measure it and set its attributes(1.The views of PHC, centered in the individual and in the population, provided the normative basis for evaluating it in a health system and contributed to the construction of the evaluation framework proposed by Starfield(1.The author also proposed a framework for evaluating the PHC which considered the concepts of the essential attributes and derivative measures of structure (capacity and process (performance.The essential and exclusive attributes of the PHC include: access / care on first contact, longitudinality, integrality and coordination of care. A high level of reach of essential attributes of the PHC results in three additional aspects, denominated derivatives, which qualify the actions and services at this level of care(1,4.The aspects qualifiers are: centered on the family
Norwood, Connor W; Maxey, Hannah L; Randolph, Courtney; Gano, Laura; Kochhar, Komal
Inadequate access to preventive oral health services contributes to oral health disparities and is a major public health concern in the United States. Federally Qualified Health Centers play a critical role in improving access to care for populations affected by oral health disparities but face a number of administrative challenges associated with implementation of oral health integration models. We conducted a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with health care executives to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of successful oral health integration in Federally Qualified Health Centers. Four themes were identified: (1) culture of health care organizations; (2) operations and administration; (3) finance; and (4) workforce.
Andréa Sílvia Walter de Aguiar
variables that can assess the quality of a system or health service and rated according to their characteristics in structure, process and outcome. The evaluation of the process includes the quality of services provided by health professionals individually or in groups and refer to professional qualifications, organization and coordination of the work process of teams. The evaluation of the structure includes environmental conditions and equipment in which the services are provided and the results are evaluated starting from the verification of changes in health status of a population that can be attributed to the care process. Among the theoretical and conceptual landmarks of the PHC highlights the publication “Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology”, by Professor Barbara Starfield, in 1998, translated into Portuguese and published in Brazil in 2002. The book provides evidence on the role of PHC in health systems, evidence of its impact on population health, and compares the cost-effectiveness between countries with different forms and different degrees of implementation of this strategy, and propose a structure for measure it and set its attributes(1. The views of PHC, centered in the individual and in the population, provided the normative basis for evaluating it in a health system and contributed to the construction of the evaluation framework proposed by Starfield(1.The author also proposed a framework for evaluating the PHC which considered the concepts of the essential attributes and derivative measures of structure (capacity and process (performance.The essential and exclusive attributes of the PHC include: access / care on first contact, longitudinality, integrality and coordination of care. A high level of reach of essential attributes of the PHC results in three additional aspects, denominated derivatives, which qualify the actions and services at this level of care(1,4.The aspects qualifiers are: centered on the family, cultural
Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara
The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...
... employee choice environment and to make the systems and operational changes required for SHOP enrollment... requested that HHS clarify how the transitional employee choice policy would affect the employer... qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of...
Fahey, T M; Gallitano, D G
Under a program created by Congress in 1989, certain primary care treatment centers serving the medically and economically indigent can become Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Recently enacted rules and regulations allow participants in the FQHC program to receive 100 percent reasonable cost reimbursement for Medicaid services and 80 percent for Medicare services. An all-inclusive annual cost report is the basis for determining reimbursement rates. The report factors in such expenses as physician and other healthcare and professional salaries and benefits, medical supplies, certain equipment depreciation, and overhead for facility and administrative costs. Both Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement is based on an encounter rate, and states employ various methodologies to determine the reimbursement level. In Illinois, for example, typical reimbursement for a qualified encounter ranges from $70 to $88. To obtain FQHC status, an organization must demonstrate community need, deliver the appropriate range of healthcare services, satisfy management and finance requirements, and function under a community-based governing board. In addition, an FQHC must provide primary healthcare by physicians and (where appropriate) midlevel practitioners; it must also offer its community diagnostic laboratory and x-ray services, preventive healthcare and dental care, case management, pharmacy services, and arrangements for emergency services. Because FQHCs must be freestanding facilities, establishing them can trigger a number of ancillary legal issues, such as those involved in forming a new corporation, complying with not-for-profit corporation regulations, applying for tax-exempt status, and applying for various property and sales tax exemptions. Hospitals that establish FQHCs must also be prepared to relinquish direct control over the delivery of primary care services.
Johnson, Tricia J; Jones, Art; Lulias, Cheryl; Perry, Anthony
State Medicaid programs need cost-effective strategies to provide high-quality care that is accessible to individuals with low incomes and limited resources. Integrated delivery systems have been formed to provide care across the continuum, but creating a shared vision for improving community health can be challenging. Medical Home Network was created as a network of primary care providers and hospital systems providing care to Medicaid enrollees, guided by the principles of egalitarian governance, practice-level care coordination, real-time electronic alerts, and pay-for-performance incentives. This analysis of health care utilization and costs included 1,189,195 Medicaid enrollees. After implementation of Medical Home Network, a risk-adjusted increase of $9.07 or 4.3% per member per month was found over the 2 years of implementation compared with an increase of $17.25 or 9.3% per member per month, before accounting for the cost of care management fees and other financial incentives, for Medicaid enrollees within the same geographic area with a primary care provider outside of Medical Home Network. After accounting for care coordination fees paid to providers, the net risk-adjusted cost reduction was $11.0 million.
...) to ensure reliable data, reduce QHP burden and facilitate consumer use and comprehension. \\3\\ In... stakeholders and in a field test using available health plan data. Listening sessions were also conducted for...
Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Fortney, John C.; Mouden, Sip; Lu, Liya; Hudson, Teresa J; Mittal, Dinesh
Objective Collaborative care for depression is effective and cost-effective in primary care settings. However, there is minimal evidence to inform the choice of on-site versus off-site models. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of on-site practice-based collaborative care (PBCC) versus off-site telemedicine-based collaborative care (TBCC) for depression in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Methods Multi-site randomized pragmatic comparative cost-effectiveness trial. 19,285 patients were screened for depression, 14.8% (n=2,863) screened positive (PHQ9 ≥10) and 364 were enrolled. Telephone interview data were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. Base case analysis used Arkansas FQHC healthcare costs and secondary analysis used national cost estimates. Effectiveness measures were depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from depression-free days, Medical Outcomes Study SF-12, and Quality of Well Being scale (QWB). Nonparametric bootstrap with replacement methods were used to generate an empirical joint distribution of incremental costs and QALYs and acceptability curves. Results Mean base case FQHC incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) using depression-free days was $10.78/depression-free day. Mean base case ICERs using QALYs ranged from $14,754/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $37,261/QALY (QWB QALY). Mean secondary national ICER using depression-free days was $8.43/depression-free day and using QALYs ranged from $11,532/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $29,234/QALY (QWB QALY). Conclusions These results support the cost-effectiveness of the TBCC intervention in medically underserved primary care settings. Results can inform the decision about whether to insource (make) or outsource (buy) depression care management in the FQHC setting within the current context of Patient-Centered Medical Home, value-based purchasing, and potential bundled payments for depression care. The www.clinicaltrials.gov # for
... & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9964-P2, P.O. Box 8016..., Attention: CMS-9964-P2, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850. 4. By hand or... procedure, Advertising, Advisory Committees, Brokers, Conflict of interest, Consumer protection, Grant...
.... 8901, et seq.) HEDIS Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set HHS U.S. Department of Health... small businesses the same purchasing clout as big businesses. This final rule: (1) Sets forth the...)--Related to timeliness standards for Exchange eligibility determinations; Sec. 155.315(g)--Related to...
Bernstein, Judith; Gebel, Christina; Vargas, Clemencia; Geltman, Paul; Walter, Ashley; Garcia, Raul; Tinanoff, Norman
To explore the opportunities for interprofessional collaboration (IPC) to improve paediatric oral health in federally qualified health centres (FQHCs), to identify challenges to IPC-led integration of oral health prevention into the well-child visit and to suggest strategies to overcome barriers. Nurse managers (NMs), nurse practitioners (NPs), paediatric clinical staff and administrators in six FQHCs in two states were interviewed using a semistructured format. Grounded theory research. Topics included feasibility of integration, perceived barriers and strategies for incorporating oral health into paediatric primary care. Qualitative data were coded and analysed using NVivo 10 to generate themes iteratively. Nurses in diverse roles recognised the importance of oral health prevention but were unaware of professional guidelines for incorporating oral health into paediatric encounters. They valued collaborative care, specifically internal communication, joint initiatives and training and partnering with dental schools or community dental practices. Barriers to IPC included inadequate training, few opportunities for cross-communication and absence of charting templates in electronic health records. NMs, NPs and paediatric nursing staff all value IPC to improve patients' oral health, yet are constrained by lack of oral health training and supportive charting and referral systems. With supports, they are willing to take on responsibility for introducing oral health preventive measures into the well-child visit, but will require IPC approaches to training and systems changes. IPC teams in the health centre setting can work together, if policy and administrative supports are in place, to provide oral health assessments, education, fluoride varnish application and dental referrals, decrease the prevalence of early childhood caries and increase access to a dental home for low-income children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers face many health risks with limited access to health care and promotion services. This study explored whether fear of deportation (as a barrier), and church attendance (as an enabling factor), were associated with medical and dental care use among Mexican-origin farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 179 farmworkers who attended mobile services provided by a local federally-qualified health center (FQHC) in partnership with area churches, during the 2007 agricultural season. The majority of respondents (87 %) were afraid of being deported, and many (74 %) attended church. Although about half of participants reported poor/fair physical (49 %) and dental (58 %) health, only 37 % of farmworkers used medical care and 20 % used dental care during the previous year. Fear of deportation was not associated with use of medical or dental care; while church attendance was associated with use of dental care. Findings suggest that despite high prevalence of fear of deportation, support by FQHCs and churches may enable farmworkers to access health care services.
Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.
Torres, Calia A; Thorn, Beverly E; Kapoor, Shweta; DeMonte, Colette
Most studies done with Hispanics illustrate their preference for self-management practices; therefore, examining the factors driving patients to seek medical care for pain management will help elucidate what patients want and need from their doctors for pain management. The aim of the present study was to obtain patients' perspectives and enhance our understanding of the cultural beliefs influencing pain management decisions of foreign-born Spanish-speaking Hispanics with low acculturation. Twenty-four individuals (17 females and 7 males) with self-reported chronic pain completed the study. Participants attended a focus group and shared about pain management practices and their experiences with medical care for pain management. Descriptive data on pain and mood variables were collected to examine how this population compares with the norms reported in the pain literature for Hispanics. Participants reported a preference for pain self-management and noninvasive medical treatments and expressed negative attitudes toward pain medications, although wanting the option of pain medications as a "last resort." Satisfaction with medical care for pain was highly influenced by the participants' expectations and preference for personal, warm, and friendly interactions. Our findings are consistent with previous reports on Hispanics' preference for self-care practices. Perhaps foreign-born Hispanics may rely on self-care practices and delay medical attention for pain management because of their unfamiliarity with the US health care system. Other potential explanations for a reliance on self-care for pain management involve patients having a limited understanding of or access to effective treatment options for chronic pain and negative experiences with US medical providers. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bailit, Howard L; Devitto, Judy; Myne-Joslin, Ronnie; Beazoglou, Tryfon; McGowan, Taegan
Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) dental clinics are a major component of the dental safety net system, providing care to 3.75 million patients annually. This study describes the financial and clinical operations of a sample of FQHCs. In cooperation with the National Network for Oral Health Access, FQHC dental clinics that could provide 12 months of electronic dental record information were asked to participate in the study. Based on data from 28 dental clinics (14 FQHCs), 50 percent of patients were under 21 years of age. The primary payers were Medicaid (72.4 percent) and sliding-scale/self-pay patients (17.5 percent). Sites averaged 3.1 operatories, 0.66 dental hygienists, and 1.9 other staff per dentist. Annually, each FTE dentist and hygienist provided 2,801 and 2,073 patient visits, respectively. Eighty percent of services were diagnostic, preventive, and restorative. Patient care accounted for 82 percent of revenues, and personnel (64.2 percent) and central administration (13.4 percent) accounted for most expenses. Based on a small convenience sample of FQHC dental clinics, this study presents descriptive data on their clinical and financial operations. Compared with data from the UDS (Uniform Data System) report, study FQHCs were larger in terms of space, staff, and patients served. However, there was substantial variation among clinics for almost all measures. As the number and size of FQHC dental clinics increase, the Health Resources and Services Administration needs to provide them access to comparative data that they can use to benchmark their operations. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
... buy equipment, modernize clinic facilities, expand into new facilities, and adopt or expand the use of... interdisciplinary teams to treat the “whole patient” and focus on chronic disease management to reduce the use of costlier providers of care, such as emergency rooms and hospitals. Federally qualified health centers...
Kiser, Humayun; Nasrin, Tasmina
Maternal and child mortality are the key indicators of health and development of the country. Maternal and child health are interconnected to prenatal care. Consulting a doctor at the prenatal stage will not only ensure mother's and her unborn babies' safety, but also has a great influence to reduce the maternal and infant mortality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the status of prenatal care provided by the qualified doctor among pregnant mothers in Bangladesh. Data and required information of 8793 reproductive women were collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. Logistic regression model has been used to identify the most significant determinants of the prenatal doctor visits. In this research, it is found that prenatal cares by a qualified doctor during pregnancy depend on several social and demographic characteristics of a woman. It is observed that women staying both urban and rural areas have similar behaviour of caring regarding their pregnancy related complications. Beside this Respondent's age, education, her husband's education and the number of ever born children have significant contribution on prenatal doctor visit. On the other hand, division, religion, husband's desire for children has no effect on it. Overall the model is able to predict 71.65% women into their appropriate group based on these factors.
... integral and subordinate part of a hospital, skilled nursing facility or home health agency participating... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services. 405.2462 Section 405.2462 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...
Cottrell, Erika K; Hall, Jennifer D; Kautz, Glenn; Angier, Heather; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Sisulak, Laura; Keller, Sara; Cameron, David C; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Cohen, Deborah J
Alternative payment models have been proposed as a way to facilitate patient-centered medical home model implementation, yet little is known about how payment reform translates into changes in care delivery. We conducted site visits, observed operations, and conducted interviews within 3 Federally Qualified Health Center organizations that were part of Oregon's Alternative Payment Methodology demonstration project. Data were analyzed using an immersion-crystallization approach. We identified several care delivery changes during the early stages of implementation, as well as challenges associated with this new model of payment. Future research is needed to further understand the implications of these changes.
Katz, Aaron B; Felland, Laurie E; Hill, Ian; Stark, Lucy B
Community health centers have evolved from fringe providers to mainstays of many local health care systems. Those designated as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), in particular, have largely established themselves as key providers of comprehensive, efficient, high-quality primary care services to low-income people, especially Medicaid and uninsured patients. The Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC's) site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities since 1996 document substantial growth in FQHC capacity, based on growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees and uninsured people, increased federal support, and improved managerial acumen. At the same time, FQHC development has varied considerably across communities because of several important factors, including local health system characteristics and financial and political support at federal, state and local levels. Some communities--Boston; Syracuse, N.Y.; Miami; and Seattle--have relatively extensive FQHC capacity for their Medicaid and uninsured populations, while other communities--Lansing, Mich.; northern New Jersey; Indianapolis; and Greenville, S.C.--fall in the middle. FQHC growth in Phoenix; Little Rock, Ark.; Cleveland; and Orange County, Calif.; has lagged in comparison. Today, FQHCs seem poised to play a key role in federal health care reform, including coverage expansions and the emphasis on primary care and medical homes.
Weil, Thomas P
The American populace currently supports the need for providing additional mental health services for adolescents who frequently express anger and mood instability and maybe are at risk for major psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems; Vietnam, Iraqi, and Afghanistan veterans or military personnel still on duty diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or other similar combat-related disabilities; the approximately 1 million prisoners currently incarcerated primarily because of substance abuse and needing medically related rehabilitative services; and senior citizens who experience dementia and depression and require improved therapeutics. The problems outlined herein are as follows: far too limited monies are being spent for mental health services (5.6% of total US expenditures for health or roughly one fifth of what is consumed for hospital care); effective therapies are often lacking; and there is a shortage of qualified mental health personnel except in upscale urban and suburban areas. Unfortunately, these problems are so immense that, even with enhanced prioritization of our available resources, they are still not entirely solvable. The American public may continue to impart lip service when attempting to respond to our nation's mental health needs or may decide to spend vastly more money for such care. The latter choice may not be forthcoming in the near future for various cultural-societal-clinical-fiscal reasons.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics is proposing an innovative space qualified non-destructive evaluation and health monitoring technology. The technology is built on concepts...
Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm
Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...
care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...
Iurkevich, V V; Fidarov, E Z; Bauér, V A
Experience of organization of the surgical care in the military hospital to 438 wounded in extremities during armed conflict in Republic of Chechnya is generalized. Maximum reduction of stages of medical evacuation of the wounded in extremities, approaching of the qualified and urgent specialized surgical care directly to the region of battle actions, use of opportunities for it one-moment rendering corresponded to principles of the modern military-medical doctrine. Due to realization of the requirements of the doctrine life of many wounded ++ was saved, terms of treatment, medical and social rehabilitation are reduced. Besides lethality, treatment cost and numbers of transferring to the reserve from the Armed Forces were reduced.
... qualified on-the-job training and child care facilities. 1.188-1 Section 1.188-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... qualified on-the-job training and child care facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... operation of a qualified on-the-job training or child care facility or are integrally related facilities...
Wong, Shui Ling; Barner, Jamie C; Sucic, Kristina; Nguyen, Michelle; Rascati, Karen L
To describe the integration and implementation of pharmacy services in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) as adopted by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and compare them with usual care (UC). Four FQHCs (3 PCMHs, 1 UC) in Austin, TX, that provide care to the underserved populations. Pharmacists have worked under a collaborative practice agreement with internal medicine physicians since 2005. All 4 FQHCs have pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team. Pharmacists have prescriptive authority to initiate and adjust diabetes medications. The PCMH FQHCs instituted co-visits, where patients see both the physician and the pharmacist on the same day. PCMH pharmacists are routinely proactive in collaborating with physicians regarding medication management, compared with UC in which pharmacists see patients only when referred by a physician. Four face-to-face, one-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with pharmacists working in 3 PCMH FQHCs and 1 UC FQHC to compare the implementation of PCMH with emphasis on 1) structure and workflow, 2) pharmacists' roles, and 3) benefits and challenges. On co-visit days, the pharmacist may see the patient before or after physician consultation. Pharmacists in 2 of the PCMH facilities proactively screen to identify diabetes patients who may benefit from pharmacist services, although the UC clinic pharmacists see only referred patients. Strengths of the co-visit model include more collaboration with physicians and more patient convenience. Payment that recognizes the value of PCMH is one PCMH principle that is not fully implemented. PCMH pharmacists in FQHCs were integrated into the workflow to address specific patient needs. Specifically, full-time in-house pharmacists, flexible referral criteria, proactive screening, well defined collaborative practice agreement, and open scheduling were successful strategies for the underserved populations in this study. However, reimbursement plans and provider
... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Maaroos, H.I.; Tähepöld, H.
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate doctor-patient communication in consultations of newly qualified general practitioners (GPs) in a newly reorganised health care system and differences in consultation characteristics and communication patterns between new European Union (EU)-countries
Kramer, Teresa L; Drummond, Karen L; Curran, Geoffrey M; Fortney, John C
This study examines organizational factors relating to climate and culture that might facilitate or impede the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting behavioral health in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Employees at six FQHCs participating in an evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) initiative for mood disorders and alcohol abuse were interviewed (N=32) or surveyed using the Organizational Context Survey (OCS) assessing culture and climate (N=64). The FQHCs scored relatively well on proficiency, a previously established predictor of successful EBP implementation, but also logged high scores on scales assessing rigidity and resistance, which may hinder implementation. Qualitative data contextualized scores on FQHC culture and climate dimensions. Results suggest that the unique culture of FQHCs may influence implementation of evidence-based behavioral health interventions.
Francisca Georgina Macedo de Sousa
cuidado se construye en los esfuerzos, en la colaboración, en la comunicación, en la complementariedad y en el hacer/actuar de profesionales, familias, servicios y gerentes.Child care is supported by a shared action enriched by subjectivities of professionals and family in order to meet peculiar characteristics of child growth and development. This study aimed to understand modes of child care in Primary Health Care, supported by the Grounded Theory. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the research, including managers, coordinators of nursing and medicine courses, doctors, nurses and mothers of children assisted by the Family Health Strategy in São Luís-MA, Brazil. To collect data it was used a semi-structured interview. The category Qualifying child care at PHC and its respective subcategories recognize that care has different meanings based on the value of life and human dignity and that the value of care is built by efforts, collaboration, communication, complementarity and in the actions of professionals, families, services and managers.
Carter, M.W.; Hans, Elias W.; Kolisch, R.
Health care operations management has become a major topic for health care service providers and society. Operations research already has and further will make considerable contributions for the effective and efficient delivery of health care services. This special issue collects seven carefully
DeVoe, Jennifer; Angier, Heather; Likumahuwa, Sonja; Hall, Jennifer; Nelson, Christine; Dickerson, Kay; Keller, Sara; Burdick, Tim; Cohen, Deborah
Lack of health insurance negatively impacts children's health. Despite federal initiatives to expand children's coverage and accelerate state outreach efforts, millions of US children remain uninsured or experience frequent gaps in coverage. Most current efforts to enroll and retain eligible children in public insurance programs take place outside of the health care system. This study is a partnership between patients' families, medical informaticists, federally qualified health center (FQHC) staff, and researchers to build and test information technology tools to help FQHCs reach uninsured children and those at risk for losing coverage.
Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...
Díez García, R W; Souza, A A; Proença, R P C
Establishing criteria for hospital nutrition care ensures that quality care is delivered to patients. The responsibility of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service (HFNS) is not always well defined, despite efforts to establish guidelines for patient clinical nutrition practice. This study describes the elaboration of an Instrument for Evaluation of Food and Nutritional Care (IEFNC) aimed at directing the actions of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service. This instrument was qualified by means of a comparative analysis of the categories related to hospital food and nutritional care, published in the literature. Elaboration of the IEFNC comprised the following stages: (a) a survey of databases and documents for selection of the categories to be used in nutrition care evaluation, (b) a study of the institutional procedures for nutrition practice at two Brazilian hospitals, in order to provide a description of the sequence of actions that should be taken by the HFNS as well as other services participating in nutrition care, (c) design of the IEFNC based on the categories published in the literature, adapted to the sequence of actions observed in the routines of the hospitals under study, (d) application of the questionnaire at two different hospitals that was mentioned in the item (b), in order to assess the time spent on its application, the difficulties in phrasing the questions, and the coverage of the instrument, and (e) finalization of the instrument. The IEFNC consists of 50 open and closed questions on two areas of food and nutritional care in hospital: inpatient nutritional care and food service quality. It deals with the characterization and structure of hospitals and their HFNS, the actions concerning the patients' nutritional evaluation and monitoring, the meal production system, and the hospital diets. "This questionnaire is a tool that can be seen as a portrait of the structure and characteristics of the HFNS and its performance in clinical and meal
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...
The article reviews emerging health care delivery options for handicapped children. Cost structures, quality of care, and future prospects are considered for Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Tax Supported Direct Service Programs, Hospital-Based Services, and Ambulatory Care Organizations. (Author/DB)
Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der
A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,
The United States health care is presently challenged by a significant economic crisis. The purpose of this report is to introduce the readers of Medicinski Pregled to the root causes of this crisis and to explain the steps undertaken to reform health care in order to solve the crisis. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be of value, if only in small measure, to the shaping of health care in Serbia.
Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Background: The well-being of women and children is one of the major determinants ... The Sample for the study were women recruited from 11 primary health care ... respondents educational level and knowledge of preconception care (X =24.76, ... single adult or married couple) are in an optimal state .... The major site for.
enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.
Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care we...... document pronounced regional differences in adherence to guidelines and can help to identify gaps and direct target interventions. It may serve as a tool for assessment and benchmarking the clinical management of HIV-patients in any setting worldwide....
Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça
The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.
Maxey, Hannah L.; Randolph, Courtney; Gano, Laura; Kochhar, Komal
Inadequate access to preventive oral health services contributes to oral health disparities and is a major public health concern in the United States. Federally Qualified Health Centers play a critical role in improving access to care for populations affected by oral health disparities but face a number of administrative challenges associated with implementation of oral health integration models. We conducted a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with health care executives to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of successful oral health integration in Federally Qualified Health Centers. Four themes were identified: (1) culture of health care organizations; (2) operations and administration; (3) finance; and (4) workforce. PMID:27218701
to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...
I critically examine Jan Deckers' position in Animal (De)liberation, where he defends two main views. The first is "qualified moral veganism": Most humans have a duty to abstain from consuming animal products, even if there are circumstances in which doing so is justified. The author argues, on the one hand, from a pan-sentientist view that attributes sentience to all elementary entities and their compounds. Thus, all living things (such as animals and plants) have a capacity for positive and negative experiences. On the other hand, he develops a consequentialist view that assigns moral agents the unconditional duty to promote their own "holistic health." This is partly constituted by the agent's "moral health," that is, her acting in a morally justified way. On Deckers' view, moral agents must care for the health of all living entities, give greater weight to the interests of organisms to which they are more closely biologically related, and respect the integrity of nature. Diets containing animal products have a very high negative health impact, because of how they affect the environment, human food security, and the well-being of nonhuman animals. In addition, even though plants are sentient, they are likely less so than animals, and their interests must be given less weight. Therefore, most humans should shift to a vegan diet. Deckers' second proposal is that a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products should be enacted. After discarding other alternative strategies, Deckers defends its feasibility relying on data obtained via a series of surveys. Though the argument partly succeeds in developing a coherent account accommodating the author's intuitions, I conclude that his ontological and normative frameworks remain too underdeveloped, his appeal to biological relatedness has implausible implications, and the methodology he uses in defence of his political position is problematic. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Uzal, Natalia E; Chavez, Benjamin; Kosirog, Emily R; Billups, Sarah J; Saseen, Joseph J
In 2004, a consensus statement outlining recommended metabolic monitoring for patients prescribed second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) was published. More than a decade later, suboptimal adherence rates to these recommendations continue to be reported, which could lead to long-term and costly complications. To define the prevalence of appropriately monitored Medicaid patients receiving care at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) prescribed SGAs. This was a retrospective study examining electronic health record and Medicaid claims data to assess the rates of glucose and lipid monitoring for patients prescribed SGAs from January 2014 to August 2016 in a FQHC. Prescription and laboratory claims for patients receiving care at 4 FQHCs were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the primary outcome. A total of 235 patients were included in the analysis. Patients initiated on SGA therapy (n = 92) had baseline glucose and lipid monitoring rates of 50% and 23%, respectively. The 3-month monitoring rates were 37% for glucose and 26% for lipids, whereas annual rates were 71% and 40%, respectively. Patients continuing SGA therapy (n = 143) had annual glucose and lipid monitoring rates of 67% and 44%. Medicaid patients at FQHCs initially prescribed SGAs have low baseline and 3-month metabolic monitoring, whereas annual monitoring was comparable to previously published studies. Adults receiving chronic care at a FQHC were more likely to receive glucose monitoring. Those with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hyperlipidemia were more likely to receive glucose and lipid monitoring.
... MO - St. Louis, Qualifications Required: Bachelor’s degree in business, marketing, health care administration or a related field Current ... Work for AHCA/NCAL News Provider Daily Publications Social Media News Releases LTC Leader Blog Research and Data ...
Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.
Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...
... CAN CHANGE Looking for coverage for a small business? Learn more Need to submit documents? SEE HOW ... Find Local Help Visit the HealthCare.gov blog Facebook Twitter YouTube Google+ All Topics | Glossary | Contact Us | ...
... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...
one strategy that could be conducted anywhere, if the health care workers are trained and positively disposed ... places; regulate advertising, manufacturing. 13 .... Gender. Male. 52 (46.0). 61 (54.0). 0.0001. Significant. Female. 82 (73.2).
about teething the world over and especially ... children`s out-patients, dental and the ear, nose and throat clinics of a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... parents, health care workers and personal experiences were the sources of beliefs ... None (0%) of the respondents had prior knowledge of proven causes of ear.
VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.
May 1, 2012 ... with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria ... includes contributions from families, charges have been .... employees at 23.5%, self employed 19.1% of showed that most of the respondents (41.3%).
Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , 2017 Warning - A phone number that was once used for the Denali KidCare program is now being used to ask people for their credit card number in order to win a prize. The phone number related to this
Jarzembski, W B
Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.
This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren
An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...
Weel, C. van; Schers, H.J.; Timmermans, A.
This article analyzes Dutch experiences of health care reform--in particular in primary care--with emphasis on lessons for current United States health care reforms. Recent major innovations were the introduction of private insurance based on the principles of primary care-led health care and
Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina
In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Hasman, Andreas; Hope, Tony; Østerdal, Lars Peter
The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can be precis......The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can...... be precisely articulated. Following a discussion of the general features of health care need, we propose three principal interpretations of need, each of which focuses on separate intuitions. Although this account may not be a completely exhaustive reflection of what people mean when they refer to need...
Stephen C. Dorner, MSc
Full Text Available Introduction: Under regulations established by the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must meet minimum standards in order to be sold through the federal Marketplace. These standards to become a qualified health plan (QHP include maintaining a provider network sufficient to assure access to services. However, the complexity of emergency physician (EP employment practices – in which the EPs frequently serve as independent contractors of emergency departments, independently establish insurance contracts, etc... – and regulations governing insurance repayment may hinder the application of network adequacy standards to emergency medicine. As such, we hypothesized the existence of QHPs without in-network access to EPs. The objective is to identify whether there are QHPs without in-network access to EPs using information available through the federal Marketplace and publicly available provider directories. Results: In a national sample of Marketplace plans, we found that one in five provider networks lacks identifiable in-network EPs. QHPs lacking EPs spanned nearly half (44% of the 34 states using the federal Marketplace. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the present regulatory framework governing network adequacy is not generalizable to emergency care, representing a missed opportunity to protect patient access to in-network physicians. These findings and the current regulations governing insurance payment to EPs dis-incentivize the creation of adequate physician networks, incentivize the practice of balance billing, and shift the cost burden to patients.
Miller, Sam Louise
Values-based recruitment is a process being introduced to student selection for nursing courses and appointment to registered nurse posts. This article discusses the process of values-based recruitment and demonstrates why it is important in health care today. It examines the implications of values-based recruitment for candidates applying to nursing courses and to newly qualified nurses applying for their first posts in England. To ensure the best chance of success, candidates should understand the principles and process of values-based recruitment and how to prepare for this type of interview.
Smithies, R; Steeves, L
Flexible benefits plans have grown more slowly in Canada than in the United States, largely because of certain legal and regulatory considerations. Health care spending accounts (HCSAs) provide a cost-effective way for Canadian employers to address the health care benefit needs of a diverse workforce. A flexible health care spending account is a versatile and cost-effective instrument that can be used by Canadian employers that wish to provide a full range of health care benefits to employees. The health care alternatives available through an HCSA can provide employees with an opportunity to customize and optimize their benefits program. Regulatory requirements that an HCSA must meet in order to qualify for available tax advantages are discussed, as are the range of health care services that may be covered.
Kuthy, Raymond A.; Pendharkar, Bhagyashree; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Jones, Michael P.; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Wehby, George L.; Damiano, Peter C.
Objective To estimate age at first dental visit (FDV) and identify variables predicting earlier visits for Medicaid-enrolled children at Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC). Methods Statewide Medicaid claims data were used to draw a random sample of children who received their FDV prior to 6 years of age at a FQHC, were Medicaid-enrolled within the first two months of life, and remained continuously enrolled over the study period. Forty children from each of 5 FQHCs had their dental charts abstracted and merged with other Medicaid records and birth certificate data. The logarithmic age at FDV was regressed against several predictor variables. Results Mean and median ages for FDV were 25.6 and 23 months, respectively. When controlling for other variables, there were differences in FDV age by mother’s marital status (p=0.003), number of medical well-child visits (MCV) at a FQHC prior to the FDV (p1MCV at the FQHC. Conclusion Medicaid enrolled children who visited FQHCs for FDV were seen at an earlier age than previously recorded for such health centers (i.e., mean-4 years). Children who also received their MCVs at FQHCs were more likely to have earlier FDVs. PMID:23756303
Kuthy, Raymond A; Jones, Michael; Kavand, Golnaz; Momany, Elizabeth; Askelson, Natoshia; Chi, Donald; Wehby, George; Damiano, Peter
The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at five Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n = 200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subject's first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kuthy, RA; Jones, M; Kavand, G; Momany, E; Askelson, N; Chi, D; Wehby, G; Damiano, P
Objective The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at 5 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Methods Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n=200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Results Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard rate of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subject’s first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Conclusions Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care in order to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. PMID:24483730
press conference with President Toledo of Peru on March 23, 2002, President Bush proclaimed, “education, jobs, and health care are the greatest...allow patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure to “visit” their doctors “on-line” while in the comfort and privacy of...to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As a result, non-communicable disease such as 10 heart disease, stroke, diabetes , and cancer are prevalent throughout
MUHAMMAD AZAM ISHAQUE CHAUDHARY
Full Text Available Focusing on health care systems can improve health outcomes now and in the future. Growing economies have serious concerns on the rising cost of health, whereas, in under developed countries like Pakistan, it is not emphasized yet at all. The research is conducted to improve a unique aspect of health care systems to provide effective, patient-centred, high-standard health care while maintaining the cost effectiveness. Research is being qualified in two paradigms qualitative and quantitative. In qualitative research, expert?s interviews have been taken to get the basic knowledge of radiology based testing and their prerequisites, in quantitative research ordered are being analysed to check the frequency and if they are unnecessary or qualified medical necessity guidelines as established in qualitative method. Analysis was made on the basis of the trinity relationship of diagnosis, symptoms and respected order to determine the necessity of the order to get its impact on cost of the overall health of those patients and point out more than 50% unnecessary orders are being performed in two government hospitals. The situation is alarming and policy makers should focus on unnecessary ordering to avoid out of pocket expenses and improve quality of care. The research helps in successful application of health care system modifications and policies pertaining to one aspect of health systems, i.e. cost-effectiveness of health care.
Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.
Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226
Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A
To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Encouraged by Phase I accomplishments, the proposed Phase II program will significantly mature and align the development of a Space Qualified Non-Destructive...
Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A
The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.
Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Lavie, Carl J; Ozemek, Cemal; Forman, Daniel; Myers, Jonathan; Laddu, Deepika R; Popovic, Dejana; Rouleau, Codie R; Campbell, Tavis S; Hills, Andrew P
Being physically active or, in a broader sense, simply moving more throughout each day is one of the most important components of an individual's health plan. In conjunction with regular exercise training, taking more steps in a day and sitting less are also important components of one's movement portfolio. Given this priority, health care professionals must develop enhanced skills for prescribing and guiding individualized movement programs for all their patients. An important component of a health care professional's ability to prescribe movement as medicine is competency in assessing an individual's risk for untoward events if physical exertion was increased. The ability to appropriately assess one's risk before advising an individual to move more is integral to clinical decision-making related to subsequent testing if needed, exercise prescription, and level of supervision with exercise training. At present, there is a lack of clarity pertaining to how a health care professional should go about assessing an individual's readiness to move more on a daily basis in a safe manner. Therefore, this perspectives article clarifies key issues related to prescribing movement as medicine and presents a new process for clinical assessment before prescribing an individualized movement program. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paul, T; Wong, J
A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.
Part II of Health Care Engineering begins with statistics on the occurrence of medical errors and adverse events, and includes some technological solutions. A chapter on electronic medical records follows. The knowledge management process divided into four steps is described; this includes a discussion on data acquisition, storage, and retrieval. The next two chapters discuss the other three steps of the knowledge management process (knowledge discovery, knowledge translation, knowledge integration and sharing). The last chapter briefly discusses usability studies and clinical trials.This two-
Henderson, M D
Health care operations encompass the totality of those health care functions that allow those who practice health care delivery to do so. As the health care industry undergoes dramatic reform, so will the jobs of those who manage health care delivery systems. Although health care operations managers play one of the most vital and substantial roles in the new delivery system, the criteria for their success (or failure) are being defined now. Yet, the new and vital role of the operations manager has been stunted in its development, which is primarily because of old and outdated antipathy between hospital administrators and physicians. This article defines the skills and characteristics of today's health care operations managers.
Sorgaard, Knut W; Ryan, Peter; Dawson, Ian
Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. A total of 196 nursing staff --124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds--working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures addressed towards N-R Cs in general with regard
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and an emerging public health problem in developing ... and public health challenges in their immigrant countries. More so ..... The nutrition transition in Brazil. 46.
Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G
Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.
dearth of information on patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care. This study sought ... with the doctor. Satisfaction rates were: 94.9% technical quality, ... of the delivery of care into several dimensions of contributed by studies carried out in Western. 14 ... efficiency of services as an index of patient needs of its clients. Secondly ...
Engaging men in health care involves a multifaceted approach that has as its main principle the recognition that men consume health care differently to women. This article identifies barriers to engaging men in health care and offers potential and existing solutions to overcome these barriers in a range of health care settings. The concept of multiple masculinities recognises that not all men can be engaged via a particular technique or strategy. The perception that men are disinterested in their health is challenged and a range of approaches discussed, both in the community and in health care facilities. In the general practice setting opportunities exist for the engagement of men at the reception desk and waiting room, as well as during the consultation. Use of the workplace in engaging men is discussed. Future activities to build the capacity of health care providers to better engage men are identified and the role of policy and program development is addressed.
Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor
The debate on accountability within the public sector has been lively in the past decade. Significant progress has been made in developing conceptual frameworks and typologies for characterizing different features and functions of accountability. However, there is a lack of sector specific...... adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...... that reforms can introduce new forms of accountability, change existing accountability relations or change the relative importance of different accountability forms. They may also change the dominant direction and shift the balance between different functions of accountability. We further suggest...
G. Alan Tarr
Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.
Health care workers are exposed to many job hazards. These can include Infections Needle injuries Back injuries ... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ...
2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.
Kawczynski , Lukasz; Taisch , Marco
International audience; In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent...
Johnson, Christopher; Saba, George; Wolf, Jessica; Gardner, Heather; Thom, David H
To examine activities of health coaches during patient medical visits and when meeting one-on-one with patients at 3 urban federally qualified health centers. Encounters were videotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a matrix analysis approach that allowed a priori identification of expected categories of activity, based on the health coach training model and previously developed conceptual framework, which were modified based on activities observed. A total of 10 medical visits (patient, clinician and health coach), and 8 patient-coach visits were recorded. We identified 9 categories common to both medical and patient-coach visits and 2 categories unique to the medical visit. While observed activities were generally consistent with expected categories, some activities were observed infrequently or not at all. We also observed additional activity categories, including information gathering and personal conversation. The average amount of time spent on some categories of coaching activities differed substantially between medical visits and patient-coach visits. Health coaching activities observed differed in several respects to those expected, and differed between medical visits and coaching only visits. These results provide insights into health coaching behaviors that can be used to inform training and improve utilization of health coaches in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vance, Stanley R; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L; Rosenthal, Stephen M
To explore providers' clinical experiences, comfort, and confidence with and barriers to providing care to transgender youth. An online survey was administered to members of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine and the Pediatric Endocrine Society with items querying about clinical exposure to transgender youth, familiarity with and adherence to existing clinical practice guidelines, perceived barriers to providing transgender-related care, and comfort and confidence with providing transgender-related care. The response rate was 21.9% (n = 475). Of the respondents, 66.5% had provided care to transgender youth, 62.4% felt comfortable with providing transgender medical therapy, and 47.1% felt confident in doing so. Principal barriers to provision of transgender-related care were lack of the following: training, exposure to transgender patients, available qualified mental health providers, and insurance reimbursement. This study suggests that more training in transgender-related care, available qualified mental health providers, and insurance reimbursement for transgender-related care are needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tracy, Jane; McDonald, Rachael
Background: Despite awareness of the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability, their health status remains poor. Inequalities in health outcomes are manifest in higher morbidity and rates of premature death. Contributing factors include the barriers encountered in accessing and receiving high-quality health care.…
and pre/ post partum care during delivery. America should select measures that reflect the health-care goals of the nation. As an example, the Healthy...accidents (8) More than 50% of patients with diabetes, hypertension, tobacco addiction, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, asthma, depression ...reflect the cumulative efforts of different types of individual care. For example, infant mortality is a reflection of pre-natal care, post - natal care
Carling, Philip C
This article presents a review and perspectives on aspects of optimizing health care environmental hygiene. The topics covered include the epidemiology of environmental surface contamination, a discussion of cleaning health care patient area surfaces, an overview of disinfecting health care surfaces, an overview of challenges in monitoring cleaning versus cleanliness, a description of an integrated approach to environmental hygiene and hand hygiene as interrelated disciplines, and an overview of the research opportunities and challenges related to health care environmental hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newly qualified professional nurses (NQPNs) allocated to community health care services require the use of validated model to practice independently. Validation was done to adapt and assess if the model is understood and could be implemented by NQPNs and mentors employed in community health care services.
Thrall, T H; Hoppszallern, S
Locating and keeping employees represents one of the greatest challenges facing health care leaders today. This is a key finding of the third Leadership Survey of executives in physician practices, managed care organizations and hospitals. The survey is sponsored by the Medical Group Management Association and Hospitals & Health Networks magazine. Other significant results: Practices put the most emphasis on teamwork, training and staff development as methods to combat labor shortages; practice executives count adequacy of reimbursements and physician productivity as top leadership challenges, along with the availability of qualified workers; practices choose print advertising and the addition of new products and services as the best ways for them to build market share.
.... Ambulances, Rural Health Centers (RHC) or other remote health location, Ships navigating in wide seas and Airplanes in flight are common examples of possible emergency sites, while critical care telemetry, and telemedicine home follow-ups...
Anderson, Daren; Zlateva, Ianita; Davis, Bennet; Bifulco, Lauren; Giannotti, Tierney; Coman, Emil; Spegman, Douglas
Pain is an extremely common complaint in primary care, and patient outcomes are often suboptimal. This project evaluated the impact of Project ECHO Pain videoconference case-based learning sessions on knowledge and quality of pain care in two Federally Qualified Health Centers. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention, with comparison group. Two large, multisite federally qualified health centers in Connecticut and Arizona. Intervention (N = 10) and comparison (N = 10) primary care providers. Primary care providers attended 48 weekly Project ECHO Pain sessions between January and December 2013, led by a multidisciplinary pain specialty team. Surveys and focus groups assessed providers' pain-related knowledge and self-efficacy. Electronic health record data were analyzed to evaluate opioid prescribing and specialty referrals. Compared with control, primary care providers in the intervention had a significantly greater increase in pain-related knowledge and self-efficacy. Providers who attended ECHO were more likely to use formal assessment tools and opioid agreements and refer to behavioral health and physical therapy compared with control providers. Opioid prescribing decreased significantly more among providers in the intervention compared with those in the control group. Pain is an extremely common and challenging problem, particularly among vulnerable patients such as those cared for at the more than 1,200 Federally Qualified Health Centers in the United States. In this study, attendance at weekly Project ECHO Pain sessions not only improved knowledge and self-efficacy, but also altered prescribing and referral patterns, suggesting that knowledge acquired during ECHO sessions translated into practice changes. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine.
Beer, G.; Slovak, K.
In Slovakia a strange approach to the purchase of health care equipment has not been limited to ophthalmology. Suspicious procurements are symptomatic. This applies also to specialisation where the correct spending of money can make the difference between life and death and can greatly effect the quality of life. More than a year ago, the Ministry of Health started the procurement of linear accelerators for oncology units in three hospitals. This plan placed on the market a potential order worth more than 11 million EUR without VAT. Three companies produce this complex equipment. The US company, Varian, the German company, Siemens, and the Swedish company, Elekta. Three suppliers, three hospitals. What a coincidence that each hospital - in Presov, Banska Bystrica and Bratislava - received only one envelope with an offer. Each from a different supplier. If anyone wanted to prove that the suppliers did not agree on a common approach, he would soon get into trouble. Each tender was organized by Pro-Tender, Kosice. The tender for the purchase of linear accelerators observed all the legal regulations. For each hospital there was only one offer and so it won. No-one complained, because each company got an order. Amedis Piestany will deliver a Varian product to Bystrica. In Narodny onkologicky ustav in Bratislava the winner was Transkontakt with Elekta products. And in Presov it was Ad Rem from Dunajska Streda that succeeded. The small company owned by a local vet joined up with Siemens and is now opening the doors of state-owned and regional hospitals to the company. (authors)
Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria .... exercise. All pupils in the selected school later done under the light ..... increased the likelihood of intestinal parasitic of Ilechukwu et al in which a ...
Subject and Methods: ... To the best of the authors' knowledge, ... increase in percentage of women visiting health categories were decided on because ..... leadership resulted in an empowering work Significant differences in the proportions of.
Immunization is a proven cost-effective ... immunization programme and control of Vaccine was conducted to assess the ..... HFs where emphasis is on profit maximization revealed that the widespread ... World Health Organization (WHO).
Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth
The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.
Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R
When groups of people relocate from their homelands to other nations, especially if the movement is involuntary, minority populations are created in the countries that receive them. The issues related to these diaspora and diasporic communities--any groups that have been dispersed outside their traditional homelands--are financial, social, historical, political, or religious. In health care, issues include heritable diseases, cultural barriers, patients' health care beliefs, and unique disease presentations. In long-term care, many residents and health care providers have relocated to the United States from other countries.
Discusses how entrepreneurs have helped reduce costs in health care and examines the major changes in the health care system that are simultaneously lowering costs and increasing quality. The author then explains how current reform proposals might affect these entrepreneurial innovations. (GLR)
To introduce the articles in this special issue, discussing emotion in the in health-care organisations. Discusses such topics as what makes health care different, editorial perspectives, how health care has explored emotion so far, and the impact of emotion on patients and the consequences for staff. Health care provides a setting that juxtaposes emotion and rationality, the individual and the body corporate, the formal and the deeply personal, the public and the private, all of which must be understood better if changes in expectations and delivery are to remain coherent. The papers indicate a shared international desire to understand meaning in emotion that is now spreading across organizational process and into all professional roles within health care.
compared the perceived availability of essential drugs and patronage of health facilities in a BI and non-BI Local government areas (LGA) of ... 2Medical Directorate, Hospitals Management Board, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State ... majority of the population in Malaysia had access to .... Ethical clearance for this study was obtained.
The level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha LGA was poor. Parents were mainly the first source of information on HCT for the respondents. There is need for more research to update knowledge and information on adolescent health issues and services related to HIV/AIDS.
A nation's disease control effort is often as good as the surveillance and notification system put in place, .... Department. Community Health. 11. 4.9. Dentistry. 28. 12.5. Family Medicine. 14 .... formal training and a posting in the Infection control.
Latin America and Southeast Asia. Cervical ... screening method based on visual Inspection with. 10-13 .... 56(49.6%) had poor knowledge while relating to practice of ... articulated road map and policy frame work to address ... European formal of Public ... Knowledge attitude and Practice ... Tertiary Health Institution. Int J.
the mobile phones of health workers and their role as a source of hospital acquired infection. The study utilised ..... grew organisms which is much lower than may not be as effective as regular hand. 7 .... Akinyemi KO, Atapu AD, Adetona. 2011 ...
Roland, Katherine B; Milliken, Erin L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; DeGroff, Amy; White, Susan; Melillo, Stephanie; Rorie, William E; Signes, Carmita-Anita C; Young, Paul A
Introduction: In the United States, disparities in cancer screening, morbidity, and mortality are well documented, and often are related to race/ethnicity and socioeconomic indicators including income, education, and healthcare access. Public health approaches that address social determinants of health have the greatest potential public health benefit, and can positively impact health disparities. As public health interventions, community health workers (CHWs), and patient navigators (PNs) work to address disparities and improve cancer outcomes through education, connecting patients to and navigating them through the healthcare system, supporting patient adherence to screening and diagnostic services, and providing social support and linkages to financial and community resources. Clinical settings, such as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are mandated to provide care to medically underserved communities, and thus are also valuable in the effort to address health disparities. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies of cancer-related CHW/PN interventions in FQHCs, and to describe the components and characteristics of those interventions in order to guide future intervention development and evaluation. Method: We searched five databases for peer-reviewed CHW/PN intervention studies conducted in partnership with FQHCs with a focus on cancer, carried out in the United States, and published in English between January 1990 and December 2013. Results: We identified 24 articles, all reporting positive outcomes of CHW/PNs interventions in FQHCs. CHW/PN interventions most commonly promoted breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening and/or referral for diagnostic resolution. Studies were supported largely through federal funding. Partnerships with academic institutions and community-based organizations provided support and helped develop capacity among FQHC clinic leadership and community members. Discussion: Both the FQHC system and CHW
Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara
There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...
Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A
The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Stempsey, William E
Virtually all activities of health care are motivated at some level by hope. Patients hope for a cure; for relief from pain; for a return home. Physicians hope to prevent illness in their patients; to make the correct diagnosis when illness presents itself; that their prescribed treatments will be effective. Researchers hope to learn more about the causes of illness; to discover new and more effective treatments; to understand how treatments work. Ultimately, all who work in health care hope to offer their patients hope. In this paper, I offer a brief analysis of hope, considering the definitions of Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Thomas Aquinas. I then differentiate shallow and deep hope and show how hope in health care can remain shallow. Next, I explore what a philosophy of deep hope in health care might look like, drawing important points from Ernst Bloch and Gabriel Marcel. Finally, I suggest some implications of this philosophy of hope for patients, physicians, and researchers.
Skirton, Heather; Stephen, Nicole; Doris, Faye; Cooper, Maggie; Avis, Mark; Fraser, Diane M
this study was part of a larger project commissioned to ascertain whether midwife teachers bring a unique contribution to the preparation of midwives for practice. The aim of this phase was to determine whether the student midwives' educational programme had equipped them to practise competently after entry to the professional register. this was a prospective, longitudinal qualitative study, using participant diaries to collect data. data were collected from newly qualified midwives during the initial six months after they commenced their first post as a qualified midwife. the potential participants were all student midwives who were completing their education at one of six Universities (three in England, one in Scotland, one in Wales and one in Northern Ireland). Diary data were submitted by 35 newly qualified midwives; 28 were graduates of the three year programme and seven of the shortened programme. diary entries were analysed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006), with a focus on identification of key events in the working lives of the newly qualified midwives. A total of 263 key events were identified, under three main themes: (1) impact of the event on confidence, (2) gaps in knowledge or experience and (3) articulated frustration, conflict or distress. essentially, pre-registration education, delivered largely by midwife teachers and supported by clinical mentors, has been shown to equip newly qualified midwives to work effectively as autonomous practitioners caring for mothers and babies. While newly qualified midwives are able to cope with a range of challenging clinical situations in a safe manner, they lack confidence in key areas. Positive reinforcement by supportive colleagues plays a significant role in enabling them to develop as practitioners. whilst acknowledging the importance of normality in childbearing there is a need within the curriculum to enable midwives to recognise and respond to complex care situations by providing theory
Crockett, Elahé T
continued their research experiences beyond the program. The combination of carefully providing standard basics of research education and mentorship has been successful and instrumental for training these students/learners and their success in finding biomedical/health-related jobs and/or pursuing graduate/medical studies. All experiences have been positive and highly promoted. This approach has the potential to train a highly qualified workforce, change lives, enhance biomedical research, and by extension, improve national health-care.
Du, Xin; Zeng, Weijie; Li, Chengwei; Xue, Junwei; Wu, Xiuyong; Liu, Yinjia; Wan, Yuxin; Zhang, Yiru; Ji, Yurong; Wu, Lei; Yang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Bin; Huang, Yueshan; Wu, Kai
Wearable devices are used in the new design of the maternal health care system to detect electrocardiogram and oxygen saturation signal while smart terminals are used to achieve assessments and input maternal clinical information. All the results combined with biochemical analysis from hospital are uploaded to cloud server by mobile Internet. Machine learning algorithms are used for data mining of all information of subjects. This system can achieve the assessment and care of maternal physical health as well as mental health. Moreover, the system can send the results and health guidance to smart terminals.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Home Health Agencies that have been registered with Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and quality measure ratings for each agency.
Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.
Theile, Cheryl Westphal; Strauss, Shiela M; Northridge, Mary Evelyn; Birenz, Shirley
The dental hygienist team member has an opportunity to coordinate care within an interprofessional practice as an oral health care manager. Although dental hygienists are currently practicing within interprofessional teams in settings such as pediatric offices, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and federally qualified health centers, they often still assume traditional responsibilities rather than practicing to the full extent of their training and licenses. This article explains the opportunity for the dental hygiene professional to embrace patient-centered care as an oral health care manager who can facilitate integration of oral and primary care in a variety of health care settings. Based on an innovative model of collaboration between a college of dentistry and a college of nursing, an idea emerged among several faculty members for a new management method for realizing continuity and coordination of comprehensive patient care. Involved faculty members began working on the development of an approach to interprofessional practice with the dental hygienist serving as an oral health care manager who would address both oral health care and a patient's related primary care issues through appropriate referrals and follow-up. This approach is explained in this article, along with the results of several pilot studies that begin to evaluate the feasibility of a dental hygienist as an oral health care manager. A health care provider with management skills and leadership qualities is required to coordinate the interprofessional provision of comprehensive health care. The dental hygienist has the opportunity to lead closer integration of oral and primary care as an oral health care manager, by coordinating the team of providers needed to implement comprehensive, patient-centered care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost
Full Text Available Health care organizations have to develop a sustainable path for creating public value by seeking legitimacy for building and maintaining public trust with patients as social and economic institutions creating value and sustaining both health and wealth for people and communities within society. Health care organizations having at disposal decreasing resources and meeting increasing demands of citizens are following an unsustainable path. Designing sustainable health care systems and organizations is emerging as a strategic goal for developing the wealth of people and communities over time. Building sustainable organizations relies on valuing human resources, designing efficient and effective processes, using technology for better managing the relationships within and outside organizations. Sustainable health care organizations tend to rediscover the importance of human resource management and policies for effectively improving communication with patients and building trust-based relationships. While processes of accreditation contribute to legitimizing effectiveness and quality of health care services and efficient processes, introducing and using new information and communication technologies (ICTs and informatics helps communication leading to restore trust-based relationships between health care institutions and patients for value creation within society.
... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.
3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.
%) was the least common. On bivariate analysis ... the power to determine what their wives do or fail to ... pregnancy care while joint decision-making ... Other maternal health services rendered This data collection was done by a team of trained.
Raffel, M W; Raffel, N K
Before World War II, Czechoslovakia was among the most developed European countries with an excellent health care system. After the Communist coup d'etat in 1948, the country was forced to adapt its existing health care system to the Soviet model. It was planned and managed by the government, financed by general tax money, operated in a highly centralized, bureaucratic fashion, and provided service at no direct charge at the time of service. In recent years, the health care system had been deteriorating as the health of the people had also been declining. Life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and diseases of the circulatory system are higher than in Western European countries. In 1989, political changes occurred in Czechoslovakia that made health care reform possible. Now health services are being decentralized, and the ownership of hospitals is expected to be transferred to communities, municipalities, churches, charitable groups, or private entities. Almost all health leaders, including hospital directors and hospital department heads, have been replaced. Physicians will be paid according to the type and amount of work performed. Perhaps the most important reform is the establishment of an independent General Health Care Insurance Office financed directly by compulsory contributions from workers, employers, and government that will be able to negotiate with hospitals and physicians to determine payment for services.
Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana
Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.
Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget
Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects.
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Deodhar, N S
Concurrently with the development of the general health services infrastructure in India, serveral special health programs were instituted at the national level to provide a massive and concentrated assault on the major public health problems of malaria, smallpox, cholera, trachoma, tuberculosis, leprosy, filariasis, and the rapid population growth. These vertical programs were expected to reduce the heavy morbidity and mortality within the shortest possible time to where they were no longer major public health problems. The impact was variable. Major steps toward providing integrated health care were taken during the first 5-year plan. Emphasis was on the provision of a packet of inttegrated health, family planning, and nutrition services to the vulnerable groups, i.e., children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. To rectify past shortcomings ssuch as the failures of the national health programs, ineffective coordination in the nutrition programs, and slow rate of development as a result of interdependence of different sectors, it was necessary to improve the health infrastructure and to launch a frontal attack on poverty. The Multipurpose Health Workers Scheme was planned to rationalize the organization and use of available manpower to reduce the area and population covered by each of the field staff in order to reduce travel time and to make services more effective and more satisfactory. Each multipurpose health worker was entrusted with the task of providing comprehensive health care to about 5000 people. Communicable diseases were the main public health problems, and many specific control/eradication programs were launched. the immunization programs against common childhood diseases have not taken deep roots and coverage continues to be poor. The adoption of the Western model of medical services has resulted in emphasis on "cure" rather than on "care". Another problem is maldistribution of the facilities. Overemphasis on medical education has resulted in the
This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...
A booklet on health care for limited English speakers provides information on choosing the right doctor, buying medicine, paying the bill, and the individual's role in maintaining his or her health. Cartoons, questions and puzzles concerning the message in cartoons and narrative passages, checklists about an individual's personal habits related to…
Paper discuss an introduction to importance's as well as challenges facing health care sector in many countries. Particular attention is devoted to the preconditions and/or basic requirements have to be developed in order to make health sector to functioned. Focusing to end users as well as employing marketing tools ought to be right orientation.
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages. Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 4/25/2012.
... Experience in a primary health care facility in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. ... health center increased by 3.09% (p-value > 0.05); the patients that had their babies in the facility were ... 100, 000 live births, based on historical studies and.
Nath, L M
In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.
Full Text Available Background. It is possible to evaluate quality characteristics of different aspects of health care by many different measures. For these purposes, in various countries all over the world authorised institutions and/or agencies developed number of methodological accessories, criteria and tools for selection of more or less appropriately and optimally defined criteria and indicators of quality clinical performance.Conclusions. Recently we have started with activities for gradual introduction of systematic monitoring, assessment and improvement of quality of health care in Slovenia as well. One of the key prerequisites for selection of valid, practicable, efficient and reliable quality indicators is the establishment of continuous and methodologically appropriate system of development and implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We started this process within the framework of national Health Sector Management Project, where all potential key stakeholders from health care sector participated. Also the project on Quality in Health Care in Slovenia, started, leaded and performed by the Medical Chamber of Slovenia, represents one of the important parallel starting steps towards assurance of reliable data on development/establishment of appropriate set of quality indicators and standards of health care in our country.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn
This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....
Norris, M J; Harris, J C
A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.
Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa
In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance.
Full Text Available People from many advanced countries are traveling to developing countries like India for medical and dental care along with their vacations, which is also known as medical tourism. Dental tourism means traveling abroad for affordable dental care, dental surgery, or dental procedures, which is generally expensive in their own country, while exploring the visiting country. Dental tourism forms 10% of the total Indian medical tourism, which is projected to grow to 30% by 2015. It has greatly developed overtime and it is likely to further expand more as international patients find it more and more advantageous due to affordable dental treatments in India from highly qualified and experienced professionals. The oral health professionals can arrange for travel and tours along with dental treatment at most competitive rates. The article focuses on the emergence of the dental tourism as a booming industry and the key management aspects that will help oral health professionals to establish India as a dental care destination.
Sahoo, Sanjeeb K
Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance. Created: 11/9/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 11/9/2010.
Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949
Bone, Curtis W; Goodfellow, Amelia M; Vahidi, Mani; Gelberg, Lillian
Sexual violence (SV) is common; however, the prevalence of SV and its long term sequela vary geographically and among subpopulations within the USA. As such, the aims of this study are the following: (1) to determine the prevalence of SV, (2) to identify correlates of SV, and (3) to determine if SV is associated with depression among male and female risky drug users in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles. This study includes adult patients of five urban FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use. We identified survivors of SV and those experiencing depression through survey questions that queried, before or after age 18, "Were you ever sexually assaulted, molested or raped?" and with the RAND Mental Health Index (MHI-5). We utilized Pearson's chi-square tests to assess predictors of SV and logistic regression to assess for an association between SV and depression. Data collection took place from February 2011 to November 2012. Of the 334 study patients, 49% of females and 25% of males reported surviving SV. Exposure to SV, (both before 18 years of age and after 18 years of age) was the strongest predictor of depression among men and women in this study (OR 4.7, p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that sexual violence is prevalent in this urban FQHC population and is strongly associated with depression. Providers should consider screening both men and women with risky drug use for SV while health systems should continue to align mental health and primary care services to appropriately care for these extremely vulnerable patients. Trial Registration Clinical Trials. gov ID NCT01942876, Protocol ID DESPR DA022445, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R
As reimbursement transitions from a volume-based to a value-based system, innovation in health care delivery will be needed. The process of innovation begins with framing the problem that needs to be solved along with the strategic vision that has to be achieved. Similar to scientific testing, a hypothesis is generated for a new solution to a problem. Innovation requires conducting a disciplined form of experimentation and then learning from the process. This manuscript will discuss the different types of innovation, and the key steps necessary for successful innovation in the health care field.
Full Text Available Our health care system has faced many challenges over the past 40 plus years. Now these challenges have forced us into a complicated situation that makes it confusing on how best to proceed. Today third party insurance payers make most health care payments. Our premiums are paid into a risk pool-on medical services for other people. Consumers are disconnected from knowing the cost of goods or services that they are receiving. This commentary reviews the current situation and provides a few common sense approaches for pursuing the best potential policies.
Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann
In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.
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Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients' primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 10% sample selected at random from the Ontario adult population. Primary care and total health care costs were calculated at the individual level and included costs from physician services, hospital visits and admissions, long term care, drugs, home care, lab tests, and visits to non-medical health care providers. Generalized linear model regressions were conducted to assess the differences in costs between primary care models. Patients not enrolled with a primary care physicians were younger, more likely to be males and of lower socio-economic status. Patients in blended capitation models were healthier and wealthier than FFS and enhanced-FFS patients. Primary care and total health care costs were significantly different across Ontario primary care models. Using the traditional FFS as the reference, we found that patients in the enhanced-FFS models had the lowest total health care costs, and also the lowest primary care costs. Patients in the blended capitation models had higher primary care costs but lower total health care costs. Patients that were in multidisciplinary teams (FHT), where physicians are also paid on a blended capitation basis, had higher total health care costs than non-FHT patients but still lower than the FFS reference group. Primary care and total health care costs increased with patients' age, morbidity, and lower income quintile across all primary care payment types. The new primary care models were associated with lower total health care costs for patients compared to the
This article discusses a process of recognition of prior learning for accreditation of prior experiential learning to qualify for course credits used in an adult in-service education program for health care assistants at the upper-secondary level in Sweden. The data are based on interviews and observations drawn from a field study, and Habermas's…
Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…
Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D
Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.
Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M
We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi
In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...
Wagner, H C; Fleming, D; Mangold, W G; LaForge, R W
Building relationships with patients is critical to the success of many health care organizations. The authors profile the relationship marketing program for a hospital's cardiac center and discuss the key strategic aspects that account for its success: a focus on a specific hospital service, an integrated marketing communication strategy, a specially designed database, and the continuous tracking of results.
Connor, L R
Health care executives across the country, faced with intense competition, are being forced to consider drastic cost cutting measures as a matter of survival. The entire health care industry is under siege from boards of directors, management and others who encourage health care systems to take actions ranging from strategic acquisitions and mergers to simple "downsizing" or "rightsizing," to improve their perceived competitive positions in terms of costs, revenues and market share. In some cases, management is poorly prepared to work within this new competitive paradigm and turns to consultants who promise that following their methodologies can result in competitive advantage. One favored methodology is reengineering. Frequently, cost cutting attention is focused on the materials management budget because it is relatively large and is viewed as being comprised mostly of controllable expenses. Also, materials management is seldom considered a core competency for the health care system and the organization performing these activities does not occupy a strongly defensible position. This paper focuses on the application of a reengineering methodology to healthcare materials management.
Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...
Handelsman, L; Speiser, M; Maltz, A; Kirpalani, S
Bankruptcy is an event that is often considered a business' worst nightmare. Debt, lawyers, and the U.S. government can lead to the eventual destruction of a business. This article shows how declaring bankruptcy can be a helpful instrument in continuing a successful venture in the health care marketplace.
Lotz, Julia D; Jox, Ralf J; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Führer, Monika
Pediatric advance care planning differs from the adult setting in several aspects, including patients' diagnoses, minor age, and questionable capacity to consent. So far, research has largely neglected the professionals' perspective. We aimed to investigate the attitudes and needs of health care professionals with regard to pediatric advance care planning. This is a qualitative interview study with experts in pediatric end-of-life care. A qualitative content analysis was performed. We conducted 17 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals caring for severely ill children/adolescents, from different professions, care settings, and institutions. Perceived problems with pediatric advance care planning relate to professionals' discomfort and uncertainty regarding end-of-life decisions and advance directives. Conflicts may arise between physicians and non-medical care providers because both avoid taking responsibility for treatment limitations according to a minor's advance directive. Nevertheless, pediatric advance care planning is perceived as helpful by providing an action plan for everyone and ensuring that patient/parent wishes are respected. Important requirements for pediatric advance care planning were identified as follows: repeated discussions and shared decision-making with the family, a qualified facilitator who ensures continuity throughout the whole process, multi-professional conferences, as well as professional education on advance care planning. Despite a perceived need for pediatric advance care planning, several barriers to its implementation were identified. The results remain to be verified in a larger cohort of health care professionals. Future research should focus on developing and testing strategies for overcoming the existing barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act includes tools to improve the quality of health care that can also lower costs for taxpayers and patients. This means avoiding costly...
Fernández-Peña, José Ramón
Since 2001, the Welcome Back Initiative (WBI) has implemented a program model in ten US cities to help foreign trained health professionals enter the US healthcare workforce. This paper reviews how the WBI has worked toward achieving this goal through community needs assessment, the development of a comprehensive program model and ongoing program evaluation. Since 2001, the WBI has served over 10,700 immigrant health professionals. Of these participants, 66% were not previously working in the health sector. After participating in the WBI's services, 23% of participants found work in health care for the first time, 21% passed a licensing exam, and 87 physicians were connected to a residency program. As the US is facing a major shortfall of health care providers, the WBI is uniquely positioned to help fill a gap in provider supply with qualified, culturally aware, experienced clinicians that the current medical education infrastructure is unable to meet.
... when mental health, diabetes self-management/medical nutrition therapy (DSMT/MNT), or the IPPE are.... Outpatient diabetes self-management training (DSMT) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) for beneficiaries... starting October 1, 2014. The new PPS for FQHCs is required to take into account the type, intensity, and...
Giver, Hanne; Faber, Anne; Strøyer, Jesper
BACKGROUND: The eldercare sector in Denmark as in many industrialised countries is characterised by difficulties in retaining labour. Research suggests a possible imbalance between lifestyle and health among eldercare trainees and the demanding work encountered as eldercare employees. The aim of ...
Robinson, James C
The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations.
Emanuel, E J; Emanuel, L L
There are two prominent trends in health care today: first, increasing demands for accountabilty, and second, increasing provision of care through managed care organizations. These trends promote the question: What form of account-ability is appropriate to managed care plans? Accountability is the process by which a party justifies its actions and policies. Components of accountability include parties that can be held or hold others accountable, domains and content areas being assessed, and procedures of assessment. Traditionally, the professional model of accountability has operated in medical care. In this model, physicians establish the standards of accountability and hold each other accountable through professional organizations. This form of accountability seems outdated and inapplicable to managed care plans. The alternatives are the economic and the political models of accountability. In the economic model, medicine becomes more like a commodity, and "exit" (consumers changing providers for reasons of cost and quality) is the dominant procedure of accountability. In the political model, medicine becomes more like a community good, and "voice" (citizens communicating their views in public forums or on policy committees, or in elections for representatives) is the dominant procedure of accountability. The economic model's advantages affirm American individualism, make minimal demands on consumers, and use a powerful incentive, money. Its disadvantages undermine health care as a nonmarket good, undermine individual autonomy, undermine good medical practice, impose significant demands on consumers to be informed, sustain differentials of power, and use indirect procedures of accountability. The political model's advantages affirm health care as a matter of justice, permit selecting domains other than price and quality for accountability, reinforce good medical practice, and equalize power between patients and physicians. Its disadvantages include inefficiency in
Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions
M de Wet
Full Text Available One of the challenges facing primary health care in South Africa is the delivery of quality eye care to all South Africans. In this regard the role of the primary health care worker, as the first point of contact, is crucial. This paper reports on the problems primary health care workers experience in providing quality eye care in Region B of the Free State. Problems identified by those involved in the study include the cumbersome referral system, the unavailability of appropriate medicine at clinics, the insufficient knowledge of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions and the lack of communication between the various eye care service providers. Suggestions to address the problems identified included more in-service training of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions, liaison with NGO’s providing eye care, decentralisation of services and the establishment of an eye care committee in the region.
Blue, Christine; Riggs, Sheila
The accountable care organization (ACO) provides an opportunity to strategically design a comprehensive health system in which oral health works within primary care. A dental hygienist/therapist within the ACO represents value-based health care in action. Inspired by health care reform efforts in Minnesota, a vision of an accountable care organization that integrates oral health into primary health care was developed. Dental hygienists and dental therapists can help accelerate the integration of oral health into primary care, particularly in light of the compelling evidence confirming the cost-effectiveness of care delivered by an allied workforce. A dental insurance Chief Operating Officer and a dental hygiene educator used their unique perspectives and experience to describe the potential of an interdisciplinary team-based approach to individual and population health, including oral health, via an accountable care community. The principles of the patient-centered medical home and the vision for accountable care communities present a paradigm shift from a curative system of care to a prevention-based system that encompasses the behavioral, social, nutritional, economic, and environmental factors that impact health and well-being. Oral health measures embedded in the spectrum of general health care have the potential to ensure a truly comprehensive healthcare system. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Robinson, J C
Internet-related health care firms have accelerated through the life cycle of capital finance and organizational destiny, including venture capital funding, public stock offerings, and consolidation, in the wake of heightened competition and earnings disappointments. Venture capital flooded into the e-health sector, rising from $3 million in the first quarter of 1998 to $335 million two years later. Twenty-six e-health firms went public in eighteen months, raising $1.53 billion at initial public offering (IPO) and with post-IPO share price appreciation greater than 100 percent for eighteen firms. The technology-sector crash hit the e-health sector especially hard, driving share prices down by more than 80 percent for twenty-one firms. The industry now faces an extended period of consolidation between e-health and conventional firms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Methods Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. Results In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. Conclusion In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health
This study assesses the impact of the NHIS scheme in promoting access to health care. It identifies a need for all stakeholders to engage in the active promotion of awareness on health insurance as option of health care provisioning. It argues that health insurance can make health care more accessible to a wider segment ...
Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann
Introduction: Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods: Against a background of theor......Introduction: Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods: Against a background...
France, K R; Grover, R
Because of the current competitive environment, health care providers (hospitals, HMOs, physicians, and others) are constantly searching for better products and better means for delivering them. The health care product is often loosely defined as a service. The authors develop a more precise definition of the health care product, product line, and product mix. A bundle-of-elements concept is presented for the health care product. These conceptualizations help to address how health care providers can segment their market and position, promote, and price their products. Though the authors focus on hospitals, the concepts and procedures developed are applicable to other health care organizations.
Kinsell, Heidi S; Hall, Allyson G; Harman, Jeffrey S; Tewary, Sweta; Brickman, Andrew
Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in Florida see large numbers of vulnerable patients with diabetes. Patient-centered medical home (PCMH) models can lead to improvements in health for patients with chronic conditions and cost savings for providers. Therefore, FQHCs are increasingly moving to PCMH models of care. The study objective was to examine the effects of initial transformation to a level 3 National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) certified PCMH in 2011, on clinical diabetes outcomes among 27 clinic sites from a network of FQHCs in Florida. We used de-identified, longitudinal electronic health record (EHR) data from 2010-2012 and multivariate logistic regression to analyze the effects of initial transformation on the odds of having well-controlled HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) among vulnerable patients with diabetes. Models controlled for clustering by year, patient, and organizational characteristics. Overall, transformation to a PCMH was associated with 19% greater odds of having well-controlled HbA1c values with no statistically significant impact on BMI or BP. Subanalyses showed transformation had less of an effect on BP for African American patients and HbA1c control for Medicare enrollees but a greater effect on weight control for patients older than 35 years. Transformation to a PCMH in FQHCs appears to improve the health of vulnerable patients with diabetes, with less improvement for subsets of patients. Future research should seek to understand the heterogeneous effects of patient-centered transformation on various subgroups.
The Trump Administration's recent attempts to repeal the Affordable Care Act have reignited long-running debates surrounding the nature of justice in health care provision, the extent of our obligations to others, and the most effective ways of funding and delivering quality health care. In this article, I respond to arguments that individualist systems of health care provision deliver higher-quality health care and promote liberty more effectively than the cooperative, solidaristic approaches that characterize health care provision in most wealthy countries apart from the United States. I argue that these claims are mistaken and suggest one way of rejecting the implied criticisms of solidaristic practices in health care provision they represent. This defence of solidarity is phrased in terms of the advantages solidaristic approaches to health care provision have over individualist alternatives in promoting certain important personal liberties, and delivering high-quality, affordable health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zvárová, Jana; Hanzlíček, Petr
Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 451-452 ISSN 0928-7329. [MedNet 2005. World Congress on the Internet in Medicine /10./. 04.12.2005-07.12.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Internet * health care * technology Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Mendoza del Pino, Mario Valentín
The book O ncology in the primary health care , constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)
Women health workers have made great contributions to the health of their community for many years. In India, women physicians have established some hospitals, e.g., Christian Medical Colleges in Ludhiana and Vellore. Some such hospitals operate in remote areas to serve the poor and the suffering. Women health workers of Jamkhed, Deen Bandhu of Pachod, have proved that village women can improve the health status of their community, particularly that of women and children, if they receive encouragement to learn health care skills In India, community health care lies mainly with women (e.g., nursing personnel and in rural areas). Yet, despite their competence and experience, few become physicians, health project directors, and administrators because the society continues to be patriarchal and discriminates against females. Women need to become empowered to ensure equal opportunities for training and promotion and equal wages for equal work. In Bangladesh, use of bicycles to visit houses allows women paramedical workers from Gonasasthya Kendra, Sawar, freedom and imparts confidence. People must identify customs, practices, laws, attitudes, religious misrepresentations, and policies that discriminate against women and then oppose them. They should set these changes in motion at home, in villages, and from district to national, and even global levels. In India, society blames the mother for having a girl, but the man donates the chromosome determining sex. In Gandhigram, a woman physician and her peers have effected an apparent change in attitude toward the birth of a girl. Now the people confer equal happiness to her birth as they do to a boy's birth. Yet, female infanticides still occur in some villages of Salem District of Tamil Nadu. Sex determination tests often lead to abortion of female fetuses. Once a woman marries she has no right to her maternal home and often suffers from domestic violence. Many people resist legislation to grant women more rights, e
Dwinnells, Ronald; Misik, Lauren
Efficient and effective integration of behavioral health programs in a community health care practice emphasizes patient-centered medical home principles to improve quality of care. A prospective, 3-period, interrupted time series study was used to explore which of 3 different integrative behavioral health care screening and management processes were the most efficient and effective in prompting behavioral health screening, identification, interventions, and referrals in a community health practice. A total of 99.5% ( P < .001) of medical patients completed behavioral health screenings; brief intervention rates nearly doubled to 83% ( P < .001) and 100% ( P < .001) of identified at-risk patients had referrals made using a combination of electronic tablets, electronic medical record, and behavioral health care coordination.
Gould, Stephen J.
Questionnaires returned by 343 out of 350 subjects measured health attitudes and health status. Results suggest that some consumers take a more scientific approach to health care and prevention. Demographic factors, health status, and health consciousness are partial predictors of consumer attitudes and approach to health care. (SK)
Corder, K T; Phoon, J; Barter, M
Health care reform is a complex issue involving many key sectors including providers, consumers, insurers, employers, and the government. System changes must involve all sectors for reform to be effective. Each sector has a responsibility to understand not only its own role in the health care system, but the roles of others as well. The role of business employers is often not apparent to health care providers, especially nurses. Understanding the influence employers have on the health care system is vital if providers want to be proactive change agents ensuring quality care.
Prætorius, Thim; C. Becker, Markus
Understanding how health care organizations can achieve care coordination internally is essential because it is difficult to achieve, but essential for high quality and efficient health care delivery. This article offers an answer by providing a synthesis of knowledge about coordination from...
Jørgensen, Pelle; Wallin, Michael
In most of the developed countries hospitals are facing a major challenge – they have to provide more health care using the same resources. Due to the demographic trend and the increasing share of the population being in a more health-demanding age, the hospitals will have to deal with more...... patients in the future. It is therefore essential that the hospitals are more efficient in order to meet the requirement of providing more health for the same or less resources. Studies have shown that more than 30% of hospital expenditures are related to various logistics cost, making the logistics...... papers presented at scientific conferences, and three articles submitted to scientific journals. In addition to the results, the thesis presents a detailed description of the scientific approach taken, as well as considerations in relation to the scientific approach and the achieved results....
Cutler, David M.
Health care is one of the economy's biggest industries, so it is natural that the health care industry should play some role in the teaching of introductory economics. There are many ways that health care can appear in such a context: in the teaching of microeconomics, as a macroeconomic issue, to learn about social welfare, and even to learn how…
Brink-Muinen, A. van den
Differences are investigated between female practice populations of female general practitioners providing women's health care and of women and men general practitioners providing regular health care. Women's health care in the Netherlands is provided in the general practice "Aletta" and is based
K I Mathai
Full Text Available An overview of health care delivery in India is essential, if we are to plan and to improve health care delivery and the indices of health in the coming decades. The health sector in India is a mix of private and government services. While some health care indices appear dismal, several others, including life expectancy are heartening. A balance between regulation and free enterprise is possibly the best option. In this paper we provide a glimpse of health and health related statistics & a n overview of the public health care delivery systems. In the end, we offer suggestion on rationalisation of health care delivery to provide maximum services for the majority of our population within the budget of an optimal health care system outlay
Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark; Ariss, Steve
A survey was developed to map provision, knowledge, attitudes and views towards videoconferencing in care homes in Yorkshire and The Humber. The survey was sent to 859 care homes, with a 14% response rate. Twelve homes reported using videoconferencing. Non-users appeared skeptical, managers using the system reported improvements in outcomes.
Wesolowski, C E
Organizations that clearly demonstrate they care about their people reap the benefits of a positive self-image, higher productivity and financial gains. Consider the effects that a demoralized, unappreciated staff have on productivity, recruitment and retention, public relations, marketing, customer satisfaction and the resulting financial repercussions. Can we afford not to care?
These guidelines have been drown up to assist all those involved in the management and maintenance of hospitals and health care establishments. Compliance with this guidance should minimise the risk of pollution occurring. The guidelines are jointly produced by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency and the Environment and Heritage Service for Northern Ireland, referred to as the Agency or Agencies. It includes guidelines on site drainage, sewage and waste water disposal, treatment of surface water drainage and waste management
... my condition? Has it been rated by state, consumer, or other groups for its quality of care? ... be both rewarding and demanding. It can change relationships and require families to cope with all aspects ...
Mayer, Joni A.; Gabbard, Susan; Kronick, Richard G.; Roesch, Scott C.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Zuniga, Maria L.
Objectives. We examined individual-, environmental-, and policy-level correlates of US farmworker health care utilization, guided by the behavioral model for vulnerable populations and the ecological model. Methods. The 2006 and 2007 administrations of the National Agricultural Workers Survey (n = 2884) provided the primary data. Geographic information systems, the 2005 Uniform Data System, and rurality and border proximity indices provided environmental variables. To identify factors associated with health care use, we performed logistic regression using weighted hierarchical linear modeling. Results. Approximately half (55.3%) of farmworkers utilized US health care in the previous 2 years. Several factors were independently associated with use at the individual level (gender, immigration and migrant status, English proficiency, transportation access, health status, and non-US health care utilization), the environmental level (proximity to US–Mexico border), and the policy level (insurance status and workplace payment structure). County Federally Qualified Health Center resources were not independently associated. Conclusions. We identified farmworkers at greatest risk for poor access. We made recommendations for change to farmworker health care access at all 3 levels of influence, emphasizing Federally Qualified Health Center service delivery. PMID:21330594
Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent
To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
exposures during life at sea and work place health promotion. SEAHEALTH and some of the shipping companies have already added workplace health promotion to occupational health care programs. The purpose of this article is to reinforce this trend by adding some international perspectives and by providing......Workplace Health Promotion is the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. Integrated maritime health care can be defined as the total maritime health care function that includes the prevention of health risks from harmful...
Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon
Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: data from different studies showed health care behaviour and estimated per capita health care expenditure for the general population, but the specific data for infants at different levels of care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe mothers' health service utilization during pregnancy and ...
Olomu, Adesuwa; Hart-Davidson, William; Luo, Zhehui; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret
Use of Shared Decision-Making (SDM) and Decision Aids (DAs) has been encouraged but is not regularly implemented in primary care. The Office-Guidelines Applied to Practice (Office-GAP) intervention is an application of a previous model revised to address guidelines based care for low-income populations with diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). To evaluate Office-GAP Program feasibility and preliminary efficacy on medication use, patient satisfaction with physician communication and confidence in decision in low-income population with diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Federally Qualified Healthcare Center (FQHC). Ninety-five patients participated in an Office-GAP program. A quasi-experimental design study, over 6 months with 12-month follow-up. Office-GAP program integrates health literacy, communication skills education for patients and physicians, patient/physician decision support tools and SDM into routine care. 1) Implementation rates of planned program elements 2) Patient satisfaction with communication and confidence in decision, and 3) Medication prescription rates. We used the GEE method for hierarchical logistic models, controlling for confounding. Feasibility of the Office-GAP program in the FQHC setting was established. We found significant increase in use of Aspirin/Plavix, statin and beta-blocker during follow-up compared to baseline: Aspirin OR 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.1, 2.2) at 3-months, 1.9 (1.3, 2.9) at 6-months, and 1.8 (1.2, 2.8) at 12-months. Statin OR 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) at 3-months and 1.5 (1.1, 2.2) at 12-months; beta-blocker 1.8 (1.1, 2.9) at 6-months and 12-months. Program elements were consistently used (≥ 98 % clinic attendance at training and tool used). Patient satisfaction with communication and confidence in decision increased. The use of Office-GAP program to teach SDM and use of DAs in real time was demonstrated to be feasible in FQHCs. It has the potential to improve satisfaction with physician communication and
Sorrell, Jeanne M
Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.
Bystedt, Maria; Eriksson, Maria; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
To describe how registered nurses (RNs) perceive delegation to unlicensed personnel (UP) in a municipal healthcare context in Sweden. Within municipal health care RNs often delegate tasks to UP. The latter have practical training, but lack formal competence. Twelve RNs were interviewed and the material was analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Owing to a shortage of RNs, delegation is seen as a prerequisite for a functioning organization. This necessity also involves a number of perceived contradictions in three areas: (1) the work situation of RNs - facilitation and relief vs. lack of control, powerlessness, vagueness regarding responsibility, and resignation; (2) the relationship with unlicensed personnel - stimulation, possibility for mentoring, use of UP competence and the creation of fairness vs. questioning UP competence; and (3) The patients - increase in continuity, quicker treatment, and increased security vs. insecurity (with respect to, for example, the handling of medicine). Registered nurses perceptions of delegation within municipal healthcare involve their own work situation, the UP and the patients. Registered nurses who delegate to UP must be given time for mentoring such that the nursing care is safe care of high quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data was derived from the Health Care Information System (HCIS), which contains Medicare Part A (Inpatient, Skilled Nursing Facility, Home Health Agency (Part A...
Császi, L; Kullberg, P
Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.
Lousson, J P
EDI is the technique the most frequently used by Chemists to relay their daily orders to their suppliers. Three out of four Chemists in France are computerised using various forms of computer hardware and software. The Health Care organisations propose that Chemists use the EDI to relay to the CETELIC all the items of information concerning their invoicing. This means handing over administrative information identifying the patient, the doctor ... as well as financial and confidential data such as the CIP code of the prescribed and delivered medicine. The law of the 4th January 1993 was instigated to control the rising expenses of the Health Care organisations and it mandates the Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie (the French social security organisations) to retrieve and analyse the information thus gathered from all of the medical professionals involved. However, the accumulation of all these items of computerised information constitutes in effect a confidential medical file on each patient. This raises the following issues: Who does this confidential data belong to? Who should the Chemists give it to? What is to be done with it? Who will be responsible for its analysis in respect of the confidentiality problem? (Another medical professional bound by oath?) And how can we insure against subsequent abuse of this material?
Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.
Erugina, M V; Krom, I L
Since XX century, health care is a first-rate social institution. The analysis of tendencies of functioning of institution of health care in modern Russia is presented by the article in methodological plane of the system of social structural functions (AGIL) proposed by T. Parsons. The patient is the main participant of medical organizational process. The activity of other participants of process of organization of medical care is to be focused primarily on satisfaction of needs of patient during medical care rendering. The society implements training of subjects for executing their professional roles that determines professionalization of executed functions. The most important purpose of modern training programs in medical education is determined by leading level of cognition, forecasting and achievement of socially significant aftermaths of future during structuring of educational process. In the context of integrative function the coordination of activities of participants of interaction is implemented. In conditions of actual tendencies of market economy the interaction of participants of the process of medical care rendering and the process of quality control of medical care is developed on the basis of implementation of standards of medical care. In Russia, the institutionalization of health care presupposes cooperation and interaction of subjects of system differing by degree and amount of collaborative work. The latent function (maintenance of value pattern) determines regularity, predictability, stability of functioning of social relationships. The social control supports expedient behavior of participants of process of medical care rendering. The dysfunctional practices of modern Russian health care are considered in the context of concept of effective interaction of participants of medical organizational process targeted to maintenance of rights of patients for accessible and qualitative medical care. As a result of applied analysis, the problems were
Ngunyulu, R N; Peu, M D; Mulaudzi, F M; Mataboge, M L S; Phiri, S S
Collaborative HIV care between the nurses and traditional health practitioners is an important strategy to improve health care of people living with HIV. To explore and describe the views of nurses regarding collaborative HIV care in primary healthcare services in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. A qualitative, descriptive design was used to explore and describe the views of nurses who met the study's inclusion criteria. In-depth individual interviews were conducted to collect data from purposively selected nurses. Content analysis was used to analyse data. Two main categories were developed during the data analysis stage. The views of nurses and health system challenges regarding collaborative HIV care. The study findings revealed that there was inadequate collaborative HIV care between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners. It is evident that there is inadequate policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation regarding collaboration in HIV care. The study findings might influence policymakers to consider the importance of collaborative HIV care, and improve the quality of care by strengthening the referral system and follow-up of people living with HIV and AIDS, as a result the health outcomes as implied in the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 might be improved. Training and involvement of traditional health practitioners in the nursing and health policy should be considered to enhance and build a trustworthy working relationship between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners in HIV care. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Widmer, Geraldine; And Others
Findings from a study of home care services in one New York district document the value and relatively modest costs of home health care for the chronically ill and dependent elderly. Professional nurses coordinated the care, but most of the direct services were provided by home health aides and housekeepers. (MF)
Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of
Trajkovski, Suza; Schmied, Virginia; Vickers, Margaret; Jackson, Debra
Amid tremendous changes in contemporary health care stimulated by shifts in social, economic and political environments, health care managers are challenged to provide new structures and processes to continually improve health service delivery. The general public and the media are becoming less tolerant of poor levels of health care, and health care professionals need to be involved and supported to bring about positive change in health care. Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a philosophy and method for promoting transformational change, shifting from a traditional problem-based orientation to a more strength-based approach to change, that focuses on affirmation, appreciation and positive dialog. This paper discusses how an innovative participatory approach such as AI may be used to promote workforce engagement and organizational learning, and facilitate positive organizational change in a health care context.
Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans
Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners. PMID:22390510
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.
Krauss, Margot R; Garvin, Nadia U; Boivin, Michael R; Cowan, David N
Musculoskeletal injuries are prevalent among military trainees and certain occupations. Fitness and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with musculoskeletal conditions, including stress fractures. The incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, stress fracture and non-stress fracture overuse musculoskeletal injuries during the first 6 months of service is higher among unfit female recruits. Those who exceeded body fat limits are at a greater risk of incident stress fractures, injuries, or health care utilization compared with weight-qualified recruits. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All applicants to the United States Army were required to take a preaccession fitness test during the study period (February 2005-September 2006). The test included a 5-minute step test scored as pass or fail. BMI was recorded at application. There were 2 distinct comparisons made in this study: (1) between weight-qualified physically fit and unfit women and (2) between weight-qualified physically fit women and those who exceeded body fat limits. We compared the incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, musculoskeletal injuries, including stress fractures and physical therapy visits, during the first 183 days of military service. Among the weight-qualified women, unfit participants had a higher non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization rate compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.14-1.53) and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10-1.27), respectively. Among fit women, compared with the weight-qualified participants, those exceeding body fat limits had higher rate ratios for non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.11-1.31), respectively. Weight-qualified women who were unfit had a higher incidence of stress fractures and related excess health care utilization compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.62 (95% CI, 1
Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Jain, Ajay K.; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette
Management and health care literature is increasingly preoccupied with leadership as a collective social process, and related leadership concepts such as distributed leadership have therefore recently gained momentum. This paper investigates how formal, i.e. transformational, transactional...... and empowering, leadership styles affect employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership, and whether these associations are mediated by employees’ perceived organizational efficacy. Based on large-scale survey data from a study at one of Scandinavia’s largest public hospitals (N = 1,147), our results show...... that all leadership styles had a significant positive impact on employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership. Further, organizational efficacy related negatively to employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership; however a mediatory impact of this on the formal leadership styles...
Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim
The medical and health care sector in general supplies products and provides services that can be categorized as diagnostic radiology, therapeutic application and nuclear medicine (both, diagnostic and/ or therapeutic). The institutions offer different categories of services. Some provide only one category of service, for example, diagnostic radiology. Others may provide more than one categories, for example, diagnostic nuclear medicine and therapeutic nuclear medicine services. A total of 90 entities comprising 65 public agencies and 34 private companies were selected in this study for this sector. The majority of the entities, 75.6 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders operate in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)
Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P
The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in
... care include strep throat, bladder infection, or a dog bite. You will save both time and money ... health services. www.healthcare.gov/coverage/preventive-care-benefits . Accessed October 18, 2016. U.S. Preventive Services Taskforce ...
Nov 19, 2009 ... Background: The Phelophepa Health Care Train is the only primary healthcare train in the world. Phelophepa is an ... history of caring.3. The Phelophepa .... Skin conditions were, according to the pharmacists, common in the ...
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A prospective, one-group and pre- and post-test design to assess the effects of health care providers' education on clinical patient outcomes was ...
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…
Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane
This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…
F.T. Schut (Erik)
textabstractFor more than two decades, Dutch health policy has been marked by a search for a suitable market order in health care. Suitable in the sense of maintaining universal access, containing the growth of health care expenditure and improving the technical and allocative efficiency of
Hall, Mark A
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.
Rich, Preston B; Adams, Sasha D
National health care expenditures constitute a continuously expanding component of the US economy. Health care resources are distributed unequally among the population, and geriatric patients are disproportionately represented. Characterizing this group of individuals that accounts for the largest percentage of US health spending may facilitate the introduction of targeted interventions in key high-impact areas. Changing demographics, an increasing incidence of chronic disease and progressive disability, rapid technological advances, and systemic market failures in the health care sector combine to drive cost. A multidisciplinary approach will become increasingly necessary to balance the delicate relationship between our constrained supply and increasing demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients? primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Methods Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 1...
Belgrave, L L
Growing awareness of apparent gaps in health care received by women and men raises concern over possible discrimination. This literature review examines this issue for elderly women, whose health care is obtained in a system that also may be permeated with age discrimination. Physicians tend to spend more time with women and older patients, suggesting that discrimination may not be an issue in the physician-patient relationship or may work in favor of older women. However, this may simply reflect elderly women's poorer health. Gender and age disparities in medical treatments received provide a more compelling argument that the health care system is a source of discrimination against older women, who are less likely than others to receive available treatments for cardiac, renal, and other conditions. The history of medical treatment of menopause suggests that stereotypes of older women have been advantageous for segments of the health care system. Finally, in addition to discrimination that has its source within the health care system itself, societal-wide inequities, particularly economic, are extremely detrimental to older women's health care. As we respond to the health care crisis, we must be alert to the potential to rectify those structures and tendencies that can lead to discrimination against women and the aged. Health care reform presents a unique opportunity to ensure health care equity.
Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R
As the US health care system transitions toward a value-based system, providers and health care organizations will have to closely scrutinize their current processes of care. To do this, a value chain analysis can be performed to ensure that only the most efficient steps are followed in patient care. Ultimately this will produce a higher quality or equal quality product for less cost by eliminating wasteful steps along the way.
The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...
Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V
In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mason, Diana J; Keepnews, David; Holmberg, Jessica; Murray, Ellen
The Representation of Health Professionals on Governing Boards of Health Care Organizations in New York City. The heightened importance of processes and outcomes of care-including their impact on health care organizations' (HCOs) financial health-translate into greater accountability for clinical performance on the part of HCO leaders, including their boards, during an era of health care reform. Quality and safety of care are now fiduciary responsibilities of HCO board members. The participation of health professionals on HCO governing bodies may be an asset to HCO governing boards because of their deep knowledge of clinical problems, best practices, quality indicators, and other issues related to the safety and quality of care. And yet, the sparse data that exist indicate that physicians comprise more than 20 % of the governing board members of hospitals while less than 5 % are nurses and no data exist on other health professionals. The purpose of this two-phased study is to examine health professionals' representations on HCOs-specifically hospitals, home care agencies, nursing homes, and federally qualified health centers-in New York City. Through a survey of these organizations, phase 1 of the study found that 93 % of hospitals had physicians on their governing boards, compared with 26 % with nurses, 7 % with dentists, and 4 % with social workers or psychologists. The overrepresentation of physicians declined with the other HCOs. Only 38 % of home care agencies had physicians on their governing boards, 29 % had nurses, and 24 % had social workers. Phase 2 focused on the barriers to the appointment of health professionals to governing boards of HCOs and the strategies to address these barriers. Sixteen health care leaders in the region were interviewed in this qualitative study. Barriers included invisibility of health professionals other than physicians; concerns about "special interests"; lack of financial resources for donations to the organization
Full Text Available Introduction: Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods: Against a background of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between different relations of communication and levels of interaction with IT in health care infrastructure. These relations and levels are synthesized into a framework for identifying tensions and potential problems in the mediation of health care with the IT system. These problems are also known as unexpected adverse consequences, UACs, from IT implementation into clinical health care practices. Results: This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing transformations of communication and workflow in health care as a result of implementing IT. Conclusion and discussion: The purpose of the conceptual framework is to support the attention to and continuous screening for errors and unintended consequences of IT implementation into health care practices and outcomes.
... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Celiac Disease Testing (for Health Care Professionals) Serologic tests for celiac disease provide an effective first step in identifying candidates ...
Vidaeff, Alex C; Kerrigan, Anthony J; Monga, Manju
Culturally sensitive health care represents a real ethical and practical need in a Western healthcare system increasingly serving a multiethnic society. This review focuses on cross-cultural barriers to health care and incongruent aspects from a cultural perspective in the provision of health care. To overcome difficulties in culturally dissimilar interactions and eventually remove cross-cultural barriers to health care, a culturally sensitive physician considers his or her own identity, values, and beliefs; recognizes the similarities and differences among cultures; understands what those similarities and differences mean; and is able to bridge the differences to accomplish clear and effective communication.
Thaís Giudice Schultz
Full Text Available Objective: This article describes an experience report that aimed to present perceptions on the care of children with disabilities in the Family Health Strategy (FHS, showing its limits and potentials based on the experience of participation in the program ‘PET-Saúde’. Method: Data were collected from field notes which recorded the monitoring of the care process offered to children with disabilities by the FHS teams. The study was conducted in a health facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro for one year. Results: Content analysis results listed the two main themes that composed the issues of concern for child care in this experience: the coordination of health care and the family and community orientation as the core for child care in the FHS. Conclusion: Despite the weakness in compliance with these categories, which are principles and fundamentals of the FHS, this is a privileged space with regard to care practices for children with disabilities.
Corsello, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Chiamenti, Gianpietro; Nigri, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo
Pediatric care in Italy has been based during the last 40 years on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. The pediatric health care system in Italy is part of the national health system. It is made up of 3 main levels of intervention: first access/primary care, secondary care/hospital care, and tertiary care based on specialty hospital care. This overview will also include a brief report on neonatal care, pediatric preventive health care, health service accreditation programs, and postgraduate training in pediatrics. The quality of the Italian child health care system is now considered to be in serious danger because of the restriction of investments in public health caused both by the 2008 global and national economic crisis and by a reduction of the pediatric workforce as a result of progressively insufficient replacement of specialists in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Daren R Anderson,1 Ianita Zlateva,1 Emil N Coman,2 Khushbu Khatri,1 Terrence Tian,1 Robert D Kerns3 1Weitzman Institute, Community Health Center, Inc., Middletown, 2UCONN Health Disparities Institute, University of Connecticut, Farmington, 3VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA Purpose: Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center. Methods: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence. Results: Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009. There was no
I critically examine Jan Deckers' position in Animal (De)liberation, where he defends two main views. The first is "qualified moral veganism": Most humans have a duty to abstain from consuming animal products, even if there are circumstances in which doing so is justified. The author argues, on the one hand, from a pan-sentientist view that attributes sentience to all elementary entities and their compounds. Thus, all living things (such as animals and plants) have a capacity for positive and...
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A .... compliance, exercise and diets recommended for diabetes patients.
... for the Obesity Epidemic KENNETH E. WARNER 99 8 Patterns and Causes of Disparities in Health DAVID R. WILLIAMS 115 9 Addressing Racial Inequality in Health Care SARA ROSENBAUM AND JOEL TEITELBAU...
acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.
CARE PRIORITIES - A CASE STUDY. OF NATIONAL ... development of comprehensive primary health care (pHC). The routine ..... on injection safety will be sustainable. On the negative side, ... This is mainly at management level, where time ...
Ossebaard, Hans Cornelis; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
The use of information and communication technologies in health and health care could improve healthcare quality in many ways. Today's evidence base demonstrates the (cost-)effectiveness of online education, self-management support and tele-monitoring in several domains of health and care. While new
Full Text Available Poor and middle-income Thai people rely heavily on primary care health services. These are staffed by a range of professionals. However, it is unknown whether the performance of primary care varies according to the staffing and organization of local service delivery units. Tambon (sub-district health promotion hospitals (THPHs were introduced in 2009 to upgrade the services offered by the previous health centres, but were faced with continuing shortages of doctors and nurses. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH designated three categories of THPH, defined according to whether they were regularly staffed by a medical practitioner, a qualified nurse or non-clinical public health officers. This study aimed to compare the performance of primary care offered by the three different types of primary care facilities in one public health region of Northern Thailand (Public Health Region 2.A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2013. Data were collected on accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, co-ordination and community orientation of care from 825 patients attending 23 primary care facilities. These were selected to include the three officially-designated types of Tambon (sub-district health promotion hospitals (THPHs led by medical, nursing or public health personnel. Survey scores were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses.THPHs staffed only by public health officers achieved the highest performance score (Mean = 85.14, SD. = 7.30, followed by THPHs staffed by qualified nurses (Mean = 82.86, SD. = 7.06. THPHs staffed by a doctor on rotation returned the lowest scores (Mean = 81.63, SD. = 7.22.Differences in overall scores resulted mainly from differences in reported accessibility, continuity, and comprehensiveness of care, rather than staff skill-mix per se. Policy on quality improvement should therefore focus on improving performance in these areas.
Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Zellin, Stacie; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri
Health care organizations, well positioned to address health literacy, are beginning to shift their systems and policies to support health literacy efforts. Organizations can identify barriers, emphasize and leverage their strengths, and initiate activities that promote health literacy-related practices. The current project employed an open-ended approach to conduct a needs assessment of rural federally qualified health center clinics. Using customized assessment tools, the collaborators were then able to determine priorities for changing organizational structures and policies in order to support continued health literacy efforts. Six domains of organizational health literacy were measured with three methods: environmental assessments, patient interviews, and key informant interviews with staff and providers. Subsequent strategic planning was conducted by collaborators from the academic and clinic teams and resulted in a focused, context-appropriate action plan. The needs assessment revealed several gaps in organizational health literacy practices, such as low awareness of health literacy within the organization and variation in perceived values of protocols, interstaff communication, and patient communication. Facilitators included high employee morale and patient satisfaction. The resulting targeted action plan considered the organization's culture as revealed in the interviews, informing a collaborative process well suited to improving organizational structures and systems to support health literacy best practices. The customized needs assessment contributed to an ongoing collaborative process to implement organizational changes that aided in addressing health literacy needs.
Landers, Steven; Madigan, Elizabeth; Leff, Bruce; Rosati, Robert J.; McCann, Barbara A.; Hornbake, Rodney; MacMillan, Richard; Jones, Kate; Bowles, Kathryn; Dowding, Dawn; Lee, Teresa; Moorhead, Tracey; Rodriguez, Sally; Breese, Erica
The Future of Home Health project sought to support transformation of home health and home-based care to meet the needs of patients in the evolving U.S. health care system. Interviews with key thought leaders and stakeholders resulted in key themes about the future of home health care. By synthesizing this qualitative research, a literature review, case studies, and the themes from a 2014 Institute of Medicine and National Research Council workshop on “The Future of Home Health Care,” the authors articulate a vision for home-based care and recommend a bold framework for the Medicare-certified home health agency of the future. The authors also identify challenges and recommendations for achievement of this framework. PMID:27746670
Ballou, Kathryn A; Landreneau, Kandace J
The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the mechanisms of the continuation of elite hegemonic control of a highly valued social system--American health care. White, male physicians and administrators achieved control of the health care industry and its workers, including nurses, at the start of the 20th century. Using critical theorists' work on authoritarianism and incorporating gender analysis, the authors describe the health care system from a critical social- psychological perspective. The authors discuss the meaning and presence of authoritarian hierarchy and gender effects in today's health system through a critical analysis of the profession of medicine, the profession of nursing, corporate and bureaucratic health care, and patients or consumers. It is concluded that the social-psychological behavior of the American health care system has profound implications that must be taken into account in any recommendations for change.
Güntert, Bernhard J
The situation in the health care sector is affected by a shortage of public funds on the one hand and, on the other hand, by rapid developments in medicine and nursing with an enormous expansion of both diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. This and the aging population are generating a steadily increasing demand for health care services. The result is an increased cost consciousness in society calling for more professional management in health care organizations. However, the traditional administration of health care organizations, which is closely aligned with health professionals and production processes, was not able to cope with these dynamics or did so only unsatisfactorily. An improved management would surely lead to an optimization of health care delivery processes and a more effective use of resources. The question, however, is whether the effectiveness of the total system can be improved and whether patients' and society's needs can actually be met by classical management approaches.
Abimbola, Seye; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Onyedum, Cajetan C; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C
Health care costs incurred prior to the appropriate patient-provider transaction (i.e., transaction costs of access to health care) are potential barriers to accessing health care in low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores these transaction costs and their implications for health system governance through a cross-sectional survey of adult patients who received their first diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the three designated secondary health centres for TB care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The patients provided information on their care-seeking pathways and the associated costs prior to reaching the appropriate provider. Of the 452 patients, 84% first consulted an inappropriate provider. Only 33% of inappropriate consultations were with qualified providers (QP); the rest were with informal providers such as pharmacy providers (PPs; 57%) and traditional providers (TP; 10%). Notably, 62% of total transaction costs were incurred during the first visit to an inappropriate provider and the mean transaction costs incurred was highest with QPs (US$30.20) compared with PPs (US$14.40) and TPs (US$15.70). These suggest that interventions for reducing transaction costs should include effective decentralisation to integrate TB care with services at the primary health care level, community engagement to address information asymmetry, enforcing regulations to keep informal providers within legal limits and facilitating referral linkages among formal and informal providers to increase early contact with appropriate providers.
..., because the privacy and security principles from which the rule derives its language applies specifically... paragraph (a) of Sec. 155.260, which also applies to the creation of personally identifiable information. In this notice, we are adding the word ``creation'' to Sec. 155.260(d). On page 18456, we presented...
Health care organization is not only a technical issue. Ethics gives meaning to the medical profession's declared intent of preserving the health and life of the people while honoring their intelligence, dignity and intimacy. It also induces physicians to apply their knowledge, intellect and skills for the benefit of the patient. In a health care system, it is important that people have insurance coverage for health contingencies and that the quality of the services provided be satisfactory. People tend to judge the medical profession according to the experience they have in their personal encounter with physicians, health care workers, hospitals and clinics. Society and its political leaders must decide upon the particular model that will ensure the right of citizens to a satisfactory health care. Any health care organization not founded on humanitarian and ethical values is doomed tofailure. The strict adherence of physicians to Hippocratic values and to the norms of good clinical practice as well as to an altruistic cooperative attitude will improve the efficiency of the health care sector and reduce its costs. It is incumbent upon society to generate the conditions where by the ethical roots of medical care can be brought to bear upon the workings of the health care system. Every country must strive to provide not only technically efficient medical services, but also the social mechanisms that make possible a humanitarian interaction between professionals and patients where kindness and respect prevail.
Full Text Available Oral health care for disabled patients is an important health issue in Taiwan. Disabled patients seeking dental care include those with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Down syndrome, autism, xerostomia, AIDS, loss of function of major organs, and neurologic diseases. Current dental health care policies do not completely address this critical oral health issue. Most of these physically or mentally disabled patients cannot find suitable or qualified dental services in local dental clinics or even hospitals. Our current health care insurance system should provide greater benefits for dental practitioners who are willing to care for such disabled patients. The Department of Health (DOH should legislate policies to provide greater financial support and equipment and encourage hospital dental clinics and dentists to join this special oral care program. Dental schools, hospitals, and the DOH can also provide curricula and special training programs for both dentists and undergraduate dental students so that they can learn about diseases and dental care of these patients. The government and DOH should cover the fees of lawsuits if dentists have medical legal problems while treating patients with disabilities. Questions on special care dentistry can possibly be included in the National Board Dental Examination. The government can establish some national oral health care centers to treat these disabled patients. Through the development of effective preventive and treatment strategies, the incidence of oral diseases in these patients can be reduced in the future.
K. Arrow (Kenneth); A. Auerbach (Alan); J. Bertko (John); L.P. Casalino (Lawrence Peter); F.J. Crosson (Francis); A. Enthoven (Alain); E. Falcone; R.C. Feldman; V.R. Fuchs (Victor); A.M. Garber (Alan); M.R. Gold (Marthe Rachel); D.A. Goldman; G.K. Hadfield (Gillian); M.A. Hall (Mark Ann); R.I. Horwitz (Ralph); M. Hooven; P.D. Jacobson (Peter); T.S. Jost (Timothy Stoltzfus); L.J. Kotlikoff; J. Levin (Jonathan); S. Levine (Sharon); R. Levy; K. Linscott; H.S. Luft; R. Mashal; D. McFadden (Daniel); D. Mechanic (David); D. Meltzer (David); J.P. Newhouse (Joseph); R.G. Noll (Roger); J.B. Pietzsch (Jan Benjamin); P. Pizzo (Philip); R.D. Reischauer (Robert); S. Rosenbaum (Sara); W. Sage (William); L.D. Schaeffer (Leonard Daniel); E. Sheen; B.N. Silber (Bernie Michael); J. Skinner (Jonathan Robert); S.M. Shortell (Stephen); S.O. Thier (Samuel); S. Tunis (Sean); L. Wulsin Jr.; P. Yock (Paul); G.B. Nun; S. Bryan (Stirling); O. Luxenburg (Osnat); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); J. Cooper (Jim)
textabstractThe coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project (www.fresh-thinking.org) held a
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Ologunde, Rele; Gunarajasingam, Ayinkeran
In 2008 United States President Barack Obama declared that health care "should be a right for every American".(1) This statement, although noble, does not reflect US healthcare statistics in recent times, with the number of uninsured reaching over 50 million in 2010.(2) Such disparity has sparked a political drive towards change, and the introduction of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).(3) These changes have been highly polemical, raising the fundamental question of whether health care is a right; a contract between the nation and its inhabitants granted at birth, or an entitlement; a privilege that must be earned as opposed to universally provided. Access to healthcare in the US is mediated by insurance coverage, either in the form of private or employer based cover, which may be government based for public sector employees or private for private sector employees. The majority of spending on healthcare however, comes from government expenditure on health programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, Tricare, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP).(4) Medicare is a federal government funded social insurance program that provides health insurance to people aged 65 and older, younger people with disabilities, and those with end stage renal failure requiring dialysis. Medicaid is a means tested insurance coverage program for individuals with low incomes and their families, and is jointly funded by state and federal governments. Tricare is a healthcare program that provides healthcare insurance for military personnel, retirees, and their dependents. The SCHIP provides states with federal government funding to provide health insurance to children from families with modest incomes that do not qualify for Medicaid. As such, although the majority of the US population is insured by federal, state, employer, or private health insurance, the remainders go uninsured.
Dulal, R K
Nepal has entered from its unitary system into a new "Federal Democratic Republic State". The current constitution presents basic health care services as a fundamental right. The Ministry for Health and Population has been providing resources to meet health demands, but managers are wrestling to meet these demands. Persistent disparities between rural and urban and across regions resulted inferior health outcomes, e.g., life expectancy in an urban district like Bhaktapur is 71 years, whereas in the rural district of Mugu it is 44 years. The poor health and poor access to health care in the past systems prompted people to seek a different model. Ultimately, all political parties except one have agreed on federalism. The exact number of federal states that are going to be created is unknown. In federalism, all federated states have to assume certain relationships between the locality, the region, and the nation that apply not only in politics but in health care too. Managing changes in health care organization during the transitional period and after restructuring the unitary Nepal into federal states should be carefully planned. In case, if new system also fails to deliver necessary health care services, the possibility of igniting of dissatisfaction, public unrest and even disintegration cannot be ignored. In order to outline a structure and give life to a health care system under federalism, health care professionals need to engage themselves seriously.
Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M
Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.
Ginsburg, Paul B
The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.
Verheij, R.; Barten, D.J.; Hek, K.; Nielen, M.; Prins, M.; Zwaanswijk, M.; Bakker, D. de
Background: As computerisation of primary care facilities is rapidly increasing, a wealth of data is created in routinely recorded electronic health records (EHRs). This data can be used to create a true learning health care system, in which routinely available data are processed and analysed in
Andersen, Kim Normann; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Kim, Soonhee
This paper brings forward five propositions on the use of online communication in health care, its potential impacts on efficiency and effectiveness in health care, and which role government should play in moving forward the use of online communication. In the paper, each of the five propositions...
Casparie, A.F.; Sluijs, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Bakker, D.H. de
The implementation of quality systems in Dutch health care was supervised by a national committee during 1990-1995. To monitor the progress of implementation a large survey was conducted in the beginning of 1995. The survey enclosed all subsectors in health care. A postal questionnaire-derived
The past decades have been a time of rapid technological change in health care, but technological change will probably accelerate during the next decade or so. This will bring problems, but it will also present certain opportunities. In particular, the health care system is faced with the need to
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.
Objectives: differences were investigated between general practitioners providing women's health care (4 women) and general practitioners providing regular health care (8 women and 8 men). Expectations were formulated on the basis of the principles of women's health care and literature about gender
Karuppan, Corinne M; Karuppan, Muthu
Despite much coverage in the popular press, only anecdotal evidence is available on medical tourists. At first sight, they seemed confined to small and narrowly defined consumer segments: individuals seeking bargains in cosmetic surgery or uninsured and financially distressed individuals in desperate need of medical care. The study reported in this article is the first empirical investigation of the medical tourism consumer market. It provides the demographic profile, motivations, and value perceptions of health care consumers who traveled abroad specifically to receive medical care. The findings suggest a much broader market of educated and savvy health care consumers than previously thought. In the backdrop of the health care reform, the article concludes with implications for health care providers.
Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam
Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.
Waddington, Kathryn; Fletcher, Clive
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gossip and emotion in health-care organizations. It draws on findings from empirical research exploring the characteristics and function of gossip which, to date, has been a relatively under-researched organizational phenomenon. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted, drawing on an eclectic range of discipline-based theories, skills, ideas and data. Methods included repertory grid technique, in-depth interviews and structured diary records of work-related gossip. The sample comprised 96 qualified nurses working in a range of practice areas and organizational settings in the UK. Template analysis was used to integrate findings across three phases of data collection. The findings revealed that gossip is used to express a range of emotions including care and concern about others, anger, annoyance and anxiety, with emotional outcomes that include feeling reassured and supported. It is the individual who gossips, while the organization provides the content, emotional context, triggers and opportunities. Nurses were chosen as an information-rich source of data, but the findings may simply reflect the professional culture and practice of nursing. Future research should take into account a wider range of health-care organizational roles and perspectives in order to capture the dynamics and detail of the emotions and relationships that initiate and sustain gossip. Because gossip makes people feel better it may serve to reinforce the "stress mask of professionalism", hiding issues of conflict, vulnerability and intense emotion. Managers need to consider what the emotions expressed through gossip might represent in terms of underlying issues relating to organizational health, communication and change. This paper makes a valuable contribution to the under-researched phenomenon of gossip in organizations and adds to the growing field of research into the role of emotion in health-care organizations and emotion
Bisantz, Ann M; Fairbanks, Rollin J
Cognitive Engineering for Better Health Care Systems, Ann M. Bisantz, Rollin J. Fairbanks, and Catherine M. BurnsThe Role of Cognitive Engineering in Improving Clinical Decision Support, Anne Miller and Laura MilitelloTeam Cognitive Work Analysis as an Approach for Understanding Teamwork in Health Care, Catherine M. BurnsCognitive Engineering Design of an Emergency Department Information System, Theresa K. Guarrera, Nicolette M. McGeorge, Lindsey N. Clark, David T. LaVergne, Zachary A. Hettinger, Rollin J. Fairbanks, and Ann M. BisantzDisplays for Health Care Teams: A Conceptual Framework and Design Methodology, Avi ParushInformation Modeling for Cognitive Work in a Health Care System, Priyadarshini R. PennathurSupport for ICU Clinician Cognitive Work through CSE, Christopher Nemeth, Shilo Anders, Jeffrey Brown, Anna Grome, Beth Crandall, and Jeremy PamplinMatching Cognitive Aids and the "Real Work" of Health Care in Support of Surgical Microsystem Teamwork, Sarah Henrickson Parker and Shawna J. PerryEngageme...
Balbale, Salva Najib; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L
Given the importance of health care employees in the delivery of patient-centered care, understanding their unique perspectives is essential for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to use photovoice to evaluate perceptions and experiences around patient-centered care among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) health care employees. We asked participants to take photographs of salient features in their environment related to patient-centered care. We used the photographs to facilitate dialogue during follow-up interviews. Twelve VA health care employees across two VA sites participated in the project. Although most participants felt satisfied with their work environment and experiences at the VA, they identified several areas for improvement. These included a need for more employee health and wellness initiatives and a need for enhanced opportunities for training and professional growth. Application of photovoice enabled us to learn about employees' unique perspectives around patient-centered care while engaging them in an evaluation of care delivery. © The Author(s) 2014.
Davis, Alaina M; Brown, Rebekah F; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Epstein, Richard A; McPheeters, Melissa L
Approximately 750,000 children in the United States with special health care needs will transition from pediatric to adult care annually. Fewer than half receive adequate transition care. We had conversations with key informants representing clinicians who provide transition care, pediatric and adult providers of services for individuals with special health care needs, policy experts, and researchers; searched online sources for information about currently available programs and resources; and conducted a literature search to identify research on the effectiveness of transition programs. We identified 25 studies evaluating transition care programs. Most (n = 8) were conducted in populations with diabetes, with a smaller literature (n = 5) on transplant patients. We identified an additional 12 studies on a range of conditions, with no more than 2 studies on the same condition. Common components of care included use of a transition coordinator, a special clinic for young adults in transition, and provision of educational materials. The issue of how to provide transition care for children with special health care needs warrants further attention. Research needs are wide ranging, including both substantive and methodologic concerns. Although there is widespread agreement on the need for adequate transition programs, there is no accepted way to measure transition success. It will be essential to establish consistent goals to build an adequate body of literature to affect practice. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lopes Sauers, Andrea D; Sauers, Eric L; Valier, Alison R Snyder
Quality improvement (QI) is a health care concept that ensures patients receive high-quality (safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable, patient-centered) and affordable care. Despite its importance, the application of QI in athletic health care has been limited. To describe the need for and define QI in health care, to describe how to measure quality in health care, and to present a QI case in athletic training. As the athletic training profession continues to grow, a widespread engagement in QI efforts is necessary to establish the value of athletic training services for the patients that we serve. A review of the importance of QI in health care, historical perspectives of QI, tools to drive QI efforts, and examples of common QI initiatives is presented to assist clinicians in better understanding the value of QI for advancing athletic health care and the profession. Clinical and Research Advantages: By engaging clinicians in strategies to measure outcomes and improve their patient care services, QI practice can help athletic trainers provide high-quality and affordable care to patients.
Carroll, Jennifer K; Fiscella, Kevin; Epstein, Ronald M; Sanders, Mechelle R; Winters, Paul C; Moorhead, S Anne; van Osch, Liesbeth; Williams, Geoffrey C
To assess the effect of a pilot intervention to promote clinician-patient communication about physical activity on patient ratings of their perceived competence for physical activity and their clinicians' autonomy-supportiveness. Family medicine clinicians (n=13) at two urban community health centers were randomized to early or delayed (8 months later) communication training groups. The goal of the training was to teach the 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange) for physical activity counseling. Outcome measures were changes in patient perceptions of autonomy support (modified Health Care Climate Questionnaire, mHCCQ) and perceived competence (Perceived Competence Scale for physical activity, PCS) completed via surveys at baseline, post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Patients (n=326) were mostly female (70%) and low income. Using a generalized estimating equations model (GEE) with patients nested within clinician, patient perceived autonomy support increased at post-intervention compared to baseline (mean HCCQ scores 3.68-4.06, p=0.03). There was no significant change in patient perceived competence for physical activity. A clinician-directed intervention increased patient perceptions of clinician autonomy support but not patient perceived competence for physical activity. Clinicians working with underserved populations can be taught to improve their autonomy supportiveness, according to patient assessments of their clinicians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available At first glance, it doesn't seem as though socialism and health-care reform have a whole lot to do with each other. After all, the most visible "left" position in the current discussion of health-care reform merely advocates for the government to assume the function of national insurer, leaving the delivery of health care - from its often-questionable content to its hierarchical relationships - firmly in place. As such, a single payer, Medicare-for-All insurance program is a modest, even tepid reform. Those of us on the left who have been active in the single payer movement have always seen it as a steppingstone toward health-care justice: until the question of access to care is solved, how do we even begin to address not only health care but also health inequities? How, for example, can working-class Americans, Americans of color, and women demand appropriate, respectful, humane, first-rate care when our ability to access any health-care services at all is so tightly constrained?
Wynia, Matthew K.; Osborn, Chandra Y.
The relationship between limited health literacy and poor health may be due to poor communication quality within health care delivery organizations. We explored the relationship between health literacy status and receiving patient-centered communication in clinics and hospitals serving communication-vulnerable patient populations. Thirteen health care organizations nationwide distributed a survey to 5,929 patients. All patients completed seven items assessing patient-centered communication. One third also completed three items assessing health literacy. The majority of patients had self-reported health literacy challenges, reporting problems learning about their medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information (53%), a lack of confidence in completing medical forms by themselves (61%), and needing someone to help them read hospital/clinic materials (57%). Logistic regression models showed that, after adjustment for patient demographic characteristics and health care organization type, patients with limited health literacy were 28–79% less likely than those with adequate health literacy to report their health care organization “always” provides patient-centered communication across seven communication items. Using a scaled composite of these items, limited health literacy remained associated with lower reported communication quality. These results suggest that improving communication quality in health care organizations might help to address the challenges facing patients with limited health literacy. They also highlight that efforts to address the needs of patients with limited health literacy should be sensitive to the range of communication challenges confronting these patients and their caregivers. PMID:20845197
... is why only qualified health care or mental health care providers can diagnose ADHD, and why it is important that supports be in place to bridge differences in language and culture. The Core Values of Systems of Care Although ...
Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.
This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An important aspect of allowing patients to take control of their health care is the introduction of new procedures for dealing with complaints. This article examines the concepts that underpin the new Department of Health regulations on complaints management and what they will mean for health and social care professionals. It also explains why these regulations focus on restorative justice rather than blame when adverse events occur.
Despite well-documented links between low health literacy, low rates of health insurance coverage, and poor health outcomes, there has been almost no research on the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported access to care. This study analyzed a large, nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults ages 50 and older to estimate the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported difficulty obtaining care. We found that individuals with low health literacy were significantly more likely than individuals with adequate health literacy to delay or forego needed care or to report difficulty finding a provider, even after controlling for other factors including health insurance coverage, employment, race/ethnicity, poverty, and general cognitive function. They were also more likely to lack a usual source of care, although this result was only marginally significant after controlling for other factors. The results show that in addition to any obstacles that low health literacy creates within the context of the clinical encounter, low health literacy also reduces the probability that people get in the door of the health care system in a timely way. PMID:27043757
Eriksson, Irene; Lindblad, Monica; Möller, Ulrika; Gillsjö, Catharina
Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) is a fairly new role in the Swedish health care system. To describe patients' experiences of health care provided by an APN in primary health care. An inductive, descriptive qualitative approach with qualitative open-ended interviews was chosen to obtain descriptions from 10 participants regarding their experiences of health care provided by an APN. The data were collected during the spring 2012, and a qualitative approach was used for analyze. The APNs had knowledge and skills to provide safe and secure individual and holistic health care with high quality, and a respectful and flexible approach. The APNs conveyed trust and safety and provided health care that satisfied the patients' needs of accessibility and appropriateness in level of care. The APNs way of providing health care and promoting health seems beneficial in many ways for the patients. The individual and holistic approach that characterizes the health care provided by the APNs is a key aspect in the prevailing change of health care practice. The transfer of care and the increasing number of older adults, often with a variety of complex health problems, call for development of the new role in this context. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Buerger, Anita M; Clark, Kevin R
To discuss the current and growing use of point-of-care (POC) ultrasound in the management and care of patients. Several electronic research databases were searched to find articles that emphasized the use of POC ultrasound by health care providers who manage and treat critically ill or injured patients. Thirty-five relevant peer-reviewed journal articles were selected for this literature review. Common themes identified in the literature included the use of POC ultrasound in emergency medicine, military medicine, and remote care; comparison of POC ultrasound to other medical imaging modalities; investigation of the education and training required for nonimaging health care professionals who perform POC ultrasound in their practices; and discussion of the financial implications and limitations of POC ultrasound. POC ultrasound provides clinicians with real-time information to better manage and treat critically ill or injured patients in emergency medicine, military medicine, and remote care. In addition to providing immediate bedside diagnostic information, use of POC ultrasound has increased because of concerns regarding radiation protection. Finally, the expansion of POC ultrasound to other specialty areas requires nonimaging health care professionals to perform bedside ultrasound examinations and interpret the resulting images. Because POC ultrasound is user-dependent, adequate training is essential for all who perform and interpret the examinations. Research involving POC ultrasound will continue as innovations and confidence in ultrasound applications advance. Future research should continue to examine the broad use of POC ultrasound in patient care and management. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Full Text Available The process of collective education in an organization that has the capacity to impact an organization’s operations, performance and outcomes is called organizational learning. In health care organizations, patient care is provided through one or more visible and invisible teams. These teams are composed of experts and novices from diverse backgrounds working together to provide coordinated care. The number of teams involved in providing care and the possibility of breakdowns in communication and coordinated care increases in direct proportion to sophisticated technology and treatment strategies of complex disease processes. Safe patient care is facilitated by individual professional learning; inter-professional team learning and system based organizational learning, which encompass modified context specific learning by multiple teams and team members in a health care organization. Organizational learning in health care systems is central to managing the learning requirements in complex interconnected dynamic systems where all have to know common background knowledge along with shared meta-knowledge of roles and responsibilities to execute their assigned functions, communicate and transfer the flow of pertinent information and collectively provide safe patient care. Organizational learning in health care is not a onetime intervention, but a continuing organizational phenomenon that occurs through formal and informal learning which has reciprocal association with organizational change. As such, organizational changes elicit organizational learning and organizational learning implements new knowledge and practices to create organizational changes.
2Department of Community Medicine & Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, ... It may result from road traffic accident, near saving basic principles in emergency care that even drowning, electric ... (4.3%) at place of work, 8 (11.4%) at.
Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V
India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 10332 of the Affordable Care Act amends section 1874 of the Social Security Act (the Act) by adding a new subsection (e) requiring standardized extracts of...
Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L; Hedges, Dawson W
(1) To assess the prevalence of rural primary care physician (PCP) bypass, a behavior in which residents travel farther than necessary to obtain health care, (2) To examine the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass behavior, and (3) To analyze spatial bypass patterns to determine which rural communities are most affected by bypass. Data came from the Montana Health Matters survey, which gathered self-reported information from Montana residents on their health care utilization, satisfaction with health care services, and community and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to examine the probability and spatial patterns of bypass. Overall, 39% of respondents bypass local health care. Similar to previous studies, dissatisfaction with local health care was found to increase the likelihood of bypass. Dissatisfaction with local shopping also increases the likelihood of bypass, while the number of friends in a community, and commonality with community reduce the likelihood of bypass. Other significant factors associated with bypass include age, income, health, and living in a highly rural community or one with high commuting flows. Our results suggest that outshopping theory, in which patients bundle services and shopping for added convenience, extends to primary health care selection. This implies that rural health care selection is multifaceted, and that in addition to perceived satisfaction with local health care, the quality of local shopping and levels of community attachment also influence bypass behavior. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.
Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J
This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
McGovern, Mark P; Urada, Darren; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Sullivan, Steven T; Mazade, Noel A
In the advent of health care reform, models are sought to integrate behavioral health and routine medical care services. Historically, the behavioral health specialty has not itself been integrated, but instead bifurcated by substance use and mental health across treatment systems, care providers and even research. With the present opportunity to transform the health care delivery system, it is incumbent upon policymakers, researchers and clinicians to avoid repeating this historical error, and provide integrated behavioral health services in medical contexts. An organizational measure designed to assess this capacity is described: the Dual Diagnosis Capability in Health Care Settings (DDCHCS). The DDCHCS was used to assess a sample of federally-qualified health centers (N=13) on the degree of behavioral health integration. The measure was found to be feasible and sensitive to detecting variation in integrated behavioral health services capacity. Three of the 13 agencies were dual diagnosis capable, with significant variation in DDCHCS dimensions measuring staffing, treatment practices and program milieu. In general, mental health services were more integrated than substance use. Future research should consider a revised version of the measure, a larger and more representative sample, and linking organizational capacity with patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Yarborough, Micah T; Green, Carla A
Individuals with mental illnesses have higher morbidity rates and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Understanding how patients and providers perceive the need for prevention, as well as the barriers and beliefs that may contribute to insufficient care, are important for improving service delivery tailored to this population. Cross-sectional; mixed methods. An integrated health system and a network of federally qualified health centers and safety net clinics. Interviews (n = 30) and surveys (n = 249) with primary care providers. Interviews (n = 158) and surveys (n = 160) with patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar, anxiety, or major depressive disorders. Semi-structured interviews and surveys. Thematic analysis for qualitative data; frequencies for quantitative data. More than half (n = 131, 53%) of clinicians believed patients with mental illnesses care less about preventive care than the general population, yet 88% (n = 139) of patients reported interest in improving health. Most providers (n = 216, 88%) lacked confidence that patients with mental illnesses would follow preventive recommendations; 82% (n = 129) of patients reported they would try to change lifestyles if their doctor recommended. Clinicians explained that their perception of patients' chaotic lives and lack of interest in preventive care contributed to their fatalistic attitudes on care delivery to this population. Clinicians and patients agreed on substantial need for additional support for behavior changes. Clinicians reported providing informational support by keeping messages simple; patients reported a desire for more detailed information on reasons to complete preventive care. Patients also detailed the need for assistive and tangible support to manage behavioral health changes. Our results suggest a few clinical changes could help patients complete preventive care recommendations and improve health behaviors: improving clinician-patient collaboration on
Segouin, C; Thayer, C
In 1996, the French government introduced a wide-ranging health care reform which aimed to resolve the problems of rising health expenditure and a levelling off in health sector income. Changes in the regulation of the health care system sought to strengthen quality while improving professional practice. At the same time the changes were intended to encourage greater synergy both between professionals and between the different parts of the system, thus promoting greater cost-effectiveness. The tools designed to achieve these results included: the creation of new regional hospital agencies, the introduction of cash-limited budgets at national and regional level, the launching of a contracting procedure between health authorities and hospitals and the setting up of a new health care accreditation agency. With some signs of improvement in the overall health insurance budgetary situation, the Jospin government seems to be supporting the broad lines of the reform introduced by its predecessor.
According to the final consensus of a panel of intense discussions, the health care system should/can not be excluded from the economic laws of efficiency. Appropriate adaptation of various methods and instruments of economics make these tools applicable for use in the health care system. Due to errors in the implementation of economic methods, though, the question arises who is economically responsible in the health care system. The answer is found at three different levels of the health care system. The physician plays a leading role, both personally and professionally, in being primarily responsible for the direct medical treatment of the patient. The physician's dependence, however, on the health care system reduces his independence, which markedly affects his decision-making and treatment. Management of and in health care institutions is largely independent of the profession learned. Managers and physicians acting as managers must be appropriately and duly educated in the necessary specific talents and knowledge. The organisation of a health care system should also be reserved for trained specialists where the physicians as well as other professionals are obliged to acquire the skills necessary.
Tor I. Romøren
Full Text Available Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.
Yau Zakari Lawal
Full Text Available Qualitative health care is a fundamental right of all citizens of a given country. How this health care is delivered depends significantly on the economy, dedication, and quality of the health-care providers and the political will of the government of the country. Health care may be public run or organized by private health-care providers. We can also have an intercalated program where there is public–private partnership. Whichever way this basic fundamental human right is delivered, sustainability, affordability, and accessibility are vital to its success. The Nigerian health-care delivery can be broadly classified into two; the hitherto existing traditional medicine and the modern orthodox medicine which came to our shores with the arrival of the European colonialists. The traditional system is still patronized by most Nigerians and is known by different linguistic terminologies such as the “Wanzami” or Barber in Hausa and the “Babalawo” in Yoruba language. Traditional birth attendants also exist in all communities in Nigeria complemented by herbalist and spiritualists of different shades and callings. It is our aim to give a brief account of our observations on the Nigerian health-care system with a view to correcting the challenges by the government and the public in general.
The question of corporate moral responsibility--of whether it makes sense to hold an organisation corporately morally responsible for its actions, rather than holding responsible the individuals who contributed to that action--has been debated over a number of years in the business ethics literature. However, it has had little attention in the world of health care ethics. Health care in the United Kingdom (UK) is becoming an increasingly corporate responsibility, so the issue is increasingly relevant in the health care context, and it is worth considering whether the specific nature of health care raises special questions around corporate moral responsibility. For instance, corporate responsibility has usually been considered in the context of private corporations, and the organisations of health care in the UK are mainly state bodies. However, there is enough similarity in relevant respects between state organisations and private corporations, for the question of corporate responsibility to be equally applicable. Also, health care is characterised by professions with their own systems of ethical regulation. However, this feature does not seriously diminish the importance of the corporate responsibility issue, and the importance of the latter is enhanced by recent developments. But there is one major area of difference. Health care, as an activity with an intrinsically moral goal, differs importantly from commercial activities that are essentially amoral, in that it narrows the range of opportunities for corporate wrongdoing, and also makes such organisations more difficult to punish.
Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research
Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda; Stoffels, Renee; Jaspers, Frans
Health professionals increasingly face patients with complex health problems and this pressurizes them to cooperate. The authors have analyzed how the complexity of health care problems relates to two types of cooperation: consultation and multidisciplinary teamwork (MTW). Moreover, they have
Durieux-Paillard, S; Dao, M Dominicé; Perron, N Junod
When consulting with migrant patients, general practitioners should pay special attention to the quality of their communication, because language barriers and cultural differences may arise. They must also be aware that life events experienced in the home country, during transit and in the host country can impact negatively on their patients' health, and thus a detailed history must be carefully obtained. Finally, they must be conscious that the migratory policies of the host country can influence the delivery of health care to migrant patients as well as their health status.
J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos)
textabstractHealth information technology is widely accepted to increase patient safety and reduce medical errors. The widespread implementation makes evident that health information technology has become of a complex sociotechnical system that is health care. Design and implementation may result in
This podcast features teens who urge US health care professionals to talk to teen patients about pregnancy and contraception. Created: 10/11/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Reproductive Health (DRH). Date Released: 10/11/2011.
Petrack, E M
To facilitate understanding of the advances in health care in Nicaragua since 1979, this discussion examines them within a historical framework. Nicaragua was occupied by US marines almost continuously from 1909-33. In 1933, their withdrawal left in power the US backed National Guard and the 1st dictator, Anastasio Somoza Garcia. Health conditions under the Somoza regime are difficult to evaluate because lack of data and underreporting were the norm. The health care system under Somoza was administered by 23 separate agencies, including the National Social Security Institute (INSS), a national Ministry of Health, independent local health ministries, and autonomous public hospital governing boards. On July 19, 1979, the dictatorship was overthrown in a popular uprising. Somoza left behind a foreign debt of 1.6 billion dollars, which the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) needed to honor to qualify for needed loans. Following Somoza's defeat, the new government faced the problem of how to care for the tens of thousands of persons wounded and how to distribute the aid and medical supplies coming in from other countries. The key to achieving these tasks was popular participation and organization. By the early part of 1980, the new government was addressing more directly the organization of the health care system. Unlike the fragmented services under Somoza, health care in the new Nicaragua fell under the control of a unified Ministry of Health (MINSA). In 1980, the FSLN initiated an intensive campaign against illiteracy, 100,000 young Nicaraguans, called "brigadistas," were trained and sent around the country to teach basic reading and writing. In addition, 1 out of 10 was trained in elementary health principles. They were responsible for educating others about hygiene and basic sanitation as well as distributing antimalarial medication. 5 popular Health Campaigns were waged during 1981 against polio; measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; rabies
Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz
We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raymond-Flesch, M; Siemons, R; Pourat, N; Jacobs, K; Brindis, CD
Purpose Young immigrants without documentation who qualify for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program are eligible for temporary legal status but excluded from the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion and Health Care Exchanges. Little is known about this population's health or access to care. Methods Sixty-one DACA-eligible Latinos aged 18-31 years were recruited from community and Internet settings to participate in nine focus groups in California. An advisory board of...
Management Sciences for Health (MSH) defined ... Poor supply chains, weak stock ... pharmacies and patent medicine stores for their ACT supply. ..... Global Health Observatory (GHO); program. ... logistics of supply and distribution is yet to be.
did not statistically affect it. (p>0.05). Conclusion ... and irritability) with concomitant memory .... associated with other health related effects though believe that it will affect the self- image and ego of .... attitude toward andropause among health.
Work Profile of Community Health Extension Workers in Cross. River State and ... reasons. In some countries they were to meet shortages in health manpower. In other ... Life expectancy is 51 years; maternal mortality and workers were ...
Background: Physical exercise is important for good health. Moderate ... Conclusion: Public education is needed to improve physical activity and curb the menace of health ..... Geriatrics 53(10):46-62. ... Recreation Therapy, 2005; 4(1): 21-30.
Background:Community Based Health Insurance Scheme is a social service organized at community level. It is a mutual health ... As part of her corporate social responsibility. Shell in .... Schmidt J. The benefits and challenges of shows the ...
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 'the broad scope of digital health includes categories such as mobile health (mHealth), health information technology (IT), wearable devices, telehealth and telemedicine, and personalised medicine, and is used by providers and other stakeholders in their efforts to reduce inefficiencies, improve access, reduce costs, increase quality, and make medicine more personalised for patients (FDA 2016). More recently, Paul Sonier, a digital health strategist and founder of the Linkedin digital health group with more than 40,000 members, defined digital health as 'the convergence of the digital and genomic revolutions with health, healthcare, living, and society' (storyofdigitalhealth.com 2016). Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.
The objective of this contribution is to characterize the functional and institutional features of the German health-care system. This takes place after a short introduction and examination of the ongoing debate on health care in Germany. External funding describes the form of revenue generation. Regarding external funding of the German health care system, one of the favored alternatives in the current debate is the possibility of introducing per capita payments. After a short introduction to the capitation option, focus is on the so-called health fund that is currently debated on and being made ready for implementation in Germany, actually a mixed system of capitation and contributions based on income. On the other hand, internal funding is the method of how different health-care services are purchased or reimbursed. This becomes a rather hot topic in light of new trends for integrated and networked care to patients and different types of budgeting. Another dominating question in the German health-care system is the liberalization of the contractual law, with its "joint and uniform" regulations that have to be loosened for competition gains. After a discussion of the consequences of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in Germany, the article is concluded by a note on the political rationality of the current health-care reform for increased competition within the Statutory Health Insurance and its players as exemplified by the health fund. To sum up, it has to be said that the complexity and specific features of how the German system is financed seem to require ongoing reform considerations even after realization of the currently debated health-care reform law which, unfortunately, is dominated by political rationalities rather than objective thoughts.
light, its chances of influencing those it would like bear down on is bound to be minimal. For a health care program to have an effect it must be able to travel or move between practices. Some health care programs successfully accomplish this task. They come to be widely adopted, apparently having...... global relevance, as for example the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, which has been adopted by countries as diverse as Japan, Australia and Denmark. But how does this happen and which effects does traveling have on a health care program and its place of arrival? This question is the starting...... point for the following text....
Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Darzi, Ara
Robots have long captured our imagination and are being used increasingly in health care. In this paper we summarize, organize and criticize the health care robotics literature and highlight how the social and technical elements of robots iteratively influence and redefine each other. We suggest the need for increased emphasis on sociological dimensions of using robots, recognizing how social and work relations are restructured during changes in practice. Further, we propose the usefulness of a 'service logic' in providing insight as to how robots can influence health care innovation. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2011.
Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) are methods to evaluate allocations of health care resources. Problems are raised for both methods when income taxes do not meet the first best optimum. This paper explores the implications of three ways that taxes may fall short of this ideal. First, taxes may be distortionary. Second, they may be designed and administered without reference to information that is used by providers of health care. Finally, the share of tax revenue that is devoted to health care may be suboptimal. The two methods are amended to account for these factors.
Kennedy, Michael H
This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement.
Chow, Clara K; Ariyarathna, Nilshan; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Redfern, Julie
Mobile health (mHealth) has been defined as medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices and personal digital assistants. Cardiovascular mHealth is, arguably, leading the mHealth space, through innovation, research and implementation, and especially in the areas of prevention, cardiac rehabilitation and education. mHealth includes simple strategies, such as the use of short message service (SMS) or text messages in successful short-term smoking-cessation, weight loss and diabetes management programs. The recent Australian Tobacco, Exercise and Diet Messages (TEXT ME) randomised clinical trial addressed multiple cardiovascular risk factors. mHealth can also involve more complex strategies, such as smart phone applications (apps), global positioning systems (GPS) and Bluetooth technologies. Although many apps could be considered suitable for primary prevention, they are largely unregulated and most are not evidence-based. Some have been well-developed, such as the Food Switch app and an iPhone electrocardiogram (ECG) system. The "explosion" of apps has driven initiatives such as the Mobile Applications Rating Scale (MARS). More recently, the use of sensors to monitor and provide feedback to patients and healthcare providers is being explored. With almost two billion people currently owning a Smartphone, and 50% of adults (globally) predicted to own one by 2018, mHealth provides the prospect of delivering efficient, affordable healthcare services to widespread populations both locally and globally. In particular, it has the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparity and alleviate the burden of cardiovascular disease. There is now a need to rethink traditional health service structures and bioengineering capacity, to ensure mHealth systems are also safe, secure and robust. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of
Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; McAlister, Scott; McGain, Forbes
Carbon footprints stemming from health care have been found to be variable, from 3% of the total national CO 2 equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions in England to 10% of the national CO 2 e emissions in the USA. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of Australia's health-care system. We did an observational economic input-output lifecycle assessment of Australia's health-care system. All expenditure data were obtained from the 15 sectors of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the financial year 2014-15. The Australian Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab) data were used to obtain CO 2 e emissions per AUS$ spent on health care. In 2014-15 Australia spent $161·6 billion on health care that led to CO 2 e emissions of about 35 772 (68% CI 25 398-46 146) kilotonnes. Australia's total CO 2 e emissions in 2014-15 were 494 930 kilotonnes, thus health care represented 35 772 (7%) of 494 930 kilotonnes total CO 2 e emissions in Australia. The five most important sectors within health care in decreasing order of total CO 2 e emissions were: public hospitals (12 295 [34%] of 35 772 kilotonnes CO 2 e), private hospitals (3635 kilotonnes [10%]), other medications (3347 kilotonnes [9%]), benefit-paid drugs (3257 kilotonnes [9%]), and capital expenditure for buildings (2776 kilotonnes [8%]). The carbon footprint attributed to health care was 7% of Australia's total; with hospitals and pharmaceuticals the major contributors. We quantified Australian carbon footprint attributed to health care and identified health-care sectors that could be ameliorated. Our results suggest the need for carbon-efficient procedures, including greater public health measures, to lower the impact of health-care services on the environment. None. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ellenbecker, Carol Hall
Predicted severe nursing shortages and an increasing demand for home health care services have made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a theoretical model of job retention for home health care nurses. The theoretical model is an integration of the findings of empirical research related to intent to stay and retention, components of Neal's theory of home health care nursing practice and findings from earlier work to develop an instrument to measure home health care nurses' job satisfaction. The theoretical model identifies antecedents to job satisfaction of home health care nurses. The antecedents are intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics. The model also proposes that job satisfaction is directly related to retention and indirectly related to retention though intent to stay. Individual nurse characteristics are indirectly related to retention through intent to stay. The individual characteristic of tenure is indirectly related to retention through autonomy, as an intrinsic characteristic of job satisfaction, and intent to stay. The proposed model can be used to guide research that explores gaps in knowledge about intent to stay and retention among home health care nurses.
Consuelo Helena Aires de Freitas
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the practice of mental health care performed by healthcare professionals from the Family Health Strategy in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: This is a critical and reflective study conducted in six Basic Health Units in Fortaleza-Ce. The study subjects were 12 health workers of the following professions: doctor, nurse, community health agents and technical and/or nursing assistant. Semi-structured interviews, systematic observationand questionnaire were used for data collection. The empirical analysis was based on an understanding of the discourses through critical hermeneutics. Results: It was evident that the mental health services are developed by some health workers in the ESF, such as, matrix support, relational technologies, home visits and community group therapy. However, there is still deficiency in training/coaching by most professionals in primary care, due to anenduring model of pathological or curative health care. Conclusion: Mental health care is still occasionally held by some workers in primary care. However, some progresses are already present as matrix support, relational technologies in health care, home visits andcommunity therapy.
Vance, Connie; Larson, Elaine
To summarize research on leadership in the health care and business literature and to identify the outcomes of leadership on individuals, groups, and organizations. A computerized search and review of research studies was conducted in the health care and business literature from 1970-1999. Studies were categorized and analyzed according to participants, design, primary topic area, and effects or outcomes of leadership. Most of the health care and business literature on leadership consisted of anecdotal or theoretical discussion. Only 4.4% (n = 290) of 6,628 articles reviewed were data-based. Further, the largest proportion of the research (120/290, 41.4%) was purely descriptive of the demographic characteristics or personality traits of leaders. Other studies showed the influence of leadership on subordinates (27.9%). Only 15 (5.2%) of 290 research articles include correlations of qualities or styles of leadership with measurable outcomes on the recipients of services or positive changes in organizations. Research on leadership in the health care and business literature to date has been primarily descriptive. Although work in the social sciences indicates that leadership styles can have a major influence on performance and outcomes, minimal transfer of this work to the health care system is evident. Limited research on leadership and health care outcomes exists, such as changes in patient care or improvements in organizational outputs. In this era of evidence-based practice, such research, although difficult to conduct, is urgently needed.
Full Text Available The activities of health promotion for the students in health care specialties is organized and managed by the teacher process. During the training communication skills are acquired. It is the time for preparing students for work in counseling and patient education, collecting and providing health information - promotive function in the process of care (1. We assumed that these opportunities could be used in our work with children deprived of parental care. We set a goal to explore experiences, attitudes and ideas about students’ participation in health care in health promotion in the community of children and individuals. The study found that students are aware of the social importance of the knowledge acquired during the training and are convinced of the need to support adolescents to develop a responsible attitude towards their own health.
M.E. Nieboer; A.M. van Hout; Joost van Hoof; Sil Aarts; Eveline Wouters
Perceptions and values of care professionals are critical in successfully implementing technology in health care. The aim of this study was threefold: (1) to explore the main values of health care professionals, (2) to investigate the perceived influence of the technologies regarding these values,
H. Zhang (Hao)
markdownabstractThis dissertation investigates the challenges faced by China around 2010 in two domains – population health and the health care system. Specifically, chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to health challenges, explaining the female health disadvantage in later life and assessing the effect
Noren, J; Kindig, D; Sprenger, A
Native American health care programs face complex and unprecedented challenges resulting from the increased assumption of clinical operations by tribal authorities, shortfalls in Federal funding, modifications in state and Federal health and welfare programs, and intensifying involvement with managed care organizations. These challenges are further complicated by service populations that are increasing at a faster rate than the growth in funding. The authors conducted onsite surveys of 39 Native American health programs in 10 states in order to assess the organizational and management problems they faced. The trend toward transfer of health programs from the Indian Health Service to tribal operation seems likely to continue and accelerate. The survey results indicate that in order for programs to be effective in the long run, they will need to be guided by skilled managers able to adapt to these powerful changes in the health care environment.
Kaiser, L R
Our primary agenda for the 21st Century is the reinvention of America. We must reinvent democracy, capitalism, entrepreneurism, and community. Indeed, we must recreate all of our major social institutions. This includes health care. A design for a new society requires a new design for health care. In fact, health care enjoys a special privilege in this regard. It is the gateway to total societal redesign. Health is the common denominator in any society. If you loose your health you cannot work, you cannot play, you cannot study; and, if you lose it sufficiently, you cannot even pray. Health and well-being create the foundation for all other constructive human endeavors. Therefore, the design of healthy communities is the necessary first step in the redesign of total human habitats. This massive redesign effort will take a century. However, it will be launched in the next few years.
Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...
In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference
Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient's physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...
Bauer, M; Bach, A
Managed care, i.e., the integration of health insurance and delivery of care under the direction of one organization, is gaining importance in the USA health market. The initial effects consisted of a decrease in insurance premiums, a very attractive feature for employers. Managed care promises to contain expenditures for health care. Given the shrinking public resources in Germany, managed care seems attractive for the German health system, too. In this review the development of managed care, the principal elements, forms of organisation and practical tools are outlined. The regulation of the delivery of care by means of controlling and financial incentives threatens the autonomy of physicians: the physician must act as a "double agent", caring for the interest for the individual patient and being restricted by the contract with the managed care organisation. Cost containment by managed care was achieved by reducing the fees for physicians and hospitals (and partly by restricting care for patients). Only a fraction of this cost reduction was handed over to the enrollee or employer, and most of the money was returned with profit to the shareholders of the managed care organisations. The preeminent role of primary care physicians as gatekeepers of the health network led to a reduced demand for specialist services in general and for university hospitals and anesthesiologists in particular. The paradigm of managed care, i.e., to guide the patient and the care giver through the health care system in order to achieve cost-effective and high quality care, seems very attractive. The stress on cost minimization by any means in the daily practice of managed care makes it doubtful if managed care should be an option for the German health system, in particular because there are a number of restrictions on it in German law.
In a rapidly changing world of health care information access and patients’ rights, there is limited conceptual infrastructure available to understand how people approach and engage in treatment of medical conditions. The construct of health care empowerment is defined as the process and state of being engaged, informed, collaborative, committed, and tolerant of uncertainty regarding health care. I present a model in which health care empowerment is influenced by an interplay of cultural, social, and environmental factors; personal resources; and intrapersonal factors. The model offers a framework to understand patient and provider roles in facilitating health care empowerment and presents opportunities for investigation into the role of health care empowerment in multiple outcomes across populations and settings, including inquiries into the sources and consequences of health disparities. PMID:21164096
Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica
Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473
Recent times are witnessing methods in the various forms of community care for the mentally ill in India. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) play a pivotal role in filling the gap in the existing mental health services in India and the substantial need for these services. Various strategies that have been employed in community care have attempted to utilize existing community resources for implementation. Informal manpower resources incorporated with specialist psychiatric care and integrated with existing health care facilities have been general strategies. While the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the NGO operated community outreach programs for the mentally ill have been demonstrated, various factors are seen to influence the planning and execution of such programs. This paper elucidates some critical factors that would need to be considered in community mental health care in India.
Deb, Partha; Norton, Edward C
Health care expenditures and use are challenging to model because these dependent variables typically have distributions that are skewed with a large mass at zero. In this article, we describe estimation and interpretation of the effects of a natural experiment using two classes of nonlinear statistical models: one for health care expenditures and the other for counts of health care use. We extend prior analyses to test the effect of the ACA's young adult expansion on three different outcomes: total health care expenditures, office-based visits, and emergency department visits. Modeling the outcomes with a two-part or hurdle model, instead of a single-equation model, reveals that the ACA policy increased the number of office-based visits but decreased emergency department visits and overall spending.
Discussions of the economic aspects of health care often blur the distinction ... occupation with the treatment of economic symptoms rather than causes. ..... New York: Basic Books,. 1974. 14. ... Harvard University Press, 1971. 21. Benatar SR.
... of Page What Can Be Done The Federal government is Implementing activities across all government agencies to ... Making Health Care Safer [PSA – 0:60 seconds] Digital Press Kit: CDC Modeling Predicts Growth of Drug- ...
Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
...: Insurance and Health Care , explores the myths and realities of who is uninsured, identifies social, economic, and policy factors that contribute to the situation, and describes the likelihood faced...
Reform In Mexico — Silvia Tamez and Nancy Molina ... This book assesses the health care reforms of the past decade in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. ...... prevention and control of pulmonary tuberculosis; prevention and control of high blood ...
O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Harbianto, Deni; Garg, Charu C; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Herrin, Alejandro N; Huq, Mohammed N; Ibragimova, Shamsia; Karan, Anup; Kwon, Soon-man; Leung, Gabriel M; Lu, Jui-fen Rachel; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Pande, Badri Raj; Racelis, Rachel; Tin, Keith; Tisayaticom, Kanjana; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Wan, Quan; Yang, Bong-Min; Zhao, Yuxin
We estimate the distributional incidence of health care financing in 13 Asian territories that account for 55% of the Asian population. In all territories, higher-income households contribute more to the financing of health care. The better-off contribute more as a proportion of ability to pay in most low- and lower-middle-income territories. Health care financing is slightly regressive in three high-income economies with universal social insurance. Direct taxation is the most progressive source of finance and is most so in poorer economies. In universal systems, social insurance is proportional to regressive. In high-income economies, the out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are proportional or regressive while in low-income economies the better-off spend relatively more OOP. But in most low-/middle-income countries, the better-off not only pay more, they also get more health care.
the other to the population as cliemele of that system. Recently the ... divides from which inequalities in this sector emanate are those of .... power for private health care, and fewer srill are insured .... Nurses are mainly employed in public sector.
Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Söderholm, Hanna Maurin; Welch, Gregory F.
reported the technology would require additional training, changes to existing financial models used in emergency health care, and increased access to physicians. Conclusions. Teaching collaboration skills and strategies to physicians and paramedics could benefit their collaboration today, and increase...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.
This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.
... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...
Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre
The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...
Villarosa, Amy R; Clark, Sally; Villarosa, Ariana C; Patterson Norrie, Tiffany; Macdonald, Susan; Anlezark, Jennifer; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh
This study aimed to look at the practices and perspectives of residential aged care facility (RACF) care staff regarding the provision of oral health care in RACFs. Emphasis has been placed on the provision of adequate oral health care in RACFs through the Better Oral Health in Residential Aged Care programme. Endorsed by the Australian government, this programme provided oral health education and training for aged care staff. However, recent evidence suggests that nearly five years after the implementation of this programme, the provision of oral care in RACFs in NSW remains inadequate. This project utilised an exploratory qualitative design which involved a focus group with 12 RACF care staff. Participants were asked to discuss the current oral health practices in their facility, and their perceived barriers to providing oral health care. The key findings demonstrated current oral health practices and challenges among care staff. Most care staff had received oral health training and demonstrated positive attitudes towards providing dental care. However, some participants identified that ongoing and regular training was necessary to inform practice and raise awareness among residents. Organisational constraints and access to dental services also limited provision of dental care while a lack of standardised guidelines created confusion in defining their role as oral healthcare providers in the RACF. This study highlighted the need for research and strategies that focus on capacity building care staff in oral health care and improving access of aged care residents to dental services. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
address inequalities in health care should commence at the root causes .... sion and disrribution, bear in mind rhat rhere are also rhose mecha- nism and .... gle body is evidem in borh nawmal heallh service syscems and socialised heallh care ...
Phillips, Richard C.
Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)
AND+third. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 32 C.F.R. §199.17(p)(5)(ii) (2005). 18 See http://mytoc.tma.osd.mil/AccessToCare/ TOC /ATC.htm. 19 File name...responsible sexual behavior; mental health; injury and violence; environmental quality; immunization; and access to care.11 Responsibility The Assistant
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
Reilly, R F; Rabe, J R
Health care entities (and especially medical practices) are valued for a number of reasons: sale transaction pricing and structuring, merger formation and dissolution, taxation and regulatory compliance, and litigation support and dispute resolution. The identification and quantification of the entity's intangible assets are often the most important aspects of the valuation. This article illustrates the generally accepted methods for valuing health care-related intangible assets.
Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M
England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.
DeVries, R A
The number and types of multi-institutional arrangements among health care facilities are on the increase, and the days of the completely autonomous, independent hospital are coming to a close. Although by themselves hospital systems are no panacea in dealing with the challenges facing hospitals today, many such arrangements offer more opportunities than problems in coping with the rapid changes currently facing the health care industry. The pros and cons of seven arrangements are discussed in detail.
Sterns, J B
Access to capital will become more difficult. Capital access is dependent on ability to repay debt, which, in turn, is dependent on internally generated cash flows. Under any health care reform proposal, revenue inflows will be slowed. The use of corporate finance techniques to limit financial risk and lower cost will be a permanent response to fundamental changes to the health care system. These changes will result in greater balance sheet management, centralized capital allocation, and alternative sources of capital.
Horne, L Chad
While citizens in a liberal democracy are generally expected to see to their basic needs out of their own income shares, health care is treated differently. Most rich liberal democracies provide their citizens with health care or health care insurance in kind. Is this "special" treatment justified? The predominant liberal account of justice in health care holds that the moral importance of health justifies treating health care as special in this way. I reject this approach and offer an alternative account. Health needs are not more important than other basic needs, but they are more unpredictable. I argue that citizens are owed access to insurance against health risks to provide stability in their future expectations and thus to protect their capacities for self-determination.
Ködmön, József; Csajbók, Zoltán Ernő
Doctors, nurses and other medical professionals are spending more and more time in front of the computer, using applications developed for general practitioners, specialized care, or perhaps an integrated hospital system. The data they handle during healing and patient care are mostly sensitive data and, therefore, their management is strictly regulated. Finding our way in the jungle of laws, regulations and policies is not simple. Notwithstanding, our lack of information does not waive our responsibility. This study summarizes the most important points of international recommendations, standards and legal regulations of the field, as well as giving practical advices for managing medical and patient data securely and in compliance with the current legal regulations.
Steaban, Robin Lea
This article is meant to spur debate on the role of the professional nurse in care coordination as well as the role of nursing leaders for defining and leading to a future state. This work highlights the opportunity and benefits associated with transformation of professional nursing practice in response to the mandates of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. An understanding of core concepts and the work of care coordination are used to propose a model of care coordination based on the population health pyramid. This maximizes the roles of nurses across the continuum as transformational leaders in the patient/family and nursing relationship. The author explores the role of the nurse in a transactional versus transformational relationship with patients, leading to actualization of the nurse in care coordination. Focusing on the role of the nurse leader, the challenges and necessary actions for optimization of the professional nurse role are explored, using principles of transformational leadership.
Peyton, Margit Malmmose
Many studies have been conducted on the issue of New Public Management (NPM) and health care, not always quoting directly the philosophies of NPM, but using methods deriving from it. This study seeks to explore the development of studies on NPM in health care since the 1970s. The following resear...... construction of the governable person” as a theoretical framework, all academic articles from AA journals on the issues of NPM, health care and/or hospitals are analyzed.......Many studies have been conducted on the issue of New Public Management (NPM) and health care, not always quoting directly the philosophies of NPM, but using methods deriving from it. This study seeks to explore the development of studies on NPM in health care since the 1970s. The following research...... questions will be addressed: What types of studies are conducted on NPM in health care and how do these studies relate to the construction of the governable person? What are the changes in these relations and is the acceptance of this nationally dependent? Using Miller and O’Leary’s (1987), “The...
Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G
The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Wald, John T; Lowery-Schrandt, Sherri; Hayes, David L; Kotsenas, Amy L
By leveraging its experience and expertise as a consultative clinical partner, the Mayo Clinic developed an innovative, scalable care model to accomplish several strategic goals: (1) create and sustain high-value relationships that benefit patients and providers, (2) foster relationships with like-minded partners to act as a strategy against the development of narrow health care networks, and (3) increase national and international brand awareness of Mayo Clinic. The result was the Mayo Clinic Care Network. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
demographic and health indicators.1 The data showed a high growth rate in excess of 3% ... an integrated form with all other health care needs including promotive and ... In 1999 the government of Uganda (Ministry of Health) developed a ten .... The usual drug procurement system was strengthened with a special project.
Full Text Available Employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillment. Examinations connected with medical services were carried out using the Servqual method. It was stated that care of employees and their motivation to work is a very important factor regarding employee engagement but also about the overall success of an organization.
these lines: eating together 261/669 (39%), hugging 149/668 (22%), shaking ... Level of education was associated with positive attitudes towards ocular .... the about 250 ethnic groups of Nigeria. ..... ocular cancer are reflection of challenges ... Care: Focus Groups with Older African ... youths in a Nigerian local population.
McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J
Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in global health knowledge for deaf people including those with even higher risk of marginalization. Examples of approaches to improve access to health care, such as providing powerful and visually accessible communication through the use of sign language, the implementation of important communication technologies, and cultural awareness trainings for health professionals are discussed. Programs that raise health knowledge in Deaf communities and models of primary health care centers for deaf people are also presented. Published documents can empower deaf people to realize their right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
... of care + Share widget - Select to show Whatâs home health care? What's home health care? Home health care is a wide ... or skilled nursing facility (SNF). Examples of skilled home health services include: Wound care for pressure sores ...
The practice of medicine stands at the threshold of a transformation from its current focus on the treatment of disease events to an emphasis on enhancing health, preventing disease and personalizing care to meet each individual's specific health needs. Personalized health care is a new and strategic approach that is driven by personalized health planning empowered by personalized medicine tools, which are facilitated by advances in science and technology. These tools improve the capability to predict health risks, to determine and quantify the dynamics of disease development, and to target therapeutic approaches to the needs of the individual. Personalized health care can be implemented today using currently available technologies and know-how and thereby provide a market for the rational introduction of new personalized medicine tools. The need for early adoption of personalized health care stems from the necessity to reduce the egregious and wasteful burden of preventable chronic diseases, which is not effectively addressed by our current approach to care. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kristal, Ross B; Blank, Arthur E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities.
Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Newman Giger, J
Cultural diversity is increasing in the United States as increasing numbers of minorities enter the United States from abroad, and cultural diversity is especially prevalent in the health care workplace. In fact, the health care professions are particularly interested in the presence of minorities among caregivers because this often enhances the cultural competence of care delivery. Nevertheless, subtle discrimination can still be found, and managers must be alert that such behavior is not tolerated. Use of the Giger-Davidhizar Cultural Assessment Model can provide managers with information needed to respond to diversity among staff appropriately.
Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R
The increasing focus on the costs of care is forcing health care organizations to critically look at their basic set of processes and activities, to determine what type of value they can deliver. A business model describes the resources, processes, and cost assumptions that an organization makes that will lead to the delivery of a unique value proposition to a customer. As health care organizations are beginning to transform their structure in preparation for a value-based delivery system, understanding business model theory can help in the redesign process.
Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick
In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.
Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J
We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... environmental health, clinical care, health planning and management, health policy, health ... non-communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal ... Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety practices of petrol ...
issues in disaster management in Nigeria among others from a public health perspective and the ..... the supply chain (medical equipment and .... gadgets including use of global positioning ... procurement and logistics, inefficient utilization.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For more than 20 years, the Dartmouth Atlas Project has documented glaring variations in how medical resources are distributed and used in the United States. The...
... any part of the body Hematology -- blood disorders Immunology -- disorders of the immune system Infectious disease -- infections ... Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A.M., ...
2Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria (Sabbatical) ... educating, safety, involvement in construction Nigeria is the lopsided distribution ... low to effectively deliver essential health services ... disabled persons and prison inmates. .... Cottage Hospital and elsewhere during the period. feeling of personal fulfillment.
Jul 31, 2014 ... health problems in communities by providing promotive, preventive, .... determinants so as to evolve ways to solve them. It ... importance of evidence based programming through ..... against the selective PHC concept with its.
Mascarenhas, O A
Providing cost-contained comprehensive quality health care to maintain healthy and productive employees is a challenging problem for all employers. Using a representative panel of metropolitan employees, the author investigates the internal and external structure of employee satisfaction with company-sponsored health care plans. Employee satisfaction is differentiated into four meaningful groups of health care benefits, whereas its external structure is supported by the traditional satisfaction paradigms of expectation-disconfirmation, attribution, and equity. Despite negative disconfirmation, employees register sufficiently high health care satisfaction levels, which suggests some useful strategies that employers may consider implementing.
Williamson, Kathleen M
This exploratory study involved the triangulation of qualitative (interview and observation) and quantitative methods (Psychological Empowerment Instrument). This study examined the individual home care nurses' perception of empowerment and how it influences decisions in the home clinical setting. Fifteen nurses were self-selected to participate. All completed an interview, and were observed and given Likert Instrument to complete. A framework analysis was performed to identify mutually exclusive and exhaustive emergent themes and patterns within the data. Home care nurses described that enpowerment is in the interaction between nurse and patient, and nurse and health care provider. Empowered is defined as being independent, confident, trusting, and comfortable with providing quality care. Home health care nurses believe that having the ability to practice collaboratively and build professional relationships was essential. Nurses in this study perceived empowerment as having meaning, choice, and competence in their job.
Vázquez Navarrete, M Luisa; Vargas Lorenzo, Ingrid; Farré Calpe, Joan; Terraza Núñez, Rebeca
There has been a tendency recently to abandon competition and to introduce policies that promote collaboration between health providers as a means of improving the efficiency of the system and the continuity of care. A number of countries, most notably the United States, have experienced the integration of health care providers to cover the continuum of care of a defined population. Catalonia has witnessed the steady emergence of increasing numbers of integrated health organisations (IHO) but, unlike the United States, studies on health providers' integration are scarce. As part of a research project currently underway, a guide was developed to study Catalan IHOs, based on a classical literature review and the development of a theoretical framework. The guide proposes analysing the IHO's performance in relation to their final objectives of improving the efficiency and continuity of health care by an analysis of the integration type (based on key characteristics); external elements (existence of other suppliers, type of services' payment mechanisms); and internal elements (model of government, organization and management) that influence integration. Evaluation of the IHO's performance focuses on global strategies and results on coordination of care and efficiency. Two types of coordination are evaluated: information coordination and coordination of care management. Evaluation of the efficiency of the IHO refers to technical and allocative efficiency. This guide may have to be modified for use in the Catalan context.
Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; Millhouse, Paul W; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Significant changes are occurring in the health care field, and spine surgeons must have an understanding of business strategy if they are going to adapt to the new health care environment. Spine surgeons will be required to demonstrate how their service provides a unique value to their patients or else the patients will obtain care from competitors. Classic methods for demonstrating value such as academic prestige and superior clinical outcomes may no longer be sufficient in the evolving health care field, and surgeons will need to demonstrate a comprehensive and cost-effective treatment algorithm for a diagnosis. This article will discuss the basics of business strategy for the spine surgeon, and ways in which the surgeon may demonstrate value to their patients.
Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob
comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...
Hyppönen, Hannele; Ronchi, Elettra; Adler-Milstein, Julia
Health Information Systems (HISs) are expected to have a positive impact on quality and efficiency of health care. Rapid investment in and diffusion of HISs has increased the importance of monitoring the adoption and impacts of them in order to learn from the initiatives, and to provide decision makers evidence on the role of HISs in improving health care. However, reliable and comparable data across initiatives in various countries are rarely available. A four-phase approach is used to compare different HIS indicator methodologies in order to move ahead in defining HIS indicators for monitoring effects of HIS on health care performance. Assessed approaches are strong on different aspects, which provide some opportunities for learning across them but also some challenges. As yet, all of the approaches do not define goals for monitoring formally. Most focus on health care structural and process indicators (HIS availability and intensity of use). However, many approaches are generic in description of HIS functionalities and context as well as their impact mechanisms on health care for HIS benchmarking. The conclusion is that, though structural and process indicators of HIS interventions are prerequisites for monitoring HIS impacts on health care outputs and outcomes, more explicit definition is needed of HIS contexts, goals, functionalities and their impact mechanisms in order to move towards common process and outcome indicators. A bottom-up-approach (participation of users) could improve development and use of context-sensitive HIS indicators.
Lassen, Inger Marie; Strunck, Jeanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie
analyse and discuss how political discourse moments (Rancière 1999; Gamson 1992; Carvalho 2008) influence the contents of the national health quality strategies and how variation in the construal of patient roles and agency indicate discursive struggle in Danish national health care policy. Underlying...
Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw T.O; Marshall, Martin N
... in performance are intrinsically linked to cultural changes within health care settings. Using theories from a wide range of disciplines including economics, management and organization studies, policy studies and the health sciences, this book sets out definitions of cultures and performance, in particular the specific characteristics that help...
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of health care on Middle Eastern countries on the eve of and soon after the Arab Spring. It posits that countries that were most stable were the healthiest ones; countries which underwent revolutions were the unhealthiest ones; whereas countries that settled for reforms were moderate in health. It presents a hypothesis, the Inverted Funnel Model Hypothesis, that states that as the level of health care of a country rises so does its stability, which in turn leads to better health care as if down an inverted funnel to hypothetical maximums of both health care and stability. To test the hypothesis both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The quantitative part involves first of all compiling seven health indicators based on the World Health Organization Annual Reports on twelve individual countries, for a period of five years preceding the Arab Spring’s onset in 2011 and in the immediate aftermath of 2011, and, second of all running correlations with political stability of each country, grouped in a three-way typology of countries. This is supplemented by a qualitative part which analyzes the health perceptions and demands of Arab Spring protesters in search of social justice.
Racine, Andrew D
The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie
BACKGROUND: Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these ex......BACKGROUND: Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women...... with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period. METHOD: Women, who had reported substantial suffering as a result of a previous experience of abuse...... within the healthcare system, were purposefully selected from a Danish sample of a multinational cohort study on negative life events among pregnant women (the BIDENS Study). Eleven women were interviewed individually by means of a semi-structured interview guide. Transcripts of the interviews were...
Zikusooka, C M; Kyomuhang, R; Orem, J N; Tumwine, M
Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a key determinant of health system performance. Equitable financing is based on: financial protection, progressive financing and cross-subsidies. This paper describes Uganda's health care financing landscape and documents the key equity issues associated with the current financing mechanisms. We extensively reviewed government documents and relevant literature and conducted key informant interviews, with the aim of assessing whether Uganda's health care financing mechanisms exhibited the key principles of fair financing. Uganda's health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of funding for Uganda's health sector. There is limited cross-subsidisation and high fragmentation within and between health financing mechanisms, mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and limited prepayment mechanisms. Without compulsory health insurance and low coverage of private health insurance, Uganda has limited pooling of resources, and hence minimal cross-subsidisation. Although tax revenue is equitable, the remaining financing mechanisms for Uganda are inequitable due to their regressive nature, their lack of financial protection and limited cross-subsidisation. Overall, Uganda's current health financing is inequitable and fragmented. The government should take explicit action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and through appropriate integration of financing mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and
Akazili, James; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Diane
Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National
Glick, S M
In planning healthcare reforms increasing attention has been focused on the issue of equity. Inequities in the provision of healthcare exist even in relatively egalitarian societies. Poverty is still one of the major contributors to ill health and there are many powerful influences in society that continue to thwart the goal of a maximally equitable system for the provision of healthcare. The principles of equity in a healthcare system have been well articulated in recent years. It is incumbent on healthcare professionals who understand the issues to join the efforts towards a more humane and equitable healthcare system in their societies.
Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John
The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Dunlop, D W
The economic realities of health sector development in Africa has been analyzed in this paper. Both the global and national macroeconomic context has been defined. Given the available data, it is clear that most African countries face increasingly serious economic realities, such as slow or even declining economic growth (per capita), a depressed food production situation, severe balance of payments crises, and increasing dependence on external financial assistance. Given the limited but increasingly available 1981 and 1982 data, the economic situation in many countries is more constrained than those indicated by the data contained in this paper. In this context, the potential competitive situation facing governmental health care systems was reviewed. In addition, the diversity in the sources of health expenditures between countries in Africa was highlighted. These data provide clear evidence that governments clearly do not finance the entire health care system and that individual payment for service in many countries represent an important source of revenue for many care providers in various health care systems operating in any given country. The potential for governments to finance either an expansion of or improvements to the government component of their health care systems is then reviewed. The highlights of this analysis include the following points. First, the tax structure in many African countries is highly dependent on export and import duties, which in turn creates dependency on sustained foreign demand for exports.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Høy, Bente; Wagner, Lis; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.
into self-care as a significant health resource of elders with different health status. It suggests that an elder's self-care ability is determined by the interaction of various sub-resources and conditions and emphasizes the constantly evolving nature of self-care. The framework may be of use in clinical......AIM: To review the literature related to self-care and health promotion for elders and to develop an understanding of self-care as a health resource. BACKGROUND: Self-care may improve health and prevent illness and disabilities in elders. Although studies of self-care are numerous, the significance...... of the concept as a health resource for elders lacks clarity. Before 1989, research focused principally on medical self-care at the expense of health care, and self-care was seen more as supplementary to professional health care rather than as a health-promoting approach in health care. METHOD...
Schokkaert, Erik; Van de Voorde, Carine
Curbing the growth of public sector health expenditures has been the proclaimed government objective in Belgium since the 1980s. However, the respect for freedom of choice for patients and for therapeutic freedom for providers has blocked the introduction of microeconomic incentives and quality control. Therefore--with some exceptions, particularly in the hospital sector--policy has consisted mainly of tariff and supply restrictions and increases in co-payments. These measures have not been successful in curbing the growth of expenditures. Moreover, there remains a large variation in medical practices. While the structure of health financing is relatively progressive from an international perspective, socioeconomic and regional inequalities in health persist. The most important challenge is the restructuring of the basic decision-making processes; i.e. a simplification of the bureaucratic procedures and a re-examination of the role of regional authorities and sickness funds. Copyright (c) 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article critically appraises a process of recognising prior learning (RPL) using analytical tools from Habermas' theory of communicative action. The RPL process is part of an in-service training program for health care assistants where the goal is to become a licensed practical nurse. Data about the RPL process were collected using interviews…
M. Westerdijk (MacHiel); J.J. Zuurbier (Joost); M. Ludwig (Martijn); S. Prins (Sarah)
textabstractA case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the
Cawsey, A J; Webber, B L; Jones, R B
Good communication is vital in health care, both among health care professionals, and between health care professionals and their patients. And well-written documents, describing and/or explaining the information in structured databases may be easier to comprehend, more edifying, and even more convincing than the structured data, even when presented in tabular or graphic form. Documents may be automatically generated from structured data, using techniques from the field of natural language generation. These techniques are concerned with how the content, organization and language used in a document can be dynamically selected, depending on the audience and context. They have been used to generate health education materials, explanations and critiques in decision support systems, and medical reports and progress notes.
DO, YOUNG KYUNG; NORTON, EDWARD C.; STEARNS, SALLY C.; VAN HOUTVEN, COURTNEY HAROLD
This study aims to measure the causal effect of informal caregiving on the health and health care use of women who are caregivers, using instrumental variables. We use data from South Korea, where daughters and daughters-in-law are the prevalent source of caregivers for frail elderly parents and parents-in-law. A key insight of our instrumental variable approach is that having a parent-in-law with functional limitations increases the probability of providing informal care to that parent-in-law, but a parent-in-law’s functional limitation does not directly affect the daughter-in-law’s health. We compare results for the daughter-in-law and daughter samples to check the assumption of the excludability of the instruments for the daughter sample. Our results show that providing informal care has significant adverse effects along multiple dimensions of health for daughter-in-law and daughter caregivers in South Korea. PMID:24753386
Goldsmith, J C
Does it sound familiar? Resources are scarce, competition is tough, and government regulations and a balanced budget are increasingly hard to meet at the same time. This is not the automobile or oil industry but the health care industry, and hospital managers are facing the same problems. And, maintains the author of this article, they must borrow some proven marketing techniques from business to survive in the new health care market. He first describes the features of the new market (the increasing economic power of physicians, new forms of health care delivery, prepaid health plans, and the changing regulatory environment) and then the possible marketing strategies for dealing with them (competing hard for physicians who control the patient flow and diversifying and promoting the mix of services). He also describes various planning solutions that make the most of a community's hospital facilities and affiliations.
Farag, Marwa; NandaKumar, A K; Wallack, Stanley; Hodgkin, Dominic; Gaumer, Gary; Erbil, Can
To date, international analyses on the strength of the relationship between country-level per capita income and per capita health expenditures have predominantly used developed countries' data. This study expands this work using a panel data set for 173 countries for the 1995-2006 period. We found that health care has an income elasticity that qualifies it as a necessity good, which is consistent with results of the most recent studies. Furthermore, we found that health care spending is least responsive to changes in income in low-income countries and most responsive to in middle-income countries with high-income countries falling in the middle. Finally, we found that 'Voice and Accountability' as an indicator of good governance seems to play a role in mobilizing more funds for health.
Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R
Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.
Younger, David S
The Russian Federation health system has its roots in the country's complex political history. The Ministry of Health and Social Development and its associated federal services are the principal Russian institutions subserving the Russian Federation. Funding for the health system goes through 2 channels: the general revenue budget managed by federal, regional, and local health authorities, and the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund. Although the Soviet Union was the first country in the world to guarantee free medical care as a constitutional right to all its citizens, quality and accessibility are in question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
rural Nigerian communities, out-of-pocket more than a stated percentage ... experience for final year medical students of A total of six hundred and eighty six (686) .... health centre were lack of money (55.2%), household income was not ...
Thompson, Michael; Cutler, Charles M
One of the contributing factors to both the increase in health care costs and the backlash to managed care was the lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care service, the effect of health care costs on profits and wages, and the need to engage consumers more actively as consumers in health care decisions. This article reviews the birth of the health care consumerism movement and identifies gaps in health care consumerism today. The authors reveal some of the keys to building a sustainable health care consumerism framework, which involves enlisting consumers as well as other stakeholders.
Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio
A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health
Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.
People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.
Health insurers are generally guided by the principle of "actuarial fairness," according to which they distinguish among various risks on the basis of cost-related factors. Thus, insurers often limit or deny coverage for vision care, hearing aids, mental health care, and even AIDS treatment based on actuarial justifications. Furthermore, approximately forty-two million Americans have no health insurance at all, because most of these individuals cannot afford the cost of insurance. This Article argues that Americans have come to demand more than actuarial fairness from health insurers and are increasingly concerned by what I call "moral fairness." This is evidenced by the hundreds of laws that have been passed to constrain insurers' discretion with respect to particular coverage decisions. Legislative mandates are frequent, but seemingly haphazard, following no systematic methodology. This Article suggests an analytical framework that can be utilized to determine which interventions are appropriate and evaluates a variety of means by which moral fairness could be promoted in the arena of health care coverage.
Detmer Don E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin
Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L
An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study describes the content of entrepreneurship education in health care education and the kinds of teaching methods that are used when teaching about entrepreneurship. Health care entrepreneurship has increased in many countries in recent decades and there is evidence that entrepreneurs have also a role in public health care. Therefore the health care professionals need to be educated to have the entrepreneurial skills. Education in the field of health care is still based on traditional forms of teaching and does not give enough attention to the issue of becoming an entrepreneur. The data was collected from teachers (n=111 via e-mail from six Finnish polytechnics. The data were analysed statistically and the open-ended questions were analysed via content analysis. Approximately 23% of the teachers had taught about entrepreneurship. The most popular teaching methods were company visits and cases, lecturing, and project work. The courses dealt with establishing a company, entrepreneurship in general, and marketing. Nearly all of the teachers had cooperated with the entrepreneurs or with the companies in question. Approximately 33% of the teachers took entrepreneurship into consideration often in other courses related to entrepreneurship.
In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.
Xiao, Roy; Miller, Jacob A; Zafirau, William J; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Young, James B
As healthcare costs rise, home health care represents an opportunity to reduce preventable adverse events and costs following hospital discharge. No studies have investigated the utility of home health care within the context of a large and diverse patient population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 1/1/2013 and 6/30/2015 at a single tertiary care institution to assess healthcare utilization after discharge with home health care. Control patients discharged with "self-care" were matched by propensity score to home health care patients. The primary outcome was total healthcare costs in the 365-day post-discharge period. Secondary outcomes included follow-up readmission and death. Multivariable linear and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to adjust for covariates. Among 64,541 total patients, 11,266 controls were matched to 6,363 home health care patients across 11 disease-based Institutes. During the 365-day post-discharge period, home health care was associated with a mean unadjusted savings of $15,233 per patient, or $6,433 after adjusting for covariates (p Home health care independently decreased the hazard of follow-up readmission (HR 0.82, p home health care most benefited patients discharged from the Digestive Disease (death HR 0.72, p home health care was associated with significant reduction in healthcare utilization and decreased hazard of readmission and death. These data inform development of value-based care plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Students' Perspectives to Health Care Services in Lithuania Introduction. The Rights of Patients and Compensation for the Damage to Their Health Act defines health care services as safe and effective means to take care of health, identify, diagnose and treat diseases and provide nursing services. The aims set out in a policy of health care services are fairly broad and, among others, include the improvement of both the quality and the availability of health care services. The issues of increa...
Hudak, Mark L; Helm, Mark E; White, Patience H
After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes. Public and private health insurance should safeguard existing benefits for children and take further steps to cover the full array of essential health care services recommended by the AAP. Each family should be able to afford the premiums, deductibles, and other cost-sharing provisions of the plan. Health plans providing these benefits should ensure, insofar as possible, that families have a choice of professionals and facilities with expertise in the care of children within a reasonable distance of their residence. Traditional and innovative payment methodologies by public and private payers should be structured to guarantee the economic viability of the pediatric medical home and of other pediatric specialty and subspecialty practices to address developing shortages in the pediatric specialty and subspecialty workforce, to promote the use of health information technology, to improve population health and the experience of care, and to encourage the delivery of evidence-based and quality health care in the medical home, as well as in other outpatient, inpatient, and home settings. All current and future health care insurance plans should incorporate the principles for child
Kane, R; Dean, M; Solomon, M
Reviews the state of the art of rural health research and evaluation in the U.S. with particular emphasis on the questions of access, health personnel, and financing. The current state of knowledge both in the published and unpublished literature in each area is summarized and a series of unresolved issues is proposed. A strategy for further research to include the various types of rural health care programs is described. Major findings suggest that, although rural populations do have somewhat less access to care than do urban populations, our ability to quantify precisely the extent and importance of this discrepancy is underdeveloped. Despite a substantial investment in a variety of rural health care programs there is inadequate information as to their effectiveness. Programs designed to increase the supply of health personnel to rural areas have met with mixed success. Sites staffed by National Health Service Corps personnel show consistently lower productivity than do sites under other sponsorship. Nonphysician personnel (physician assistants and nurse practitioners) offer a promising source of primary care for rural areas: recent legislation that reimburses such care should increase their utilization. A persistent problem is the expectation (often a mandate) incorporated into many rural health care demonstration efforts that the programs become financially self-sufficient in a finite period of time. Self-sufficiency is a function of utilization, productivity, and the ability to recover charges for services. In many instances stringent enforcement of the self-sufficiency requirement may mean those who need services most will be least likely to receive them.
Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven
The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.
Falcón, Gladys Carmela Santos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Backes, Dirce Stein
The objective of the study is to understand the meaning built by students and professors on health promotion in the teaching and learning process of health care in Nursing. It is a qualitative study using ground theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through interviews, with three samples groups, 13 students and four professors, by classroom observation, and through meetings with nursing professors. The central subject resulting from this analysis was: constructing teaching and learning in order, disorder and self organization for a new way of caring promoting health. The teaching/learning process directed at health promotion develops in a stage of crisis, going from a state of order to a state of disorder that is uncertain and contradictory regarding what society understands about health.
Soley-Bori, Marina; Stefos, Theodore; Burgess, James F; Benzer, Justin K
Quality of care worries and rising costs have resulted in a widespread interest in enhancing the efficiency of health care delivery. One area of increasing interest is in promoting teamwork as a way of coordinating efforts to reduce costs and improve quality, and identifying the characteristics of the work environment that support teamwork. Relational climate is a measure of the work environment that captures shared employee perceptions of teamwork, conflict resolution, and diversity acceptance. Previous research has found a positive association between relational climate and quality of care, yet its relationship with costs remains unexplored. We examined the influence of primary care relational climate on health care costs incurred by diabetic patients at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs between 2008 and 2012. We found that better relational climate is significantly related to lower costs. Clinics with the strongest relational climate saved $334 in outpatient costs per patient compared with facilities with the weakest score in 2010. The total outpatient cost saving if all clinics achieved the top 5% relational climate score was $20 million. Relational climate may contribute to lower costs by enhancing diabetic treatment work processes, especially in outpatient settings.
Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Coffman, Cynthia J.
Purpose: The Veterans Affairs or VA health care system is in the process of significantly expanding home health care (HOC) nationwide. We describe VA HHC use in 2003 for all VA HHC users from 2002; we examine whether VA utilization across a broad spectrum of services differed for a sample of VA HHC users and their propensity-score-matched…
van den Berg, Michael J.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Marks, Lisanne K.; Klazinga, Niek S.
In 2006, the first edition of a monitoring tool for the performance of the Dutch health care system was released: the Dutch Health Care Performance Report (DHCPR). The Netherlands was among the first countries in the world developing such a comprehensive tool for reporting performance on quality,
Kuo, Dennis Z; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick
The objective of this study is to examine the association of family-centered care (FCC) with specific health care service outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The study is a secondary analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Receipt of FCC was determined by five questions regarding how well health care providers addressed family concerns in the prior 12 months. We measured family burden by reports of delayed health care, unmet need, financial costs, and time devoted to care; health status, by stability of health care needs; and emergency department and outpatient service use. All statistical analyses used propensity score-based matching models to address selection bias. FCC was reported by 65.6% of respondents (N = 38,915). FCC was associated with less delayed health care (AOR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66), fewer unmet service needs (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.60), reduced odds of ≥1 h/week coordinating care (AOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.93) and reductions in out of pocket costs (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96). FCC was associated with more stable health care needs (AOR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21), reduced odds of emergency room visits (AOR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99) and increased odds of doctor visits (AOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.37). Our study demonstrates associations of positive health and family outcomes with FCC. Realizing the health care delivery benefits of FCC may require additional encounters to build key elements of trust and partnership.
Changes in patterns of delivery of mental health care over several decades are putting pressure on primary health and social care services to increase their involvement. Mental health policy in countries like the UK, Australia and New Zealand recognises the need for these services to make a greater contribution and calls for increased intersectoral collaboration. In Australia, most investment to date has focused on the development and integration of specialist mental health services and primary medical care, and evaluation research suggests some progress. Substantial inadequacies remain, however, in the comprehensiveness and continuity of care received by people affected by mental health problems, particularly in relation to social and psychosocial interventions. Very little research has examined the nature of the roles that non-medical primary health and social care services actually or potentially play in mental health care. Lack of information about these roles could have inhibited development of service improvement initiatives targeting these services. The present paper reports the results of an exploratory study that examined the mental health care roles of 41 diverse non-medical primary health and social care services in the state of Victoria, Australia. Data were collected in 2004 using a purposive sampling strategy. A novel method of surveying providers was employed whereby respondents within each agency worked as a group to complete a structured survey that collected quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. This paper reports results of quantitative analyses including a tentative principal components analysis that examined the structure of roles. Non-medical primary health and social care services are currently performing a wide variety of mental health care roles and they aspire to increase their involvement in this work. However, these providers do not favour approaches involving selective targeting of clients with mental disorders.
Bostock, Julie Ann; Kitt, Richard; Kitt, Candi
This small-scale research project in England investigates the reasons why mental health training should be incorporated into the curriculum for initial teacher education (ITE). Most mental health problems begin in adolescence, but often remain undetected until adulthood. Early intervention is vital to recovery in the case of serious psychotic…
Percutaneous transmission of HIV is a significant occupational risk among health workers. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV is an intervention that is recommended for people at risk of accidental exposure to HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of health care workers in OOUTH, Sagamu ...
The model of monopolistic competition is appropriate for describing the behavior of the health care sector in the United States. Uncertainty about quality of medical and related services promotes product differentiation especially when consumers do not bear the full costs of care. New technologies can be used to signal quality even when their clinical usefulness is unproven. Recent cost containment measures may reduce employment of ineffective technologies but may also inhibit the adaptation of genuinely useful developments.
Ennis, K; Harrington, D
This paper reports on the findings from a quantitative research study of quality management in the Irish health-care sector. The study findings suggest that quality management is what hospitals require to become more cost-effective and efficient. The research also shows that the culture of health-care institutions must change to one where employees experience pride in their work and where all are involved and committed to continuous quality improvement. It is recommended that a shift is required from the traditional management structures to a more participative approach. Furthermore, all managers whether from a clinical or an administration background must understand one another's role in the organisation. Finally, for quality to succeed in the health-care sector, strong committed leadership is required to overcome tensions in quality implementation.
Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R
Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation.
Full Text Available Abstract Open Access publishing is a valuable resource for the synthesis and distribution of essential health care information. This article discusses the potential benefits of Open Access, specifically in terms of Low and Middle Income (LAMI countries in which there is currently a lack of informed health care providers – mainly a consequence of poor availability to information. We propose that without copyright restrictions, Open Access facilitates distribution of the most relevant research and health care information. Furthermore, we suggest that the technology and infrastructure that has been put in place for Open Access could be used to publish download-able manuals, guides or basic handbooks created by healthcare providers in LAMI countries.
Lynch, R P
Like it or not, the health care profession is being "shifted" into a revolutionary new world. The question is not will it change but rather how will it change? Who will determine its fate? What form will these changes take? What are the best alternatives for physicians, institutions, health care workers, insurers, employers, and, most importantly, patients? Some of the changes will come from government mandate, others from market forces. To understand what the future might bring, we should look at both the driving forces behind the changes and how other industries have responded to similar forces. An important consideration for health care professionals will be how, if at all, the concepts of collaboration and cooperation that are inherent in networking and alliances will guide their planning.
Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.
Scott, P A
Even a brief consideration of the nature of nursing will indicate that an ethical dimension underlies much, if not all, of nursing practice. It is therefore important that students and practitioners are facilitated in developing an ethical awareness and sensitivity from early in their professional development. This paper argues that Aristotelian virtue theory provides a practice-based focus for health care ethics for a number of reasons. Also, because of his emphasis on the character of the moral agent, and on the importance of perception and emotion in moral decision-making, Aristotelian virtue theory provides a useful supplement to the traditional duty-based approaches to health care ethics analysis, which are increasingly being identified in the literature as having limits to their application within the health care context.
I examine the role of household permanent income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household expenditure increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount is about 0.37. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector is able to price discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Natarajan, Ramachandran; Ferrell, Regina K
The current trend in Big Data analytics and in particular health information technology is toward building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence. However, the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data health care analytics. The insights presented in this paper are the results of analytics work that was done in different organizations on a variety of health data sets. The data sets include Medicare and Medicaid claims, provider enrollment data sets from both public and private sources, electronic health records from regional health centers accessed through partnerships with health care claims processing entities under health privacy protected guidelines. Assessment of data quality in health care has to consider: first, the entire lifecycle of health data; second, problems arising from errors and inaccuracies in the data itself; third, the source(s) and the pedigree of the data; and fourth, how the underlying purpose of data collection impact the analytic processing and knowledge expected to be derived. Automation in the form of data handling, storage, entry and processing technologies is to be viewed as a double-edged sword. At one level, automation can be a good solution, while at another level it can create a different set of data quality issues. Implementation of health care analytics with Big Data is enabled by a road map that addresses the organizational and technological aspects of data quality assurance. The value derived from the use of analytics should be the primary determinant of data quality. Based on this premise, health care enterprises embracing Big Data should have a road map for a systematic approach to data quality. Health care data quality problems can be so very specific that organizations might have to build their own custom software or data
Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Berenguera, Anna; Coma-Auli, Núria; Pombo-Ramos, Haizea; March, Sebastià; Asensio-Martínez, Angela; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Mora-Simón, Sara; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Furthermore, the identification of different health assets and deficits by the different informants will generate new evidence to promote healthy behaviours, improve community health and wellbeing and reduce preventable inequalities. The objective of this study is to explore the concept of health and health promotion and to compare health assets and deficits as identified by health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers with the ultimate purpose to collect the necessary data for the design and implementation of a successful health promotion intervention. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative research was conducted with 276 participants from 14 primary care centres of 7 Spanish regions. Theoretical sampling was used for selection. We organized 11 discussion groups and 2 triangular groups with health-care users; 30 semi-structured interviews with key community informants; and 14 discussion groups with primary health care workers. A thematic content analysis was carried out. Health-care users and key community informants agree that health is a complex, broad, multifactorial concept that encompasses several interrelated dimensions (physical, psychological-emotional, social, occupational, intellectual, spiritual and environmental). The three participants' profiles consider health promotion indispensable despite defining it as complex and vague. In fact, most health-care users admit to having
Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.
Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815
Avis, Mark; Mallik, Maggie; Fraser, Diane M
Transition experiences of newly qualified midwives were examined in depth during the third phase of a UK evaluation study of midwifery education. The fitness to practise and the retention of newly qualified nursing and midwifery graduates are pressing concerns for health care managers. The advantages of preceptorship are reported in the literature but the content and timing of schemes remain unclear. A semi-structured diary was kept for up to 6 months by 35 newly qualified midwives in 18 work sites covering all countries in the UK. The preceptor and supervisor of midwives for each newly qualified midwife completed short questionnaires about their preceptee's performance, and a further sub-sample of newly qualified midwives and preceptors participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed to elicit aspects of newly qualified midwives transition experiences. Findings confirm that structured preceptorship schemes are not widely available. Newly qualified midwives primarily obtained transition support from members of the midwifery team. Although perceived as competent, there is no demarcation point in becoming confident to practise as a registered practitioner. Implications for managers include the importance of a supportive culture within clinical teams for successful transition and the introduction of structured preceptorship schemes facilitated by appropriate rotation patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others
This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…
Shulaiba, Refaat A.
The top two priorities of health care business leaders are to constantly improve the quality of health care while striving to contain and reduce the high cost of health care. The Health Care industry, similar to all businesses, is motivated to deliver innovative solutions that accelerate business transformation and increase business capabilities. …
Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der
This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health
Herrin, Jeph; Kenward, Kevin; Joshi, Maulik S; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Hines, Stephen J
To determine the agreement of measures of care in different settings-hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and home health agencies (HHAs)-and identify communities with high-quality care in all settings. Publicly available quality measures for hospitals, NHs, and HHAs, linked to hospital service areas (HSAs). We constructed composite quality measures for hospitals, HHAs, and nursing homes. We used these measures to identify HSAs with exceptionally high- or low-quality of care across all settings, or only high hospital quality, and compared these with respect to sociodemographic and health system factors. We identified three dimensions of hospital quality, four HHA dimensions, and two NH dimensions; these were poorly correlated across the three care settings. HSAs that ranked high on all dimensions had more general practitioners per capita, and fewer specialists per capita, than HSAs that ranked highly on only the hospital measures. Higher quality hospital, HHA, and NH care are not correlated at the regional level; regions where all dimensions of care are high differ systematically from regions which score well on only hospital measures and from those which score well on none. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C
Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity.
Johnson, Emily; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Tartaglia, Alexander; McDaniel, Jennifer
This study examined citation patterns and indexing coverage from 2008 to 2010 to determine (1) the core literature of health care chaplaincy and (2) the resources providing optimum coverage for the literature. Citations from three source journals (2008-2010 inclusive) were collected and analyzed according to the protocol created for the Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Professions Project. An analysis of indexing coverage by five databases was conducted. A secondary analysis of self-citations by source journals was also conducted. The 3 source journals--Chaplaincy Today, the Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, and the Journal of Pastoral Care and Counseling--ranked as the top 3 journals in Zone 1 and provided the highest number of most frequently cited articles for health care chaplaincy. Additional journals that appeared in this highly productive zone covered the disciplines of medicine, psychology, nursing, and religion, which were also represented in the Zones 2 and 3 journals. None of the databases provided complete coverage for the core journals; however, MEDLINE provided the most comprehensive coverage for journals in Zones 1 and 2, followed by Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ATLA. Self-citations for the source journals ranged from 9% to 16%. Health care chaplaincy draws from a diverse body of inter-professional literature. Libraries wishing to provide access to journal literature to support health care chaplaincy at their institutions will be best able to do this by subscribing to databases and journals that cover medical, psychological, nursing, and religion- or spirituality-focused disciplines.
... Clips Legionnaires’ Disease A problem for health care facilities Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... drinking. Many people being treated at health care facilities, including long-term care facilities and hospitals, have ...
Younger, David S
A network of family-based community-oriented primary health programs, or Programa Agentes Communita˙rios de Saúde, and family health programs, or Programa Saúde da Família, introduced almost 2 decades ago were the Brazilian government's health care models to restructure primary care under the Unified Health System, or Sistema Único de Saúde. The latter offers comprehensive coverage to all, although it is used by those of lower income, and despite achievement in the last quarter century, access to health services and gradients of health status continue to persist along income, educational background, racial, and religious lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mobley, M F; Elkins, R L
Megamarketing, as coined by Kotler (1968), is a strategic way of thinking which takes an enlarged view of the skills and resources needed to enter and operate in obstructed or protected markets. The concept of megamarketing emphasizes the mastering and coordination of economic, psychological, political, and public relation skills and suggest that organizations can take a proactive stance in shaping macroenvironmental conditions. As health care delivery is characterized by a highly regulated environment, this marketing approach has definite applications for the health care marketer.
Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Sato, Chikashi
Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m 3 (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.
The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.
Verderber, S; Grice, S; Gutentag, P
The stress management-wellness health care environment is emerging as a distinct facility type in the 1980s. Yet the idea is not a new one, with roots based in the Greek Asklepieon dating from 480 B.C. This and later Western transformations for health promotion embraced the therapeutic amenity inherent in meditation, solace and communality with nature based on the premise that the need for refuge from the stress inherent in one's daily life is deep-rooted in humans. A two-phase study is reported on wellness health care provider priorities, relative to the architectural features of stress-wellness centers. Representatives of 11 health care organizations responded to a telephone survey questionnaire, and 128 respondents completed a user needs questionnaire. Four major issues were addressed: image and appearance, location and setting, services provided and costs, and patterns of use. Convenience to one's place of work, a balanced mixture of clinical and nonclinical programs, a noninstitutional retreat-like environment, and membership cost structures were found to be major user considerations with respect to planning and design concepts for wellness health care environments. Directions for further research are discussed.
Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa
This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.
Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Goranitis, Ilias
The economic crisis brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world. The discussion, however, has been mainly limited to "traditional" issues of cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and, lately, patient involvement. Not enough attention has yet been paid to the issue of who pays and, more importantly, to the sustainability of financing. This fundamental concept in the economics of health policy needs to be reconsidered carefully. In a globalized economy, as the share of labor decreases relative to that of capital, wage income is increasingly insufficient to cover the rising cost of care. At the same time, as the cost of Social Health Insurance through employment contributions rises with medical costs, it imperils the competitiveness of the economy. These reasons explain why spreading health care cost to all factors of production through comprehensive National Health Insurance financed by progressive taxation of income from all sources, instead of employer-employee contributions, protects health system objectives, especially during economic recessions, and ensures health system sustainability.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...
Camila Eugenia Roseira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: identify the compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care and assess possible differences in the compliance among the services characterized as Primary Health Care Service and Family Health Service. Method: quantitative, observational, descriptive and inferential study with the application of structure, process and outcome indicators of the health care product processing at ten services in an interior city of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Results: for all indicators, the compliance indices were inferior to the ideal levels. No statistically significant difference was found in the indicators between the two types of services investigated. The health care product cleaning indicators obtained the lowest compliance index, while the indicator technical-operational resources for the preparation, conditioning, disinfection/sterilization, storage and distribution of health care products obtained the best index. Conclusion: the diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing at the services assessed indicates that the quality of the process is jeopardized, as no results close to ideal levels were obtained at any service. In addition, no statistically significant difference in these indicators was found between the two types of services studied.
This publication addresses the shortfall of well trained and clinically qualified medical physicists working in radiation medicine. The roles, responsibilities and clinical training requirements of medical physicists have not always been well defined or well understood by health care professionals, health authorities and regulatory agencies. To fill this gap, this publication provides recommendations for the academic education and clinical training of clinically qualified medical physicists, including recommendations for their accreditation certification and registration, along with continuous professional development. The goal is to establish criteria that support the harmonization of education and clinical training worldwide
Ruchman, Samuel G; Singh, Prabhjot; Stapleton, Anna
Why should health care systems in the United States engage with the world's poorest populations abroad while tremendous inequalities in health status and access are pervasive domestically? Traditionally, three arguments have bolstered global engagement: (1) a moral obligation to ensure opportunities to live, (2) a duty to protect against health threats, and (3) a desire to protect against economic downturns precipitated by health crises. We expand this conversation, arguing that US-based clinicians, organizational stewards, and researchers should engage with and learn from low-resource settings' systems and products that deliver high-quality, cost-effective, inclusive care in order to better respond to domestic inequities. Ultimately, connecting "local" and "global" efforts will benefit both populations and is not a sacrifice of one for the other. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 2376-6980.
Robinson, J C
As health policy emphasizes the use of private sector mechanisms to pursue public sector goals, health services research needs to develop stronger conceptual frameworks for the interpretation of empirical studies of health care markets and organizations. Organizational relationships should not be interpreted exclusively in terms of competition among providers of similar services but also in terms of relationships among providers of substitute and complementary services and in terms of upstream suppliers and downstream distributors. This article illustrates the potential applicability of transactions cost economics, agency theory, and organizational economics more broadly to horizontal and vertical markets in health care. Examples are derived from organizational integration between physicians and hospitals and organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership.
King, Michael W
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation. Fundamentally, what is the best way to reduce U.S. health care spending, while improving the patient experience of care in terms of quality and satisfaction, and driving better patient health outcomes? Mergers, partnerships, and consolidation in the health care industry, new care delivery models like Accountable Care Organizations and integrated care systems, bundled payments, information technology, innovation through new drugs and new medical devices, or some combination of the foregoing? More importantly, recent ambitious reform efforts fall short of a cohesive approach, leaving fundamental internal inconsistencies across divergent arms of the federal government, raising the issue of whether the U.S. health care system can drive sufficient efficiencies within the current health care and antitrust regulatory environments. While debate rages on Capitol Hill over "repeal and replace," only limited attention has been directed toward reforming the current "fee-for-service" model pursuant to which providers are paid for volume of care rather than quality or outcomes. Indeed, both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") 3 and proposals for its replacement focus primarily on the reach and cost of providing coverage for
Berry, Sandra H.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Auerbach, David I.; Beckett, Megan K.; Chen, Peggy G.; Farley, Donna O.; Han, Bing; Harris, Katherine M.; Jones, Spencer S.; Liu, Hangsheng; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Marsh, Terry; Martsolf, Grant R.; Nelson, Christopher; Okeke, Edward N.; Pearson, Marjorie L.; Pillemer, Francesca; Sorbero, Melony E.; Towe, Vivian; Weinick, Robin M.
Abstract The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has funded 108 Health Care Innovation Awards, funded through the Affordable Care Act, for applicants who proposed compelling new models of service delivery or payment improvements that promise to deliver better health, better health care, and lower costs through improved quality of care for Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Program enrollees. CMS is also interested in learning how new models would affect subpopulations of beneficiaries (e.g., those eligible for Medicare and Medicaid and complex patients) who have unique characteristics or health care needs that could be related to poor outcomes. In addition, the initiative seeks to identify new models of workforce development and deployment, as well as models that can be rapidly deployed and have the promise of sustainability. This article describes a strategy for evaluating the results. The goal for the evaluation design process is to create standardized approaches for answering key questions that can be customized to similar groups of awardees and that allow for rapid and comparable assessment across awardees. The evaluation plan envisions that data collection and analysis will be carried out on three levels: at the level of the individual awardee, at the level of the awardee grouping, and as a summary evaluation that includes all awardees. Key dimensions for the evaluation framework include implementation effectiveness, program effectiveness, workforce issues, impact on priority populations, and context. The ultimate goal is to identify strategies that can be employed widely to lower cost while improving care. PMID:28083297
Thomas, Susan; Beh, LooSee; Nordin, Rusli Bin
Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services, may need to manage and mobilize better health care services by providing better health care financing mechanisms. It is recommended that partnership between public and private sectors with the extension of traditional medicine complementing western medicine in medical therapy continues in the delivery of health care. PMID:28299064
Pozharny, Yevgeniya; Lambertini, Luca; Clunie, Garfield; Ferrara, Lauren; Lee, Men-Jean
Epigenetics refers to structural modifications to genes that do not change the nucleotide sequence itself but instead control and regulate gene expression. DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA regulation are some of the mechanisms involved in epigenetic modification. Epigenetic changes are believed to be a result of changes in an organism's environment that result in fixed and permanent changes in most differentiated cells. Some environmental changes that have been linked to epigenetic changes include starvation, folic acid, and various chemical exposures. There are periods in an organism's life cycle in which the organism is particularly susceptible to epigenetic influences; these include fertilization, gametogenesis, and early embryo development. These are also windows of opportunity for interventions during the reproductive life cycle of women to improve maternal-child health. New data suggest that epigenetic influences might be involved in the regulation of fetal development and the pathophysiology of adult diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Various epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Additionally, environmental exposures are being held responsible for causing epigenetic changes that lead to a disease process. Exposure to heavy metals, bioflavonoids, and endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A and phthalates, has been shown to affect the epigenetic memory of an organism. Their long-term effects are unclear at this point, but many ongoing studies are attempting to elucidate the pathophysiological effects of such gene-environment interactions. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
India's health care system, despite several significant achievements, suffers from some weaknesses and deficiencies. There has been a preoccupation with the promotion of curative and clinical services through city based hospitals which have essentially catered to certain sections of the urban population. The concept of health in its totality, with preventive and promotive health care services in addition to the curative, has yet to be made operational. There has been an overdependence on the states for health care measures and voluntary and local effort has not been able to accept responsibility in any significant way. The involvement of the people in solving their health problems has been almost nonexistent. Health needs to be viewed as part of the strategy of human resources development. Horizontal and vertical linkages must be obtained among all the interrelated programs--protected water supply environmental sanitation and hygiene, nutrition, education, family planning, and maternal and child welfare. Only with such linkages can the benefits of the various programs be optimized. An attack on the problems of diseases cannot be completely successful unless it is accompanied by an attack on poverty. For this reason the 6th plan assigns a high priority to programs of promotion, or gainful employment, eradication of poverty, population control, and meeting the basic human needs of the population. The Alma Alta Declaration of 1977 has become the accepted health policy of India, simplified into the slogan "health for all by 2000." To realize this goaL, the Planning Commission recommends in the 6th 5-Year Plan a restructing and reorientation of the country's health services. The proposed alternative scheme is more decentralized and provides for many more people to be trained at the grassroots level. People would be involved in tackling their health problems and community participation would be encouraged. Finally, the alternative strongly urges the screening of patients
von Lindeman, Katharina; Kugler, Joachim; Klewer, Jörg
Incomplete vaccinations among students in health care professions lead to an increased risk for infections. Until now, only few studies related to this issue do exist. Therefore vaccinations and awareness regarding the importance of vaccinations among students in health care professions should be investigated. All 433 students of a regional college for health care professionals were asked to complete a standardized and anonymous questionnaire. Altogether 301 nursing students and 131 students of the other health care professions participated. About 66.1 percent of nursing students and 50.4 percent of students of other health care professions rated vaccination as "absolutely necessary". Different percentages of completed vaccinations were reported for tetanus (79.1 percent versus 64.4 percent), hepatitis B (78.7 percent versus 77.5 percent) and hepatitis A (74.1 percent versus 68.5 percent). 6.3 percent versus 15.4 percent did not know if they were vaccinated against tetanus, hepatitis B (5.3 percent versus 7.7 percent) and hepatitis A (5.6 percent versus 9.2 percent). While approximately half of the students reported "primary vaccination and booster" against mumps (59.5 percent versus 53.5 percent), measles (58.8 percent versus 54.6 percent) and rubella (58.3 percent versus 55.4 percent), this was reported less for pertussis (43.8 percent versus 39.8 percent) and varicella (32.4 percent versus 25.2 percent). The results indicate inadequate vaccination status in the investigated students. In addition, a gap between the awareness of the importance of vaccinations and personal preventive behavior became obvious. Therefore, education of these future health professionals still requires issues related to vaccinations.
Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa
Full Text Available The Health Community Agent (HCA has contributed in a meaningful way to enhance the bond professional-user/family, providing, thus, the humanized care for the users who receive attention from the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This research had the aim to investigate the strategies adopted by the health community agents in order to supply the humanized care for the FHS user. It is an exploratory research of qualitative nature which was accomplished in the Basic Health Units – BHU, placed in the Distrito Sanitário III, in João Pessoa – PB. Thirtyhealth community agents, from the Family Health Strategy, took part in the research. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire related to the objective proposed by the investigation and, afterwards, they were analyzed qualitatively through the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. In this way, it was possible to foresee three main ideas: promoting care based on respect for the user’s singularity as well as the valuing of empathic relationship; home visit, guidance, surveillance, pointing out solutions for the user’sneeds; enhancement of the bond between community and the team responsible for action planning. The Collective Subject Discourse of the participants involved in the research, as regards the humanized care practice, had as core the respect for the patient’s dignity, prioritizing his or her real needs and emphasizing the multidisciplinary task. This investigation enables the reflection about the valuable contribution of the health community agents concerning the promotion of the humanized care having as reference the mentioned strategies.
The article focuses on the need for and the characteristics and positive consequences of interdisciplinary teamwork in health care. Interprofessional collaboration is an important element in total quality management. Factors that determine the success of team work are described, such as a management that promotes openness and an administrative organization that promotes interdisciplinary consultation. Other factors have to do with leadership, shared goals and values, meeting management and planning skills, communication, and also the (degree of) knowledge and the (quality of) perception of competences of other health care workers. The shared care plan is stressed as an important tool. In this, the joint planning of goals for intervention and care is essential. Health care workers with different professional knowledge and background have to harmonize their intervention plan according to the competences and goal settings of the other team members. The core of effective interprofessional teamwork is the presence of interprofessional competences such as these. A brief description of the components and performance criteria of the competence of interprofessional collaboration is given.
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.
These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with congenital heart disease. The booklet begins with general information about congenital heart disease. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures.…
the determinants influencing women's use of public health facilities at the time they give birth. Results: Of .... due to distance between their places of abode and health care facilities ..... care: what works for safe motherhood: Bull World Health.
Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local authority health services. ... both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. ... LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the ...
Full Text Available Brian Ondiege, Malcolm Clarke Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, UK Abstract: With the rapid advances in the capabilities of telehealth devices and their increasing connection to the Internet, security is becoming an issue of major concern. Therefore, the perceptions of the health care professionals regarding security are of interest, as the patients trust them to make informed decisions on issues concerning their privacy, data, and health. Eight health care professionals were interviewed to determine their perceptions and knowledge of security in health care. The research further examines one specific aspect of security which is considered of significant concern: the authenticity of a device being from the actual manufacturer and not a counterfeit. This research proposes device registration together with digital signatures and one-time passwords to address the issue of counterfeit remote patient-monitoring devices and identify and authenticate the user of the device. Keywords: telehealth security, health care professionals’ perception, personal health device, authentication
Silva, Kênia Lara; Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli; Araújo, Fernanda Lopes; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Duarte, Elysângela Dittz
to analyze health promotion programs in the supplementary health care. This was a multiple case study with a qualitative approach whose data were obtained from interviews with coordinators of providers contracted by the corporations of health insurance plans in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The data were submitted to Critical Discourse Analysis. Home care has been described as the main action in the field of health promotion transferred to the providers, followed by management of patients and cases, and the health education.groups. The existence of health promotion principles is questionable in all programs. Outsourcing is marked by a process with a division between cost and care management. Implications of this process occur within admission and interventions on the needs of the beneficiaries. Statements revealed rationalization of cost, restructuring of work, and reproduction of the dominant logic of capital accumulation by the health insurance companies.
Mestrovic, Julije; Bralic, Irena; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Mujkic, Aida; Radonić, Marija; Rodin, Urelija; Trošelj, Mario; Stevanović, Ranko; Benjak, Tomislav; Pristaš, Ivan; Mayer, Dijana; Tomić, Branimir
The Republic of Croatia is a Parliamentary Republic with a population of 4.2 million people that sits on the Adriatic coast within Central Europe. Gross domestic product is approximately 60% of the European Union average, which in turn, limits health service spending. The health system is funded through universal health insurance administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund based on the principles of social solidarity and reciprocity. The children of Croatia are guaranteed access to universal primary, hospital, and specialist care provided by a network of health institutions. Pediatricians and school medicine specialists provide comprehensive preventive health care for both preschool and school-aged children. Despite the Croatian War of Independence in the late 20th century, indicators of child health and measures of health service delivery to children and families are steadily improving. However, similar to many European countries, Croatia is experiencing a rise in the "new morbidities" and is responding to these new challenges through a whole society approach to promote healthy lifestyles and insure good quality of life for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Audibert, Martine; Mathonnat, Jacky; de Roodenbeke, Eric
Over the last twenty five years, the perspective of health care financing has dramatically changed in developing countries. In this context, it is worth reviewing the literature and the experiences in order to understand the major shifts on this topic. During the sixties, health care policies focused on fighting major epidemics. Programs were dedicated to reduce the threat to population health. Financing related to the mobilization of resources for these programs and most of them were not managed within national administrations. The success of these policies was not sustainable. After Alma Ata, primary health care became a priority but it took some years before the management of the health care district was introduced as a major topic. In the eighties, with the district policy and the Bamako Initiative, the economic approach became a major part of all health care policies. At that time, most of health care financing was related to cost recovery strategies. All the attention was then drawn on how it worked: Fee policies, distribution of revenues, efficient use of resources and so on. In the second half of the nineties, cost recovery was relegated to the back scene, health care financing policy then becoming a major front scene matter. Two major reasons may explain this change in perspective: HIV which causes a major burden on the whole health system, and fighting poverty in relation with debts reduction. In most developing countries, with high HIV prevalence, access to care is no longer possible within the framework of the ongoing heath care financing scheme. Health plays a major role in poverty reduction strategies but health care officials must take into account every aspect of public financing. New facts also have to be taken into account: Decentralization/autonomy policies, the growing role of third party payment and the rising number of qualified health care professionals. All these facts, along with a broader emphasis given to the market, introduce a need for
Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.
This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used
L.H.H.M. Boonen (Lieke)
textabstractIn several countries major health care reforms have been implemented in the last decades. Most of these reforms focused on a shift from supply-side regulation to a more demand-side oriented system. Managed competition can be seen as a blue print for the reforms in several European
Vrangbæk, Karsten; Arrevaara, Timo; Hansen, Hanne Foss
reveals patterns and constraints in different institutional settings. The paper concludes that Denmark and Norway initially tried to shelter the health care and higher education sectors, but they have moved on to more radical strategic responses as the crisis has persisted. Many similarities in the crisis...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections. Created: 3/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 3/5/2013.
Current economic conditions challenge health care providers globally. Healthcare organizations need to deliver optimal financial, operational, and clinical performance to sustain quality of service delivery. Benchmarking is one of the most potent and under-utilized management tools available and an analytic tool to understand organizational performance. Additionally, it is required for financial survival and organizational excellence.
This article argues that taking concepts of euthanasia out of their political and economic contexts leads to violations of the premises on which the Stoic ideal of euthanasia is based: 'a quick, gentle and honourable death.' For instance, the transplantation of the narrowly defined concept of euthanasia developed under the Dutch welfare system into a developing country, such as the People's Republic of China (PRC), seems inadequate. For it cannot deal with questions of anxiety about degrading forms of dying and suffering without reference to its economic rationale, demanded by a scarcity (unequal distribution) of health care resources. The weakness of health care provisions for the terminally ill in Mainland China has become increasingly poignant since the collapse of collective health care institutions in the countryside since the reforms of the late-1980s. As in most cases where health care facilities are wanting, it is difficult to apply the criteria of gentleness and dignity at reaching death. Its solution lies not in a faster relief from suffering by euthanasia, but in extending the quality of life through distributive justice within Chinese healthcare policy-making. This paper begins with a brief description of the Dutch euthanasia law, after which it discusses Chinese conceptions of euthanasia in biomedical textbooks, the media and in surveys. It concludes by pointing out the need for a transnational framework in which both the specifics and generalities of euthanasia can be discussed.
At our University, the Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education has delivered a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate courses via flexible distance learning for many years. Distance learning can be a lonely experience for students who may feel isolated and unsupported. However e-learning provides an opportunity to use technology to…
Kröse, B.; van Oosterhout, T.; van Kasteren, T.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.
This chapter focuses on activity monitoring in a home setting for health care purposes. First the most current sensing systems are described, which consist of wearable and ambient sensors. Then several approaches for the monitoring of simple actions are discussed, like falls or therapies. After
Østerdal, Lars Peter
This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...
Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S
The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation.
Ethics CPD Supplement: Ethics in health care: Healthcare Fraud. S10. Vol 56 No 1 Supplement 1. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Introduction. Vintage images are easily found depicting a virtuous doctor with a look of honesty and compassion on his or her face bending over a patient, stethoscope in hand, ready to perform a clinical ...
Weaver, F J; Gombeski, W R; Fay, G W; Eversman, J J; Cowan-Gascoigne, C
Irrespective of the formal marketing structure successful marketing for health care organizations requires the input on many people. Detailed here is the Marketing Matrix used at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Cleveland, Ohio. This Matrix is both a philosophy and a tool for clarifying and focusing the organization's marketing activities.
Modelling-based health care management ought to become just as popular as evidence based medicine. Making managerial decisions based on evidence by modelling efforts is certainly a step forward. Examples can be given of many successful applications in different areas of decision making: disease
There was a time when innovation in health care information technology meant being at the cutting edge of managerial systems. Hospitals made significant investments in financially oriented technology. In the past five years, the investment in clinical IT appears to have outstripped the investment in managerial systems, including enterprise resource planning aimed at improving the supply chain.
Fernández-Valderas, Carmen; Macías-Seda, Juana; Gil-García, Eugenia
Deafblindness is a disability resulting from the combination of visual and auditory sensory impairments, which can manifest in different levels causing special communication problems. Deafblind people have special needs that derive from difficulties in sensing, understanding, attention and a lack of the skills required to function effectively in society. Deafblindness requires specialized services, personnel specifically trained in its care and special methods for communication. The main objective of this study is to explore the experiences of deafblind people in relation to health care throughout their lives. This study was developed at the St. Angela de la Cruz Centre, belonging to the Association of Parents of Deafblind People in Spain. Phenomenological qualitative study, through semi-structured interviews with deafblind people at the St. Ángela de la Cruz Centre, Salteras (Seville), carried out in 2015, with the help of interpreters in Spanish sign language. Topics covered in the interviews refer to facilities, human resources, time waiting and health care. Coinciding statements were obtained, where the participants point out architectural and educational barriers in health care and stand out better if the professionals know sign language. It can be highlighted that healthcare professionals lack knowledge of all aspects of deafblindness, sign language in particular, and there is a shortage of signs and information for the deafblind. Moreover, alternatives are required to reduce waiting times and improve direct communication with health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Garrett, T M; Klonoski, R J; Baillie, H W
The health care industry operates in the margin between market competition and social welfare programs. Violations of business ethics on the market side add considerably to costs. When the inefficient use of resources and market distortions due to power and ignorance as well as legal and subsidized monopolies are added, increased costs can approach $100 billion. Modest remedies are suggested.
Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex
To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
This research investigates the impact of managed health care on academic medical centers in the United States. Academic medical centers hold a unique position in the U.S. health care system through their missions of conducting cutting-edge biomedical research, pursuing clinical and technological innovations, providing state-of-the-art medical care and producing highly qualified health professionals. However, policies to control costs through the use of managed care and limiting resources are detrimental to academic medical centers and impede the advancement of medical science. To survive the threats of managed care in the health care environment, academic medical centers must rely on their upper level managers to derive successful strategies. The methods used in this study include qualitative approaches in the form of key informants and case studies. In addition, a survey questionnaire was sent to 108 CEOs in all the academic medical centers in the U.S. The findings revealed that managers who perform the liaison, monitor, entrepreneur and resource allocator roles are crucial to ensure the survival of academic medical centers, so that academic medical centers can continue their missions to serve the general public and promote their well-being.
Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.
Sandager, Mette; Sperling, Cecilie; Jensen, Henry
Patient’s experiences and patient surveys are increasingly being used for the evaluation of the quality of health care. Patient information is valuable input when we aim to improve healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess Danish cancer patients’ experiences and assessment...... of the health care they have received, in regard to access to diagnostics, coordination and continuity of care, information and communication and involvement of patients and relatives. Questions and the opportunity to comment in free text were distributed to 6,720 newly diagnosed cancer patients in the summer...... 2010. A total of 4,346 patients (64.7 %) returned a questionnaire and were finally included in the study. The results exposed patient experienced problems with regard to easier access to diagnostics, GP’s responsiveness to patients’ worries, better coordination between different healthcare units...