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Sample records for qualea grandiflora atribuicao

  1. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuicao dos dados de RMN de dois flavoides glicosilados acilados diastereoisomericos

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    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  2. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  3. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND POLLEN FLOW IN PROGENIES OF Qualea grandiflora Mart., A TYPICAL SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

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    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the reproductive system and the pollen dispersion pattern of Qualea grandiflora progenies. This is a typical species from the Brazilian Cerrado about which there are not too many studies from the genetics point of view. The study was conducted in an area of 2.2 hectares located in the Conservation Unit managed by the Forest Institute of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Assis State Forest. Total genomic DNA of 300 seeds from 25 plants (12 seeds from each plant was extracted and amplified using specific primers to obtain microsatellite markers. Results showed that selfing is frequent among adults and progenies, and the species reproduces by outcrossing between related and unrelated individuals (0.913. The single-locus outcrossing rate was 0.632, which indicates that mating between unrelated individuals is more frequent than between related plants. The selfing rate was low (0.087, that is, the species is allogamous and self-fertilization is reduced. About 35% of the plants in the progenies were full-sibs, and about 57%, half-sibs. Besides, about 8% of the progenies were selfing siblings. The genetic differentiation coefficient within progenies was 0.139, whereas the fixation rate was about 27%. The estimate of the effective size revealed that the genetic representativeness of descent was lower than expected in random mating progenies: The analyzed samples corresponded to only 13.2 individuals of an ideal panmictic population. In environmental recovery programs, seeds, preferably from different fruits, should be collected from 95 trees to preserve the genetic diversity of the species.

  4. químicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuição dos dados de RMN de dois flavonóides glicosilados acilados diastereoisoméricos Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosids

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    Mariane Cruz Costa Ayres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  5. Iridoid glycosides from Thunbergia grandiflora.

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    Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

    1996-07-01

    The novel iridoid glycosides, isounedoside and grandifloric acid, were isolated from Thunbergia grandiflora. Grandifloric acid contains C-10 as a carboxylic acid group, the presence of which was predicted by recent iridoid biosynthesis studies carried out within T. alata. Isounedoside contains a rare 6,7-epoxide functional group. A revision in some of the NMR spectral assignments for the known iridoid glycoside alatoside was also made.

  6. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennani, F.; Rossi-Hassani, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  7. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

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    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  8. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

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    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.

  9. Detoxification and decolorization of a simulated textile dye mixture by phytoremediation using Petunia grandiflora and, Gailardia grandiflora: a plant-plant consortial strategy.

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    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2014-05-01

    In vitro grown Petunia grandiflora and Gaillardia grandiflora plantlets showed 76 percent and 62 percent American Dye Manufacturers Institute value (color) removal from a simulated dyes mixture within 36h respectively whereas their consortium gave 94 percent decolorization. P. grandiflora, G. grandiflora and their consortium could reduce BOD by 44 percent, 31 percent and, 69 percent and COD by 58 percent, 37 percent and 73 percent respectively. Individually, root cells of P. grandiflora showed 74 and 24 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase and laccase respectively; whereas G. grandiflora root cells showed 379 percent, 142 percent and 77 percent induction in the activities of tyrosinase, riboflavin reductase and lignin peroxidase respectively. In the consortium set, entirely a different enzymatic pattern was observed, where P. grandiflora root cells showed 231 percent, 12 percent and 65 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase and 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase respectively, while G. grandiflora root cells gave 300 percent, 160 percent, 79 percent and 55 percent inductions in the activities of lignin peroxidase, riboflavin reductase, tyrosinase and laccase respectively. Because of the synergistic effect of the enzymes from both the plants, the consortium was found to be more effective for the degradation of dyes from the mixture. Preferential dye removal was confirmed by analyzing metabolites of treated dye mixture using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and biotransformation was visualized using HPTLC. Metabolites formed after the degradation of dyes revealed the reduced cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots cells when compared with untreated dye mixture solution. Phytotoxicity study exhibited the less toxic nature of the metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

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    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  11. Perfil metabólico e aspectos ultraestruturais de plantas de Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) crescidas na presença e ausência de alumínio

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    Melo, Jessica Regina

    2017-01-01

    O alumínio trivalente (Al+3) é altamente tóxico e é o principal fator de estresse para plantas sensíveis em solos ácidos. Contudo, muitas espécies são bem adaptadas a condições de solos ácidos e a elevadas concentrações de Al. Os mecanismos de adaptação das plantas podem ser divididos em: a) resistência: exclusão do Al a partir de células do sistema radicular e, b) tolerância: entrada e sequestro do Al para os órgãos vegetais. Algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado, além de serem acumuladoras de...

  12. Response of Sesbania grandiflora to Inoculation of Soil with Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

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    Habte, M; Aziz, T

    1985-09-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of two tropical isolates of Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus mosseae on the nutrient uptake and growth of Sesbania grandiflora. Inoculation of sterile soil with the fungi significantly improved growth and nutrient uptake by S. grandiflora, but the response of the legume was markedly better when the soil was inoculated with G. fasciculatum than when it was inoculated with G. mosseae. Nutrient uptake and growth of S. grandiflora in nonsterile soil was also significantly stimulated by inoculation, but the legume did not respond differently to the two endophytes under this condition.

  13. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

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    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  14. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

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    Huang Huey-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v, the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1 were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  15. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

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    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  16. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

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    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  17. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

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    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  18. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

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    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  19. Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity

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    Lanamar de Almeida Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction (RGE on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  20. Rauvolfia grandiflora (apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Carlos, Lanamar; da Silva Amaral, Kenas Aguiar; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva Samarão, Solange; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 μg.mL(-1) RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  1. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

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    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  2. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

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    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  3. Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties

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    Daniela Thomas da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE, ultrasound-assisted (UAE and microwave-assisted (MAE on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%, but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL. Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth.

  4. New Apigenin Glycoside, Polyphenolic Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Activities of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella Aerial Parts.

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    Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab Abd El Moneim; Marzouk, Mohamed S; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Ibrahim, Haitham A

    2017-07-01

    Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The 80% aqueous methanol extracts (AME) were prepared for both plants and evaluated for their biological activities. Phytochemical investigation of both extracts resulted in isolation of twelve compounds, which have been identified on the basis of ultraviolet, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and negative ESI-MS. The new 8-hydroxyapigenin 6- O -β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside was isolated from G. grandiflora for the first time in nature, along with schaftoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, apigenin 6- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, isoorientin, isovitexin, 6-methoxyluteolin and hispidulin, as well as vicenin-2, vitexin, luteolin and apigenin, which were isolated from G. pulchella together with 6-methoxyluteolin. Furthermore, the AME of both species were found to be nontoxic to mice and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities in dose dependent manner. Current results shed light on the phenolic constituents of G. grandiflora and G. pulchella aerial parts and the safety of the AME of both species, in addition to their significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Both plant species may be promising candidates for natural anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective drugs. Phytochemical investigation of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella 80% aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts led

  5. Structure prediction and functional analysis of a non-permutated lectin from Dioclea grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Simões, Rafael da Conceição; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Legume lectins have been widely studied and applied for many purposes in the last few decades, but many of their physiological aspects remain elusive. The Diocleinae legume subtribe, which includes intensively explored lectins, such as ConA, presents an unusual and extensive post-translational process which results in minor alterations in protein structure, in turn making its function elusive. Despite previous reports about Diocleinae precursor activity, no structural or functional analyses have ever been carried out to understand the impacts of post-translational processing relative to lectin structure and binding specificity. Here we analyzed the functionality of a non glycosylated, recombinantly expressed lectin precursor from Dioclea grandiflora through inhibition assays, corroborating the experimental data with structural information generated by molecular modeling, docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that Diocleinae precursors are active and share the same carbohydrate specificity as mature lectins. At the same time, however, subtle structural alterations were detected and mostly result in an "incomplete" functionality of the precursor, as consequence of an immature binding site and an unstructured tetramer interface, affecting carbohydrate binding and oligomer formation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus infecting Portulaca grandiflora represents a new strain distinct from phlox isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A; Mukhamedzhanova, Anna A; Smirnov, Alexander A; Rodionova, Nina P; Karpova, Olga V; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2011-04-01

    A southeastern European isolate of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV-MU) of the genus Potexvirus (family Flexiviridae) was purified from the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora. The complete nucleotide sequence (6606 nucleotides) of AltMV-MU genomic RNA was defined. The AltMV-MU genome is different from those of all isolates described earlier and is most closely related to genomes of partly sequenced portulaca isolates AltMV-Po (America) and AltMV-It (Italy). Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that AltMV-MU belongs to a new "portulaca" genotype distinguishable from the "phlox" genotype.

  7. KARAKTER MOLEKULER CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB ISOLAT KRISAN (DENDRANTHEMA GRANDIFLORA KITAM DI INDONESIA

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    I G. R. M. Temaja, G. Suastika, S.H. Hidayat dan U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterstics of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam in Indonesia. Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB belongs to Carlavirus genus which type species is Carnation latent virus (CLV. Since CVB is considered a new plant virus in chrysanthemum plantation in Indonesia, a study on its molecular characters is required. The objectives of the study are: 1 to determine molecular characters of CVB; 2 to study genetic diversity among CVB isolates collected from different geographic regions in Indonesia. The research activities cover virus purifications, electron microscope observation, coat protein analysis by SDS PAGE, and nucleic acid analysis. The result of virus purification demonstrated a high purity level with ratio value of A260/A280 =1.22. The total pure virus produced from 200 g of fresh material is 6.250 mg. Purified virus preparation yielded rather straight rod and flexuous virus particles of about 685 nm long and 12 nm wide. Coat protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed specific protein band of approximately 34 kDa. Specific DNA fragment of 739 bp was successfully amplified from chrysanthemum infected by CVB Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates. CVB isolated from Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali have similarity 85-99%. Based on analysis using PAUP 4.10 program, Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates belong to the same group with CVB isolates originated from India (Chattisgarh and Jammu isolates. Cianjur isolate has close relationship to Medan isolate, however Bali isolate showed a close relationship with Malang isolate.

  8. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

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    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  9. Can climate and soil conditions change the morpho-anatomy among individuals from different localities? A case study in Aldama grandiflora (Asteraceae

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    L. F. Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vegetative aerial organs are considerably more exposed to environmental conditions and can reflect the specific adaptations of plants to their local environment. Aldama grandiflora species are known to be widely distributed in Brazil; therefore, individuals from different populations of this species are thought to be exposed to different abiotic and biotic conditions. Several anatomical studies conducted on Brazilian Aldama species have mainly focused on the qualitative anatomical characters or traits of these species, but not on their quantitative traits. In this study, we evaluated whether climate and soil conditions can change the morphometry among individuals of A. grandiflora collected from six sites in the Goiás State, Brazil, by assessing their anatomical characters. Further, soil sampling was performed, and climate data were collected from all the six sites. The analysis indicated few statistical differences among the populations evaluated, showing that A. grandiflora presented consistent leaf and stem anatomical characteristics. The small morpho-anatomical differences found among individuals of the different populations evaluated, reflected the soil conditions in which these populations were grown. Therefore, environmental factors have a significant influence on the morpho-anatomy of Aldama grandiflora.

  10. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  11. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  12. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado?

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    Edison Cardona-Medina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de su importancia ancestral como colorante de alimentos y uso medicinal. Este estudio evaluó los estados de semilla, plántula y planta adulta, en presencia y ausencia de posibles hospederos para inferir sobre su tipo de parasitismo. En las semillas se evaluaron dos condiciones de luz (12 y 0 horas y temperatura (20 °C y 25 °C, el porcentaje y velocidad de germinación. Las semillas no requirieron la presencia del hospedero para germinar. El porcentaje de germinación osciló entre 66 y 85,3 % y no fue afectado por la luz o la temperatura, aunque la velocidad de germinación fue mayor a 25 °C. Las semillas con mayor tamaño presentaron mayor porcentaje de germinación y produjeron plántulas más grandes. Las plántulas sembradas sin hospedero no sobrevivieron, mientras que las sembradas con Paspalum notatum, tuvieron una sobrevivencia del 45 %, evidenciando que este estado es crítico, aún con hospedero. Las plantas de Escobedia grandiflora sembradas con pastos, iniciaron la etapa reproductiva en la semana 28, y aquellas sembradas con Pennisetum purpureum presentaron más haustorios, y mayor materia seca en la planta total, rizoma y tallos aéreos. Las plantas sembradas solas vivieron más de seis meses, pero ellas no desarrollaron flores y ni frutos. Según el comportamiento de las plántulas y las plantas, E. grandiflora es parásita obligada.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

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    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  14. Effects of microhabitat on leaf traits in Digitalis grandiflora L. (Veronicaceae growing at forest edge and interior

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    Kołodziejek J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits of the leaves of yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. from two microhabitats, forest interior (full shade under oak canopy and forest edge (half shade near shrubs, were studied. The microhabitats differed in the mean levels of available light, but did not differ in soil moisture. The mean level of light in the forest edge microhabitat was significantly higher than in the forest interior. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test the effects of microhabitat. Comparison of the available light with soil moisture revealed that both factors significantly influenced the morphological and anatomical variables of D. grandiflora. Leaf area, mass, leaf mass per area (LMA, surface area per unit dry mass (SLA, density and thickness varied greatly between leaves exposed to different light regimes. Leaves that developed in the shade were larger and thinner and had a greater SLA than those that developed in the half shade. In contrast, at higher light irradiances, at the forest edge, leaves tended to be thicker, with higher LMA and density. Stomatal density was higher in the half-shade leaves than in the full-shade ones. LMA was correlated with leaf area and mass and to a lesser extent with thickness and density in the forest edge microsite. The considerable variations in leaf density and thickness recorded here confirm the very high variation in cell size and amounts of structural tissue within species. The leaf plasticity index (PI was the highest for the morphological leaf traits as compared to the anatomical and biochemical ones. The nitrogen content was higher in the “half-shade leaves” than in the “shade leaves”. Denser leaves corresponded to lower nitrogen (N contents. The leaves of plants from the forest edge had more potassium (K than leaves of plants from the forest interior on an area basis but not on a dry mass basis; the reverse was true for phosphorus.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Aqueous Crude Extracts of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Reduce Immobility Faster Than Fluoxetine Through GABAA Receptors in Rats Forced to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Flores-Aguilar, Luis Ángel; Rosas-Sánchez, Gilberto Uriel; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7.14 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The participation of GABA A receptor in the effects produced by the treatments was explored. Montanoa extracts reduced immobility since day 1 of treatment, while fluoxetine and Remotiv required 14 days. The GABA A antagonism blocked the effects of Montanoa extracts, but not of fluoxetine or Remotiv. Montanoa extracts prevented quickly the stress-induced behaviors in the swimming test through action at the GABA A receptor, exerting a protective effect different to the typical antidepressants drugs.

  17. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  19. Phyto-synthesis and antibacterial studies of bio-based silver nanoparticles using Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, K.; Balasubramanyam, K.; Narasimha, G.; Kim, Haekyoung

    2018-01-01

    Green nanobiotechnology using plants, micro-organisms, and their extracts has improved the utilization of natural resources. More efficient and eco-friendly routes are being developed for the creation of benign, biodegradable materials that have medical applicability. We developed silver nanoparticles encapsulated with Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf extract, which served as a reducing and capping material. The structure and functionalization of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated using UV-vis, XRD, FE-TEM, SAED, and FTIR analyses. The nanoparticles were found to be isotropic and spherical, with a core of Ag wrapped in phytochemicals. The presence of phytochemicals stabilized the nanoparticles during production by preventing agglomeration. Antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were also tested. The phytochemical-wrapped silver nanoparticles were more effective antibiotics than were bare silver nanoparticles. The phytochemicals were likely responsible for both direct and indirect improvements in the bactericidal properties of the Ag particles. Additionally, the developed nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity towards gram-negative bacteria than towards gram-positive bacteria, with the cell wall playing an important role in adsorption and absorption of Ag+.

  20. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  1. Antihyperglycemic effect of Sesbania grandiflora seed decoction on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Inflammatory status and the role of interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroni, Ahmad; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Zubaidah, Elok

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world: its prevalence is estimated to reach 642 million people, or one-tenth of adults will have diabetes by 2040. Traditional herbal exploration and investigation are needed in order to discover medicines that have potential anti-diabetic activity, with no or lower side effects than the medicines clinically used today. In this research, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of Sesbania grandiflora seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and analyzed the immune responses that occurred during the counter balance process to reach blood glucose homeostasis. Our results revealed that administration of the aqueous decoction (2.5 g/kg BW) could lower the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice from an initial blood glucose level of 435 mg/dl to 213 mg/dl within 18 days of treatment. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that there was no significant difference in the relative amounts of CD4+CD62L-, CD8+CD62L-, TNF-α or IFN-γ between the experimental groups, which revealed that there were no pro-inflammatory responses involved either in hyperglycemia or in the blood glucose lowering process. On the other hand, an increased amount of interleukin-10 in diabetic mice treated with an S. grandiflora seed decoction indicated a role for IL-10 in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

  2. Functional quality, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.Poir leaves enriched breads

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    Aruna Mesa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our modern life, theburdensof non-communicable diseases such as obesity, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,and type-2 diabetes haveincreased. By contrast, life expectancy and also cost of healthcare has increased. Therefore, individuals search other ways to improve or maintain their well-being. Inthis regard, food and pharmaceutical industriesoffer functional foods (FFs with health promotingand disease-preventing properties.Sesbania grandifloraL.Poiris a small, loosely branching tree alsoknown as the local name,Agathi. Agathibelongs to the Fabaceaefamily, and is one of the most popular green vegetables andtraditional medicinal plantsof India.The chemical analysis of Sesbania grandifloraleaves reveal it to be a rich source of nutrientsand beneficial bioactive compounds,such as antioxidants and polyphenols.Bread has been regarded as one of the most popular foodfor centuries, as agood source of calories and othernutrients. Bread is traditionally made from wheat flour.The addition of Agathi leaves led to the enhancementof functionality of common bread.Objective: Against the background of thisinformation, the present investigation was undertaken withaclear objective of evaluatingthe effects of the additionof Agathi leaves on the sensory, textural, andbaking characteristics,byexamining their microbial quality on a 5-daystorage period,at an ambient temperature,in different packaging materials, and assessingthe improvement, if any, in their antioxidant content.Methods: Shade dried Agathi leaf powder was analysedfor proximate,mineral,and phytochemical composition. Bread samples were prepared with ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar, water,shortening, baking time,temperature using straight dough process,and varying levels ofshade dried Agathi leaves.Physical parameters such as loaf weight, loaf volume,and color values were recorded. Breads were subjected to a sensory evaluation, andin vitroanti-oxidant capacitywas evaluated. Results

  3. Evaluación de la reproducción sexual de Espeletia grandiflora VAR. Multiflora en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Sánchez Zambrano

    2006-01-01

    fenología es diferente en relación con la que se presenta en lugares con mayor grado de conservación. Los resultados se compararon con los encontrados por Fagua (2002 en otro estudio realizado en el Páramo de Chingaza, lugar con mayor grado de conservación. Para el presente sitio de estudio se reportó un porcentaje de viabilidad menor, un índice de autoincompatibilidad mayor, una producción de semillas por planta menor y etapas fenológicas más cortas que en el Páramo de Chingaza. Las diferencias en el estado de conservación, la composición genética de E. grandiflora, y el clima entre los dos sitios, pueden explicar los diferentes resultados.

  4. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...

  5. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  6. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  7. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  8. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  9. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  10. Abertura floral de Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´após rmazenamento a frio seguido de “pulsing” Floral opening of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´after cold storage followed by pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a abertura de inflorescências e a vida de vaso de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ colhido precocemente, montou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 2 x 6 com cinco repetições, realizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. As hastes foram armazenadas a 2ºC ou 5ºC por sete dias, sendo em seguida tratadas com soluções de “pulsing” por 24h e mantidas em vasos com água de torneira, renovada a cada dois dias. As soluções utilizadas foram: Água (testemunha; Tiosulfato de Prata-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Ácido Giberélico-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Hipoclorito de Sódio-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxiquinolina-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1(Tecto 100. Com exceção da testemunha, as outras soluções continham 2% de Sacarose. Com estes tratamentos, observou-se que não foi possível uma abertura perfeita da inflorescência, mas a vantagem foi de prolongar a sua vida, podendo-se colocá-las no mercado num momento mais oportuno.The study of opening of inflorescences and the vase life (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ early picked of chysanthemum, was carried out in an experiment entirely set up in bifactorial 2 x 6 with five repetitions, at the Department of Fitotecnia of Santa Maria’s Federal University. The stems were stored at 2ºC or 5ºC for 7 days, prior to being treated with pulsing solutions for 24 hours and maintained in vases with distilled water, renewed every two days. The solutions used as follows: Water (control; Silver Thiosulfate-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Giberelic Acid-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Sodium Hipochloride-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxyquinoline-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1 (Tecto 100. With the exception of the control, all solutions contained 2% sucrose. Perfect opening of the flower was not achieved, but vase life could be extended in order to place them in the

  11. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, E.; Mahy, G.; Monty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling a...

  12. Efeito do armazenamento a frio e desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Teixeira Schwab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido no setor de floricultura do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – Santa Maria, RS, no período de novembro a dezembro de 2007 e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do armazenamento a frio e da desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora, cultivares ‘Satllion’ e ‘Toon Hermans’, tratadas com Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB 0,1%. As estacas herbáceas foram coletadas no matrizeiro localizado no Setor de Floricultura, apresentando 6 cm de comprimento final, e foram então armazenadas a frio por diferentes períodos de tempo (0; 7; 14 e 21 dias, sendo que cada tratamento constou de 20 repetições. As estacas depois de tratadas com AIB 0,1% foram pesadas antes e após o armazenamento para obter o percentual de perda de umidade e, logo após, foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e colocadas em estufa onde permaneceram 15 dias até sua avaliação. Para a avaliação do efeito da estocagem a frio e desidratação, foram realizadas as seguintes medições: comprimento total das raízes nas estacas e número de raízes por estaca. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostraram que certo nível de frio é favorável ao enraizamento, porém este efeito deve ser observado quanto a cultivar e ao tempo de exposição das estacas às baixas temperaturas. Além disso, foi possível observar que a capacidade de formação e crescimento das raízes pelas estacas é um caráter varietal, o que determina um melhor desempenho das plantas.

  13. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate - Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares, tama-ño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo-abril (seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae ySphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza en fami-lias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con las mayoresfrecuencias y una amplia distribución correspondes a las clases Ascomycetes y Oomycete.Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en la heteroge-neidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. Pythium vexansy Sordaria fimicolarepresentaron 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a la necromasade Espeletia grandiflora.

  14. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate-Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares,tamaño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo - abril(seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae yActa Sphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza enfamilias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con lasmayores frecuencias y una amplia distribución corresponden a las clases Ascomycetes yOomycete. Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en laheterogeneidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. -Pythium vexansy Sordariafimicolarepresentaron el 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a lanecromasa de Espeletia grandiflora.

  15. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

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    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  16. Plant Guide: Bigflower agoseris: Agoseris grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower family (Asteraceae). Bigflower agoseris is a short lived perennial forb from a simple or branched taproot. The stems and leaves contain a white milky juice. The leaves are all basal with the flower heads solitary on a naked scape. Leaves are 8 to 25 cm (3 to 10 in) long and 1 to 3 cm (0.4 to 1.2 in) wide, oblanceolate pinnatifid to nearly entire. The...

  17. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling amphibious plants, whether for the purposes of total eradication or for the regulation of their spread, represents an important challenge for managers. A literature review of existing control methods for Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticu was carried out, taking into account efficiency and costs. Of the 87 studies analyzed, a great variation was evident in the research efforts undertaken (number and spatial scale of studies between species and between control methods. However, overall, the different control methods described showed a similar level of efficiency between species. Reports of total eradication of amphibious plants were rare. Such cases resulted from the application of mechanical or chemical methods, most often coupled with complementary methods such as manual finishing. The use of chemical control methods (less laborious and costly than others was found to be frequently documented in the literature. However, except in the case of some active substances, such chemical methods were found to provide low control efficiency. Similarly, to date, biological control has not been found to provide convincing results. In addition, it should be noted that several biological control agents are considered as invasive species in Europe. On the other hand, although little related research has been carried out, methods such as manual or mechanical removal with manual finishing have often

  18. Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de cerrado sensu stricto no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Lucivânio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de se conhecer mais sobre o Bioma Cerrado torna-se cada vez mais urgente, devido à destruição acelerada deste bioma. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, registrando as espécies arbóreas e arbustivas, utilizando o método de Point Centered Quarter. Verificou-se que apesar de algumas diferenças litológicas, latossolo vermelho-escuro na primeira área e vermelho-amarelo na segunda, a similaridade entre elas foi alta, com índices de Jaccard (0,72 e Morisita (0,64. Das 67 espécies pertencentes a 51 gêneros e 29 famílias, 48 foram comuns às duas áreas. Kielmeyera coriacea, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense, Syagrus flexuosa e Ouratea hexasperma tiveram os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância na primeira área e Pouteria ramiflora, Qualea parviflora, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense e Vochysia cinamommea, foram as espécies de maior importância na segunda área. A família Vochysiaceae foi a de maior IVI em ambas as áreas e Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (15, seguindo Vochysiaceae (7, Apocynaceae (5 e Myrtaceae (4.

  19. Análise da estrutura de uma comunidade lenhosa em área de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves, norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil A woody community structure in a cerrado sensu stricto area of the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Viana Neri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de conhecer a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea de uma área de Cerrado, fez-se um estudo fitossociológico no Município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves. Para tal foram delimitadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 20m para levantamento dos dados, utilizando-se como critério de inclusão os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco à altura do solo (CAS = 10 cm. Foram encontradas 91 espécies de 38 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram como as mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata e Lafoensia pacari. Essas 10 espécies representaram 49,32% do VI e 51,26% dos indivíduos amostrados. A área não apresentou espécie com dominância marcante, como mostrou o valor de equabilidade (J'= 0,80. Além de se destacar pela riqueza, o cerrado estudado destacou-se também pelos altos valores de densidade (6.476,67 ind/ha, de área basal (28,93 m²/ha e pelo alto índice de diversidade (H'=3,61.The aim of this work was to study the phytossociological structure of a tree community in a cerrado fragment located in Senador Modestino Gonçalves, MG. A total of 30 10x20m stands of tree individuals with stem circumferences at the soil level = 10cm were sampled, being found 91 species belonging to 38 families. The most important species were Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata and Lafoensia pacari. These species represented 49.32% of the importance value and 51.26% of the individuals. Besides standing out for its richness, the studied cerrado fragment also outstood out for its high tree density, biomass and diversity.

  20. Análise da estrutura arbustivo-arbórea de uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, município de Aquidauana-Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Bruna Gardenal Fina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo registrar a composição florística e estrutura de uma área de Cerrado stricto senso, com ênfase no estrato arbustivo-arbóreo. Foram instaladas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m, distribuídas em blocos de 10 parcelas contíguas, onde os indivíduos com PAP superior ou igual a 10 cm foram incluídos. O número total de indivíduos amostrados foi de 1.107, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 88 espécies, evidenciando-se alta riqueza. A área basal total e a densidade total foram, respectivamente, de 6,651 m² e 3.690 indivíduos por hectare. Os valores de diversidade (3.868 nats/indivíduo e equabilidade (0,86 indicaram grande heterogeneidade e baixa dominância ecológica. As espécies mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora Mart., Lafoensia pacari St. Hil., Magonia pubescens St. Hil e Qualea parviflora Mart., que juntas representaram 57,7% do VI

  1. Distribuição de diâmetros de um cerradão distrófico no Distrito Federal (DF, Brasil Diametric distribution of a dystrophic cerradão in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silvestre Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a estrutura diamétrica da reserva biológica do Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, a partir da análise das distribuições diamétricas da comunidade e das principais populações, determinadas pelo valor de importância (VI. A relação da distribuição dos indivíduos por classes de diâmetro foi avaliada por análises de regressão e variância. Os valores de “q” e “R²” indicaram que Qualea grandiflora Mart. foi a espécie com distribuição mais balanceada e maior tendência ao equilíbrio, e Terminalia fagifolia Mart. a única que não apresentou curva do tipo J-invertido. O cerradão parece conseguir se restabelecer após eventos fortuitos, mas novas medições precisam ser feitas para a obtenção de conclusões mais contundentes. This study evaluated the diametric structure of the biological reserve of Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, from the analysis of the diametric distributions of the community and its main populations, ordered according to the importance value (IV. The individuals distribution ratio by diametric classes were evaluated by regression and variance analysis. The values of “q” and “R²” indicated that Qualea grandiflora Mart. was the species with the most balanced distribution and greater tendency to equilibrium, and Terminalia fagifolia Mart. the only one that did not show the J-reverse shape. The cerradão seems to be able to recover from random events, but new measurements need to be made to permit more robust conclusions.

  2. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  3. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  4. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  5. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  6. Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity; Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - atribuicao inequivoca dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono: atividade antioxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L.; Magalhaes, Ticiane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria Conceicao F. de; Almeida, Maria Mozarina B.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica], e-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpene {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on {beta}-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. (author)

  7. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Augusto Tulmann; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    1997-01-01

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  8. Micropropagation of ornamental species Petunia grandiflora and Dianthus chinensis x barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2017-01-01

    Petunia (Petunia sp.) and pink dianthus (Dianthus sp.) are important ornamental plants which are grown on balconies, in flower gardens, parks and other during summer period. Approximately 156 ornamental species are cultivated via tissue culture in different commercial laboratories worldwide. In vitro plant culture is one of the key tools in plant biotechnology that utilizes the totipotency of plant cells. In this research the influence of different concentrations and combinations of BA, GA...

  9. Ecological aspects of black-pincelled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata in the cerradão and dense cerrado of the Brazilian Central Plateau Aspectos da ecologia do mico-estrela (Callithrix penicillata em cerradão e cerrado denso no Planalto Central brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. B. de MIRANDA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological data about three free-ranging groups of C. penicillata (black-pincelled marmoset were observed between March and December 1996, in one cerradão patch (in the Ecological Reserve of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, RECOR and two patches of dense cerrado (one in the Recor and another in the Botanical Garden of Brasília, JBB, situated in the APA (area of environmental protection of the Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Distrito Federal. Each area was visited weekly during three periods of two months -- end of the rainy season (01/04 to 31/05, dry season (16/06 to 15/08 and beginning of the rainy season (14/10 to 15/12 -- and instantaneous scan records at fifteen minute intervals were made for the vertical and horizontal position of each visible individual of the target group. The group size ranged between 4 and 11 elements. In September, the birth of twins in both groups of the Recor was observed. Home-range varied from 8.25 to 18.5 hectares, while density ranged from 0.4 to 0.82 ind/ha. Twenty two species of nine tree families were identified as exudate sources. Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae, Vochysia thyrsoidea (Vochysiaceae, Scheflera macrocarpum (Araliaceae and Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae were more explored. Fruits (14 species, two of which were exotics, nectar, honey, arthropods (mainly orthopterans and bird eggs complete their diet. The main sleep-tree species was Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae. Data from different seasons and studied groups/areas were compared along previous data from this primate species in gallery forests. In the cerradão and dense cerrado areas C. penicillata had a similar group size, however a larger home-range and smaller density than in gallery forests were observed in this study.Entre março e dezembro de 1996 foi observada a ecologia de três grupos naturais de C. penicillata: em uma mancha de cerradão (na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, RECOR e em duas manchas de cerrado denso (uma na Recor e

  10. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A CERRADO AREA UNDER DIFFERENT ANTROPIZATION LEVELS, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

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    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  11. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA E DIVERSIDADE FLORÍSTICA EM ÁREA DE CERRADO SOB VÁRIOS NÍVEIS DE ANTROPIZAÇÃO, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  12. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  13. Cytomorphological and autoradiografical studies on the receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Eherh. in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the cortex and pith cells of strawberries from the cultivar Talizman gradually increased until ripening, especially in the cortex. The volume of the nucleus also increased. The nuclei in the pith were smaller then in the cortex. The volume of the nucleolus increased significantly between days 1 and 5 after pollination, after which it remained unchanged. At the end of the growth period, the volume of the nucleolus in cortical and pith cells in the lower and central part of the fruit increased. Endomitotic polyploidization which was responsible for the growth of the fruit, occurred during the development of the receptacle. The intensity of 3H actinomycin binding reached a maximum in the oldest stages. This is proof for the accumulation of active DNA during mitosis. Saturation with this antibiotic occurred in the early stages of fruit development. No dependence between the volume of cells and the number of nuclei binding 3H actinomycin was observed.

  14. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in leaves and ray and disc florets of Dendranthema grandiflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Kuipers, G.; Visser, P.B.; Outchkourov, N.; Pereira, A.; Udayakumar, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase

  15. INOCULACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA ROYA BLANCA (Puccinia horiana HENNINGS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV

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    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad el desarrollar la técnica de inoculación in vitro de la roya blanca, con el objeto de ahorrar tiempo y espacio en la caracterización de los distintos cultivares de crisantemo respecto al grado de susceptibilidad o resistencia a este patógeno. En Tenancingo, Estado de México, en el periodo 2004-2005 se colectaron hojas de crisantemo que presentaban daños por la enfermedad, se desinfectaron para posteriormente inocular las pústulas sobre plantas creciendo bajo condiciones in vitro. El recipiente de cultivo se mantuvo a una humedad relativa alrededor del 95% y temperaturas entre los 13 y 27 ºC, bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad. Los daños por la enfermedad se manifestaron a los 20 días después de la inoculación. Los tratamientos a 17 ºC y oscuridad generaron un mayor número de pústulas (18,7. El diámetro de las pústulas fluctuó entre los 0,71 mm (tratamientos con 17 ºC y luz a los 1,79 mm en los tratamientos con 19 ºC y bajo oscuridad.

  16. El daminozide aumenta el diámetro de inflorescencia del crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cultivar polaris white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. G. Esquivel-Pool

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron varias concentraciones (1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000 y 5,000 mg·litro-1 de daminozide sobre plantas de crisantemo cv. Polaris White, en maceta y se midieron el incremento del diámetro del tallo, altura de la planta, número de nudos, longitud de entrenudos, diámetro de la inflorescencia, biomasa y área foliar para comparar su efecto contra un testigo. La concentración de 1,000 mg·litro-1 provocó que los tallos incrementaran su diámetro 10.08 % en comparación con el testigo en tanto que con 4,000 mg·litro-1 el diámetro del tallo se redujo 8 %. Los entrenudos disminuyeron su longitud hasta 76 % con 4,000 mg·litro-1 en comparación con el testigo. Concentraciones iguales o mayores a 2,000 mg·litro-1 redujeron hasta en 34.3 % la altura de la planta. El daminozide favoreció el crecimiento de las inflorescencias incrementando su diámetro 31.22 % en promedio

  17. REGENERACIÓN IN VITRO DE ONCE CULTIVARES DE CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev A PARTIR DE MERISTEMOS APICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de inducir la regeneración de plántulas in vitro de 11 cultivares regionales de crisantemo, se realizó un ensayo en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Facultad de Cie ncia s Agrícolas de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México en el periodo 2005- 2006. Se sembraron meristemos api cales de cada varie dad en el medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog 1962, más 3 % de sacarosa, 6,5 g/l de agar y un pH de 5,7-5,8. Se evaluaron doce combinaciones posibles producto de cuatro dosis de ANA (0,01; 0,02; 0,03 y 0,04 mg/l por tres dosis de K (0,5; 1,0 y 1,5 mg/l. La tasa de multip licación varió de 1:8 hasta 1:29 dependiendo del cultivar.

  18. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus araripensis (Leguminoseae): isolation, unequivocal assignment of NMR signals {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and conformational analysis; Flavonoides de Lonchocarpus araripensis (Leguminoseae): isolamento, atribuicao inequivoca dos sinais de RMN {sup 1}H e {sup 13}C e analise conformacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Almi F.; Ferreira, Daniele A.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q., E-mail: fmonte@dqoi.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campo dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Laboratorio de Ciencias Quimicas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuing investigation for potentially bioactive natural products, flavonoids were isolated from Lonchocarpus araripensis (Leguminoseae) and identified as 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6'',6''-dimethylchromene-[7,8,2'',3'']-flavone (1), 3,6-dimethoxy-6'',6''-dimethylchromene-[7,8,2'',3'']-flavone (2) and 3,5,8-trimethoxy-[6,7,2{sup ,}3{sup ]}-furanoflavone (3). This is the first time compound 3 has been described. Compound 2 has been previously isolated from roots while this is the first time 1 is reported in this species. Complete NMR assignments are given for 1 ,2 and 3 together with the determination of conformation for 1. (author)

  19. Plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros no município de Jataí, estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. SOUZA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho objetivou pesquisar as plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros do município de Jataí-GO, evidenciando o Valor de Uso Reportado (VUR e a conexão com os níveis filogenéticos atuais. Com cerca de 200 anos de história, Jataí localiza-se no Planalto Central do Brasil, Sudoeste de Goiás (17°52’53’’S e 51°42’52’’W, tendo atualmente, como principal fonte de renda o agronegócio. Para a seleção dos raizeiros e coleta dos dados aplicou-se o método bola de neve e a técnica de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Determinou-se a etnoespécie, parte usada, uso, modo de preparo, sintomas / doenças relacionando aos sistemas corporais. Foram reportadas 515 referências etnobotânicas para 112 etnoespécies principalmente dos clados Fabídeas, Lamídeas, e Campanulídeas. Sobressaíram as etnoespécies Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphilliticus, Sangra-dágua (C. urucurana, Pau-terra-de-folha-larga (Qualea grandiflora, Erva-de-Santa Maria (Chenopodium album, Amaro-leite (Operculina alata, Algodãozinho-do-campo (Cochlospermum regium, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale e Jaborandi (Piper aduncum, com VUR maior que 10. Os sistemas corporais mais importantes com relação ao número de etnoespécies relatadas foram respiratório, digestivo, circulatório e tegumentar. As etnoespécies mais versáteis em uso nos sistemas corporais foram Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii, Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphiliticus, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale, Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis e Fruta-de-lobo (Solanum paniculatum. A prática da medicina tradicional em Jataí evidencia a conexão entre a escolha de plantas e os níveis filogenéticos derivados. Algumas destas etnoespécies estão na listagem de plantas medicinais que o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil escolheu para a realização de monografias, fato que fortalece o valor do conhecimento do uso da flora nas práticas da medicina tradicional.

  20. Ácido giberélico (GA3 no crisântemo (Dedranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. de corte 'viking': cultivo verão/outono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Claudinei Márcio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ação do ácido giberélico (AG3 em plantas crisântemo de corte 'Viking' quanto a parâmetros fenométricos, melhor época e concentração da aplicação para obter-se hastes de melhor qualidade no cultivo de verão/outono. Avaliou-se o efeito de cinco épocas de aplicação (sem aplicação, aplicação na segunda, quarta, oitava e décima semana após o plantio e quatro concentrações (0, 100, 200 e 300 mg.L-1 de GA3. Verificou-se que as maiores alturas foram obtidas com as aplicações na segunda e quarta semanas de cultivo e nas concentrações entre 200 a 300 mg.L-1. O maior diâmetro de haste e pedúnculo floral foram obtidos com a aplicação de 100 a 200 mg.L-1 GA3 na quarta semana. A concentração de 200 mg.L-1 de GA3, independente da época de aplicação proporcionou a antecipação do florescimento em cinco dias, todas as concentrações aplicadas a partir da oitava semana provocaram o clareamento do disco floral.

  1. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  2. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions.......Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...

  3. Evaluación de la actividad biocontroladora de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. sobre Meloidogyne javanica in vitro y bajo condiciones de invernadero en crisantemo (Drendranthema grandiflora Andernson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Lida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Para evaluar la acción biocontroladora de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. sobre huevos y larvas de Meloidogyne javanica en crisantemo, se realizaron prue­bas in vitro y en invernadero. Se tomaron 500 larvas y 500 huevos del nematodo contenidos en suspensiones de agua estéril y se trataron con concentraciones de 1,3· 106; 1,4· 107 y 6,4· 106; 1,14· 107 conidias/mL de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. Se observó bajo estereos­copio cada 24 horas, mientras la acción de los hongos sobre M. javanica se cuantificó a las 72 horas de incu­bación, con un índice de control mayor de 50% sobre larvas y huevos. En invernadero se sembraron esquejes en suelo con compost estéril bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: hongos de forma individual y combinada; compost sólo y combinado con cada hongo; carbofurán (Fura­dan®; testigo patógeno y testigo absoluto. A los 45 días después de la inoculación se evaluó el peso fresco de la raíz, la longitud de la raíz, el número de nódulos y el de individuos de M. javanica ambulatorios en 100 g de suelo. Mediante la prueba de Duncan (5% se determi­nó que el tratamiento de hongos en forma combinada controló a M. javanica, con un promedio de 18 nódulos en raíz, y fue menos eficiente comparado con el control individual, con un promedio de 7 y 8 nódulos en raíz respectivamente a los 45 días de transcurrida la infec­ción. El compost no ejerció control sobre M. javanica pues presentó un promedio de 50 nódulos en raíz; el tratamiento (Furadán® exhibió un promedio de 25 nó­dulos en raíz, mostrando diferencias significativas res­pecto a los tratamientos con los hongos nematófagos.

  4. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas. Spectral NIR data from intact leaves showing different levels of yellowing (healthy leaves, slightly deformed leaves or highly deformed leaves with advanced yellowing, used in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of NIR spectra, were used to build a descriptive model for chrysanthemum leaf yellowing classification. The descriptive model indicated the presence of two groups of NIR spectra belonging to asymptomatic or symptomatic leaves, with no further differentiation of NIR spectra from leaves showing mild or severe yellowing symptoms. Not without the drawbacks of a low number of NIR spectra, these results suggests that it is possible to develop a fast, accurate and nondestructive, spectroscopic based system to detect this disease on blind plant samples. Improvements to the sensitivity of this model in detecting multiple stages of this disease will depend on obtaining and adding new NIR leaf spectra obtained from clearly defined ratings of the disease. Due to its sensitivity and wide application, NIR spectroscopy appear to be a core technique to further develop new systems for the early detection of chrysanthemum leaf yellowing and other plant diseases. This in turn may result in the design of opportune and timely systems for plant disease control.

  5. COMUNICACIONES CORTAS TERPENOS ISLADOS DE LOS FRUTOS DE CLUSIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron triterpenos de los frutos de tres especies de Clusia (familia Guttiferae. En C.multlflora y C. grandiflora se encontraron eufenol, epímero en C-20 del tirucallol, y 3 ceto eufano antes no reportados para este género. También se encontró isocariofileno en C. grandiflora.

  6. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  7. Distribution and Biosynthesis of Iridoid Glucosides in the Loasaceae Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Veronica

    In order to make a more precise inventory of iridoid glucosides from Loasaceae family 13 species belonging to 7 genera (Eucnide bartonioides, E. grandiflora, Gronovia scandens, Fuertesia domingensis, Loasa parviflora, L. tricolor, L. urens, L. speciosa, Klaphrotia mentzeloides, Cajophora cernua, ...

  8. Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic Rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, E.M.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Stijnen, T.; Mendonça, M.A.F.C.; Coelho, M.S.; Cantarutti, R.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Villani, E.M.A.; Mendonça, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to support the use of native species from the Atlantic Rainforest in local agroforestry systems, we analysed chemical and biochemical components related to leaf decomposition of Inga subnuda, Senna macranthera, Erythrina verna, Luehea grandiflora, Zeyheria tuberculosa, Aegiphila sellowiana,

  9. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento mutagênico de meristemas multicelulares em plantas de propagação vegetativa geralmente resulta na formação de plantas quiméricas. Os setores mutados podem ser ampliados e estabilizados por meio de podas repetidas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência de podas em distintas posições (da 1a até a 6a gema axilar de um ramo M1V1, na freqüência de obtenção de mutantes de coloração de inflorescência e no tamanho dos setores mutados, em plantas de crisântemo irradiadas com raios-gama. Para tal, mudas enraizadas do cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (de coloração rosa escuro foram tratadas com 20 Gy de raios-gama. Após 40 dias do plantio foram realizadas as podas. Avaliaram-se a freqüência de mutantes e o espectro de mutação para a coloração da inflorescência nos ramos M1V2. Não foram observados mutantes no controle. No total de plantas avaliadas, 22,1% apresentavam mutações na coloração das flores sendo que, do total de plantas mutantes, 1,8% eram mutantes periclinais (com coloração única e as restantes (98,2%, apresentavam apenas alguns setores mutados. Não se observou diferença significativa quanto ao tamanho do setor mutado e ao número de mutantes nos diversos tratamentos (podas em diferentes gemas axilares. Com relação ao espectro de mutação, observaram-se mutantes com flores de coloração bronze, rosa claro, chá-rosa, variegado, amarelo, branco, vinho e creme. Um mutante de coloração vinho foi selecionado, multiplicado e avaliado em ensaio de produção. Este mutante denominado ‘Magali’ foi multiplicado para lançamento como novo cultivar.Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the application of this method in the M1V2 population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  10. Datos experimentales de la cinética del secado y del modelo matemático para pulpa de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum en rodajas Kinetic drying experimental data and mathematical model for cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflora slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Damian Giraldo-Zuniga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fueron obtenidos experimentalmente la cinética del secado de la pulpa de cupuaçu en forma de rodajas con espesor de 0,5 cm. El secado fue realizado utilizándose un secador laboratorial de bandejas, a las temperaturas de 50, 60 y 70 ºC y a la velocidad del aire de secado de 1,5 m/s. De acuerdo con los datos de la cinética del secado se puede observar que cuanto mayor es la temperatura del secado mayor es la velocidad del secado. El tiempo requerido para secar el producto hasta una humedad del 20%, fueron 9,2, 8,1 y 7,3 horas para las temperaturas de secado de 50, 60 y 70 ºC respectivamente. Las curvas experimentales del secado fueron ajustados al modelo difusional de Fick considerándose la muestra como una lámina infinita y al modelo de Page. Los dos modelos se ajustaron bien a los datos experimentales. Los coeficientes de difusión del modelo de Fick variaron de 1.171 a 1.561 m/s².This work examined experimentally the kinetics of drying cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum slices. The experimental runs were driven in a laboratory dryer, at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC and an air drying velocity of 1.5 m/s. According to the kinetics study, increasing the temperature led to a decrease in drying time. The required drying times were 9.2, 8.1 and 7.3 hours for drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC respectively. The experimental drying curves were adjusted to Fick's diffusional model for an infinite lamina with shrinkage and Page model. The diffusion coefficients of the Fick model varied between 1.171 and 1.561 m/s².

  11. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii , Hydrocotyle ranunculoides , Ludwigia grandiflora , Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Parmi les espèces invasives connaissant une expansion rapide en Europe, les plantes dites « amphibies » sont particulièrement problématiques. Elles sont capables de former des populations très denses à la surface des plans d’eau, se développant à la fois sous l’eau et hors de l’eau. La lutte contre ces espèces, en vue de l’éradication totale ou du ralentissement de l’invasion, représente un défi de taille pour les gestionnaires. Une synthèse bibliographique des méthodes de lutte existantes po...

  12. Non-reciprocal Interspecies Hybridization Barriers in the Capsella Genus Are Established in the Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A Rebernig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s separating both species.

  13. Vochysiaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Vochysiaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cuatro géneros y 32 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004, todas árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos dos especies endémicas en el género Qualea. Estas especies endémicas han sido encontradas en la región Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 100 y 160 m de altitud. Ninguna especie endémica se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado.

  14. Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds Coupled to Chemometrics in Leaves from the Magnoliaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace volatile analysis has been used for volatiles profiling in leaves of 4 Magnolia species with a total of 75 compounds were identified. Monterpene hydrocarbons dominated the volatile blend of M. calophylla (86%, M. acuminata (78%, M. virginiana (70% and M. grandiflora (47% with b -pinene and b -ocimene occurring in the largest amounts, whereas sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in M. grandiflora (39%. High levels of oxygenated compounds were only found in M. virginiana volatile blend (11.4% with 2-phenylethyl alcohol as major component. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on volatiles content revealed the close relationship between M. acuminata and M. calophylla.

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for Aircraft Maintenance Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    lies within the Southern Mixed Forest Province that is typically characterized by forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees ...virginiana), pin oak (Q. palustris), and southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Small tree and shrub species include the eastern red cedar, eastern ...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington

  16. Piedmont community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for small, medium, and large broadleaf trees and one coniferous tree in the Piedmont region: the species chosen as representative are dogwood (Cornus florida), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  17. 76 FR 39888 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... (Sonoma alopecurus); Amsinckia grandiflora (large-flowered fiddleneck); Arabis mcdonaldiana (McDonald's... of receipt of permit applications; request for comment. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... received on or before August 8, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written data or comments should be submitted to the U.S...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dillenia indica L of Dilleniaceae is an elegant, medium sized, tree of Indian origin (North-Eastern India). Its large white flowers, up to 20 centimetres in diameter, are very beautiful. They look somewhat like the fJowers of Magnolia grandiflora. Full of nectar, the flower is generally seen with a number of large bees feasting ...

  19. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syriaca and Crété (1950) Linum variation of Solanad type of embryo develop- ment in Asclepias curassavica. Rao and Rao (1954) published an account of male and female gametophytes, endosperm and embryo development in. Cryptostegia grandiflora and Caralluma attenuata. Biswas (1957) studied the embryology of ...

  20. Characterization of calcium crystals in Abelia using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localization, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium crystals in leaves and stems of Abelia mosanensis and A. ×grandiflora were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM) equipped with an X-ray diffraction system, low temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and a transmission ...

  1. Coastal plain community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for representative large, medium, and small broadleaf trees and coniferous trees in the Coastal Plain region: the species chosen as representative are the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida...

  2. Oil content and physicochemical characteristics of some wild oilseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant seed oils content reported in this study are comparatively higher than some food crop plants such as soybean and olive. Five of these oils have oil melting range as that of edible oils. C. grandiflora, C. halicacabum, M. eminii and the two species of Myrianthus are in the range of common cooking oils by their ...

  3. Floristic and structure of the shrub-arboreal component of a remnant of cerrado sensustricto, Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aurélio Aguiar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize a floristic and phytosociology of a fragment of cerrado sensu stricto, located in Gurupi, Tocantins. The study was carried out in the legal Reserve of the experimental farm of the Federal University of Tocantins, Campus of Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil. Five porcelains of 20x50m were implanted, totaling 5000sqm and all compostations with a circumference greater than or equal to 10 cm, at 0 cm at the soil level (CAS were implanted. Foramaler 906 aphid shrub-arboreal belonging to 42 families, 102 species and 78 genera. The families that stood out in number of individuals, frequency, dominance were Myrtacea, Vochystaceae, Burseraceae and Fabaceae, among the indications of the main beings Myrcia fallax (Rich DC, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl Marchand and Qualea multiflora Mart. The diversity index of Shannon (H ' was 3.70 and equability J'0,80, being considered for the cerrado region.

  4. El género Calamintha Mill. (Labiatae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Ramón

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian species of Calamintha Mill, are studied taxonomically, including chemical, palynological and karyological data. Two species inhabit the geographic área considered: C. nepeta, with two subspecies and C. grandiflora. Each species is accompanied by a distribution map (UTM projection with points equivalent to 10 x 10 km quadrats. The new combinations Calamintha sect. Macromelissa (Benth. R. Morales and C. nepeta subsp. sylvatica (Bromf. R. Morales are proposed.Estudio de las especies ibéricas de Calamintha Mill., teniendo en cuenta datos químicos, palinológicos y cariológicos. En el área geográfica considerada viven dos especies: C. nepeta, con dos subespecies, y C. grandiflora. Se incluyen mapas de distribución. Se proponen las nuevas combinaciones Calamintha sect. Macromelissa (Benth. R. Morales y C. nepeta subsp. sylvatica (Bromf. R. Morales.

  5. Fort Bragg Old Post Historic District Landscape Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    proved to be of substantial economic value (Lefler and Powell 1973). Lon- gleaf pines ( Pinus palustris) produce higher quality pine resin/crude gum than...plants that have the same characteristics as the historic varieties; na- tive plants require relatively little upkeep, are drought tolerant, and can... Pinus palustris Longleaf Pine 1933/IDG 2009 Native Quercus alba White Oak Large Evergreen Trees 1933/IDG 2009 Native Magnolia grandiflora Southern

  6. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.; Dostálek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : scrophulariiflora pennell hong * population viability analysis * nardostachys-grandiflora dc. * comparative demography * allium-tricoccum * growth rates * models * conservation * dynamics * forest * conservation * elasticity * Himalayan region * medicinal plants * NTFPs * population dynamics * rhubarb * sustainability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  7. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  8. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

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    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  9. Characterization of the salt stress vulnerability of three invasive freshwater plant species using a metabolic profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Lise; Deleu, Carole; Berardocco, Solenne; Haury, Jacques; Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    The effects of salt stress on freshwater plants has been little studied up to now, despite the fact that they are expected to present different levels of salt sensitivity or salt resistance depending on the species. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of NaCl at two concentrations on three invasive freshwater species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Ludwigia grandiflora, by examining morphological and physiological parameters and using metabolic profiling. The growth rate (biomass and stem length) was reduced for all species, whatever the salt treatment, but the response to salt differed between the three species, depending on the NaCl concentration. For E. canadensis, the physiological traits and metabolic profiles were only slightly modified in response to salt, whereas M. aquaticum and L. grandiflora showed great changes. In both of these species, root number, photosynthetic pigment content, amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism were affected by the salt treatments. Moreover, we are the first to report the salt-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in both species. Indeed, in response to NaCl, L. grandiflora mainly accumulated sucrose. The response of M. aquaticum was more complex, because it accumulated not only sucrose and myo-inositol whatever the level of salt stress, but also amino acids such as proline and GABA, but only at high NaCl concentrations. These responses are the metabolic responses typically found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

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    J. H. Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50 values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47

  11. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. III. La biomasa de tres asociaciones vegetales y la productividad de Calamagrostis Effusa (H. B. K. Steud. Y Paepalanthus Columbiensis Ruhl. En comparación con la concentración de Clorofila Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. III. La biomasa de tres asociaciones vegetales y la productividad de Calamagrostis Effusa (H. B. K. Steud. Y Paepalanthus Columbiensis Ruhl. En comparación con la concentración de Clorofila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardozo G. Hernán

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Páramo de Cruz Verde (Depto, Cundinamarca wurden in den Jahren 1970 und 1971 in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft und einer degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft die Biomasse bestimmt und Untersuchungen der Produktivitätund des Chlorophyllgehaltes von Calamagrostis effusa und Paepalanthus columbiensis durchgeführt.  Die Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense- Geselischaft wies die gröBte oberirdische Biomasse auf, was auf den groBen Anteil an Holzpflanzen in der Vegetation zurückzuführen ist.  An zweiter Stelle, aber mit deutlich geringeren Werten, folgte die degradierte Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft, die sich durch einen hohenMoosgehalt auszeichnete. Die niedrigsten Werte fanden sich in der Colamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft. Die gröBte unterirdische Biomasse wurde in der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft hestimmt, während die beiden übrigen Gesellschaften nur wenig mehr als die Hälfte der Wurzelmasse, die in dem feuchten Gebiet gefunden worden war, aufwiesen.  Nach Ablauf eines Jahres konnte keine Änderung des Trockengewichtes von Calamagrostis und Paepalanthus nachgewiesen werden, so daB die Nettoproduktion während des Untersuchungszeitraumes null war.  Von Oktoher bis Januar wurde bei Calamagrostis in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft und der Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft eine Ahnahme des Chlorophyllgehaltes heohachtet. Aus der Bestimmung der Trockensubstanz von Calamagrostis und Paepalanthus, die auf vorher abgeernteten Flächen gewachsen waren, geht hervor, daB Calamagrostis eine bessere Regenerationsfähigkeit besitzt als Paepalanthus. Doch wuchs innerhalb von neun Monaten nur maximal ein Drittel der urspr

  12. Genomic identification of founding haplotypes reveals the history of the selfing species Capsella rubella.

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    Yaniv Brandvain

    Full Text Available The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes present in C. rubella's founder(s. Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the

  13. Antithrombotic and cytotoxic activities of four Bangladeshi plants and PASS prediction of their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Mahamoud, Md Sofi; Chakrabarty, Nishan; Ahmad, Shabbir; Masum, Md Abdullah Al; Hoque, Md Akramul; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Rahman, Md Mominur; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether tested organic extracts possess antithrombotic properties with minimal or no toxicity and to predict the activity of some of their isolated compounds. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W.T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg., and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. In silico prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction was applied for phytoconstituents, namely, nyasicoside, glucomannan, grandifloric acid, serine, and alanine. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed 28.10±1.64%, 42.47±1.96%, 32.86±1.92%, and 25.51±1.67% of clot lysis, respectively. Reference drug streptokinase exhibited 75.00±3.04% clot lysis. Examined herbs showed significant (p<0.001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to negative control. In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed LC50 values 210.64±3.44, 98.51±1.47, 187.29±2.01, and 386.43±3.02 μg/mL, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76±0.04). PASS predicted that examined phytoconstituents have a wide range of biological activity. Through our study it was found that A. bulbifer and P. sikkimensis could be considered as very promising and beneficial thrombolytic agents.

  14. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

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    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  15. DURABILIDADE NATURAL DA MADEIRA DE QUATRO ESPÉCIES AMAZÔNICAS EM ENSAIOS DE DETERIORAÇÃO DE CAMPO

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    Amilker Romanini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a durabilidade natural da madeira de quatro espécies amazônicas em ensaios de deterioração de campo. Para tanto corpos de prova de Trattinnickia rhoifolia (amescla, Qualea albiflora (cambará, Dipteryx odorata (cumaru e Mezilaurus itauba (itaúba, com dimensões de 2 x 2 x 20 cm, foram submetidos durante 10 meses a ensaios de deterioração em ambiente de campo aberto. A cada dois meses foram realizadas amostragens no material ensaiado e retirados corpos de prova para determinação do percentual de massa seca residual e índice de deterioração. A madeira de amescla apresentou a menor durabilidade natural, o que pode ser explicado pelas suas propriedades físicas e químicas, já as madeiras de cambará, cumaru e itaúba não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Palavras-chave: biodeterioração, qualidade da madeira, madeira tropical, química da madeira. NATURAL DURABILITY OF FOUR AMAZONIAN WOODS IN FIELD TESTS ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate natural durability of four Amazonian woods in field tests. For this purpose samples of Trattinnickia rhoifolia (amescla, Qualea albiflora (cambará, Dipteryx odorata (cumaru and Mezilaurus itauba (itaúba, with reduced dimensions of 2 x 2 x 20 cm, were submitted in open field tests during 10 months. Every two months samples were weighed and evaluated by a criterion of notes, to determine the percentage of residual dry mass and decay index, respectively. Amescla wood had lower natural durability, which can be explained by their physical and chemical properties, however cambará, cumaru and itaúba wood not differ statistically. Keywords: biodeterioration, wood quality, tropical wood, wood chemistry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14583/2318-7670.v02n01a03

  16. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  17. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  18. Effect of selective logging on floristic and structural composition in a forest fragment from Amazon Biome

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    Karen Janones da Rocha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in one region of a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest located in Tapurah (Mato Grosso State, Brazil with the aim of studying its floristic and structural composition. The fixed area method was applied to 10 × 250 m clusters, allocating and measuring five clusters with five subunits of 500 m² each. Species with a diameter at breast height greater than or equal to 10 cm were considered, and the sample sufficiency of the floristic survey was verified by a species accumulation curve. The similarities between the sample subunits were calculated by the Jaccard Similarity Index, and the species diversity with the Shannon Diversity Index and Pielou Evenness Index. The horizontal vegetation structure was characterized by density, frequency, dominance and the values of ecological importance, and diametric distribution were assessed by the Spiegel procedure. The families Vochysiaceae, Fabaceae and Sapindaceae were highly represented, and Qualea paraensis, Aspidosperma discolor and Matayba arborescens were the most important species. A high diversity and low ecological dominance were found, and the diametric structure of the trees presented a negative exponential distribution. In general, the structure, floristic composition and richness of vegetation correspond to a forest with stable and autoregenerative community after selective logging.

  19. Appendicular origin and structure of the spur of Vochysiaceae flowers

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    Renata Carmo-Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral nectaries are linked with animal pollinators and floral specialization, characterizing some plant groups, such as the mostly Neotropical Vochysiaceae. The phylogeny of these plants has been revised based on molecular data, but their conspicuous spurs were mostly neglected. The appendicular or receptacular origin of these spurs has been discussed but without ontogenetic or anatomical study, and the association between spur structure and pollination systems was never assessed. We studied the spurs of species of four genera of Cerrado Vochysiaceae (tribe Vochysieae, documenting their vascularization and comparing their structure to previously described pollination systems. The spur structure was roughly similar among species, and vascularization confirmed their appendicular origin. Subepidermic secretory tissue surrounded the lumen of the spur and nectar was secreted through nectarostomata. Besides differences in size and cuticle striation, no other association between spur structure and pollination system was observed. However, the structure is somewhat distinct in Qualea parviflora, which sports a pluriseriate internal epidermis padding the spur lumen, which may provide protection against damage by the large bees that visit these relatively small flowers. The conservative histology and vasculature somewhat confirmed the monophyly of the tribe Vochysieae and the appendicular origin of the spur in the Cerrado Vochysiaceae.

  20. Arboreal component, phytosociology structure and environmental relations in a remnant of cerradão, Curvelo - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago José Ornelas Otoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the existence of variations in composition and distribution of tree species due to soil characteristics in a fragment of dystrophic savanna in Curvelo-MG. On description in the compartment of the phanerophytes of this plant community, were installed ten permanent plots with 1.000 m2 (20 x 50 m with fixed distances of 100 m between each plot. All alive individuals that had diameter at soil height (DSH - diameter to 0.3 m from ground level > 5.0 cm were sampled. The Individuals with multiple boles were sampled when the value of square root of the sum-square of DSH had been greater than criterion of the inventory. Were collected Soil samples at two depths (0-20 e 20-40 cm and was measured the distances of plots of a watercourse. To study the community were generated ordination diagrams of plots, species and environmental variables by means of a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. The richness sampled was 92 species, 36 families and 74 genera, Erythroxylum, Byrsonima, Myrcia and Qualea. Jackknife estimators (first and second order designed a wealth of 106.4 and 107.8 species. The species Magonia pubescens, Terminalia argentea, Annona crassiflora, Eugenia dysenterica e Xylopia aromatica were distribuited underneath the environmental gradient.

  1. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

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    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  2. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

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    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  3. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. curdieana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; Albach, Dirk C; Barfod, Anders S; Oxelman, Bengt; Muasya, A Muthama

    2017-01-01

    Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L. curdieana is sister to the African L. grandiflora; or (2) it is closely related to a group of other African species and the northern circumpolar L. aquatica. We tested these hypotheses in a phylogenetic framework using DNA sequence data from four plastid DNA regions and the nuclear ITS region. These were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. We obtained moderately resolved, partially conflicting phylogenies, supporting that accessions of L. grandiflora form the sister group to the rest of the genus and that L. curdieana groups with the African taxa, L. africana and L. major, and L. aquatica. Thus, the molecular evidence supports the second hypothesis. A biogeographic analysis suggests an out-of-southern Africa scenario and several dispersal events in the Southern Hemisphere. Past dispersal from southern Africa to Australasia is suggested, yet it cannot be excluded that a route via tropical Africa and temperate Asia has existed.

  5. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  6. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  7. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation has emerged as a green, passive, solar energy driven and cost effective approach for environmental cleanup when compared to physico-chemical and even other biological methods. Textile dyes and effluents are condemned as one of the worst polluters of our precious water bodies and soils. They are well known mutagenic, carcinogenic, allergic and cytotoxic agents posing threats to all life forms. Plant based treatment of textile dyes is relatively new and hitherto has remained an unexplored area of research. Use of macrophytes like Phragmites australis and Rheum rhabarbarum have shown efficient removal of Acid Orange 7 and sulfonated anthraquinones, respectively. Common garden and ornamental plants namely Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora, Zinnia angustifolia, Petunia grandiflora, Glandularia pulchella, many ferns and aquatic plants have also been advocated for their dye degradation potential. Plant tissue cultures like suspension cells of Blumea malcolmii and Nopalea cochenillifera, hairy roots of Brassica juncea and Tagetes patula and whole plants of several other species have confirmed their role in dye degradation. Plants' oxidoreductases such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, riboflavin reductase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase are known as key biodegrading enzymes which break the complex structures of dyes. Schematic metabolic pathways of degradation of different dyes and their environmental fates have also been proposed. Degradation products of dyes and their fates of metabolism have been reported to be validated by UV-vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and several other analytical tools. Constructed wetlands and various pilots scale reactors were developed independently using the plants of P. australis, Portulaca grandiflora, G. pulchella

  8. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  9. Composição florística e fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas do Parque Fenológico da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental Floristic composition and phytosociology of tree species in the Phenological Site of the Embrapa Western Amazonia

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    Kátia Emídio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a composição florística e a fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas do parque fenológico da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental no Distrito Agropecuário da Suframa (DAS, Manaus-AM, a fim de subsidiar seleções futuras de árvores matrizes visando estudos fenológicos e a implantação de áreas de coleta de sementes. Foram alocadas aleatoriamente 20 parcelas de 10m x 50 m ao longo de um transecto, amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo, (DAP ≥ 20,0 cm. Foram registrados 240 indivíduos, distribuídos em 100 espécies, 70 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância ecológica são, em ordem decrescente, Lecythidaceae, Sapotaceae, Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Fabaceae, Humiriaceae, Moraceae, Vochysiaceae e Apocynaceae. Essas famílias contribuem com 67% da riqueza local de espécies e com 75,8% do número de indivíduos, sugerindo que a diversidade vegetal da área está concentrada em poucas famílias. A família Lecythidaceae possui os maiores valores de dap e número de indivíduos, sendo Sapotaceae a que possui a maior riqueza de espécies na área. As espécies mais importantes, segundo o Índice de Valor de Importância-IVI, são Eschweilera coriacea (DC S.A. Mori; Qualea paraensis Ducke; Vantanea macrocarpa Ducke; Eschweilera atropetiolataThis research was carried out to study the floristic composition and phytosociology of tree species in the phenological site of Embrapa Western Amazonia, Suframa Agropecuary District-SAD, Manaus-AM, aiming to help future selection of seed trees, for the establishment of seed collecting areas. Twenty plots of 10m x 50m were studied, along a topographic sequence, where trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh ≥ 20,0cm were inventoried. A total of 240 trees belonging to 29 families, in 70 genera with 100 species were identified. The most important families, in a decreasing order, were: Lecythidaceae, Sapotaceae

  10. A study on the determination of the morphological, yield and quality characteristics of some sainfoin species (onobrychis spp.) native to east anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okcu, M.; Sengul, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to identify the species belonging to the genus Onobrychis (Fabaceae) growing native in and around Erzurum, and to determine their overall prevalence and morphological and quality characteristics. Species samples were collected from different locations in flowering periods of 2007, 2008 and 2009. At the end of the study, totally 10 genotypes were found representing 8 species and 2 sub-species. It was found that leaf length and leaflet frequency were the largest in O. atropatana var. grandiflora, the number of leaflets was the highest in O. viciifolia, the length and width of leaflets were maximum in O. radiata, the number of main branches and the number of fascicles in main branches were in O. hajastana, crude ash rate was highest in O. stenostachya, plant fresh and dry weight, ADF and NDF rate were highest in O. cornuta, where as crude protein rate was slightly higher in O. stenostachya subsp. sosnowskyi than other taxa. (author)

  11. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  12. Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate

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    Sturm Helmut

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m aboveseal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramosoil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specificplant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna,was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with correspondingfacts from a tropical rain forest.In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m above seal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramo soil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being

  13. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  14. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia II. Las comunidades vegetales Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia II. Las comunidades vegetales

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    Lozano Contreras Gustavo

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Páramo de Cruz Verde, Cundinamarca, Kolumbien (3.400m Höhe werden auf Grund pflanzensoziologischer Untersuchungen mehrere Pflanzengemeinschaften unterschieden. Am verbreitetsten sind solche, die ihre Existenz anthropogenen Einflüssen verdanken und sich unter diesen stabilisiert haben; sie werden als Subklimax-Gesellschaften aufgefaΒt und zeichnen sich durch ihre geringe Empfindlichkeit gegen gelegentliche Brände aus. Hierzu sind zu rechnen: eine Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium multiceps - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa - Spiranthes vaginata - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa «Espeletia corymbosa - Gesellschaft und eine Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft.In Gebieten, deren Vegetation durch natürliche (z. B. Erdrutsche oder anthropogene Einflüsse (z, B. vorübergehender Ackerbau zerstört wurde, stellen sich Pionier-Gesellschaften mit Espeletia argentea ein.  Da in allen unterschiedenen Subklimax-Gesellschaften Baum - undBusch-Arten vorkommen, die für kleinere Busch waldbestände typisch sind, werden letztere als Reste einer Klimax-Vegetation angesehen, die nur an ständig sumpfigen Stellen durch eine Diplostephium revolutum Gesell-schaft ersetzt wird. Letztere ist noch heute an vielen Stellen erhalten; sie wird wenigstens teilweise als Endstadium einer Sukzessionsreihe angesehen,die während der Verlandung von kleinen Seen (meist glazialer Herkunft auftrat.  Als wesentliche Ursachen der räumlichen Verteilung der heute dominierenden Subklimax-Gesellschaften werden die örtlich unterschiedlich stark schwankenden Bodenwassergehalte diskutiert.En el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Cundinamarca, Colombia (3.400 m de altura se distinguen varias comunidades vegetales con base en estudios fitosociológicos. Distribución más amplia tienen aquellas que deben su existencia a las influencias

  15. Floristic and phytosociology in dense “terra firme” rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil

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    DAN. Lemos

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense “Terra Firme” rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1, distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94, Araceae (65 and Arecaceae (43, comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41, Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50 and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28 showed the highest importance values (IV. The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%. The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  16. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  17. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  18. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    hybridization may lead to the extinction of peripheral populations of P. minor where the two species grow sympatrically. Extinction could occur as a result of genetic assimilation where F1s are fertile, or via the removal of unidirectionally pollinated sterile F1s, or by a combination of these processes......Aim Introgressive hybridization between a locally rare species and a more abundant congener can drive population extinction via genetic assimilation, or the replacement of the rare species gene pool with that of the common species. To date, however, few studies have assessed the effects...... of such processes at the limits of species' distribution ranges. In this study, we have examined the potential for hybridization between range-edge populations of the wintergreen Pyrola minor and sympatric populations of Pyrola grandiflora. Location Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland and Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Methods...

  19. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  20. A simple procedure for the purification of active fractions in aqueous extracts of plants with allelopathic properties

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    Fabian Borghetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies conducted to test the allelopathic activity of plant parts have made use of water as solvent. However, the presence of polar, water-soluble substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates, tends to hamper the purification of active compounds. In this study, we present a simple purification procedure that separates the active fraction of the extract from the undesirable substances, thus facilitating the search for active molecules through standard chromatographic methods. Aqueous leaf extracts of three Cerrado species (Caryocar brasiliense, Qualea parviflora and Eugenia dysenterica were prepared at 5% concentration (w/v and stored at 4ºC (crude extracts. After 24 h, these solutions were filtered and freeze-dried. The powder obtained was dissolved in methanol, filtered again, evaporated and dissolved in water for bioassays (purified extracts. For the bioassays, seedlings of Sesamum indicum were grown for five days in aqueous solutions prepared from crude and purified extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% (w/v. Seedling growth in distilled water was set as a control. In comparison with the control, we found that test solutions prepared from both crude and purified extracts significantly inhibited sesame seedling growth. However, solutions prepared from purified extracts were two to ten times more inhibitory to seedling growth than were those prepared from crude extracts. The inhibition of root growth ranged from 35% to 77%, depending on the plant species, at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Roots were more affected than were shoots. The effects of purified extracts on seedling morphology were similar to those observed when crude extracts were employed, indicating that the procedure of purification of crude extracts did not interfere with the mode of action of the active substances

  1. Composição florística e fitossociologia do cerrado sentido restrito no município de Água Boa - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felfili Jeanine Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido no município de Água Boa , no Vale do Araguaia, área de ecótono entre o Cerrado e Amazônia, que apresenta um complexo vegetacional com o predomínio do cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a composição florística e a fitossociologia do cerrado sentido restrito na região. Foram alocadas dez parcelas de 20x50m (1000m². Entraram na amostragem todos os indivíduos lenhosos com diâmetro no nível do solo igual ou superior a 5cm. Além da amostragem com identificação in loco das espécies, foram efetuadas incursões de coleta em áreas próximas, para ampliar o levantamento da composição florística. Foram encontradas 34 famílias botânicas, contendo 60 gêneros e 80 espécies. A família Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (10, seguida por Myrtaceae (7, Vochysiaceae (6 e Malpighiaceae (5. Outras 19 famílias foram representadas por uma única espécie. As espécies com maior Índice de Valor de Importância foram Curatella americana L., Qualea parviflora Mart., Callisthene fasciculata Mart., Mezilaurus crassiramea (Meiss Taub. e Byrsonima crassa Nied. Treze espécies estiveram representadas por um único indivíduo. A densidade foi de 995 indivíduos/ha e a área basal de 7,5 m² /ha. O índice de Shannon encontrado (H' foi de 3,69, evidenciando a alta diversidade da área.

  2. FLORISTIC-STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SUCCESSIONAL GROUP OF TREE SPECIES IN THE CERRADO BIOME OF TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

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    EDER PEREIRA MIGUEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, vegetation structure and ecological group of tree species in a cerradão forest (Cerrado biome of Palmas, Tocantins State, Brazil. A forest inventory was performed in an area of 10.15 hectares, using systematic sampling with plots of 400 m², in which all standing trees, alive and dead, that had diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm were sampled and identified. A linear plateau regression model (LPR was used for sample sufficiency analysis. The Shannon index (H’ was used for assess the floristic diversity, and the Importance Value Index (IVI for assess the horizontal structure. The forest was classified in three strata according to vertical structure analysis. The LPR showed that the sampling size was adequate. The predominate species in the area were Myrcia splendens, Emmotum nitens and Qualea parviflora, and species from the families Fabaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The pioneer (613 individuals ha-1 and climax (530 individuals ha-1 species were the predominating groups. Regarding the richness index, the number of climax (57 species and pioneer (25 species species stood out. The alpha floristic diversity was 3.35 nats individuals-1 and the Pielou equability value J = 0.76. The diametric distribution showed a negative and balanced exponential pattern. Regarding the vertical stratification, the smallest amount of individuals was in the upper stratum (13% and the highest in the mid stratum (63% and in the lower stratum (24%. The use of floristic composition tools with horizontal and vertical structure analysis was effective for understand the tree community, which may be considered structured and diverse, thus able to restructure possible disturbances when preserved.

  3. Insects, birds and lizards as pollinators of the largest-flowered Scrophularia of Europe and Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Pérez-Bote, José L; López, Josefa; Mayo, Carlos; Valtueña, Francisco J; Navarro-Pérez, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    It has traditionally been considered that the flowers of Scrophularia are mainly pollinated by wasps. We studied the pollination system of four species which stand out for their large and showy flowers: S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora (endemics of the western Mediterranean region), S. trifoliata (an endemic of the Tyrrhenian islands) and S. calliantha (an endemic of the Canary Islands). Our principal aim was to test whether these species were pollinated by birds or showed a mixed pollination system between insects and birds. Censuses and captures of insects and birds were performed to obtain pollen load transported and deposited on the stigmas. Also, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flowers and inflorescences was carried out. Flowers were visited by Hymenoptera and by passerine birds. The Canarian species was the most visited by birds, especially by Phylloscopus canariensis, and its flowers were also accessed by juveniles of the lizard Gallotia stehlini. The most important birds in the other three species were Sylvia melanocephala and S. atricapilla. The most important insect-functional groups in the mixed pollination system were: honey-bees and wasps in S. sambucifolia; bumble-bees and wasps in S. grandiflora; wasps in S. trifoliata; and a small bee in S. calliantha. The species studied show a mixed pollination system between insects and passerine birds. In S. calliantha there is, in addition, a third agent (juveniles of Gallotia stehlini). The participation of birds in this mixed pollination system presents varying degrees of importance because, while in S. calliantha they are the main pollinators, in the other species they interact to complement the insects which are the main pollinators. A review of different florae showed that the large showy floral morphotypes of Scrophularia are concentrated in the western and central Mediterranean region, Macaronesia and USA (New Mexico).

  4. Coral-Associated Bacterial Diversity is Conserved Across Two Deep-Sea Anthothela Species

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    Stephanie Nichole Lawler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals, similar to tropical corals, contain diverse and complex microbial assemblages. These bacteria provide essential biological functions within coral holobionts, facilitating increased nutrient utilization and production of antimicrobial compounds. To date, few cold-water octocoral species have been analyzed to explore the diversity and abundance of their microbial associates. For this study, 23 samples of the family Anthothelidae were collected from Norfolk (n = 12 and Baltimore Canyons (n = 11 from the western Atlantic in August 2012 and May 2013. Genetic testing found that these samples comprised two Anthothela species (Anthothela grandiflora and Anthothela sp. and Alcyonium grandiflorum. DNA was extracted and sequenced with primers targeting the V4-V5 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing with GS FLX Titanium chemistry. Results demonstrated that the coral host was the primary driver of bacterial community composition. Al. grandiflorum, dominated by Alteromonadales and Pirellulales had much higher species richness, and a distinct bacterial community compared to Anthothela samples. Anthothela species (A. grandiflora and Anthothela sp. had very similar bacterial communities, dominated by Oceanospirillales and Spirochaetes. Additional analysis of core-conserved bacteria at 90% sample coverage revealed genus level conservation across Anthothela samples. This core included unclassified Oceanospirillales, Kiloniellales, Campylobacterales, and genus Spirochaeta. Members of this core were previously recognized for their functional capabilities in nitrogen cycling and suggest the possibility of a nearly complete nitrogen cycle within Anthothela species. Overall, many of the bacterial associates identified in this study have the potential to contribute to the acquisition and cycling of nutrients within the coral holobiont.

  5. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3-C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-08-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C(4) photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C(4) plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C(4) enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C(4) species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C(4) species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C(4) species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C(4) species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C(3)-C(4) based on its intermediate CO(2) compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C(4) Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C(3)-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C(4) photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca.

  6. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3–C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C4 plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C4 enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C4 species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C4 species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C4 species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C4 species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C3–C4 based on its intermediate CO2 compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C4 Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C3-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca. PMID:20591900

  7. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. IV. La actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. IV. La actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Marie-Luise

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron la respiración y la actividad de celulosólisis del suelo en las asociaciones vegetales de Diplostephium revolutum degradada, de Calamagrostis effusa, Espeletia grandiflora y Geranium santanderiense, de Calamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata y de un bosque bajo de páramo en el Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca. La mayoría de los promedios de la respiración del suelo se situaba entre 120 y 190 mg CO2/m2h. Valores menores se determinaron dos veces en la asociación degradada de Diplostephium revolutum (82,4 mg CO2/m2h, 72,5 mg CO2/m2h, valores mayores una vez en la asociación de Colamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata (220,2 mg CO2/m2h y en el bosque bajo de páramo (245,1 mg CO2/m2h.   La actividad de celulosólisis en el bosque bajo de páramo superaba notablemente la de las otras asociaciones vegetales mencionadas, en contraste en la asociación degradada de Diplostephium revolutum no se notó alguna descomposición de celulosa. In vier Pflanzengesellschaften des Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca, nämlich der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa • Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft und einer Gesellschaft des Páramo - Buschwaldes wurden Bodenatmung und zellulolytische Aktivität bestimmt.  Die Mehrzahl der bei den Bodenatmungsbestimmungen gefundenen Mittelwerte lag zwischen 120 und 190 mg CO2/m2h.  In der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum. - Gesellschaft wurde zweimal ein niedrigerer (82,4 mg CO2/m2h, 72,5 mg CO2/m2h, in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata -Gesellschaft (220,2 mg CO2/m2h und im Páramo -Buschwald (245,1 mg CO2/m2h jeweils einmal ein höherer Wert bestimmt.  Die zellulolytische Aktivität war im Päramo - Buschwald um ein Vielfaches höher als in den drei anderen Pflanzengesellschaften, wo in der degradierten Diplostephium. revolutum

  9. Nutrient content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of tropical tannin-containing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Saravanan, Mani; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, Koratekere T

    2012-12-01

    Plant tannins as rumen modifiers are better than chemicals or antibiotic-based modifiers since these compounds are natural products which are environmentally friendly and therefore have a better acceptance with regard to feed safety issues. Tropical plants containing phenols such as tannins were found to suppress or eliminate protozoa from the rumen and reduce methane and ammonia production. The screening of these plants is an important step in the identification of new compounds and feed additives which might contribute to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of tannins from tropical tree leaves for their methane reduction properties. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 as a tannin binder (tannin bioassay) was highest in Ficus bengalensis (555%), followed by Azardirachta indica (78.5%). PEG addition did not alter (P > 0.05) methane percentage in Ficus racemosa, Glyricidia maculata, Leucena leucocephala, Morus alba and Semaroba glauca, confirming that tannins in these samples did not affect methanogenesis. The increase (P 0.05) in the protozoa population in Autocarpus integrifolia, Ficus bengalensis, Jatropha curcus, Morus alba and Sesbania grandiflora, demonstrating that methane reduction observed in these samples per se was not due to defaunation effect of the tannin. The increase in total volatile fatty acid concentration in samples with PEG ranged from 0.6% to > 70%. The highest increase (%) in NH(3)-N was recorded in Azardirachta indica (67.4), followed by Ficus mysoriensis (35.7) and Semaroba glauca (32.6) leaves, reflecting strong protein binding properties of tannin. The results of our study established that in vitro methanogenesis was not essentially related to the density of protozoa population. Tropical tree leaves containing tannins such as Autocarpus integrifolia, Jatropha curcus and Sesbania grandiflora have the

  10. Crescimento e qualidade de crisântemo cultivado em vaso sob ambiente protegido Growth and quality of Chrysanthemum produced in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryzélia F. de Farias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora é uma planta ornamental com grande demanda pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de haver poucas informações sobre a sua exigência hídrica, sabe-se que irrigações deficitárias ou excessivas prejudicam seu desenvolvimento, reduzindo a produtividade e a qualidade. Considerando-se a importância da qualidade para a venda dos produtos florícolas o objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a tensão de água no substrato (potencial matricial com melhor crescimento e desenvolvimento do crisântemo, cultivar Rage, em vaso. Os tratamentos foram definidos por 6 níveis de tensão de água no substrato: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 e -30 kPa. Concluiu-se que a melhor qualidade do crisântemo em vaso pode ser obtida com a tensão de -4 kPa e que, embora a tensão de -30 kPa tenha levado a uma drástica redução na qualidade comercial do crisântemo, a mesma pode ter um efeito benéfico na durabilidade pós- colheita.Chrysanthemum (Dendranhema grandiflora has a high commercial value in the ornamental plant market. There is little information about when and how much water to apply. In general the flower growers apply too much water reducing yield and quality. In this research we identified the best substrate water tension that could assure quality and high yield. Treatments were composed of six levels of water tension in the substrate: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 and -30 kPa. Results showed that -4 kPa of substrate water tension resulted in the highest number of pots with quality A1, considered the highest level in the grower's scale. Post-harvest was also evaluated and plants irrigated when substrate water tension reached -30 kPa presented longer durability.

  11. Florística e estrutura de fragmento florestal em área de transição na Amazônia Matogrossense no município de Sinop Floristics and structure of a forest fragment at a transitional zone at the Amazon in Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Sinop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia de Aguiar Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação do ambiente é intensa na amazônia matogrossense e é esperado como consequência, além do desaparecimento da vegetação original, que a flora dos fragmentos seja transicional, com elementos de floresta amazônica e de cerrado e que já apresentem elevada presença de famílias e espécies pioneiras. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição florística e obter parâmetros fitossociológicos de componentes arbóreos presentes em um fragmento urbano no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso com vistas a confirmar sua classificação como vegetação de transição e detectar indícios de perturbação pela fragmentação. A vegetação foi amostrada pela instalação de 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 20m, onde foram amostrados os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 15 cm à altura de 1,30m do solo. A densidade total da área foi de 1555 ind./ha, distribuídos em 37 famílias botânicas, 81 gêneros e 113 espécies. A família mais representativa foi Leguminosae com 14 espécies. As espécies que mais contribuíram em abundância e apresentaram maior frequência foram: Cecropia sciadophylla, Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides e Vismia guianensis. O índice de Shannon (H' foi de 3,55, considerado alto para uma floresta de transição. A equabilidade de Pielou foi de 0,75, sugerindo grande dominância de poucas espécies. As espécies que mais se destacaram em ordem decrescente de VI (% foram Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides, Qualea ingens, Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, Miconia prasina, Trattinickia burserifolia, Unonopsis guatterioides e Schefflera vinosa. O remanescente apresenta uma flora mista amazônica e de cerrado, confirmando ser ecótono e a abundância de pioneiras sugere distúrbios. Esta floresta protege espécies madeireiras e frutíferas com grande potencial para uso múltiplo, podendo ser um espaço educativo com vistas a conservação e manejo sustentável.Fragmentation is intense in

  12. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  13. LEAF RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF SELECTED ATLANTIC FOREST TREE SPECIES

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    Helga Dias Arato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeochemical cycling is essential to establish and maintain plant and animal communities. Litter is one of main compartments of this cycle, and the kinetics of leaf decomposition in forest litter depend on the chemical composition and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the effect of leaf composition and environmental conditions on leaf decomposition of native Atlantic Forest trees. The following species were analyzed: Mabea fistulifera Mart., Bauhinia forficata Link., Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et. Zucc., Croton floribundus Spreng., Trema micrantha (L Blume, Cassia ferruginea (Schrad Schrad ex DC, Senna macranthera (DC ex Collad. H. S. Irwin and Barney and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae. For each species, litter bags were distributed on and fixed to the soil surface of soil-filled pots (in a greenhouse, or directly to the surface of the same soil type in a natural forest (field. Every 30 days, the dry weight and soil basal respiration in both environments were determined. The cumulative decomposition of leaves varied according to the species, leaf nutrient content and environment. In general, the decomposition rate was lowest for Aegiphila sellowiana and fastest for Bauhinia forficate and Schinus terebinthifolius. This trend was similar under the controlled conditions of a greenhouse and in the field. The selection of species with a differentiated decomposition pattern, suited for different stages of the recovery process, can help improve soil restoration.

  14. Developing relationships between environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, B.M.; Willits, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to model the relationships between the environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum with the end-goal of producing a model appropriate for use in the dynamic control of a greenhouse environment. The plants used were Dendranthema grandiflora cv. 'Spice'. The model developed uses Richards' growth equation (Richards, 1969) as its base. Adaptations were made to Richards' growth equation to explicitly include the effects of day and night temperature, daily PPF (photosynthetic photon flux), end-of-day red to far-red ratio, and position of the internode on the stem on internode elongation. The model fit the observed final length data reasonably well (R2 = 0.89). Sensitivity analyses indicated that increasing day temperature had a positive effect on internode length while increasing night temperature had a negative effect, with night temperature having a considerably larger effect than the effect of day temperature. The analyses suggests that both high and low end-of-day red to far-red ratios will produce increased lengths and that increasing daily PPF will produce decreased lengths. The analyses also suggests that internodes which develop later on the plant will generally have larger lengths as reflected by the measured data

  15. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND VARIOUS SAMPLES PREPARATION METHODS FOR In Vitro GAS TEST OF TWO TROPICAL FEEDS

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    J. Daryatmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3x2 factorial experimental design was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition ofSesbania grandiflora (SG and Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC leaves and to measure the effects ofpreparation and drying methods on the in vitro gas production in the presence and absence of PEG. Thecollected samples were divided into three groups: One group was fresh samples (F. The second groupwas oven-dried at 55°C for 48h (OD and the last group was freeze-dried at –40°C for 72h (FD. Resultsshowed that the mean value of gas production from fresh SG and MEC samples were not significantlyhigher (P<0.05 than from FD and OD samples. In SG and MEC, the mean value of gas production ofFD was not significant compared to OD samples (P>0.05. Gas production from samples added withPEG were higher (P<0.05 than without PEG. In conclusion, the preparation and drying methods of feedsamples could affect the volume of gas production. The addition of PEG in SG and MEC resulted inhigher gas production volumes.

  16. Chromosome numbers and DNA content in some species of Mecardonia (Gratiolae, Plantaginaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, María M.; Angulo, María B.; Greppi, Julián A.; Bugallo, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic characterization and determination of DNA content by flow cytometry of five species of Mecardonia Ruiz et Pavon, 1798 (Gratiolae, Plantaginaceae) was performed. This is the first study of nuclear DNA content carried out in the genus. Mitotic analysis revealed a base chromosome number x = 11 for all entities and different ploidy levels, ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 22) to hexaploid (2n = 6x = 66). The results include the first report of the chromosome numbers for Mecardonia flagellaris (Chamisso & Schlechtendal, 1827) (2n = 22), Mecardonia grandiflora (Bentham) Pennell, 1946 (2n = 22), Mecardonia kamogawae Greppi & Hagiwara, 2011 (2n = 66), and Mecardonia sp. (2n = 44). The three ploidy levels here reported suggest that polyploidy is common in Mecardonia and appear to be an important factor in the evolution of this genus. The 2C- and 1Cx-values were also estimated in all the species. The 2C-values ranged from 1.91 to 5.29 pg. The 1Cx-values ranged from 0.88 to 1.03 pg. The general tendency indicated a decrease in the 1Cx-value with increasing ploidy level. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to taxonomy of the genus. PMID:28123693

  17. Influence of Boiling, Steaming and Frying of Selected Leafy Vegetables on the In Vitro Anti-inflammation Associated Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8% and P. edulis (by 44%; hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%, C. asiatica (by 400%, and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%; proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100% when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.

  18. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos na região central de Rondônia Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in central region of Rondônia state, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vargas Schons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento em 12 municípios da região central de Rondônia sobre a presença de plantas tóxicas e ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação em ruminantes e equídeos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido mediante a utilização de um questionário aplicado a médicos veterinários, agrônomos, zootecnistas e produtores rurais, com o objetivo de identificar as principais plantas tóxicas que ocorrem na região. Trinta e quatro entrevistados relataram casos de intoxicação por uma ou mais plantas comprovadamente tóxicas como: Palicourea marcgravii (12 surtos, Palicourea grandiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (sete surtos cada e Palicourea juruana, Brachiaria radicans, Brachiaria brizantha e Manihot esculenta (dois surtos cada. Em ovinos, foram relatados dois surtos de fotossensiblização por Brachiaria decumbens e um surto de mortalidade por Palicourea grandiflora. Dos 34 surtos relatados em bovinos pelos entrevistados, 374 (8,9% animais foram afetados e 311 (7,4% morreram, de um total de 4.192 de ambos os sexos sob risco. De um total de 250 ovinos sob risco, três surtos de intoxicação por plantas foram relatados e afetaram 28 animais, dos quais 20 morreram. Amorimia sp., previamente desconhecida como tóxica, foi identificada como causa de morte súbita em 32% das propriedades. Quinze surtos de cólica em equídeos que pastavam cultivares de Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Tanzânia' e 'Mombaça' durante o período das chuvas foram, também, observados. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstram a importância significativa das intoxicações por plantas como causa de perdas econômicas para a pecuária da região central do Estado de Rondônia. Com a realização deste trabalho, o número de plantas tóxicas para ruminantes com a confirmação de ocorrência de surtos com mortalidade na região passou de um para nove, o que confirma que um trabalho sistemático de investigação é necessário para o conhecimento da import

  19. Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (λ=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

  20. Vase life and rehydration capacity of dry-stored gladiolus flowers at low temperature

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    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Normally, it is not recommended the conditioning of gladiolus stems in water during storage or transport. Hydration of petals may accelerate flower opening, even at a low temperature, which compromises quality at marketing moment. However, for this species, neither the effect of prolonged dry cold storage nor its behavior when transferred to water at room temperature has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the vase life and the rehydration capacity of gladiolus flowers ( Gladiolus grandiflora Hort. after dry storage at low temperature. Flower stems of cultivars Blue Frost, Gold Field, Traderhorn, and Jester were dry-stored at a temperature of 5 ± 1 ºC and relative humidity of 85% for 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Control stems remained always in deionized water. After storage, they were returned to the water at room temperature and evaluated for vase life (adopting the discard criterion when 50% of the basal flowers displayed loss of color and wilting, fresh weight change (%, water uptake rate and transpiration rate, as well as relative water content of the petals (%. In dry cold storage conditions, for up to 36h, the vase life was not affected although incomplete rehydration of the flowers. Rehydration capacity of the stem is linked to the staggered opening of flowers along the inflorescence.

  1. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  2. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  3. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  4. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  5. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  7. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

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    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in post-dispersal predation on Prunus and Uvularia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L; Willson, Mary F

    1985-08-01

    We investigated effects of seed density, distance from parent, and habitat (woods, open field) on post-dispersal predation risk (chiefly by rodents) for seeds of Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Additional study of the habitat effect (woods, open field, treefall gap) was made with seeds of Prunus avium (Rosaceae) and Uvularia grandiflora (Liliaceae). Density of Prunus seeds (range 2-40 seeds/group) did not affect predation risk for individual seeds. Distance from parent plants did influence predation risk, which was greatest directly beneath parents. This distance effect primarily comprised a sharp drop in risk within 2 m of parents, a distance too small to generate a "spacing rule" for conspecifics.We found that habitat strongly influenced predation intensity. Rates of removal of Prunus seeds were higher in woods than in open fields, except when overall predation intensity was very low and no pattern could be discerned. Prunus seed removal rates were higher in closed woods than in treefall gaps. Consequently, a Prunus seed will more likely escape predation if dispersed to an open site. In contrast, Uvularia seed removal rates were higher in open fields than in woods but did not differ between closed woods and tree-fall gaps.Predation intensity was spatially patchy between and within experimental arrays, but was consistent over time at some specific points in space, possibly reflecting home ranges of seed predators.

  9. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

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    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  10. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigiano, R.N.; Scott, M.C.; Caetano-Anolles, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  11. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  12. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  13. Latex peptidases of Calotropis procera for dehairing of leather as an alternative to environmentally toxic sodium sulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopéz, Laura M I; Viana, Carolina A; Errasti, María E; Garro, María L; Martegani, José E; Mazzilli, Germán A; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Araújo, Ídila M S; da Silva, Rafaela O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-09-01

    Dehairing of crude leather is a critical stage performed at the beginning of its processing to obtain industrially useful pieces. Tanneries traditionally apply a chemical process based on sodium sulfide. Since this chemical reactive is environmentally toxic and inefficiently recycled, innovative protocols for reducing or eliminating its use in leather depilation are welcomed. Therefore, latex peptidases from Calotropis procera (CpLP) and Cryptostegia grandiflora (CgLP) were assayed for this purpose. Enzyme activity on substrates representative of skin such as hide powder azure (U HPA ), elastin (U E ), azocollagen (U AZOCOL ), keratin (U K ), and epidermis (U EP ) was determined, while depilation activity was assayed on cow hide. Only CpLP was active against keratin (13.4 U K ) and only CgLP was active against elastin (0.12 U E ). CpLP (93.0 U HPA , 403.6 U AZOCOL , 36.3 U EP ) showed higher activity against the other substrates than CgLP (47.6 U HPA , 261.5 U AZOCOL , 8.5 U EP ). In pilot assays, CpLP (0.05% w/v with sodium sulfite 0.6% w/v as activator) released hairs from cow hide pieces. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the hide revealed that the dehairing process was complete and the leather structure was preserved. The proteolytic system of C. procera is a suitable bioresources to be exploited by tanneries.

  14. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination.

  15. DISTRIBUIÇÃO NATURAL DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM ÁREAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ANTROPIZAÇÃO E RELAÇÃO COM OS ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DO SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson Fernandes Calgaro

    2015-04-01

    solo foram superiores. Das 97 espécies encontradas, seis têm potencial para serem utilizadas num programa de conservação genética in situ. São elas: Astronium fraxinifolium, Terminalia argentea, Curatella americana, Cupania vernalis, Qualea jundiahy e Andira cuyabensis.

  16. Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região Floristic composition of trees in a seasonal semidecious forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and species of greater ocurrence in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação, conservação da biodiversidade e apoio à legislação ambiental. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição florística de um trecho da Reserva da Biologia, em Viçosa, MG, em regeneração natural há 80 anos, bem como realizar uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos conduzidos na região, fornecendo, assim, informações que poderão embasar estudos sobre recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade dos fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Os dados florísticos foram obtidos mediante a amostragem fitossociológica em 1 ha, pelo método de parcelas contíguas, em que todos os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência de tronco >15 cm a 1,30 m do solo foram amostrados. Registraram-se 130 espécies, distribuídas em 94 gêneros, pertencentes a 38 famílias botânicas. A análise desses dados conjuntamente com de outros levantamentos realizados em trechos distintos da Reserva da Biologia, no campus da UFV, denota a marcante influência de variáveis ambientais locais (topografia, declividade, face de exposição solar e disponibilidade hídrica na distribuição da riqueza florística desse fragmento. Casearia decandra, Guapira opposita, Apuleia leiocarpa, Dalbergia nigra, Jacaranda macratha, Matayba elaeagnoides, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Bathysa nicholsonii, Carpotroche brasiliensis, Luehea grandiflora, Mabea fistulifera, Ocotea odorifera, Sorocea bonplandii e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium foram as espécies de maior ocorrência nos fragmentos estudados na região de Viçosa e adjacências, apresentando potencial para uso na recuperação florestal de áreas degradadas.There is a great demand for ecological studies on forests focusing on biodiversity conservation and establishment of environmental laws. The major need, however, is

  17. Solos e vegetação nativa remanescente no Município de Campinas Soil and native vegetation remnant in Campinas, SP, Brazil

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    Ivan Carlos de Moraes Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos e classes de solos associados à ocorrência de remanescentes de cerrado e de floresta nativa em Campinas, SP, e identificar espécies indicadoras desses ambientes. Vinte e sete fragmentos de vegetação nativa foram estudados. Foi realizada a caracterização morfológica, classificação e coleta do solo para análises, bem como o levantamento florístico-fitossociológico do estrato arbóreo. A análise de correspondência canônica identificou as variáveis mais bem correlacionadas com a distribuição das espécies e identificou 15 variáveis que explicaram 31% da variância nos dois primeiros eixos. A classificação dos solos discriminou as fitofisionomias estudadas, Argissolos associados às matas e Latossolos aos cerrados, indício de que baixa fertilidade, baixa retenção de água e drenagem acentuada do solo favorecem o estabelecimento de cerrado. Parâmetro "n" da curva de retenção de água, densidade, H+Al, Ca, Al, K e Mg trocáveis, macroporos e matéria orgânica do solo foram os atributos dos solos mais efetivos nessa diferenciação fitofisionômica. A barreira química imposta pelo excesso de Al e deficiência de Ca no horizonte B e a baixa retenção de água nos solos sob cerrado favorecem as espécies Luehea grandiflora, Persea willdenovii, Xylopia aromatica e Erythroxylum daphnites, abundantes e exclusivamente encontradas nos fragmentos de cerrado.The objective of this work was to identify soil attributes and classes associated to the occurrence of forest and tropical savannah remnants in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Twenty seven native vegetation fragments were studied. Soil morphological, chemical, and physical characterization were carried out, along with floristic-phytosociological survey of the tree stratum. Canonic correspondence analysis identified variables better correlated with plant species distribution. Fifteen environment variables explained 31% of the variance of

  18. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  19. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas em algodoeiro de fibra colorida 'BRS Safira' Weeds interference periods in naturally colored cotton 'BRS Safira'

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    Gleibson Dionízio Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho, identificar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas no algodoeiro de fibra colorida (BRS Safira, bem como avaliar a comunidade infestante nesta cultura. O experimento foi realizado no município de Missão Velha, CE, região do Cariri, na safra 2007/2008. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: modalidades de competição (com e sem competição de plantas daninhas e período de interferência das plantas daninhas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio de dois índices fitossociológicos (Dominância relativa e Importância relativa. Os períodos iniciais de controle ou de convivência após a emergência da cultura foram 0-20; 0-40; 0-60; 0-80 dias após a emergência (DAE e 0-colheita. Os períodos de interferência foram determinados considerando-se perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; realizando-se análise de regressão pelo modelo sigmoidal de Boltzman, utilizando-se os dados de produtividade para cada modalidade de competição. Dentre as 21 espécies observadas na comunidade infestante, destacaram-se: Richardia grandiflora, Amaranthus deflexus, Eleusine indica, Merremia aegyptia, Eragrotis pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus e Waltheria indica. Os períodos críticos anteriores à interferência foram, respectivamente, 8; 14 e 20 DAE, para perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; e os períodos críticos de prevenção a interferências, foram, respectivamente, 100; 82 e 60 dias.This study aimed to determine the late-season presence of weeds in reddish brown cotton (cultivar BRS Safira and the critical times for removing weeds. The experiment was carried out in the area of Embrapa in Missão Velha-CE, Brazil, located at 7º42'07" S latitude and 39º24'18" WGr. longitude, during the 2007/2008 season. The treatments consisted of two control groups: weed-free crop during the initial period after crop emergency

  20. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

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    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  1. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

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    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  2. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

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    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  3. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  4. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  5. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  6. Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G

    2001-04-01

    Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses.

  7. Mutações induzidas e uso de podas repetidas in vitro visandoao melhoramento de crisântemo.

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    Rodrigo Rocha Latado

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi induzir mutações em plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. in vitro, seguido de podas repetidas in vitro. Aproximadamente 105 plantas in vitro do cultivar Ingrid foram irradiadas com dose de 22,5 Gy de raios-gama e o avanço das gerações foi realizado por meio de podas repetidas in vitro com o subcultivo de ápices caulinares e segmentos de caule contendo gemas axilares. Durante o período de florescimento avaliou-se a freqüência de obtenção de mutantes e o tamanho de setores mutados, em plantas da geração Mv,-meristema apical até m 1 v 3' Como resultado, observou-se um total de 93 plantas mutantes (1 3,3 % do total de plantas avaliadas, sendo a maioria, mutantes de coloração de inflorescência. Não se observaram plantas mutantes no controle. Como efeito das podas, notou-se uma tendência à redução na freqüência de mutantes e ao aumento no tamanho dos setores mutados, a partir da geração MV,-gema axilar até a geração M1V3' Entre os nove diferentes tipos, três mutantes de coloração de inflorescência (marrom-avermelhado, chá-rosa e variegado estão sendo multiplicados para possível lançamento como novos cultivares.

  8. Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraloto, Christopher; Morneau, François; Bonal, Damien; Blanc, Lilian; Ferry, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between habitat association and physiological performance in four congeneric species pairs exhibiting contrasting distributions between seasonally flooded and terra firme habitats in lowland tropical rain forests of French Guiana, including Virola and Iryanthera (Myristicaceae), Symphonia (Clusiaceae), and Eperua (Caesalpiniaceae). We analyzed 10-year data sets of mapped and measured saplings (stems >150 cm in height and or =10 cm dbh) across 37.5 ha of permanent plots covering a 300-ha zone, within which seasonally flooded areas (where the water table never descends below 1 m) have been mapped. Additionally, we tested the response of growth, survival, and leaf functional traits of these species to drought and flood stress in a controlled experiment. We tested for habitat preference using a modification of the torus translation method. Strong contrasting associations of the species pairs of Iryanthera, Virola, and Symphonia were observed at the sapling stage, and these associations strengthened for the tree stage. Neither species of Eperua was significantly associated with flooded habitats at the sapling stage, but E. falcata was significantly and positively associated with flooded forests at the tree stage, and trees of E. grandiflora were found almost exclusively in nonflooded habitats. Differential performance provided limited explanatory support for the observed habitat associations, with only congeners of Iryanthera exhibiting divergent sapling survival and tree growth. Seedlings of species associated with flooded forest tended to have higher photosynthetic capacity than their congeners at field capacity. In addition, they tended to have the largest reductions in leaf gas exchange and growth rate in response to experimental drought stress and the least reductions in response to experimental inundation. The corroboration of habitat association with differences in functional traits and, to a lesser extent, measures of performance

  9. Design and development of green roof substrate to improve runoff water quality: plant growth experiments and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Raja, Franklin D

    2014-10-15

    Many studies worldwide have investigated the potential benefits achievable by transforming brown roofs of buildings to green roofs. However, little literature examined the runoff quality/sorption ability of green roofs. As the green roof substrate is the main component to alter the quality of runoff, this investigation raises the possibility of using a mixture of low-cost inorganic materials to develop a green roof substrate. The tested materials include exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, crushed brick and sand along with organic component (coco-peat). Detailed physical and chemical analyses revealed that each of these materials possesses different characteristics and hence a mix of these materials was desirable to develop an optimal green roof substrate. Using factorial design, 18 different substrate mixes were prepared and detailed examination indicated that mix-12 exhibited desirable characteristics of green roof substrate with low bulk density (431 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (39.4%), air filled porosity (19.5%), and hydraulic conductivity (4570 mm/h). The substrate mix also provided maximum support to Portulaca grandiflora (380% total biomass increment) over one month of growth. To explore the leaching characteristics and sorption capacity of developed green roof substrate, a down-flow packed column arrangement was employed. High conductivity and total dissolved solids along with light metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were observed in the leachates during initial stages of column operation; however the concentration of ions ceased during the final stages of operation (600 min). Experiments with metal-spiked deionized water revealed that green roof substrate possess high sorption capacity towards various heavy metal ions (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd). Thus the developed growth substrate possesses desirable characteristics for green roofs along with high sorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  11. The role of birds and insects in pollination shifts of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pérez, María L; López, Josefa; Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Vargas, Pablo; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2013-10-01

    The mixed vertebrate-insect pollination system is rare in Holarctic plants. Phylogenetic relationships of 116 Scrophularia taxa were investigated based on two plastid (ndhF and trnL-trnF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions. A wider time-calibrated analysis of ndhF sequences of the Lamiales revealed that Scrophularia diverged as early as in the Miocene (<22 Ma). Results of maximum-likelihood optimizations supported wasp pollination as the ancestral pollination system from which other systems derived (hoverfly, mixed vertebrate-insect and bird systems). Four origins for a mixed vertebrate-insect (MVI) pollination system were inferred, in which two western Mediterranean species (S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora) and two island species (the Tirrenian S. trifoliata and the Canarian S. calliantha) were involved. S. calliantha is the only species in which a more complex MVI system, including pollination by the lizard Gallotia stehlini, has evolved. In addition, bird (hummingbird) floral traits found in the New Mexican S. macrantha appear to have been independently acquired. In contrast, we failed to find evidence for an ancient role of hummingbirds in the evolution of European Scrophularia. Indeed, paleontological data revealed that extinction of European hummingbirds (30-32 Ma) occurred earlier than the divergence of European MVI lineages of Scrophularia. In conclusion, our results showed that a role of birds in pollination of Scrophularia may not have been effective in the Miocene-Pliocene, but bird pollination that shows its origin in the Pliocene-Pleistocene is still operating independently in different islands and continents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  13. Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Salcedo, A; Kryvokhyzha, D; Glémin, S; Holm, K; Wright, S I; Lascoux, M

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the interpopulation diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the ancestors of the diploid species Capsella grandiflora and Capsella orientalis. Here, we investigated the genomic diversity of C. bursa-pastoris, its population structure and demographic history, following allopolyploidization in Eurasia. To that end, we genotyped 261 C. bursa-pastoris accessions spread across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, using genotyping-by-sequencing, leading to a total of 4274 SNPs after quality control. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three distinct genetic clusters in Eurasia: one cluster grouping samples from Western Europe and Southeastern Siberia, the second one centred on Eastern Asia and the third one in the Middle East. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) supported the hypothesis that C. bursa-pastoris underwent a typical colonization history involving low gene flow among colonizing populations, likely starting from the Middle East towards Europe and followed by successive human-mediated expansions into Eastern Asia. Altogether, these findings bring new insights into the recent multistage colonization history of the allotetraploid C. bursa-pastoris and highlight ABC and genotyping-by-sequencing data as promising but still challenging tools to infer demographic histories of selfing allopolyploids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  15. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  16. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on time of flowering in four short-day and four long-day species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, J.Y.C.; Hicklenton, P.R. (Agriculture Canada Research Station, Kentiville, NS (Canada)); Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on flowering phenology is a function of the photoperiodic response of the species involved. Four long-day plants, Achillea millefolium, Callistephus chinensis, Campanula isophylla, and Trachelium caeruleum, and four short-day plants, Dendranthema grandiflora, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pharbitis nil, and Xanthium pensylvanicum, were grown under inductive photoperiods (9 h for short day and 17 h for long day) at either 350 or 1000 [mu]l/l CO[sub 2]. Time of visible flower bud formation, flower opening, and final plant biomass were assessed. Elevated CO[sub 2] advanced flower opening in all four long-day species and delayed flowering in all four short-day species. In the long-day species, the effect of CO[sub 2] was primarily on bud initiation; all four species formed buds earlier at high CO[sub 2]. Bud development, the difference in time between flower opening and bud initiation, was advanced in only one long-day species, Callistephus chinensis. Mixed results were obtained for the short-day species. Elevated CO[sub 2] exerted no effects on bud initiation but delayed bud development in Dendranthema and Kalanchoe. In Xanthium, bud initiation rather than bud development was delayed. Data on bud initiation and development were not obtained for Pharbitis. The negative effect of CO[sub 2] upon phenology in the short-day species was not associated with negative effects on growth. Elevated CO[sub 2] increased plant size in both long-day and short-day species. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  18. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  19. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  20. Mechanosensing of stem bending and its interspecific variability in five neotropical rainforest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Chevolot, Malia; Lacointe, André; Rowe, Nick; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    In rain forests, sapling survival is highly dependent on the regulation of trunk slenderness (height/diameter ratio): shade-intolerant species have to grow in height as fast as possible to reach the canopy but also have to withstand mechanical loadings (wind and their own weight) to avoid buckling. Recent studies suggest that mechanosensing is essential to control tree dimensions and stability-related morphogenesis. Differences in species slenderness have been observed among rainforest trees; the present study thus investigates whether species with different slenderness and growth habits exhibit differences in mechanosensitivity. Recent studies have led to a model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strains model) that predicts a quantitative relationship between the applied sum of longitudinal strains and the plant's responses in the case of a single bending. Saplings of five different neotropical species (Eperua falcata, E. grandiflora, Tachigali melinonii, Symphonia globulifera and Bauhinia guianensis) were subjected to a regimen of controlled mechanical loading phases (bending) alternating with still phases over a period of 2 months. Mechanical loading was controlled in terms of strains and the five species were subjected to the same range of sum of strains. The application of the sum-of-strain model led to a dose-response curve for each species. Dose-response curves were then compared between tested species. The model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strain model) applied in the case of multiple bending as long as the bending frequency was low. A comparison of dose-response curves for each species demonstrated differences in the stimulus threshold, suggesting two groups of responses among the species. Interestingly, the liana species B. guianensis exhibited a higher threshold than other Leguminosae species tested. This study provides a conceptual framework to study variability in plant mechanosensing and demonstrated interspecific variability in mechanosensing.

  1. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Krasniqi, Feriz; Hoxha, Esat; Ademi, Hatixhe; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-28

    Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations.Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal taxa recorded in Kosovo often include those

  2. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Behxhet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1 to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2 to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the

  3. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  4. Anomalously high activities of 137Cs in soils and vegetation on and near a diabase outcrop in La Sierra de Lema, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of routine soil sampling to determine the 137 Cs background activities country-wide in Venezuela, it was decided to further investigate El Mirador (Lookout) area at the base of the Sierra de Lema mountain range. In April 2003 (A), soil samples were collected at eight sites on and around the edge of the diabase outcrop to confirm that this area had anomalously high 137 Cs activities. In July 2003 (B), not only soil samples were collected again, but also black mat, palm tree leaves and trunks, fruit bushes leaves and its fruit and fern leaves. The 137 Cs content was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy by a comparative method with reference materials. The 137 Cs activity values range from 16.3 to 30.8 Bq x kg -1 in the soil samples collected in July 2003, 20.7-32.1 Bq x kg -1 for the black mat, 26.3-38.4 Bq x kg -1 for the palm leaves, 16.8-31.2 Bq x kg -1 for the palm trunks and 17.6-27.3 Bq x kg -1 for the fruit bush leaves, while, the 137 Cs activity values for the whole fruit were between 23.4 and 30.7 Bq x kg -1 ; but, the value of the 137 Cs activity in the center of the fruit (the edible part) was 51.6 Bq x kg -1 , and the value of the 137 Cs activity for the fern leaves was 51.8 Bq x kg -1 . Thus, most of the 137 Cs activity values determined in the soil, black mat and vegetation samples from El Mirador (Lookout) were considered anomalously high with respect to those found near the equator and in other areas of Venezuela. Only the center of the fruit from the Clusia grandiflora bushes and the fern leaves had high activity ratios, about a factor of three and could be considered as biomonitors that concentrate and retain the 137 Cs. Finally, these anomalously high 137 Cs activities have been attributed not only to the rich organic soils, as sinks, but also due to the affect of the cloud forests. (author)

  5. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation

  6. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Voon-Ching; Ramli, Rosli; Bhassu, Subha; Wilson, John-James

    2018-01-01

    Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea , is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants). The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum , suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were detected from all of the faecal samples, suggesting that E

  7. Efeito de ácido giberélico, GA3, e GA4 + GA7 em pós-colheita de crisântemo e solidago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Laschii

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado no laboratório do Departamento de Horticultura da FCA/ UNESP, no período de 14 de novembro a 3 de dezembro de 1998. As hastes de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev e solidago (Solidago canadensis L. foram selecionadas e colocadas em solução de "pulsing", por 24 horas, visando avaliar as respostas aos seguintes tratamentos: Água (testemunha, GA3 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Gibb; GA3 20 mg.L-I; GA3 30 mg.L-I; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Vibe, GA4 + GA7 20 mg.L-1 e GA4 + GA7 30 mg.L-1. Após os tratamentos de "pulsing", as hastes foram colocadas em recipientes contendo 1.000 mL de água, que foi trocada a cada dois dias. Avaliou-se o número de dias até o descarte, tanto para hastes de solidago quanto para crisântemo, para cada tratamento testado. Avaliou--se também a qualidade das folhas de solidago conforme o seguinte critério: índice de qualidade (IQ = 3 (folhas verdes, IQ = 2 (folhas em início de amarelecimento e IQ = 1 (folhas amarelas ou queimadas. Pelos resultados concluiu-se que: hastes cortadas de solidago e crisântemo diferiram quanto às respostas aos tratamentos pós-colheita, em relação ao tipo de giberelina utilizada; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de hastes cortadas de solidago, e GA3 nas concentrações utilizadas no experimento apresentaram efeito deletério nas folhas de solidago; GA3 10 e 20 mg.L-1 foram mais eficientes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemo.

  8. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave

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    Voon-Ching Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea, is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants. The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Methods Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. Results A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Discussion Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum, suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were

  9. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

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    Mohammad O. Faruque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF, Use Value (UV, Frequency of Citation (FC, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Relative Importance Index (RI. The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI. A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28% whereas pastes (63.03% were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species and the Lamiaceae (12 species. The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43, Zingiber officinale (0.41, Congea tomentosa (0.40, Matricaria chamomilla (0.33 and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28. The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25. The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83. Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  10. ombrófila mista montana no período entre 1979 e 2000

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    Luciano Budant Schaaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The floristic and structure alterations were studied in an Ombrophyllous Mixed Forest located in São João do Triunfo (Paraná State - Brazil. Nine plots of 1ha, first evaluated in 1979, were recovered and, measured in 2000. In 1979, all the trees with dbh ≥ 20 cm were identified and tagged, and they had their commercial height and diameter measured. In 2000, based on the same criteria described before, the trees which had not been counted in 1979 were considered as ingrowth, and the missing ones were considered mortality. In 1979, 2133 individuals, 51 species and 29 families were found and in the 2000 survey, 2202 individuals, 55 species and 31 families ware journal. In both surveys, the families Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Canellaceae were the most represented in terms of quantity of individuals. Although in both times more than 50 species were counted, in 1979 only 7 species (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porous, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora and Campomanesia xanthocarpa represented 80.4% of the individuals and, in 2000, the same 7 species plus Ocotea corymbosa covered 80.9% of the total number of individuals. Hovenia dulcis, exotic specie, based on the number of adult and regeneration individuals, became to be seen as a threat to the autocnons species. All the structural indicators which were analyzed showed that the community has become more mature during the studied period and that the Araucaria angustifolia increased its dominance. There was a sensible increase of the occupancy grade, indicated by the absolutely dominance that changes from 23.52 m2/ha in 1979, to 28.53 m2/ha, in 2000, an increase of 21.3%. These results indicate that this community is still in development, and has not yet found its equilibrium. It also demonstrates that the Araucaria dominance increased in this period, suggesting that this profile can even increase future in the

  11. Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista--A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

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    Anyanwu, Gabriel O; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Onyeneke, Chukwu E; Rauf, Khalid

    2015-12-04

    The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases. They serve as an anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic and contraceptive. This review aims to provide for the first time a repository of ethnopharmacological information while critically evaluating the relation between the traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Anthocleista species so as to unveil opportunities for future research. A search for relevant information on Anthocleista species was performed on scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, PubChem and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden and PROTA) and books, PhD and MSc dissertations for un-published resources. Out of the 14 species of Anthocleista, 6 have been reported in literature to be widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The six species include: A. djalonensis, A. vogelii, A. nobilis, A. grandiflora, A. schweinfurthii, and A. liebrechtsiana. The chemical compounds isolated from Anthocleista species fall into the class of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, nor-secoiridoids, xanthones, phytosterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, and others of which majority of the compounds were isolated from A. djalonensis and A. vogelii. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on the crude extracts, fractions and few isolated compounds of Anthocleista species showed antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, hypotensive, spasmogenic, anti-obesity, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti

  12. Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae).

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    Ocampo, Gilberto; Columbus, J Travis

    2012-04-01

    Portulaca is the only genus in Portulacaceae and has ca. 100 species distributed worldwide, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Molecular data place the genus as one of the closest relatives of Cactaceae, but phylogenetic relationships within Portulaca are barely known. This study samples 59 species of Portulaca, 10 infraspecific taxa, and three cultivars, including multiple samples of widespread species. The sampled taxa represent all subgenera in the classifications of von Poellnitz (1934), Legrand (1958), and Geesink (1969) and come from around the world. Nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF, trnT-psbD intergenic spacer, and ndhA intron DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to produce a hypothesis of relationships within Portulaca. Divergence times were estimated using Hawaiian endemics for calibration, and biogeographical patterns were examined using a Bayes-DIVA approach. In addition, the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus was investigated using probabilistic models. The analyses strongly support the monophyly of Portulaca, with an age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of 23 Myr. Within Portulaca are two major lineages: the OL clade (comprising opposite-leaved species) distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australia, and the AL clade (comprising alternate to subopposite-leaved species), which is more widespread and originated in the New World. Sedopsis, a genus sometimes recognized as distinct from Portulaca based on a long corolla tube, is nested within the OL clade and does not merit taxonomic recognition. Samples of Portulaca grandiflora, Portulaca halimoides, and Portulaca oleracea were found to be non-monophyletic. It is hypothesized that the ancestral distribution area of Portulaca included southern hemisphere continents and Asia. The OL clade remained restricted to the Old World (except Portulaca quadrifida, a pantropical weed), while the AL clade, with a South American origin, was able to disperse multiple

  13. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

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    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  14. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

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    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m -2 . Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m -2 , respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m -2 ). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  15. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O.; Uddin, Shaikh B.; Barlow, James W.; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  16. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  17. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O; Uddin, Shaikh B; Barlow, James W; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  18. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  19. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

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    Cho YY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yeon Cho,1 Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Jeong-Han Kim,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea; 2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1, were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 µM increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 µM did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1 in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. Keywords: honokiol, human hepatocytes, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

  20. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

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    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  1. Dinâmica da estrutura da comunidade de lauráceas no período 1995-2004 em uma floresta de araucária no sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil.

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    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies da família Lauraceae estão entre as mais comuns na Floresta de Araucária. Elas possuem bom potencial silvicultural e econômico, mas são pouco estudadas. Este trabalho trata das mudanças estruturais no período 1995-2004 de oito espécies da família Lauraceae ocorrentes em um fragmento florestal localizado no centro-sul do estado do Paraná. As espécies foram analisadas pelos indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 10 anos de dinâmica estrutural, a família Lauraceae, de maneira geral, manteve inalterada sua posição de importância na comunidade. Observou-se que as Lauráceas passam por aumento de densidade, porque o recrutamento está sendo maior que a mortalidade. Já o crescimento das Lauráceas tem sido muito baixo, tanto em diâmetro como em área basal e volume. Embora a maior parte das Lauráceas apresente um padrão dinâmico lento, algumas espécies passam por um intenso processo de mudanças, como é o caso da canela-amarela (Nectandra grandiflora Nees & Mart. ex Nees, que aumentou a maioria dos seus indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos, constituindo-se na espécie de maior destaque entre as analisadas. Essa espécie apresenta recrutamento muito superior à mortalidade, distribuição diamétrica decrescente e ampla distribuição espacial. Esses elementos estão tornando essa espécie em uma das três mais importantes em toda a comunidade, juntamente com a araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e a erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.. Concluiu-se que, em 10 anos, já é possível distinguir processos ecológicos importantes que podem servir como indicativos em Planos de Manejo para Florestas semelhantes de Araucária.

  2. CRUZAMIENTOS INTRA E INTERESPECIFICOS EN TURNERA , SERIE CANALIGERAE

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    María Mercedes Arbo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Canaligerae es una de las 9 series del género Turnera. Las especies de esta serie tienen la morfología floral más avanzada, y son la única serie conocida hasta ahora con número básico x = 5. Un programa de cruzamientos controlados se llevó a cabo entre  13 especies, cuatro de ellos con citotipos diploides y tetraploides,totalizando 17 accesiones de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de América. La producción de híbridos se utilizó para determinar el grado de afinidad entre las entidades. La producción de los híbridos no viables, buenas semillas que no germinan, semillas vanas y el éxito de los cruces no fueron considerados como fracasos Sólo la producción de híbridos viables fue consideradas como éxitos. De las 136 combinaciones posibles (contando cada cruce y su recíproco a ser una cruz 53 híbridos y fracasos 83 fueron recuperados. La capacidad de cruzamiento entre las especies diploides indica que las especies con flores de color azul-blanca (T.caerulea, T.sunnamensis y T.grandiflora son un grupo estrechamente relacionado, y lo mismo ocurre con las especies de flores amarillas (T.scabra, T.subulata, T. Krapovickasii y T.concinna. Las especies con flores de color azul-blanco son genéticamente aisladas no sólo de las especies con flores amarillas, sino también del resto de las especies estudiadas aquí. T.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen estar también genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. T.aff.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen también estar genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. Por otro lado, los híbridos intraespecíficos entre citotipos señala la continuidad genética entre los individuos 2x y 4x que pertenecen a la misma especie. Alopolyploids (T.grandidentata, T.orientalis, T.ulmifolia y T. Aurelii tener una gama más amplia de cruzabilidad probablemente debido a la presencia de genomas diferentes en sus cromosomas

  3. [Investigations on the inheritance of the charactergrandiflora inPetunia×hybrida Vilm : II. The use of tetraploidgrandiflora lines for the breeding of newsuperbissima forms, especially those with yellow flowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Philipp, R

    1968-01-01

    1. In the diploid petunias of the class ofgrandiflora the dominant alleleG at thegrandiflora locus which determines the character of large flowers is normally linked to a recessive lethal genel which eliminates zygotes and simultaneously diminishes the chance of fertilization of the pollen transferring it. Large flowered petunia plants in the class ofgrandiflora are therefore normally heterozygous with respect to the alleles of thegrandiflora locus and have the genotypeGl/gL. Grandiflora homozygotesGl/GL orGL/GL originate from rare crossover events, and so does the genotypeGL/gl. 2. Since the very bright leaf color of thegrandiflora homozygotes reduces their vigor, the breeding of homozygous large flowered varieties has no practical importance. A special interest therefore arises for the genotypeGL/gl because, in spite of heterozygosity, the offspring do not include undesirable small-flowered plants with the exception of some originating from rare combinations of crossover gametes. 3. The tetraploid genotypeGL/GL/gl/gl was produced by colchicine treatment. Analysis of the offsprings of the next two generations showed that in tetraploid material the zygotic effect of the lethal gene works in the same way as in diploids, producing again automatic elimination of small-flowered plants. Moreover, it was found that gametes of the genotypegl/gl can be transferred not only by egg-cells but also by the pollen. 4. Consequently, it is possible to achieve an automatic elimination of the small-flowered plants also in the tetraploid class ofsuperbissima. This may be done by replacing the linkage groupgL ofsuperbissima petunias by thegl type of the artificially produced new tetraploid material. Homozygous large-flowered plants do not occur in tetraploid material because gametes of the genotypeGG are not transferable by the pollen. 5. Particularly the above mentioned qualities, that is the crossability to tetraploid petunias of the class ofsuperbissima and the possibility of

  4. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento pós-transplantio de mudas de árvores em solo com excesso de metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Siqueira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos adversos dos metais pesados para as diversas formas de vida dificultam a recuperação de solos contaminados por estes elementos. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento e absorção de metais de mudas de cinco espécies arbóreas, transplantadas para misturas que continham diferentes proporções de um solo contaminado (PSC. Mudas de Senna multijuga (L.C. Rich. Irwin et Barneby (cássia verrugosa, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et Zucc. (açoita-cavalo, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (tamboril, Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (albizia e Senna macranthera (Collard. Irwin et Barneby (fedegoso, inoculadas e sem inoculação, foram transplantadas para as misturas de solos e desenvolvidas por 180 dias, no período de abril a novembro de 1996, em vasos, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, Lavras (MG. Verificou-se que a elevação na PSC na mistura reduziu o desenvolvimento das mudas e a colonização micorrízica (CM, sendo isto causado pela elevada absorção de metais pelas plantas, especiamente, de Cd e Zn. A inoculação favoreceu o crescimento das mudas após transplantio, sendo esse efeito mais evidente nas misturas de solo com baixa PSC. A CM foi reduzida de 70 a 90% no solo não contaminado para valores próximos de zero na mistura com alta PSC. Os níveis críticos de toxidez (redução de 10% na matéria seca das plantas inoculadas dos metais no solo foram, em mg dm-3, de 83, 57, 153, 256 e 16, para o Zn, e de 1,3; 0,9; 0,8; 4,0 e 1,6, para Cd, para açoita-cavalo, cássia verrugosa, fedegoso, tamboril e albizia, respectivamente. Observando esses níveis críticos, as plantas não inoculadas apresentaram produção de matéria seca relativa, média para todas as espécies, de apenas 39%, evidenciando os benefícios da inoculação para o crescimento pós-transplantio das mudas. Esses benefícios relacionaram-se com menores

  5. Estudios ecológicos en el Paramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia I. Ubicación geográfica, factores climáticos y edáficos Estudios ecológicos en el Paramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia I. Ubicación geográfica, factores climáticos y edáficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Reinhard

    1976-09-01

    .  Die pF-Werte bewegen sich im allgemeinen um 0,5. In der Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft sind sie immer niedriger als 0,5, den höchsten Wert wies die Calamagrostis effusa - Spiranthes vaginata - Gesellschaft mit 3, 85  auf. Laborversuche ergaben, daβ Geranium multiceps, Espeletia grandiflora und Hypericum goyanesii schon bei pF - Werten von 2,25 den permanenten  Welkepunkt erreichten, wodurch das Fehlen dieser Arten an dentrockensten Standorten des Páramos erklärt werden kann.En el Páramo de Cruz Verde, situado cerca de Bogotá, se realizaron estudios sobre las condiciones climáticas y edáficas de la región, a una altura de 3300 - 3400 m aproximadamente. La temperatura medida a 1 m de profundidad fue de 10,3° C. Se determinaron temperaturas del aire en las horas tempranas de la tarde entre 9°'C y 12,8° C a 1 m de altura. Mediciones de la radiación global dieron por resultado valores entre 0,19 y 0,51 cal/cm2 min para las mismas horas del día, bajo condiciones de cielo nublado.La velocidad del viento oscila normalmente entre 2 y 4 m/ sec. El viento sopla particularmente del sureste.  La precipitación anual total fue de 1800 mm aproximadamente. El mes más seco fue febrero (1971: 51,3 mm, 1972: 61 mm, los meses más humedos fueron junio (1972: 296,9 mm y julio (1971: 248,1 mm.  Como tipos de suelo se diferenciaron segUn JENNY"suelos humiferos andinos" de poca profundidad y "suelos humíferos de páramo" más profundos. Además se encuentran turberas en sitios más húmedos. Los suelos se distinguen por un alto contenido de carbono en las capassuperiores. Los contenidos de nitrógeno oscilan entre 0,97 y 1,60 g/l00 g de suelo seco.  Los valores de pH fluctúan entre 3,5 y 5,2 en los estratos superiores del suelo. Aumentan a mayor profundidad y se hallan entre 4,5 y 6,1 a 1m deprofundidad.  La menor capacidad de retención de agua se determinó en un suelo poco profundo bajo la asociación de Calamagrostis effusa y Spiranthes vaginata (84% de