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Sample records for quail coturnix japonica

  1. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  2. Profile Triglycerides Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica After Giving Turmeric (Curcuma longa Powder

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    Sukarman Hadi jaya Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the triglyceride profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica after being given the parameters of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder; feed intake, profiles of liver triglycerides, profiles of serum triglycerides and profiles of meat triglycerides. This study uses an experimental method with A Completely Randomized Design Pattern. Test animals used were 45 female Japanese quails were divided into 3 groups, namely; P0: quail were not given turmeric powder, P1: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 54 mg/quail/day, P3: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 108 mg/quail/day. Each group with 5 replications. Each repeat consists of 3 Japanese quails. Provision of treatment every day for 30 days starting from the age of 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan's test with 95% confidence interval (α = 0.05 level. Analysis of the data used is software Minitab software 16. Results showed that the levels of turmeric powder are given in Japanese quail significant (P˂0.05 on liver triglyceride levels, serum and Japanese quail meat but had no significant effect (P˃0.05 on consumption feed. The results showed that the optimal dose of turmeric powder to lower triglyceride levels of Japanese quail is 108 mg/quail/day as evidenced by the highest decrease in liver triglyceride profiles, profiles of serum triglycerides and triglyceride profiles of Japanese quail meat compared with other treatments.

  3. Ovarian radiographic and direct measurements of Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica submitted to light restriction

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    M. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Often, in pet birds, any stimulus to lay eggs is unwanted in order to reduce reproductive diseases and disorders. The objectives of this study were: to determine the time necessary to promote ovary involution after an eight hour photoperiod using laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica; to connect the ovarian radiographic measurements with egg production; and to compare these measurements with direct ovary data obtained at necropsy. Birds were separated into three groups: 12h/24d (control group - 12h photoperiod for 24 days, 8h/24d and 8h/36d (8h photoperiod for 24 and 36 days. After euthanasia, all cadavers were x-rayed to measure ovary length and height. Birds were necropsied to measure ovarian length and weight. Results: radiographic ovary length demonstrated strong and positive correlation (r=0.96 with direct ovary length of all three groups; laying quails showed higher ovary height (p=0.025 and length (p=0.009 than non-laying quails; eight hours of artificial light per day promotes ovary length (p=0.025 and weight (p=0.009 reduction. Conclusions: radiography can estimate the ovary measure and indicate posture; an eight hour photoperiod of 24 days is not enough to promote ovarian regression, while the use of reduced photoperiod for 36 days promotes significant ovary involution.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on mutability in male gametes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

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    Baumgartner, J [Vyskumny Ustav Chovu a Slachtenia Hydiny, Laboratorim Genetiky, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the mutability of developmental stages of male gametes of the japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), after irradiation with /sup 60/Co exposures (5.16; 15.48; and 30.96)x10/sup -2/C kg/sup -1/, i.e. 200, 600 and 1200 R, at an exposure rate of 8.59x10/sup -5/C kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/, i.e. O.33 R s/sup -1/, has shown that the rate of overall induced dominant lethality as well as the rate of mutation were highest in spermatocytes of the second order at all exposures. Starting from an exposure of 200 R the following values were found for lethal interference per 1 gamete for 1 R: spermatozoa 2.0x10/sup -3/, spermatides 1.95x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes II 6.1x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes I 4.06x10/sup -3/, spermatogonia in the process of differentiation 6.8x10/sup -3/. When analysing overall embryonic lethality, according to early and late lethality, dominant lethal mutations mainly manifested themsel--ves in the oviductal and germinal developmental periods, so that these periods can be considered as sensitive indices of genetic changes. The spermatogenic epithelium of the japanese quail was found to be greatly radioresistant since not even an exposure to 1200 R caused complete and permanent sterility.

  5. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

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    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  6. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

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    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  7. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

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    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  8. Effects of Propolis, Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen and Ronozyme Supplementation in Diets of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) on Yolk Lipid Peroxidation

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    Yılmaz S; Tatli Seven P; Kaya E

    2017-01-01

    This study discovers the possible effect propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen and Ronozyme supplementation in diets that can be beneficial for Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Total one hundred and sixty Japanese quails at 43 days of age were used and divided randomly into 4 replicate groups each containing 32 animals. The experimental groups as follows: control group was feed a basal diet, royal jelly group was added to the water with 500 mg/kg diet, propolis group was feed orally ...

  9. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

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    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  10. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

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    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  11. Aspects of the Genotype-Environment Interaction at the Japanese Quail (Coturnix-Coturnix Japonica

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    Teofil Oroian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the problems of genotype-environment interaction at three Coturnix Coturnix Japonica varieties. The environment where the experiment took place is perfect identically for all the activities, to ensure that the observed differences at the followed traits to be strictly attributed to the genotype differences. We analyzed the body weight, eggs weight, eggs large and small diameter, yolk and egg white weight, egg-shell weight. The data were statistically interpreted using the average and dispersal indices estimation, and the significance testing using Student test.

  12. Adenocarcinoma renal metastático em uma Codorna Japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metastatic renal adenocarcinoma in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uma codorna japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica, fêmea, adulta com 2 anos apresentou parada de postura, emagrecimento, aumento de volume abdominal e morte. Ao exame macroscópico, observou-se ascite, pulmão esquerdo difusamente esbranquiçado, massas esbranquiçadas, de aproximadamente 1,0cm de diâmetro, na região caudal do lobo direito do fígado e na serosa da moela; massas de 0,1 a 0,5cm no mesentério e serosa intestinal; e uma massa de 5,0x2,0cm na fossa do sinsacro, que acometia 90% do parênquima renal e estendia-se ao ovário e oviduto. Na avaliação histopatológica da neoformação renal, observou-se proliferação de células epiteliais formando túbulos, que muitas vezes não apresentavam lúmen, sustentados por um estroma fibrovascular escasso associado à necrose multifocal. As células neoplásicas eram cuboidais, núcleos redondos a ovalados, nucléolos evidentes, citoplasma abundante e eosinofílico, pleomorfismo moderado e poucas figuras mitóticas. Metástases foram observadas de forma difusa no ovário, oviduto e pulmão esquerdo; multifocal na serosa do intestino e focal no fígado e camadas muscular e serosa da moela. Na avaliação imuno-histoquímica, as células tumorais foram positivas para a citoqueratina (clones AE1+AE3 e negativas para a citoqueratina 5/6, o CD10 e a fosfatase alcalina placentária. De acordo com a localização, achados morfológicos e o perfil imuno-histoquímico, conclui-se que o presente relato trata-se de um adenocarcinoma renal metastático.A 2-year-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, female, which stopped egg production presented: weight loss, increased abdominal volume, and death. Macroscopically, it was observed: ascites, whitish left lung, whitish masses measuring 1.0cm in diameter in the caudal right lobe of the liver and in the gizzard serosa; 0.1-0.5cm masses in the mesentery and intestinal serosa; and a 5.0x2.0cm mass in synsacral area that encompassed 90% of the renal

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.

  14. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  15. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

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    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  16. Effects of selection for yolk cholesterol on growth and meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Marek Bednarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Descendants ( of S18 generation of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, selected for low (line 11, n=15 or for high (line 12, n=6 yolk cholesterol content were used for this experiment. The high (12 and low (11 lines were developed from a control egg type (line13 wild color plumage stock 07, from Poultry Breeding Station in Ivanka at Danube (Slovakia that was maintained without conscious selection. The results of selected lines were compared to this one from unselected lines, egg type (line 13, n=15 and meat type (line 8, n=15, to study productive performance (growth and carcass weight as well as meat quality traits (intramuscular collagen properties, fatty and cholesterol content. The birds were grown up to 35 days of age. Quails were fed ad libitum with commercial diets according to their ages. Animals had free access to water during the experiment. The body weight of the quails was controlled every week (from week 1 to 5. At the slaughter (at avg. weight of 104.0, 107.7, 110.6 g vs 209.3 g for lines 11, 12, 13 vs 8, respectively; P<0.05 the hot carcass weight was recorded and dressing percentage was calculated. Pectoralis superficialis muscles were removed from the carcasses to assess intramuscular collagen (IMC properties (collagen and crosslink concentrations, intramuscular lipid and cholesterol contents. Growth and slaughter performance, intramuscular fat percentage and IMC properties of Pectoralis superficialis were not different between the birds selected for low (line 11 and high (line 12 yolk cholesterol content and were also found to be similar between the quails of egg type and those selected for yolk cholesterol content (lines 11 and 12. Compared to the birds of egg type line and those selected for yolk cholesterol content, the quails of meat type had higher growth and carcass traits (P<0.05, while meat quality traits were found to be similar. The meat of the quails selected for low cholesterol in the egg yolk (line 11

  17. Efeito da ingestão de fumonisina B1 no peso corporal e na histopatologia de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Effect of fumonisin B1 on body weight and histopathology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fumonisina B1 (FB1 sobre o peso corpóreo e as vísceras (fígado, rim e coração de codorna poedeira japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica, devido ao escasso dado toxicológico nesta espécie. Quatro grupos, sendo cada um constituído de 32 codornas de linhagem comercial, receberam ração contendo FB1 nas concentrações de 0 (controle, 10, 50 e 250mg kg-1, durante 28 dias. Observou-se uma redução (P0,05, porém as aves do grupo 50 e 250mg kg-1 apresentaram aumento no peso relativo de fígado (PThis research was aimed at evaluating the effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 on body weight and viscera (liver, kidney and heart of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, due to the little toxicological data on this species. Four experimental groups of 32 commercial quails were designed and exposed to ingestion test with feed containing 0 (controls, 10, 50 or 250mg FB1 kg-1 feed, during 28 days. Birds of group 250mg FB1 kg-1 showed lower body weight (P0.05 among treatments. However, the relative weight of liver increased (P<0.05 in quail of groups received 50 and 250mg FB1/kg. Histological changes were observed only in the liver of groups receiving 50 and 250mgFB1 kg-1, which caused moderate biliary duct hyperplasia and multiple foci of hepatic necrosis. The data indicated that AFB1 at levels above 50mg kg-1 in laying Japanese quail.

  18. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  19. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  20. Study on the effect of dry extract of Tribulus terrestris on the forage consumption rate in japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Dimo PENKOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of Vemo Herb® additive on the forage consumption rate in Japanese quail (Pharaoh breed has been conducted. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks with 52 female and 16 male sexually matured Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica distributed in four groups: control group (without additive, first experimental group - 4 mg*kg-1 of live weight for 10 weeks; second experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the first five weeks of the study (after that the product was no more supplemented and third experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the whole study period. It was observed, a tendency of decreasing of the forage consumption rate for the whole experimental period (no statistical significance for all the experimental groups compared to the control group, but some of the weekly differences are significant.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Laxman Kumar Babu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Materials and Methods: A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T1 - Control diet, T2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T4 - Diet containing 15% FFS. Group body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was derived by dividing the feed consumed with the weekly body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds from each treatment were selected randomly and sacrificed by cervical dislocation to study the carcass traits expressed as % pre-slaughter live weight. At 5 weeks of age, about 2 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein of each selected bird, and serum samples were separated after centrifugation. Total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G ratio, calcium, phosphorus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were estimated in the serum. Results: The cumulative body weight gains from 1 to 5 weeks of age did not vary significantly between control and 5% FFS group. However, a linear decrease in body weight gain was observed by increasing the levels of FFS beyond 5% in the diet. The cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in case of birds under control group during 1-5 weeks of age as compared to birds fed FFS based diet (5%, 10%, and 15%. No statistical difference in cumulative feed conversion ratio could be noticed during 1-5 weeks of age. The eviscerated yield decreased and giblet weight increased due

  2. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

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    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Aris F. Pourlis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p egg samples were linearly increased with increasing the dietary HS ratio (p eggs (p egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Primadhani, M. S.; Swastike, W.; Sutrisno, J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on of male quail. Four hundred male quails were divided into four groups with five replications. The experiment is Completely Randomized Design and the data were analyzed by analyses of variants. The experimental diets were P0 = basal diet, P1 = 97% basal diet + 3% vegetables waste flour, P2 = 94% basal diet + 6% vegetables waste flour, and P3 = 91% basal diet + 9% vegetables waste flour. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and extract ether. Result showed that of the addition of vegetable waste flour in the diet had no effect on crude protein digestibility (P>0.05), however shown significant effect on dry matter (P digestibility.

  6. The Effects of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Over the Egg Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Mukaddes; ÇÖTELİOĞLU, Ülker

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the egg quality in 5 week-female Japanese quails was investigated. Hyperthyroidsm and hypothyroidism were achieved by mixing 0.4 mg/100 g. levatrocsyn-sodium and % 0.2 g. propylthiouracil (PTU) in to the food during the 5 weeks period, respectively. It was found that egg weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness values in both trial groups reduced (P

  7. Sex Determination of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica using with Zoometric Measurements

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    Tülin Çiçek Rathert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of sex determination in most poultry species causes significant financial losses for poultry production as birds cannot be separated at early stages of growth for meat or egg production. Therefore it is important to determine bird’s sex with zoometric parameters. This study was carried out to determine the sex of Japanese quails with zoometric measurements, such as live weight, body length, chest depth and chest width. Eighty-eight male and female Japanese quail chicks were used individually for live weight, chest depth (mm, chest width (mm and body length (mm with using digital scaled balance and caliper for every week over a period of six weeks. The weekly collected data were applied to t test for estimating the sex discrimination. The Pearson’s correlation was applied for examining the interrelationship between sex and biometric traits. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between live weight and body length beginning with the 2nd week. Therefore, zoometric measurement of these body traits is suitable for discriminating the sex of Japanese quails in early phase of life.

  8. Incorporation of radioactive zinc into the eggs of Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaka, Naonori; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Isao; Yuyama, Akira

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 65 Zn into eggs was investigated after single or daily intraperitoneal administration to laying Japanese quails. After a single intraperitoneal administration, 65 Zn appeared first in the 2nd egg yolks and reached the highest level in the 3rd and 4th ones, followed by a gradual decrease. The cumulative amount of 65 Zn in the egg yolks over a period of 3 weeks accounted for about 40% of dose. After daily intraperitoneal administration, the 6th-9th egg's yolks contained the highest radioactivity of the eggs examined. Whole-body retention patterns were also observed in both of the experiments. (auth.)

  9. Comparative metabolism and fate of fenvalerate in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and rats (Rattus norwegicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Menzer, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Adult Japanese quail were administered 100 mg/kg chlorophenyl-labeled [ 14 C]fenvalerate, α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate, for study of its distribution, elimination, and metabolism. Ninety percent of the administered dose was eliminated in the excreta within the first 24 h. In addition to fenvalerate, the following metabolites were present: benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,cyano(3-phenoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl ester [4'-OH-fenvalerate]; benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,(aminocarbonyl)(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester [CONH 2 -fenvalerate]; 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[Cl-V acid]; 4-chloro-α-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[4-OH-Cl-V acid]. In time course studies radiocarbon peaked at 3 h (9μg/g) in the liver and gradually declined, while in the blood it peaked within 2 h and fell quickly to an equilibrium value of 1.5 μg/mL blood. In liver microsomal and isolated heptatocyte preparations of Japanese quail and rat, the following metabolites were identified: Cl-V acid, 4-OH-Cl-V acid, 4'-OH-fenvalerate, CONH 2 -fenvalerate. Oxidation was found to be the predominant route of degradation either pre- or post-hydrolysis of the parent compound. Rapid excretion, lesser absorption, and faster metabolism probably explain the lower toxicity of fenvalerate to birds compared to rats

  10. The distribution of 14C-chloramphenicol in the Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgreen, L.-E; Biessmann, A.; Martin, K.; Salemi, M.A.; Wiese, B.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-labelled chloramphenicol after oral and intravenous administration to egg laying Japanese quail was studied by whole-body autoradiography. In the liver, kidneys, gizzard, intestinal contents (bile) and oviduct, the 14 C-concentration was higher than that of the blood short time after injection and remained higher than the blood up to 4 days. From 4 hrs, the concentration of 14 C in the egg yolks was higher than that of the blood and from 24 hrs the radioactivity in the albumen of the eggs in the oviduct was also higher than that of the blood. The peak concentration in the egg yolk was found in the second egg laid 2-4 days after administration of 14 C-chloramphenicol. In the albumen the maximum concentration was found in the first laid egg 24-48 hrs after administration. In the egg yolks, about 30% of the radioactivity represented unchanged chloramphenicol up to 5 days after administration. It was also shown that about 5% of the injected 14 c-chloramphenicol was exhaled as 14 CO 2 during the first 12 hrs and about 37% of the dose was excreted in the combined faeces and urine during the same period of time. (author)

  11. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

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    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  12. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes determinada com codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metabolizable energy of feedstuffs determined in japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento um foi realizado para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn de nove alimentos utilizando codornas japonesas em crescimento. No experimento dois, objetivou-se comparar formulações de rações utilizando EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja determinada para frangos de corte e poedeiras, com aquelas determinadas com codornas com 22 a 27 dias de idade e 65 dias de idade. No experimento um, foram utilizadas 400 codornas em crescimento recebendo uma dieta basal (DB e nove misturas compostas por 70% da DB + 30% dos alimentos testes, totalizando dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de dez aves. No experimento dois, 160 codornas européias em postura receberam três tratamentos durante três períodos de 15 dias de duração, com doze repetições de cinco aves. Os valores de EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg determinados para os alimentos de origem vegetal foram, respectivamente, 3.340 e 3.354 para o milho moído, 2.718 e 2.456 para o farelo de soja, 3.453 e 3.084 para a soja integral extrusada, 1.624 e 1.593 para o farelo de trigo, 4.558 e 3.992 para o farelo de glúten de milho, 3.329 e 3.378 para a farinha de mandioca e 1.238 e 1.223 para a farinha integral da vagem de algaroba e para os alimentos de origem animal, respectivamente, de 2874 e 2453 para a farinha de peixe e 3090 e 2791 para a farinha de vísceras. A EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja estimada com codornas não melhorou o consumo, produção, peso e conversão por massa de ovos, validando o uso da energia desses ingredientes determinada com frangos de corte e poedeiras para compor rações para codornas.The experiment one was carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected ME (AMEn of nine feedstuffs in Japanese quails. The objective of the experiment two was to compare diets formulated with AMEn of corn and soybean meal, usually fed to broilers and laying hens, with diets formulated

  13. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Kelsey Caetano-Anolles

    Full Text Available Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight. Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2, and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2. Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP, as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87 in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1 shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  14. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

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    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  15. Plasma Concentrations of Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Terbinafine When Delivered by an Impregnated, Subcutaneous Implant in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Redig, Patrick; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine. The implants were administered subcutaneously over the dorsum and between the scapulae. Blood was collected from birds before and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days after implant placement. Plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine, as appropriate. During the course of the study, targeted terbinafine concentrations were achieved in some birds at various time points, but concentrations were inconsistent. Itraconazole and voriconazole concentrations were also inconsistent and did not reach targeted concentrations. Currently, the implant examined in this study cannot be recommended for treatment of aspergillosis in avian species.

  16. The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Lizma Felisha Mazlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV. Materials and Methods: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group. The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1x phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. Results: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups. Conclusion: In summary, Japanese quails

  17. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Immunocytochemical distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the central nervous system of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Curry, P; Aste, N; Viglietti-Panzica, C; Panzica, G C

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we detailed the distribution of GFAP-immunopositive structures within the central nervous system of the Japanese quail. Different fixation and embedding procedures were applied. The best results were obtained on frozen cryostatic sections from freshly dissected brains subsequently fixed by a short immersion in cold acetone. Immunopositive structures were observed both with immunofluorescence, and with immunoperoxidase methods. Immunoreactive cell bodies and processes were observed within the whole central nervous system, and different cell types can be identified on the basis of their topographical location and morphology. A first class of astrocytes is composed of intensely stained unipolar cells lining the inner surface of the pia mater and the large blood vessels. A second type is represented by multipolar astrocytes of variable size, provided with an irregular cell body. The last type is represented by similar elements, showing an immunonegative cell body, that can be identified only by the presence of converging processes. These three types of cells, and several isolated processes, show a differential distribution within the quail central nervous system, both in the grey and in the white matter. Present results suggest that GFAP may represent a good marker for at least part of the astroglial population in quail.

  20. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  1. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-01-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using 14 C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile

  2. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ( 3 H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following 3 H-T or 3 H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following 3 H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following 3 H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus

  3. Species specificity of social reinstatement in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica genetically selected for high or low levels of social reinstatement behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, A D; Jones, R B; Faure, J M

    1995-05-01

    Divergent lines of Japanese quail Coturnix japonica showing high (HSR) or low (LSR) levels of social reinstatement (SR) behaviour (as measured in a treadmill apparatus) have been developed. However, it was not known if selection had influenced social reinstatement tendencies in a general or a species-specific fashion. Therefore, the present study compared the SR behaviour of quail chicks of the HSR and LSR lines and of a Control line when the goal box of the treadmill was empty or when it contained small, same-species groups of either Japanese quail, domestic fowl or Guinea fowl chicks. The results clearly demonstrated that the SR behaviour of Japanese quail chicks is species-specific and that this specificity has not been influenced during genetic selection, over sixteen generations, of the HSR and LSR lines. The HSR chicks showed more locomotor activity in the treadmill than did those of the other lines regardless of the nature of the goal-box stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of general activity, underlying fearfulness and social motivation.

  4. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  5. Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

    2014-08-01

    The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and

  6. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed.

  7. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  8. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  9. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

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    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  10. Pemanfaatan Tepung Kulit Buah Terong Belanda (Cyphomandra Betacea) Fermentasi (Aspergillus Niger) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Burung Puyuh (Coturnix-Coturnix Japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Frans H

    2011-01-01

    Frans H Nainggolan, 2008. Utilization of fermented tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) skin fruit flour to to performance of Quail (Coturnix-coturnix japonica). Under suvervision of Dr. Ir. Ristika Handarini, MP and Ir. Eniza Saleh, MS. The research caried out in Biological Labolatory, Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agriculture, North Sumatera University, started from 5 July 2007 until 16 August 2007. The purpose of this experiment was to observe the respon of utilization of ...

  11. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

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    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  12. The use of scaning electron microscopy in postvaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium of Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Santin Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of scanning electron microscopy in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica immunized against Newcastle disease. A number of 36 quails were distributed into four groups: T1 fraction three-quarters control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with B1 strain; t4 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. However, the analysis of tracheal fragments by scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, demonstrating intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group.

  13. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA ® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA ® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effects of dietary symbiotic supplementation on growth performance and duodenum histology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica reared in different flooring systems

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    Isa Coskun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary symbiotic supplementation on the growth performance and duodenum histological parameters of quail reared in different flooring systems. A total of 160 mixed-sex healthy quail (47±0.32 g aged 14 days were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design with four replicates, each including five males and five females. Two flooring systems (wire floor as control and wood shavings bedding and two dietary treatments (symbiotic supplementation and no supplementation were tested. Birds were transferred to four-tier cages for the trial. Each kilogram of the commercial diet included 224 g crude protein and 3,080 kcal metabolizable energy. The experiment lasted 21 days. Daily weight gain and gastrointestinal tract weight were statistically higher in the wood shavings and wood shavings + symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control group. Villi length was higher in the wood shavings + symbiotic and symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control and wood shavings groups. The wood shavings groups had longer villi than control group. Villi width was higher in wood shaving + symbiotic-supplemented groups compared with the other treatment groups. The litter system of wood shavings and symbiotic supplementation provide better growth performance to quail by developing their duodenum histomorphological parameters and digestive tract.

  15. CONTENT OF GLYCOGEN IN LIVER AND KETOBODIES IN BLOOD OF JAPANESE QUAILS (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA DURING STARVATION ENVISAGED IN THE METHODS OF BALANCE EXPERIMENTS

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    Petar Batsalov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical indexes “glycogen in liver” and “ketones in blood” of 0-72 hours feed deprived (according to methods for balanced experiments Japanese quails with and without energy additives were determined. There were 2 groups of birds- 1-st without energy supplement, 2-nd- fed with 1 g. glucose per os (as 25% solution – twice in 24 hours. The levels of liver glycogen in all the food-deprived quails were signifi cantly lower from -6910 (12-th hour of starving-to 4960mg/kg (72 hour of starving compared to the levels of the same index in fed birds (11990 mg/kg tissue. In the birds receiving energy additive they were higher compared to those deprived of the additive throughout the experimental period. The content of ketones in blood of the control birds was 0.015 mmol/l. The same index increased to 0.027 mmol/l in the feed and energy additive deprived group after the 36 hour of starving, but in the group became energy support, the contents of ketones were lower for the whole period of starving. The energy additive (1g glucose/24 hours helped the maintenance of the energy metabolism during continuous food depriving of the experimental quails.

  16. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

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    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  17. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  18. Supplementation of a Blend of Beneficial Bacteria and Antibodies on Growth Performance, Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Right Heart Failure of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Mohammad Hasan Mehraei Hamzekolaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition of chicks with beneficial bacteria might help in occupying the inner surface of the intestinal tract. Interference of pathogens in intestinal microbiota is well known as barrier effect, bacterial interference, and competitive exclusion. Objectives: It was hypothesized that competitive exclusion in Japanese quails with a blend of beneficial bacteria (Aquablend Avian® probiotic would enhance quails’ growth performance and intestinal mucosal morphology. Furthermore, the study was performed at 2100 m above sea level at Shahrekord University, so another hypothesis was the capability of the probiotic for inhibiting right heart failure. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-six Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups: 2 groups (Aquablend and control at standard environmental temperature and 2 (Aqua-stress and Cont-stress at cold-hypoxic environmental situation. Aquablend groups received the probiotic in the first 3 days of life in drinking water (0.5 g/100 birds/day. Results: Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly reduced at the end of the experiment (day 35 in both Aquablend and aqua-stress groups compared to control and cont-stress groups, respectively (P 0.05. Cont-stress group had higher RV: TV ratio (0.28 and heterophil: lymphocyte (H: L ratio (1.22 than aqua-stress group: (0.25 and (1.20, respectively (P > 0.05. Data regarding to intestinal mucosa morphology was controversial but the probiotic was able to elevate duodenum villi surface (P < 0.05 and also jejunum and ileum lamina propria thickness. Conclusion: Obtained data suggests that addition of Aquablend Avian® probiotic in the first 3 days of life may improve growth performance and some intestinal mucosa characteristics of Japanese quails. Moreover, the probiotic might reduce right heart failure and stress induced by cold-hypoxic situation.

  19. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

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    Kasim Sakran Abass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n=15 was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P<0.05 at lower concentrations.

  20. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Busquets, Núria; Gamino, Virginia; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Chaves, Aida J; Ramis, Antonio; Abad, F Xavier; Höfle, Ursula; Majó, Natàlia

    2013-03-28

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses.

  1. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  3. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  5. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  6. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  7. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-01-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Análise clínica, radiológica, macroscópica e histológica do úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica, submetido ao implante da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis Clinical, radiological, macroscopical and histological analysis of domestic quail (Coturnix japonica humerus submitted to implant of polyurethane from castor oil polymer (Ricinnus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bolson

    2005-10-01

    ça de trabéculas e medula óssea no interior do implante. Concluiu-se que a poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona é biocompatível em aves, podendo ser utilizada na cirurgia ortopédica, ocorrendo osteointegração.In orthopedic surgery there are frequently situations in which the surgeon faces severe bone losses caused by high-energy trauma, tumors or infections. Repairing these losses require knowledge about filling materials. Those materials can be biological, synthetic or metallic, with emphasis in bony grafts and biomaterial implants. The increase of the use of birds as pets is leading to an increasing number of clinical and surgical cases related to this taxon, where fractures are the most commonly observed surgical problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, radiological, macroscopic and microscopic effects of the polyurethane derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis polymer, when implanted in the humerus of domestic quails (Coturnix japonica. Twenty male and female quails, were used randomly distributed in four groups of five individuals. The birds received the implants in the left humerus, being submitted to daily physical examination during the postoperative period, immediate and biweekly radiological examination, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation at the 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days. Clinically, there were not observed local, regional or systemic changes. Radiologically, increase in local density was observed with no signs of changes in bone or adjacent tissue, as well as in the air sacs. Macroscopic analysis revealed that the polyurethane derived from castor oil polymer was not absorbed in none of the four groups, remaining implanted within the pneumatic bone. Its resistance, however, has changed. Microscopic examination evidenced minimum inflammatory reaction, slight fibrosis around the implants, and osteo-integration with presence of trabeculi and bone marrow inside the implants. Concluding, implants of polyurethane

  9. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  10. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail (Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was ... valuable laboratory species because of its small body ..... quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl.

  11. Age-dependent change in the morphology of nucleoli and methylation of genes of the Nucleolar Organizer Region in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica) model (Temminck and Schlegel, 1849) (Galliformes: Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Wójcik, Ewa; Knaga, Sebastian; Smalec, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoli are the product of the activity of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in certain chromosomes. Their main functions are the formation of ribosomal subunits from ribosomal protein molecules and the transcription of genes encoding rRNA. The aim of the study was to determine the shape of nucleoli and analyse methylation in the gene RN28S in the spermatocytes of male Japanese quail (Coturnixjaponica) in two age groups. Nucleoli were analysed in cells of the first meiotic prophase. Their number and shape were determined and they were classified as regular, irregular or defragmented. In the cells of the young birds no defragmented nucleoli were observed, with regular and irregular nucleoli accounting for 97% and 3%, respectively. In the cells of older birds no regular nucleoli were observed, while irregular and defragmented nucleoli accounted for 37% and 67%, respectively. MSP (methylation-specific PCR) showed that the gene RN28S is methylated in both 15-week-old and 52-week-old quails. In recent years an association has been established between nucleolus morphology and cellular ageing processes.

  12. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (P>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that substituting synthetic vitamin mineral premixes with natural vitamin mineral premixes in diets is possible with no adverse effects on performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Key words: Proprietary ...

  13. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was investigated by 12 microsatellite markers in Iran. Whole blood samples were collected from 200 individuals belonging to four strains and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out procedure. The 12 microsatellite markers ...

  14. Performans produksi burung puyuh (Coturnix coturnix japonica) dengan perlakuan tepung limbah penetasan telur puyuh

    OpenAIRE

    Lukluil Maknun; Sri Kismiati; Isna Mangisah

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to evaluate the utilization of Japanese quail hatchery waste powder in feed on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio. The materials used were 4 weeks old 160 Japanese quails with an average weight of 94.19 ± 7.36 gram. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments (0%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of Japanese quail hatchery waste powder in feed) and five replications. Parameters observed were feed intake, egg production, egg mas...

  15. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  17. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  18. Pengaruh penggunaan tepung limbah udang fermentasi terhadap karakteristik organ reproduksi pada puyuh petelur (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welda Hilkias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented shrimp waste meal on the characteristics of reproductive organs such as live weight, oviduct weight and length, ovarian weight, total yellow follicles, total white follicles, oviduct percentage and reproductive organ percentage. This experiment was conducted on Faculty of Animal Science and Agriculture, Diponegoro University. A total of 250, 6-week-old Japanese quail (consist of 250 females were randomly assigned to one of 5 dietary treatments. 1st group (T0 was fed by diet without shrimp waste (control, 2nd group (T1 was fed by diet with 7,5% non-fermented shrimp waste, 3rd group (T3 was fed by diet with 5% fermented shrimp waste (FSW, 4th group (T3 was fed by diet with 7,5% FSW and 5th group was fed by diet with 10% FSW. 2 quails from each replicates were taken as samples. The members of a given sample were killed by severing the neck then separated the reproductive organs from the body. Measured the live weight, oviduct weight and length, ovarian weight, total yellow follicles, total white follicles, oviduct percentage and reproductive organ percentage. All data were examined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that the effect of fermented shrimp waste meal on reproductive organs characteristics such as live weight, oviduct weight and length, ovarian weight, total yellow follicles, total white follicles, oviduct percentage and reproductive organ percentage were not significant. The use of fermented shrimp waste up to 10% didn’t obstruct the growth and development of quail reproductive organs.

  19. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Aline A P; Forgiarini, Juliana; Xavier, Eduardo G; Lopes, Débora C N; Roll, Victor F B; Rutz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  20. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  1. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  2. Condition-dependent strategies of eggshell pigmentation: an experimental study of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 4 (2013), s. 700-708 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * eggshell colouration * food restriction * pigment allocation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  3. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine the sex of. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) by DNA analysis. Chromo ... M, 100 bp DNA ladder (Fermentas, Germany); lane 1, negative control. (without DNA) .... low cost and reduced risk of contamination, and preven- .... Improving the reliability of molecular sexing.

  4. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly...... killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria...

  5. Experimental Assessment of the Pathogenicity of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Subtype in Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asasi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. It has been also reported that H9N2 can cause high mortality in commercial broiler farms in Iran previously. However there was no report of H9N2 outbreak in any other species. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of H9N2 virus in Japanese quail, 145 Japanese quail were randomly divided into 5 separate groups (116 quails in the treatment and 29 quails in the control groups. The experimental groups infected via oral rout, eye drop, intramuscular injection and spray method at the age of 32 days with 106.5 EID50/bird. The virus A/chicken/Iran/ZMT-101/98(H9N2 was kindly provided obtained from Razi vaccine& serum institute with EID50=108. The blood samples were experimented the day before use to show freedom from antibodies to influenza A and more specifically, the H9 subtype. The clinical signs and antibody titer of the infected chicks were also monitored. Five birds of each group were bled at 10 and 20 days post infection (DPI, and 20 birds of each group at 30 DPI were bled. The immune response to infection was measured by Haemmaglutination Inhibition (HI test using the H9N2 virus as antigen. Feed & water consumption were recorded on daily bases before and after inoculation. Body weight of each group was also recorded on weekly bases before and after inoculation. During the current study clinical signs such as sneezing, gasping, depression observed in challenged groups followed by decreasing in laying (1-17%. High HI antibody titers of AIV subtype H9 was seen in 10 DPI. The quails exhibited no decrease in food and water consumption and all quails were growing well and did not show any abnormality.

  6. Atrazine triggers developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct in quails (Coturnix Coturnix coturnix) via disruption of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lei; Du, Zheng-Hai; Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Nan; Guo, Jing-Ao; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    There has been a gradual increase in production and consumption of atrazine (ATR) in agriculture to meet the population rising demands. Female reproduction is necessary for growth and maintenance of population. However, ATR impact on females and particularly ovarian developmental toxicity is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which ATR exerted toxic effects on ovarian development of ovary and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Female quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg ATR/kg/d for 45 days. ATR had no effect on mortality but depressed feed intake and growth and influenced the biochemical parameters. Notably, the arrested development of ovaries and oviducts were observed in ATR-exposed quails. The circulating concentrations of E2, P, LH and PRL were unregulated and FSH and T was downregulated in ATR-treated quails. The mRNA expression of GnRH in hypothalamo and LH in pituitary and FSH in ovary was downregulated significantly by ATR exposure and FSH and PRL in pituitary were upregulated. ATR exposure upregulated the level of P450scc, P450arom, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in ovary and downregulated ERβ expression in female quails. However, ATR did not change ERα expression in ovary. This study provides new insights regarding female productive toxicology of ATR exposure. Ovary and oviduct in sexually maturing females were target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. We propose that ATR-induced developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct is associated with disruption of gonadal hormone balance and HPO axis in female quails. - Highlights: • ATR triggers arrested development of ovarian and oviduct. • Ovary and oviduct are target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. • Atrazine causes hormone adjustment disorder in female quails. • Atrazine upregulates steroidogenic factor and downregulates ERβ factor in ovary. • Atrazine disrupted the hypothalamo

  7. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  8. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  10. Insights into thermal stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical responses during and after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Franco Nicolas; Videla, Emiliano Ariel; Fernandez, Maria Emilia; Labaque, Maria Carla; Marin, Raul Hector

    2018-05-01

    Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes. At 29 days of age, the temperature in three boxes was increased from 24 to 34 °C during the light period throughout the nine days (Stress Treatment). The other three boxes remained at 24 °C and were used as controls. The subsequent 12 days were considered as recovery period. Different sets of 12 birds/treatment were blood-sampled at 29 (basal), 32, 35, 38 (stress), 41, 44, 47, and 50 (recovery) days of age, respectively. Immunoendocrine (corticosterone, lymphoproliferation, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L), and antibody response) and biochemical (glucose, total proteins, globulins, and albumin) variables were assessed. During stress, progressive corticosterone and H/L increments, and antibody titers and lymphoproliferation decreases were detected. No clear pattern of changes was found in biochemical variables. During recovery, while corticosterone and lymphoproliferation had recovered three days after the stressor ended, H/L and antibody responses required respectively nine and 12 days to recover to their basal levels, respectively. Findings suggest that immunity is already threatened when heat stress is sustained for three or more days. However, the system appears resilient, needing six to 12 days to recover to their basal responses.

  11. Somatic and genetic effects of gamma radiation on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and hen (Gallus gallus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.

    1982-01-01

    Genetic changes were studied in economically significant species of birds and the impact of gamma radiation on their organisms in general. The impact is dealt with of small, medium and high doses of radiation on gonadal cells in vivo and in vitro and on fertilized eggs, and the total impact on the organism. During the irradiation of embryos toxic effects were unambiguously found for exposures to more than 100 R. The embryo was most sensitive between the 2nd and 4th day of development. No cytotoxic effect of radiation was observed in sperms exposed in vitro to less than 10,000 R. Irradiation of gonads affected the reproduction capacity of male birds substantially more than that of female birds. (M.D.)

  12. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  13. Classification of the coefficients of variation of parameters evaluated in Japanese quail experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHV Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a classification range of the coefficients of variation (CV of traits used in experiments with eggtype Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The journal Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia was systematically reviewed, using the key word 'quail' during the period of January, 2000 to 2010. The CV of feed intake (g/bird/d, egg production (%/bird/d, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/d, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (g/dozen, feed conversion ratio per egg mass (g/g, and egg specific gravity (g/mL were collected. For each parameter, CV were classified using the following median (MD and pseudo-sigma (PS ratio as follows: low (CV MD + 2PS. According to the results, it was concluded that each parameter has a specific classification range that should be taken into account when evaluating experimental precision.

  14. Índice gonadossomático e correlações entre dimensões e peso testiculares na codorna japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica aos 60 dias de idade

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    L.L. Lanna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As dimensões e o peso testicular foram avaliados em 25 machos adultos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica e correlacionados entre si, a fim de se buscar obter informações que possibilitem a criação de um parâmetro preditivo da capacidade de produção espermática. As aves foram abatidas e os testículos removidos para mensuração e pesagem. As dimensões e o peso entre os testículos esquerdo e direito foram comparados. Os parâmetros testiculares foram correlacionados entre si por meio da determinação do coeficiente de correlação linear. O índice gonadossomático também foi determinado, indicando alocação de 3,68% do peso corporal em testículos nos machos avaliados, resultado maior do que os descritos na literatura. Apesar da diferença de formato entre os testículos esquerdo e direito, o peso foi semelhante, sugerindo que não há diferença na capacidade de produção espermática entre eles. Diferença estatística entre os valores biométricos indica que o testículo esquerdo é mais curto e mais arredondado, enquanto o direito é mais longo e estreito. O peso corporal apresentou baixa correlação com o peso testicular, 0,14 e 0,12 para os testículos esquerdo e direito, respectivamente. Os parâmetros que melhor se correlacionaram com o peso testicular foram a largura e a espessura. Considerando-se a identificação de um parâmetro único para comparação entre machos, a espessura do testículo esquerdo apresentou coeficiente de correlação linear de 0,89 com o somatório do peso dos dois testículos. Com base nessa informação, métodos não invasivos, como a ultrassonografia, poderiam ser utilizados para estimar o potencial reprodutivo e auxiliar na comparação de machos de codornas japonesas em núcleos de seleção de aves elite, contribuindo para melhoramento genético da espécie.

  15. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on histomorphology of some endocrine glands of the rain quail, Coturnix coromandelica (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, B.D.; Suryawanshi, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of single, whole-body 60 Co-gamma irradiation in different doses (250 rad to 15 k rad) on histology of thyroid, adrenal and pancreatic islets of the rain quail were studied. A low dose of 250 rad failed to evoke any change in histology of the glands studied. Doses of 500 rad and 1 k rad resulted in hypoactivity of thyroid but could not affect adrenal and pancreatic islets. Exposure to 1.5 k rad and higher doses caused hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid and hypertrophy of adrenal gland. Thyroid was injured by heavy irradiation. Doses up to 3 k rad did not bring about any change in islet cells, however, higher doses resulted in degenerative changes in islet cells. α-islets were affected by 7 and 15 k rad but necrotic changes in β-islets were observed only after exposure to 15 k rad. The results indicate that thyroid is the most sensitive and pancreatic islet, highly resistant to gamma radiation. (author). 20 refs., 4 figs

  17. Behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence that serotonin crosses the blood-brain barrier in Coturnix japonica (Galliformes; Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA. Polo

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming to reach behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB to serotonin systemically administered in quails. Serotonin injected by a parenteral route (250-1000 µg.kg-1, sc elicited a sequence of behavioral events concerned with a sleeping-like state. Sleeping-like behaviors began with feather bristling, rapid oral movements, blinking and finally crouching and closure of the eyes. Previous administration of 5-HT2C antagonist, LY53857 (3 mg.kg-1, sc reduced the episodes of feather bristling and rapid oral movements significantly but without altering the frequency of blinking and closure of the eyes. Treatment with the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (3 mg.kg-1, sc did not affect any of the responses evoked by the serotonin. Quipazine (5 mg.kg-1, sc a 5-HT2A/2C/3 agonist induced intense hypomotility, long periods of yawning-like and sleeping-like states. Previous ketanserin suppressed gaping responses and reduced hypomotility, rapid oral movements and bristling but was ineffective for remaining responses induced by quipazine. Results showed that unlike mammals, serotonin permeates the BBB and activates hypnogenic mechanisms in quails. Studies using serotoninergic agonist and antagonists have disclosed that among the actions of the serotonin, feather bristling, rapid oral movements and yawning-like state originated from activation of 5-HT2 receptors while blinking and closure of the eyes possibly require other subtypes of receptors.

  18. [Quantitative changes in the ultrastructure of myocardial cells in Japanese quail during hypergravity, hypodynamia and space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, A; Boda, K; Dostál, J; Matĕjková, Z; Devecka, V

    1993-03-01

    The experimental work aimed at the quantitative ultrastructure of the myocardial cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica during hypergravitation, hypodynamism and space flight in a Soviet satellite. For the determination of quantitative changes of the myocardial ultrastructure a morphometrical method was used with parameters like the number of mitochondria, average mitochondrial size, relative mitochondrial volume, deficiency of cristae and relative volume of myofibrils. The quails were observed in 3 groups. The absolute control consisted of quails living in normal Earth conditions, in the laboratory group the quails were exposed to conditions of hypergravitation and hypodynamism in a specially constructed centrifuge, and in the flying group the quails were exposed to space flight in a Soviet orbital station MIR. In the group of absolute controls no pathological changes of the myocardial ultrastructure were found. In the flying group there were no significant changes, with the exception of decreased relative volume of myofibrils, which however agrees with the findings on symptoms corresponding to human and animal heart weakness during space flights. In the laboratory group, pathological changes were observed in each of the fractions. The most significant pathological findings were found in the group controls in the center and in hypergravitation combined with hypodynamism. It can be concluded that the laboratories can simulate conditions induced by the start and flight of space ships. (Fig. 2, Ref, 8.)

  19. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  20. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  1. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  2. Experiment K-313: Rat and quail ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of spaceflight on the processes of mammalian fertilizaton, implantation and embryonic development are investigated. Five female and two male rats were placed together on Day 2 of the flight. By R+17, it was determined that both flight and synchronous females were not carrying normal pregnancies and three of the flight animals were laparotomized. The uterus and ovaries were processed for microscopic analyses. The two remaining flight females were allowed to recover from the exploratory operation, rebred with flight males and delivered normal litters. As a control for potential transplacental effects that might be interpreted as direct spaceflight effects, a series of fertilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs was flown on Cosmos 1129. Although all of the eggs were adversely impacted by an inflight failure of the incubator humidifier on flight Day 13, several embryos were able to progress to a developmental stage equivalent to that of a control 10-12 Day embryo.

  3. Late morphological and functional changes caused by ionizing radiation in eggs of Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J; Grom, A; Csuka, J; Stasko, J; Kindlova, L [Vyskumny Ustav Chovu a Slachtenia Hydiny, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were irradiated before incubation with doses of 300, 500, 800, 1500, 2000 and 2500 R of /sup 60/Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 187 R/min. The parameters of hatchability, embryonic morphology in the last phases of development, growth changes, viability, sex ratio and production of eggs in the control and experimental groups were followed. Embryonic mortality was proportional to the dose, irradiation weakened the embryos, at doses of 800 R and more the radiation evoked various teratogenic changes and slightly lengthened the incubation period. For the period of embryonic development, LD/sub 50/ approximately equal to 800 R and LD/sub 100/=2500 R was determined. Radiation slightly suppressed growth, viability in the postembryonic stage was influenced very slightly. Irradiation of eggs did not influence the sex ratio; the production of eggs was significantly reduced only at a dose of 1500 R and more.

  4. Late morphological and functional changes caused by ionizing radiation in eggs of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.; Grom, A.; Csuka, J.; Stasko, J.; Kindlova, L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were irradiated before incubation with doses of 300, 500, 800, 1500, 2000 and 2500 R of 60 Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 187 R/min. The parameters of hatchability, embryonic morphology in the last phases of development, growth changes, viability, sex ratio and production of eggs in the control and experimental groups were followed. Embryonic mortality was proportional to the dose, irradiation weakened the embryos, at doses of 800 R and more the radiation evoked various teratogenic changes and slightly lengthened the incubation period. For the period of embryonic development, LD 50 approximately equal to 800 R and LD 100 =2500 R was determined. Radiation slightly suppressed growth, viability in the postembryonic stage was influenced very slightly. Irradiation of eggs did not influence the sex ratio; the production of eggs was significantly reduced only at a dose of 1500 R and more. (author)

  5. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  6. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  7. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P brewing yeast was significantly lower (P brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  8. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  9. Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-04

    Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapirnasari, W P; Dewi, A R; Fathinah, A; Hidanah, S; Harijani, N; Soeharsono; Karimah, B; Andriani, A D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. About 240 quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2×10 5 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus . The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment. It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.

  11. The Effect of Different Foam Concentrations on Sperm Motility in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of foam extract on sperm motility in the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Adult male quails (<12 weeks of heavy body weight strain were housed in individual cages and divided into 5 groups according to the size of their cloacal glands. The data indicated that the size of the cloacal gland was positively correlated with the frequency of foam secretion and total foam production. One gram of freshly collected clean foam was mixed with 1.0 mL of normal saline and homogenized for 10 minutes. After centrifugation at 35 000 rpm, the supernatant was used as 100% foam extract. The extract was diluted to 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, and 1:4 with normal saline to produce 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 25% foam extracts, respectively. 5% foam extract enhanced sperm survival at room temperature (30°–35°C for 2 to 3 hrs, whereas higher concentrations (10% and above suppressed sperm motility. From this study, it may be concluded that foam secretion and quantity of foam are directly proportional to the size of the cloacal gland and that the foam enhances and prolongs sperm motility, in vitro at an optimum concentration of 5%.

  12. One Generation Reproductive Toxicity Test in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) Exposed Orally to 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), February-August 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    opisthotonos), and alternated between prostrate inactivity and ataxic wing activity. In conjunction with neuromuscular signs, decreased body mass...prostrate inactivity and ataxic wing activity beginning 3-4 hours after dosing. In conjunction with neuromuscular signs, decreased body mass gain...of the most concentrated suspension. In conjunction with a previous study, samples were collected from a representative suspension (6 mg/ml) at

  13. Effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Meal and Vitamin E on Productive Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadi F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240, one-day-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica were used to study the effects of Artichoke leaf meal (ALM and vitamin E in diet on growth performance, ileal microbial populations and intestinal morphology in a 42-d trial. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails each, using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Supplementing basal diet with ALM did not improve growth performance at different rearing periods, whereas dietary vitamin E increased feed intake and body weight gain at day 21 of age (P. The ileal populations of lactobacillus and coliforms was not affected by dietary ALM treatments, whereas vitamin E increased the population of total aerobic bacteria (P≤0.04. The ileal villus height (P≤0.01 and crypt depth (P≤0.008 were reduced in quails fed on diets with ALM and vitamin E. The quails fed diets containing 3 percent ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had higher villus height:crypt depth ratio. The thickness of muscularies (P≤0.04 and mucosa (P≤0.0007 layers were decreased in birds fed diets containing ALM than control birds. Birds treated with ALM and vitamin E showed a shorter intestinal length (P≤0.02 and a lower pancereas relative weight. The results of this study showed that supplementing diet by ALM (1.5 and 3% and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E did not improve growth performance, ileal microbiota pupolations and intestinal morphometric indices in Japanese quail.

  14. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  15. Modified saponification and HPLC methods for analyzing carotenoids from the retina of quail: implications for its use as a nonprimate model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Matthew B; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-09-01

    To investigate carotenoid content in the retina of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), for comparison with carotenoids in human retina, and to assess the effects of different saponification procedures on the recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified with methods adapted from recent studies, then identified and quantified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from quail retina, we varied base concentration and the total time of saponification across a wide range and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations among conditions. Astaxanthin and galloxanthin were the dominant carotenoids recovered in the quail retina, along with smaller amounts of five other carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, 3'-epilutein, epsilon-carotene, and an unidentified carotenoid). Astaxanthin was sensitive to saponification conditions; recovery was poor with strong bases (0.2 and 0.5 M KOH) and best with weak bases (0.01 and 0.2 M KOH). In contrast, xanthophyll carotenoids (galloxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, and the unknown) were best recovered with strong base after 6 hours of saponification at room temperature. The recovery of epsilon-carotene was not affected by saponification conditions. Separate chemical hydrolysis procedures--using a strong base to recover xanthophylls and a weak base to recover astaxanthin--should be used for maximizing recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Because the dominant carotenoids in quail retina are absent in human retina, and because of their different packaging (e.g., esterified in oil droplets) and light-absorbance properties compared with xanthophylls in the human eye, use of the quail as a model organism for studying human retinal carotenoids should be approached with caution.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    OpenAIRE

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-01-01

    Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix) were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M) and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M). Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypove...

  17. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Desempenho e qualidade do ovo de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo sorgo Performance and egg quality of laying Japanese quails fed rations with different sorghum levels

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    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica alimentadas com rações cotendo sorgo de baixo tanino em substituição ao milho. Foram utilizadas 210 codornas japonesas fêmeas com 65 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco rações experimentais (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% de sorgo em substituição ao milho e seis repetições de sete aves. No experimento, cuja duração foi de 112 dias, não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de sorgo nas rações sobre nenhuma das características de produção. Com aumento dos níveis de sorgo na ração, houve redução linear da cor da gema e do custo da ração. O sorgo de baixo tanino pode substituir totalmente o milho em rações para codornas japonesas em postura.The aim of this study was to evaluate performance and egg quality of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica fed rations with low-tannin sorghum replacing corn. Two hundred and ten 65-d female Japanese quails were distributed in a complete random design with five experimental rations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of corn by sorghum and six replicates with seven birds. There was no significant effect of sorghum levels in the diets on any of the production characteristics in this experiment, which lasted for 112 days. As the levels of sorghum in the ration increased, yolk color and ration cost were reduced. Low-tannin sorghum can completely replace corn in rations for laying Japanese quails.

  19. Responses to graded phytic acid in young Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Lee, Y.H.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Graded levels of phytic acid (PA) were fed to day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) for 7 d to establish responses for evaluating effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates. Sodium phytate was added to supply 1.4, 2.8, 5.5, 8.4, 11.0, and 13.8 g PA/kg adequate casein-gelatin diet containing 20 mg Zn/kg. Eleven g phytic acid approximates that in diets containing defatted soy flour as the protein source. PA:Zn molar ratios were 7, 14, 27, 41, 54, and 68. The effects and graded response ranges (g PA/kg diet) were as follows: decreased body weight, 2.8-13.8; defective feathering, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia Zn, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia ash, 1.4-13.8; and decreased pancreas Zn, 1.4-5.5. The lowest level of PA produced marked decreases in tibia and pancreas Zn; thus the PA ranges can be extended to even lower levels. The effects of PA were reproducible between experiments and the mean values were reproducible except for tibia ash and liver Mn, which varied somewhat. There were no effects of PA on liver Zn and Mg, or on pancreas Fe and Mg; the effects on liver Fe and Cu, and tibia Fe and Mg were small and inconsistent. The responses to PA and the dose ranges provide a realistic basis for assessing the biological effects of other inositol phosphates that can be formed during food processing

  20. Incidence, species and antimicrobial resistance of naturally occurring Campylobacter isolates from quail carcasses sampled in a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the published information about the presence of Campylobacter on processed poultry is from studies with chickens and turkeys; therefore there is a paucity of published material about the presence of Campylobacter on commercially processed quail (Coturnix coturnix). The objective of this stud...

  1. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  2. Efeitos da inclusão do farelo de sementes de jaqueira Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção, pigmentação da gema e umidade fecal em codornas Effect of the addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in dietary on the egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity in japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes do farelo da semente de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção e pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas em 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Aos 42 dias de idade, as aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentadas com rações contendo níveis de 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% do farelo de semente de jaqueira (FSJ. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso dos ovos, massa de ovos, conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos, além do peso e da porcentagem de gema, clara, casca, pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas. O aumento do FSJ na ração piorou linearmente (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of increase levels of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in diet of japanese quails on egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity . A total of 180 japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 42 days oold were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with differents levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10% of jackfruit seeds bran (JSB. The variables feed intake, egg production, egg weigh, egg mass, feed egg mass conversion and feed egg dozen conversion as well as the yolk weight and yolk percentage, egg white, egg shell and egg yolk pigmentation. The data shown that increasing JSB in the diets reduced the egg production and higher feed egg dozen conversion lineally (P<0,05. Therefore the egg yolk pigmentation improved up to 7.44% of JSB in the diet and the dropping humidity was higher up to 4.9% of JSB.The presence of antitrypsin factor is a possible explanation for lower performance on the japanese quails fed diets with increase of JSB fresh. In order to solve this problem e, it is recommended to expose the seeds to a thermal treatment, otherwise the jackfruit seed fresh should not be

  3. Effect of Hypodynamy on Structure and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Kidney in Japanese Quails

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    V. Almášiová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the effect of experimental hypodynamy simulating weightlessness in space on the structure, ultrastructure and alkaline phosphatase activity of kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Two days after hatching, the quails were suspended in special shirts below the cage ceiling so their feet did not touch the floor. They could consume food and water ad libitum. Experimental animals were sacrificed after 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days of hypodynamy. Birds of the same age, hatched at the same time, and fed the same diet were used as a control. Samples of kidney were processed for light (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and alkaline phosphatase (AP analysis. Short-term (14–28 days hypodynamy caused no marked damage to the structure and ultrastructure of kidneys. However, after long-term (35–59 days hypodynamy, morphological changes were observed in some cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The dying cells in proximal tubules, observed in semi-thin sections by LM, were dark and contained a nucleus of irregular shape. Observation by TEM showed that their nucleus was dark and shrivelled and the electron-dense cytoplasm contained long, dense, rod-shaped mitochondria with thin mitochondrial cristae. Microvilli were present on the apical surface of cells and formed a brush border. Sporadic dying cells were also observed in distal tubules. Large, light vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of cells of collecting tubules, however, the structure of renal corpuscles and medullary loops remained undisturbed. Microscopical analysis by means of a direct TUNEL reaction on days 35 to 59 of hypodynamy showed a moderate occurrence of cellular apoptosis in the proximal and distal tubules of experimental Japanese quail. The activity of AP in the brush border of the proximal tubules on days 14–29 of hypodynamy was normal in experimental animals and showed no significant differences in

  4. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  5. Pigmentantes naturais em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas em postura Natural pigments on sorghum-based rations for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar os efeitos do uso de pigmentantes naturais e extratos de marigold e páprica em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, com 98 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, composto por cinco tratamentos e seis repetições com seis aves cada. O experimento foi dividido em seis períodos de quatro dias, totalizando 24 dias. Foram analisados o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas. A cor da gema foi avaliada a cada quatro dias durante 24 dias pelo método do escore colorimétrico DSM. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas, à exceção da cor da gema. O extrato de marigold proporcionou escore colorimétrico da gema equivalente ao das aves alimentadas com milho. A suplementação associada dos extratos de marigold e páprica proporcionou maior escore colorimétrico e em menor tempo. A utilização de pigmentantes naturais deve ser analisada considerando o escore colorimétrico que se deseja obter e o custo da suplementação de cada fonte comercial.The objective was to evaluate the effects of natural pigments from marigold extract and paprika to Japanese quails fed sorghum-based diets. One hundred and eight Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, with 98 days of age were distributed in a complete randomized design in a split plot arrangement, with five treatments and six replicates of six birds each. The experiment was divided into six periods of four days each, totaling 24 days. Parameters productive performance and quail egg quality were evaluated. Yolk color was evaluated every 4 days for 24 days by the DSM colorimetric score method. There was no effect of experimental diets on performance or quality of quail egg, except for egg yolk color. The extract of marigold promoted yolk color scores equivalent to those

  6. Combined exposure of Japanese quails to cyanotoxins, Newcastle virus and lead: oxidative stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskova, Veronika; Veronika, Paskova; Paskerova, Hana; Hana, Paskerova; Pikula, Jiri; Jiri, Pikula; Bandouchova, Hana; Hana, Bandouchova; Sedlackova, Jana; Jana, Sedlackova; Hilscherova, Klara; Klara, Hilscherova

    2011-10-01

    Wild birds are continually exposed to many anthropogenic and natural stressors in their habitats. Over the last decades, mass mortalities of wild birds constitute a serious problem and may possibly have more causations such as natural toxins including cyanotoxins, parasitic diseases, industrial chemicals and other anthropogenic contaminants. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in birds. The aim was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass, lead and antigenic load may combine to enhance the effects on birds, including modulation of antioxidative and detoxification responses. Eight treatment groups of model species Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were exposed to various combinations of these stressors. The parameters of detoxification and oxidative stress were studied in liver and heart after 30 days of exposure. The antioxidative enzymatic defense in birds seems to be activated quite efficiently, which was documented by the elevated levels and activities of antioxidative and detoxification compounds and by the low incidence of damage to lipid membranes. The greatest modulations of glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation were shown mostly in the groups with combined multiple exposures. The results indicate that the antioxidative system plays an important role in the protective response of the tissues to applied stressors and that its greater induction helps to protect the birds from more serious damage. Most significant changes of these "defense" parameters in case of multiple stressors suggest activation of this universal mechanism in situation with complex exposure and its crucial role in protection of the bird health in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: II. Slaughter and carcass characteristic

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    Sema Alasahan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effects of eggshell colour and spot properties (colour and size of the spot area on growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs. Study material were allocated to five groups according to their eggshell and spot colours: black spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (I, blue spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (II, diffuse brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (III, brown spots on light green colored eggshell (IV, and small brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (V. The size of the spotted area was determined in each egg group using digital image analysis. The groups did not differ for body weight and length of the shank at the end of the growth period. However, the groups differed significantly for carcass yield after slaughter (not eviscerated and carcass yield. These parameters were highest in Group I (82.08 and 76.09% and lowest in Group III (80.20 and 73.86%. Digital image analysis demonstrated that heart length, cardiac fat area, gizzard width, and intestine length varied between the groups. Cardiac fat area was largest in Group III (0.86 cm2 and smallest in Group V (0.65 cm2. Gizzard width was greatest in Group I (2.63 cm and smallest in Group V (2.47 cm. Intestine length was greatest in Group V (78.45 cm and smallest in Group IV (72.39 cm. Body weight, shank length, and slaughter and carcass weight do not vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area. The lengths of intestine and heart, gizzard width, and cardiac fat area do vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area.

  8. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  9. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  10. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M. Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia and complete loss of all reflexes in all birds. In both groups, recovery from sedation and anaesthesia was smooth and of short duration. From this study it was concluded that for minor and least painful procedures in quails detomidine can be used alone, while for major and painful surgical procedures detomidine-ketamine combination should be preferred.

  12. Determinação do melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas em postura Determination of the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura. Foram utilizadas 336 codornas com 13 semanas de idade, alojadas em gaiolas de 118 cm²/codorna durante 84 dias (quatro ciclos de 21 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,20; 0,25; 0,30; 0,35 e 0,45% de sal comum e seis repetições de oito aves por parcela. A cada 21 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (postura, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e qualidade dos ovos (peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo, porcentagem e espessura da casca e Unidade Haugh. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e de regressão e as médias comparadas pelo teste Dunnett a 5% de significância. A equação de regressão ajustada não foi significativa para os parâmetros avaliados em função dos níveis de sal na dieta. Entretanto, pela comparação entre as médias, observou-se que, nos tratamentos com a adição de sal, as aves apresentaram melhor desempenho produtivo e qualidade externa dos ovos, sendo que o nível de 0,15% de sal (equivalente a 0,10% de Na e 0,12% de Cl foi suficiente para obtenção destes resultados.The aim of this experiment was to determine the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Three hundred and thirty-six quails with 13 weeks of age were housed in cages with 118 cm²/quail for 84 days (four cycles of 21 days each. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with seven treatments (0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.45% of salt with six replicates of eight quails per pen. Every 21 days, the productive performance (% of production, feed intake and feed gain ratio [kg/kg and kg/dozen] and egg quality (average egg weight, egg mass, eggshell percentage and thickness and Unit Haugh were evaluated. Data were submitted to analyses of

  13. resources 1..1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e34.pdf. Morinha F., Carvalho M., Ferro A., Guedes-Pinto H., Rodrigues R. and Bastos E. 2011 Molecular sexing and analysis of CHD1-Z and. CHD1-W sequence variations in wild common quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

  14. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) liver and thyroid gland histopathology as a result of in ovo exposure to the flame retardants tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and Dechlorane Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mona L.; Jaspers, Veerle L. B.; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    that exposure to TDCIPP or the mixture induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation. No marked effects were seen for DP alone. In addition, the mixture produced divergence of thyroid gland follicles and proliferation of follicular cells. Our study is the first demonstrating histopathological alterations as a result...

  15. Suppressive effects of long-term exposure to P-nitrophenol on gonadal development, hormonal profile with disruption of tissue integrity, and activation of caspase-3 in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Eman; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Fayez, Mostafa; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Samir, Haney; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-01-01

    P-Nitrophenol (PNP) is considered to be one of nitrophenol derivatives of diesel exhaust particles. PNP is a major metabolite of some organophosphorus compounds. PNP is a persistent organic pollutant as well as one of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Consequently, bioaccumulation of PNP potentiates toxicity. The objectives of the current study were to assess in vivo adverse effects of long-term low doses of PNP exposure on reproductive system during development stage. Twnety-eight-day-old male...

  16. Blood clinical-chemical parameters and feeding history in growing Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks exposed to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and Dechlorane Plus in ovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mona Lykke; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    . The 8 days consuming the new feed played a significant role on 12 of 18 BCCPs measured. Consequently, it is recommended that dietary habits need to be considered when investigating the physiological impact of contaminants using BCCPs as biomarkers in growing nestlings both in controlled in vivo...

  17. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  18. Differential mRNA expression of seven genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver of atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinrui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica strains obtained by divergent selection are commonly used as models to study atherosclerosis, but no genetic characterization of their phenotypic differences has been reported so far. Our objective was to examine possible differences in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver between these two strains and to evaluate the value of this model to analyze the gene system affecting cholesterol metabolism and transport. Methods A factorial study with both strains (atherosclerosis-susceptible versus atherosclerosis-resistant and two diets (control versus cholesterol was carried out. The mRNA concentrations of four genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMGCR, FDFT1, SQLE and DHCR7 and three genes in cholesterol transport (ABCG5, ABCG8 and APOA1 were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR. Plasma lipids were also assayed. Results Expression of ABCG5 (control diet and ABCG8 (regardless of dietary treatment and expression of HMGCR, FDFT1 and SQLE (regardless of dietary treatment were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-resistant than in the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. Plasma triglyceride and LDL levels, and LDL/HDL ratio were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-susceptible than in the atherosclerosis-resistant strain fed the cholesterol diet. In the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain, ABCG5 expression regressed significantly and positively on plasma LDL level, whereas DHCR7 and SQLE expression regressed significantly and negatively on plasma triglyceride level. Conclusions Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the atherosclerosis-resistant strain metabolizes and excretes cholesterol faster than the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. We have also demonstrated that these quail strains are a useful model to study cholesterol metabolism and transport in relation with

  19. Seasonal variation in the diet of common quail Coturnix coturnix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-06-03

    Jun 3, 1996 ... University of Port Elizabeth, POBox 1600, Port Elizabeth,. 6000 South Africa ..... Seed identitleation manual. University of California Press. Berkley. McALLISTER, H.l. ... Fieldguide to butterflies of Southern Africa. Struik, Cape ...

  20. Whole-Genome de novo Sequencing Of Quail And Grey Partridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Burt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The development in sequencing methods has made it possible to perform whole genome de novo sequencing of species without large commercial interests. Within the EU-financed QUANTOMICS project (KBBE-2A-222664), we have performed de novo sequencing of quail (Coturnix coturnix) and grey partridge...... (Perdix perdix) on a Genome Analyzer GAII (Illumina) using paired-end sequencing. The amount of generated sequences amounts to 8 to 9 Gb for each species. The analysis and assembly of the generated sequences is ongoing. Access to the whole genome sequence from these two species will enable enhanced...... comparative studies towards the chicken genome and will aid in identifying evolutionarily conserved sequences within the Galliformes. The obtained sequences from quail and partridge represent a beginning of generating the whole genome sequence for these species. The continuation of establishing the genome...

  1. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on laying hen performance, egg fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and sixty 7-day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to four ...

  2. Determinação da energia metabolizável de alimentos para codornas japonesas em postura Metabolizable energy of different feedstuffs tested in female Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Moura

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida por retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn e do coeficiente de metabolização aparente da energia bruta (CMAEB% do milho, sorgo, farelo de soja, farelo de glúten de milho e óleo de soja refinado. Foram utilizadas 240 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, fêmeas com idade inicial de 60 dias, em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao caso, com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e oito codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações experimentais e uma ração referência. Cada ração experimental foi constituída, na base da matéria natural, por 70% da ração referência e 30% do ingrediente a ser testado, com exceção da ração para determinação da EMAn do óleo de soja, com 10% de inclusão e 90% da ração referência. O experimento foi realizado em gaiolas distribuídas em baterias metálicas. Os valores de EMA, EMAn (em kcal/kg de matéria natural e do CMAEB (% do milho moído, sorgo, farelo de soja, farelo de glúten de milho e óleo de soja refinado foram, respectivamente: 3.572 e 3.612kcal/kg e 92,6%; 3.108 e 3.149kcal/kg e 80,9%; 2.633 e 2.676kcal/kg e 65,3%; 4.043 e 4.096kcal/kg e 75,0%; 9.335 e 9.379kcal/kg e 98,8%. Os valores de EMA descritos para outras espécies de aves são discrepantes dos obtidos no presente estudo, não sendo recomendado seu uso em formulação de rações para codornas japonesas em postura.The values of the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn, and the apparent metabolization coefficient of crude energy (AMCCE were determined in corn, sorghum, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, and refined soybean oil. Two-hundred and forty six-day-old female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica were used in a completely randomized design, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unit. The

  3. Eriobotrya japonica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... pyrophosphatase (V-PPiase) were isolated from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) pulp. Thereafter, northern analysis ... #These authors contributed equally to this work. ... (TA) correlates highly with malate concentration, but does not correlate ... (1997) have shown that, a nonacid sweet lime (Citrus limmetioides) ...

  4. Pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo colorífico Egg yolk colour of japanese quail fed on diets with spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar, semanalmente, o grau de pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis de colorífico (163,8 mg bixina/100 g, no decorrer de quatro semanas. Utilizaram-se 240 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica fêmeas, em delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com oito tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos, constituídos por oito rações experimentais resultantes da combinação de quatro níveis de colorífico na ração (0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5% e duas fontes energéticas (milho e quirera de arroz, foram distribuídos nas parcelas, enquanto que os quatro dias experimentais (7º, 14º, 21º e 28º constituíram as subparcelas. A equação de regressão estimada com o uso do modelo logarítmico explicou 96% da variação dos dados de escore colorimétrico das gemas. No 7º e 14º dia do experimento, os níveis de colorífico estimados que promoveram escores colorimétricos de gemas com padrão caipira (8,5 a 9,0 pontos foram de 1,5%, em rações à base de milho, e 3,0%, em rações à base de quirera de arroz. No 21º e 28º dia experimental, os valores estimados foram de 0,75% (rações com milho e 2,25% (rações com quirera. Em rações com 46,0% de milho ou quirera de arroz, o uso de níveis superiores a 3,0% de colorífico promoveu aumento das perdas de pigmento, pelas excretas, e conseqüente redução da capacidade de deposição de pigmentos nas gemas.One aimed in this work to evaluate , weekly, the egg yolk colour grade of japanese quails fed on diets with different levels of spice (163.8 mg bixin/100 g, in course of four weeks. Two hundred and forty japanese female quails (Coturnix japonica were used in a completely randomized block outline, with eight treatments, five replicates and six quails per experimental unit. The treatments, consisted of eight experimental diets resultant from

  5. Níveis de energia metabolizável para codornas japonesas na fase inicial de postura Metabolizable energy levels for Japanese quails in the initial laying phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2007-02-01

    and egg quality of quails was evaluated in this experiment. Two hundred and fifty laying Japanese female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, with 56 days of age, were assigned to a complete randomized design, with five treatments (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal of ME/kg, five replications and ten birds per experimental unit. The corn, soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain 20% of CP, 2.5% of Ca, 1.17% of lysine and 0.802% of methionine+cystine. Feed intake (g/bird/day, energy intake (kcal ME/bird/day, total egg production (%/bird/day, commercial egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg/kg of egg and kg/egg dozen, body weight gain (g, energy efficiency utilization (kcal ME/egg dozen and kcal ME/egg mass, weights of yolk (g, albumen (g and shell (g and yolk cholesterol concentration mg/g were analyzed. Increasing dietary ME levels resulted in linear decreased on feed intake and weights of egg and yolk and quadratic effect on weights of albumen, shell and egg mass. The 2,650 kcal of ME/kg level increased 12.6, 3.9, 15.7, 7.5, and 6.8% respectively the variables above, compared to the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg level. Feed:egg dozen ratio increased as the dietary ME levels increased. No treatment effect on the other studied variables was observed. Diets of Japanese quails in the initial laying phase (from 56 to 112 days of age must contain 2,650 kcal of ME/kg, corresponding to a daily intake of 61.5 kcal of ME/bird or 6.24 kcal of ME/g of egg to obtain good results of egg weight and feed:egg mass ratio, besides greater egg production in absolute value.

  6. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  7. Efeito de níveis de proteína bruta e de energia metabolizável na dieta sobre o desempenho de codornas de postura Dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy levels on laying quails performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Chalegre de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB e de energia metabolizável (EM sobre o desempenho de codornas de postura. Foram utilizadas 672 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica a partir de 42 dias de idade, durante 168 dias de produção, dividido em seis períodos de 28 dias cada, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial de 4 x 4 (proteína x energia, com seis repetições de sete aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis avaliados foram: 16, 18, 20 e 22% de proteína bruta e 2.585, 2.685, 2.785 e 2.885 kcal de energia metabolizável/kg de ração. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a ingestão de energia e a produção de ovos. Entretanto, o aumento do nível de energia da ração promoveu redução linear no consumo de ração, na ingestão diária de proteína bruta, no peso do ovo e na massa de ovos, enquanto o de proteína proporcionou aumento linear na ingestão diária de proteína bruta, na massa de ovos, na conversão alimentar e no ganho de peso corporal e efeito quadrático sobre o peso do ovo, sendo 21,16% o nível de proteína bruta estimado para a obtenção do máximo peso do ovo. Pode-se concluir que as codornas japonesas têm o consumo regulado em função do nível de energia da ração. Para se obter maior produção de ovos e melhor conversão alimentar, a ração de postura deve conter 18% de proteína bruta e 2.585 kcal de EM/kg. Entretanto, se o objetivo for a obtenção de ovos com peso mais elevado, o nível de proteína bruta da ração deve aumentar para 21,16%.This work was developed to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude protein (CP and metabolizable energy (ME on the performance of laying quails. Six hundred and seventy tywo Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica from 42 days to 168 days of age were divided in six periods of 28 days each. The birds were assigned to a completely

  8. Nutritional requirements of digestible threonine for growing meat-type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of digestible threonine for meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix sp in the growth phase. A total of 1350 not sexed meat-type quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six threonine levels (10.80, 11.50, 12.20, 12.90, 13.60 and 14.30 g/kg as fed, five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit, from 1 to 14 days of age. The threonine levels in the diet had a quadratic effect on body weight, feed intake and weight gain. Estimates for highest body weight (79.41 g, feed intake (128.96 g/bird and weight gain (70.73 g were observed with diets containing 12.60 g/kg of digestible threonine. According to the LRP model, the threonine intake was estimated at 13.40 g/kg of digestible threonine. Protein deposition rate and energy retained in the carcass showed quadratic effect, with estimated digestible threonine levels of 11.80 and 12.00 g/kg in the diet for maximum protein deposition rate (2.00 g/bird and retained energy in the carcass (15.88 kcal/g, respectively. There was a linear effect on feed cost per kg of live weight gain as threonine levels were increased. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for meat-type quails for maximum growth is 12.60 g/kg, corresponding to a digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 67.02.

  9. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 42, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass values of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed processed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) meal diets · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Edache, CD Tuleun, RU Muduudtai, AG Yisa, 45-57 ...

  10. Cuscuta japonica Choisy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the aqueous extract of Japanese Dodder (Cuscuta japonica) on the velocity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been shown. To accelerate the growth of Myc. tuberculosis, dry culture media of FAST-3L and of Lowenstein Jensen were mixed with the aqueous extract of Cuscuta japonica. It was found out that the complex chemical composition of the aqueous extract made of dry seeds or dry vegetative stems of the plant parasite Cuscuta japonica has a biological effect on Myc. tube...

  11. Lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity in quails ( Cortunix japonica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambda-cyhalothrin LCT is the active agent present in many insecticides used to control agricultural pest in Nigeria. Garlic contains a variety of effective compounds needed to increase the welfare of livestock. This study investigates the impact of chronic toxicity of the natural pyrethrin (LCT) on wildlife sentinels and the ...

  12. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: Sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  13. Coturnix coturnix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    : The aim of this study was determine the effect of commercial feed of laying hens, principal feed .... durant l'essai ont varié respectivement de 20 à 30°C et ... Calcium / Phosphore. 2,0 ..... liver, meat and perirenal fat in rabbit.

  14. Number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of chicken and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Knaga, Sebastian; Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoli are the product of nucleolus organizing region activity (NOR) of specific chromosomes. Their basic function is to synthetise ribosomal RNA precursors and promote the maturation and assemblage of preribosomal RNP molecules. Information on rRNA-coding gene activity can be provided by the analysis of the number and size of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division. The morphology and ultrastructure of a nucleolus depends, among others, on the species and cell growth cycle as well as the physiological and pathological state of an organism. The purpose of this research was to determine the number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of the domestic chicken and the Japanese quail. Diverse numbers and sizes of nucleoli in the cells of the analysed birds were observed. 1-4 nucleoli were identified in chicken cells (1.91 +/- 0.63 on average) and 1-2 in quail cells (1.13 +/- 0.33 on average). For the total of 957 nucleoli observed in Gallus cells, 329 were classified as large and 628 as small. In Coturnix cells, 563 nucleoli were identified (66 large and 497 small ones). An analysis of the numbers and sizes of nucleoli can be performed at the cytogenetic level and serve as an alternative source of information on rRNA encoding gene and nucleolus organising region (NOR) activities.

  15. Diagnostic Assay for Rickettsia japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Nozomu; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kawabata, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakata, Akiko; Azuma, Yoshinao; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takano, Ai; Watanabe, Haruo; Kishimoto, Toshio; Shirai, Mutsunori; Kurane, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    We developed a specific and rapid detection system for Rickettsia japonica and R. heilongjiangensis, the causative agents of spotted fever, using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe for a particular open reading frame (ORF) identified by the R. japonica genome project. The target ORF was present only in R. japonica–related strains. PMID:19961684

  16. Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCI 2) and organic (CH3HgCI) mercury chloride was studied in coturnix (Corurnix japonica) by feeding them mercuric compounds (CH3HgCI at concentrations of 0.125,0.5,2 and 8 ppm; HgCI2 at 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 ppm) in ad libitum diets from hatching to adulthood. Differences of response to the mercurials were compared on the basis of selected indicator enzymes and plasma chemistries. Comparisons of response to equivalent concentrations of the two mercurials and dose-response relationships were made at 1,3,5,7 and 9 weeks. Changes of activity were detected for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (ASA T), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT). Changes of ASA T, LDH and OCT were then quantified by probit analysis and the mercurials were compared through their median effective concentrations (EC50). This quantal procedure was based on the establishment of normal control values for each enzyme and then classifying mercury-treated outliers (more than + 2 SD) as respondents. The EC50 values at 9 weeks for ASA T, LDH and OCT, respectively, were 9, 3 and 63 ppm for HgCl 2, and 5, 1 and 4 ppm for CH3HgCI. These results provided the basis for two hazard indices that were calculated by dividing the EC50 into the oral LD50 and the 5-d dietary LC50. Mercury also had contradictory effects on gonadal maturation in both sexes.

  17. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  18. EFECTO DEL USO DE ADITIVOS EN DIETAS DE CODORNICES REPRODUCTORES (Coturnix coturnix japonica) BAJO CONDICIONES DE VERANO EN LA COSTA CENTRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ciriaco Castañeda, Pedro; Facultad Zootecnia, Dpto. de Produccion Animal de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Roncal Ñañez, Henry David; Ing. Zootecnista (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluaron los efectos de la adición en la dieta de 0.05% del Complejo B, 0.05% de Vitamina C, 0.2% de Bicarbonato de Sodio y 0.05% de Ácido Acetil Salicílico, sobre los parámetros productivos y reproductivos de codornices japonesas en época de verano en la costa central del Perú (Lima), con temperatura ambiental promedio de 25°C. Codornices reproductores (270 hembras y 90 machos) de 48 días de edad, fueron distribuidas en cinco tratamientos (4 con aditivos y una dieta control) con tres rep...

  19. Milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. como substituto do milho em rações para codornas-japonesas em postura (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de codornas-japonesas em postura alimentadas com níveis crescentes de milheto-grão na ração. Duzentas codornas com 70 dias de idade, submetidas a um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições de 10 aves, receberam níveis de milheto de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao milho em rações na fase de postura. Foram medidos a produção e o peso dos ovos, o consumo de ração, a mortalidade, a coloração da gema pelo leque colorimétrico, e calculada a conversão alimentar em termos de massa e de dúzia de ovos. Os índices de produtividade das codornas não foram afetados pelos diferentes níveis de substituição estudados e o milheto-grão se constituiu em uma fonte de substituição do milho para codornas-japonesas, devendo-se, porém, incluir na ração uma fonte de pigmentação para a gema dos ovos.

  20. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  1. Japanese quail performance under different stocking densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; EL-Faramawy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with Japanese quails at the poultry production farm (Poultry Research Unite, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Inshas, Egypt) to determine the effects of stocking density on the growth, carcass composition, feed conversion, feed efficiency, corticosterone level, immune response and profit potential. A total of 924 Japanese quail chicks were brooded at 2 weeks of age in batteries at 44, 88 and 176 birds / m2 each of 3 replicates. Chicks brooded at 44 and 88 bird / m2 were grew significantly (P<0.05) during the experimental period more than those brooded at 176 bird/m2. Increasing birds density was associated with significant (P<0.05) increase in serum corticosterone level, carcass protein percent, live body weight per m2 and monetary returns. Carcass fat percent and immune response were reduced sharply with increasing quail stocking density. On the other hand, feed conversion was reduced, while feed efficiency was improved (P<0.05) by increasing quail stocking density

  2. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  3. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  4. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  5. The development of ovary in quail's embryo | Rong | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to study the development of ovary in quails' embryos which were incubated for 4 to 17 days and incubated out for 1 day. The quails' embryos or gonads were cut out and HE staining was carried out. The results showed that when embryo was hatched for 4 days, lots of primordial germ cells ...

  6. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japônica (codorna japonesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar F. Vita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioidesLinnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 (codorna japonesa, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução de índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridiae Eimeria. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos de Ascaridiasp. (100,00% e significativa taxa de redução na destruição de oocistos de Eimeriasp. (47,06%. O ensaio in vivodemonstrou alta taxa de redução na contagem de ovos de Ascaridiasp. nas fezes (100,00% e expressiva taxa de redução na contagem de oocistos de Eimeriasp. nas fezes (60,33%. Chenopodium ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  7. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua on cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Liang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica are used as a medicinal herb in China, Japan and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. This article presents an overview of the effects of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction based on literature searched from Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies found that Sophora japonica reduced the size of cerebral infarction and neurological deficits and reduced microglial activation, interleukin-1β release and number of apoptotic cells in ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats. Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  9. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  10. Pb Speciation Data to Estimate Lead Bioavailability to Quail

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting data for lead speciation of soil samples evaluated through an in-vivo/in-vitro correlation for quail exposure. This dataset is associated...

  11. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  12. Short barb: a feather structure mutation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Roberts, C W; Nichols, C R; Cheng, K M

    1982-12-01

    A type of feather structure abnormality in Japanese quail resulting in shortened barbs on contour feathers was found to be controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, sh (short barb). The mutation was first identified in a full-sib family from the University of British Columbia wild type line. Unlike other feather structure mutations in Japanese quail reported previously in literature, the short barb mutation is not associated with poor reproduction.

  13. Período de permanência de espermatozoides em glândulas hospedeiras de espermatozoides e glândulas infundibulares em codorna de corte Stay period of sperm in sperm-storage glands and in infundibular glands in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.P.S. Miranda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o tempo de permanência de espermatozoides nas glândulas hospedeiras de espermatozoides (GHEs e nas glândulas infundibulares (GIs de codorna de corte (Coturnix coturnix coturnix, foram utilizados 12 machos e 66 fêmeas, totalizando 78 codornas em fase reprodutiva. As fêmeas foram distribuídas em 11 grupos e acasaladas por 24 horas em gaiolas individuais. Os machos, utilizados de modo intercalado, foram separados do contato com as fêmeas e colocados em descanso. As aves do grupo-controle (G0 - seis fêmeas foram abatidas no início do experimento, enquanto as 60 fêmeas acasaladas foram distribuídas em 10 grupos (G1 a G10, com seis fêmeas cada e abatidas a cada período de 24 horas, de forma sequencial. Fragmentos foram obtidos da região uterovaginal e do infundíbulo e submetidos às análises histológica, histoquímica e histométrica com técnicas de rotina. Os resultados morfométricos mostraram que 46% das GHEs continham espermatozoides em seu lume no primeiro dia após o acasalamento, diminuindo gradativamente nos dias posteriores chegando a 3% no quinto dia. Nesse período, os espermatozoides ascendem em direção às GIs, onde permanecem viáveis e férteis por, pelo menos, 96 horas após deixarem as GHEs, possibilitando a postura de ovos férteis por 10 dias, em média, após o acasalamento.Sperm-Storage Tubules (SSPs and Infundibular Tubules (ITs are the structures responsible for sperm storage in the oviduct of birds, snakes, alligators and turtles after mating. Aiming to determine length of stay of sperm-storage tubules (SSPs and infundibular tubules (ITs cutting quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix, we used 12 males and 66 females, totaling 79 quails in the reproductive phase. The females were allocated into 11 groups and mated for 24 hours in individual cages. The males used were merged and separated from contact with females and placed at rest. The poultry of the control-group (G0 six females was slaughtered

  14. Genetic parameters of growth, body, and egg traits in Japanese quails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... egg traits as well as genetic and phenotypic relationships between these traits in Japanese quails reared in the ... Japanese quail is the smallest avian species farmed .... 2 = cross classified “family” variance component.

  15. EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE PARTICLE SIZE ON PERFORMANCE AND SHELL QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAILS GRANULOMETRIA DO CALCÁRIO NO DESEMPENHO E QUALIDADE DA CASCA DE OVOS DE CODORNAS JAPONESAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barcellos Café

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated limestone particle size of diet on performance and shell quality of japanese quails. The experimental design used was completely randomized with five treatments (five different particle sizes of limestone and five replicates of 16 birds each in a total of 400 birds. The treatments were: T1 – Diets with 100% of the limestone coarse; T2 – diets with 70% of limestone coarse and 30% fine; T3 – diets with 30% of limestone coarse and 70% fine; T4 - Diets with 100% of the limestone fine and T5 – Diets with 100% of medium limestone. The experimental diets were formulated to meet NRC (1994 nutritional requirements. The treatment of 100% fine particle size improved egg production and bird performance compared to the treatment with 100% medium particle size. There was no effect of limestone particle size on shell quality of quail eggs. The fine or coarse limestone particle size can be used in diets of laying quails. The medium limestone particle size is not recommended on laying Japanese quail diets. KEY WORDS: Limestone, particle size, japonese quails, egg production, shell egg quality. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da granulometria do calcário calcítico da ração de postura sobre o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, com cinco repetições de 16 aves cada, num total de quatrocentas aves. Os tratamentos foram: T1 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria grossa; T2 – ração com 70% de calcário de granulometria grossa e 30% fina; T3 – ração com 30% de calcário de granulometria grossa e 70% fina; T4 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria fina; T5 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria média. As rações experimentais eram isonutritivas e foram formuladas para conter os níveis nutricionais sugeridos pelo NRC (1994

  16. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  17. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  18. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  20. QUAIL: A Quantitative Security Analyzer for Imperative Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Traonouez, Louis-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model...... of the system’s behavior as observed by an attacker, and computes the correlation between the system’s observable output and the behavior depending on the private information, obtaining the expected amount of bits of the secret that the attacker will infer by observing the system. QUAIL is able to evaluate...... the safety of randomized protocols depending on secret data, allowing to verify a security protocol’s effectiveness. We experiment with a few examples and show that QUAIL’s security analysis is more accurate and revealing than results of other tools...

  1. Eyeworm infections of Oxyspirura petrowi, Skrjabin, 1929 (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), in species of quail from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Kendall, R J

    2017-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have been declining steadily throughout much of their historical range over the past few decades. Even the Rolling Plains of Texas, historically rich with wild quail and one of the last remaining quail strongholds, has been suffering a population decline, most notably since 2010. Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii) have also been experiencing their own decline throughout their respective range, but not as significant as that of other species of quail. Eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi) in quail have been recognized for years but not thoroughly studied until recently. New research reveals that O. petrowi infection can cause inflammation, oedema, and cellular damage to the eye of the quail host. The objective of this research was to better understand the prevalence of the eyeworm infection in different quail species, expand on known distribution, and determine if there is a relationship between location and species infected with eyeworms. Northern bobwhite, Scaled quail and Gambel's quail were hunter-donated from one county within Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, and examined for the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of eyeworm infection from November 2013 to February 2014. Quail from every location were found to have individuals with a varying degree of eyeworm infection. This is the first study to document eyeworm infection in Gambel's quail and in quail in New Mexico and Arizona, and reports the highest eyeworm infection found in Northern bobwhite and Scaled quail.

  2. Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic artery of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Sarah; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Brachiocephalic arteries in quails are large arteries which are arising separately from the aortic arch. The aim of the present study was to determine the histomorphometric aspects of brachiocephalic arteries in the Japanese quail. The different layers of the brachiocephalic artery were studied quantitatively in 10, 20 and 60 days-old Japanese quail; (n = 6) and both sexes. Luminal diameter, thickness of the intima, media and adventitia, the percentage of the intima, media and adventitia, as compared with the total wall thickness were determined. It was found that luminal diameter and whole artery thickness increased by age (p < 0.05). In addition, the tunica media was the thickest layer, then tunica intima and at last tunica adventitia (p < 0.05). The muscularity of the right brachiocephalic artery was more than that of the left one (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic arteries of Japanese quails showed that increasing of age causes increase of internal and external diameters of the artery and this increase in females was more than males.

  3. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118 ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  4. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  5. Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...

  6. improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, E.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aimed to use gamma irradiation doses as compared to chemical preservative sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp) for increasing the shelf-life and improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses during cold and frozen storage. one hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. the examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2,4,6 and 8 kGy doses and soaking in 3% stpp and the effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties during cold (4±1 o C) and frozen storage (-18 o C) of samples under investigation were evaluated .the results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation and soaking in STPP treatments. furthermore, treatments had no deleterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. irradiation of samples at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged its shelf- life for 12,15,21,24 and 9 days at 4±1 o C, respectively against only 6 days for control samples

  7. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  8. Genetic evaluation of European quails by random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Miranda Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare different random regression models, defined from different classes of heterogeneity of variance combined with different Legendre polynomial orders for the estimate of (covariance of quails. The data came from 28,076 observations of 4,507 female meat quails of the LF1 lineage. Quail body weights were determined at birth and 1, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Six different classes of residual variance were fitted to Legendre polynomial functions (orders ranging from 2 to 6 to determine which model had the best fit to describe the (covariance structures as a function of time. According to the evaluated criteria (AIC, BIC and LRT, the model with six classes of residual variances and of sixth-order Legendre polynomial was the best fit. The estimated additive genetic variance increased from birth to 28 days of age, and dropped slightly from 35 to 42 days. The heritability estimates decreased along the growth curve and changed from 0.51 (1 day to 0.16 (42 days. Animal genetic and permanent environmental correlation estimates between weights and age classes were always high and positive, except for birth weight. The sixth order Legendre polynomial, along with the residual variance divided into six classes was the best fit for the growth rate curve of meat quails; therefore, they should be considered for breeding evaluation processes by random regression models.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  10. Response surface methodology based optimization for degradation of align in Laminaria japonica feedstuff via fermentation by Bacillus in Apostichopus japonicas farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xitao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: This study provides an alternative and economical way to reduce the algin content in L. japonica through degradation by WB1, making it a promising potential source of feed for cultured L. japonica.

  11. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  12. The Influence of Different Processing Methods on Component Content of Sophora japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Zhu, H. J.; Xin, G. S.; Wei, C.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the effect of different processing methods on the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica, and to determine the content of rutin and quercetin in Sophora japonica under different processing methods by UV spectrophotometry of the content determination. So as to compare the effect of different processing methods on the active ingredient content of Sophora japonica. Experiments can be seen in the rutin content: Fried Sophora japonica>Vinegar sunburn Sophora> Health products Sophora japonica> Charred sophora flower, Vinegar sunburn Sophora and Fried Sophora japonica difference is not obvious; Quercetin content: Charred sophora flower> Fried Sophora japonica> Vinegar sunburn Sophora>Health products Sophora japonica. It is proved that there are some differences in the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica in different processing methods. The content of rutin increased with the increase of the processing temperature, but the content decreased after a certain temperature; Quercetin content will increase gradually with time.

  13. Japonica rice variety Yangfujing 7 bred by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Wang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    A japonica variety, Yangfujing 7, which possessing high yield potential, good quality and disease resistance was developed through cross breeding combined mutation breeding. The variety met the needs of agricultural environment in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  14. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  15. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  16. Association of Tyrosinase (TYR and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1 (TYRP1 with Melanic Plumage Color in Korean Quails (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available TYR (Tyrosinase and TYRP1 (Tyrosinase-related protein 1 play crucial roles in determining the coat color of birds. In this paper, we aimed to characterize the relationship of TYR and TYRP1 genes with plumage colors in Korean quails. The SNPs were searched by cDNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP in three plumage color Korean quails (maroon, white and black plumage. Two SNPs (367T→C and 1153C→T were found in the coding region of TYRP1 gene, but had no significant association with plumage phenotype in Korean quails. The expression of TYR was higher in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. In contrast, the expression of TYRP1 was lower in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. This study suggested that the melanic plumage color in Korean quails may be associated with either increased production of TYR or decreased production of TYRP1.

  17. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  18. INCLUSION OF GUAVA WASTES IN THE DIET OF EUROPEAN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lemos Camelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the performance and carcass characteristics of European quail fed agroindustry residue of guava in substitution of corn. 140 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with levels of guava waste inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% to a diet based on corn and soybean meal. There were no significant differences (P> 0.05 for the variables: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, weight and carcass yield and prime cuts (breast, drumstick and thigh wings, back , neck, head, feet and foodstuffs organs (heart, liver and gizzard. The guava waste can be used as alternative ingredient in the diets of European quail in the period of 16-38 days of age, up to the level of 10% inclusion without depressing the performance and yield of poultry carcasses.

  19. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  20. Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Jill N; Vasquez, Barbara; Bradley, Russell G; Fedynich, Alan M; Lerich, Scott P; Kinsella, John M

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats.

  1. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  2. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in Japanese quail susceptible to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrzak, R.; Shih, J.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) was demonstrated as an etiological agent which causes atherosclerosis in the chicken. Since herpes viruses are ubiquitous, incidences of viral atherogenesis in humans and other animals were speculated. In this laboratory, the atherosclerosis susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) Japanese quail were developed as the animal model for atherosclerosis research. The susceptibility of the animal might be due to an infection of MDV or a related quail herpes virus (QHV). An initial attempt to isolate viruses from quail and an agar gel precipitin test for MDC were not positive. A DNA hybridization technique was used to determine whether the MDC-DNA existed in the quail cell. The gene library of MDV EcoRl DNA fragments was used to prepare the DNA probe, labeled with [ 32 P] by nick translation. Dot hybridizations were carried out by mixing the MDV-DNA probe with DNAs isolated from quail tissues. A high stringent condition was used. From this experiment it was found that the tissues from the SUS quail were hybridization positive, but most of them from RES quail were negative. When aortas were compared, the severe atherosclerotic had a strong hybridization (3-4 cop. of genome/cell) whereas the others hybridized moderately (1 cop./cell). It was concluded that genes from MDV or a QHV indeed existed in Japanese quail

  3. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  4. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  5. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  6. [Two kaempferol triglycosides from pericarps of Sophora japonica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y P; Lou, F C; Wang, J H

    2001-12-01

    To study the flavonol triglycosides in the pericarps of Sophora japonica. Various chromatographic techniques were used to isolate and purify the constituents. The structures were elucidated by chemical evidence and spectral analysis, especially by 2D NMR experiments. Two kaempferol triglycosides were isolated and identified as kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-sophoroside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-beta-D-glucosyl)-beta-D-rutinoside. Both of them were reported in S. japonica for the first time.

  7. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.

  8. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  9. Detecting slow introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eSanchez-Donoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interbreeding of two species in the wild implies introgression of alleles from one species into the other only when admixed individuals survive and successfully backcross with the parental species. Consequently, estimating the proportion of first generation hybrids in a population may not inform about the evolutionary impact of hybridization. Samples obtained over a long time span may offer a more accurate view of the spreading of introgressed alleles in a species’ gene pool. Common quail (Coturnix coturnix populations in Europe have been restocked extensively with farm quails of hybrid origin (crosses with Japanese quails, C. japonica. We genetically monitored a common quail population over 15 years to investigate whether genetic introgression is occurring and used simulations to investigate our power to detect it. Our results revealed that some introgression has occurred, but we did not observe a significant increase over time in the proportion of admixed individuals. However, simulations showed that the degree of admixture may be larger than anticipated due to the limited power of analyses over a short time span, and that observed data was compatible with a low rate of introgression, probably resulting from reduced fitness of admixed individuals. Simulations predicted this could result in extensive admixture in the near future.

  10. Hematological and biochemical effects of chronic CO exposure on the Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J.J.; McGrath, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Japanese Quail were exposed to a concentration of 300 to 350 ppm CO to maintain an equilibrium carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 30% for a period of 4 weeks. Compared to a control group of birds maintained in an identical chamber, the CO-exposed quail demonstrated increases in hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. At the end of the exposure period, the CO-exposed quail had significantly larger plasma glucose concentrations than the control birds. Cardiac and skeletal muscle carbohydrate stores were not affected by chronic CO exposure.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Eriobotrya japonica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: In the present work we determined phenolic and flavonoids content of Eriobotrya japonica leaves extracts and fractions and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives: To evaluate the inhibition of inflammatory PLA2 and antioxidant effects of extracts and fractions from Erio-.

  12. The naturalization of "loquat", Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae, Maloideae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deluchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on herbarium specimens collected in our country, Eriobotrya japonica(Thunb. Lindl. (Rosaceae is mentioned for the first time as naturalized plant in Argentina. Ecological observations and information about various local uses are included. The species is described and illustrated.

  13. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  14. Toxicity of dietary Heliotropium dolosum seed to Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, Y; Eroksuz, H; Ozer, H; Ilhan, N; Cevik, A; Yaman, I; Ceribasi, A O

    2002-10-01

    Five groups of 30 male Japanese quail, each 7-w-old, were fed diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10% (w/w) of dehulled H dolosum seed. Half of the birds from the each group were killed at 6 and 24 w after beginning of the trial. At the end of 6th w, neither mortality nor clinical sign occurred in test groups. In the 5 and 10% inclusion levels, mild to moderate hepatic injury was detected as evidenced by mild karyomegaly, moderate fatty change, focal or portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasie, and ovalocyte proliferation along with lower serum protein and albumin levels. By the termination of the experiment (24 w), 5 birds died in the 10% dosed group. Hepatic cirrhosis was the most prominent finding in the 5 and 10% group; at these levels, serum protein and albumin values decreased significanty while billuribin and ALP levels increased. Based on relative weights and histological evaluations, testicularatrophywasdosedependent. These results partly affirm earlier studies that the quail is highly resistant to the toxic effects of H dolosumseed. However, the resistance to H dolosum is less than Senecio Jacobae and Crotalaria spectabilis when considering tissue injury.

  15. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  16. Comparative toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), in chickens, quails, and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A A; Reed, W M

    1990-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), was administered by gavage to immature chickens, quails, and turkeys at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. At 25 mg coniine/kg body weight, clinical signs were observed only in quails (2/10) and consisted of excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos, and flaccid paralysis. Chickens (9/10) and quails (8/10) dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight were affected, and several birds of each species died (2/10 and 5/10, respectively). Turkeys (7/10) were affected only when dosed at 100 mg/kg body weight, and quails (6/10), turkeys (4/10), and chickens (10/10) died at this dose. There were no gross or microscopic lesions. Coniine was detected in skeletal muscle and liver of birds dying after ingestion and was present in some survivors 7 days post-treatment.

  17. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  18. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  19. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,PA dos; Ludke,MCMM; Ludke,JV; Rabello,CBV; Santos,MJB dos; Torres,TR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of fol...

  20. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

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    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  1. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

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    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  2. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in Japanese quails and common pheasants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashev, L D; Dimitrova, D J; Milanova, A; Moutafchieva, R G

    2015-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was studied in Japanese quails and common pheasants. Healthy mature birds from both species and both genders were treated intravenously and orally with enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) and marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg). After intravenous administration enrofloxacin was extensively metabolised to ciprofloxacin. Metabolites of marbofloxacin were not detected. Values of volume of distribution were respectively 4.63 l/kg and 3.67 l/kg for enrofloxacin and 1.56 l/kg and 1.43 l/kg for marbofloxacin. In quails, total body clearance values were higher than those in pheasants and other avian species. After oral application enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed in quails, more rapidly than marbofloxacin. Pheasants absorbed both antimicrobials at a lower rate. Higher bioavailability was observed for marbofloxacin (118%). Relatively low bioavailability was established in quails for enrofloxacin (26.4%), accompanied by extensive conversion to ciprofloxacin. Generally, quails absorbed and eliminated both fluoroquinolones more rapidly than pheasants; the latter showed pharmacokinetics similar to poultry. Because of favourable pharmacokinetic properties, marbofloxacin should be preferred for oral administration in Japanese quails and pheasants for treatment of infections caused by equally susceptible pathogens.

  3. Effect of chamomile extract on the welfare of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Isabela Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile extract on Japanese quail on their performance, animal behavior, tonic immobility, body injuries, and surface temperature. The trial was conducted using 108 quail distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments (0, 2.5, and 5.0 g chamomile/kg of feed, six replicates, and six birds per treatment, evaluated in six measures repeated in time (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of trial. The inclusion of chamomile presented a quadratic effect on sitting behavior, estimating the inclusion of 1.8 g chamomile/kg to maximize this behavior. There was a decreasing linear effect for aggressive pecking, that is, the higher the inclusion of chamomile in the diet, the lower the expression of this behavior. The inclusion of 1.8-5.0 g chamomile/kg in a Japanese quail diet reduces the behavior of aggressive pecking, in addition to keeping the birds seated longer. These results are innovative because they show in the literature for the first time that chamomile supplemented in Japanese quail diets has the capacity to modulate the behavior of the quail, leading to an improvement in the welfare of quail raised in cages.

  4. Humoral immunity of Japanese quail subjected to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to continuous wave microwave radiation at an intensity of 5 mW/cm 2 (50 W/m 2 ) and a frequency of 2450 Mhz. The absorbed power density was determined to be 4.03 W/kg. The eggs were exposed throughout the first 12 days of the normal incubation period of 17.5 days. Non-exposed control eggs were incubated in a chamber identical to the exposure chamber. After hatching, exposed and control quail were reared in the conventional laboratory manner. Weekly body weight measurements were made to compare the growth patterns of exposed and control quail. The weights of the exposed male at the ages of 4 and 5 weeks were 12 and 7%, respectively, less than the control males. These differences approached statistical significance (P<=0.05). At 5 weeks of age the quail were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the levels of the anti-SRBC antibodies were determined. The levels of specific anti-SRBC antibodies, determined 4 days after antigen challenges, were of the same magnitude for both the exposed and control quail. Following this assessment of humoral immunity, the quail were sacrificed and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed and a comparison was made of exposed and control birds. The weights of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were not altered significantly by the microwave exposure. (author)

  5. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  6. Parâmetros avaliativos da qualidade física de ovos de codornas (Coturnix coturnix japônica em função das características de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Sousa Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to present aspects related to maintaining the quality of quail eggs addressing the main parameters that must be evaluated and pointing their importance in order to characterize its commercial quality. The excellent performance of quails in posture process depends on a complex interaction between nutrition and a variety of internal factors. The quail egg weight ranges from 9 to 13 grams and is of considerable importance for the assessment of quality. During storage there is loss of egg weight. This loss is associated with the evaporation of water by means the pores of the shell which also determines the increase of the air chamber that affects the specific gravity. The Haugh Unit is the parameter most commonly used to express the quality of the eggs. The higher the value of the Haugh unit, better the quality of the eggs. As regards the quality of eggs, it becomes evident that longer periods of storage, the internal egg quality tends to decrease linearly and sharply to the no refrigerated. The storage temperature is shown associated the rate of changes occurring in the egg during storage.

  7. In ovo Technology and newcastle disease resistance in Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, I.E.; Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ali, I.E.; Shabana, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A total number of 1600 fertile eggs from japanese quail birds were used in this study. The eggs were divided into eight groups then incubated. NDV and vite were administered to the groups of eggs in Ovo injection at day 14 from incubation. Hatchability, body weight, egg production and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Five blood samples were collected weekly from each group to measure total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, T3, T4 and HI titre. The results of this work revealed an increase in total serum proteins, globulin, and a decrease in t3, T4 and albumin values of the in ove vaccinating groups. Also HI titre recorded higher values due to ovo vaccination alone or combined with vit. E. It was noticed that the group injected by inactive vaccine plus vit. E registered high increases in hatchability, body weight and egg production beside a decrease in mortality

  8. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.; Hong, Mei-Chu; Chang, T.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage

  9. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw; Hong, Mei-Chu [TaiChung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-S. [Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage.

  10. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  11. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  12. Characteristics and Application Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Containing Sophora Japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.

  13. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

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    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  14. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles.

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    Gi Byoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2(filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively. In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97% than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a

  16. Quail FMO3 gene cloning, tissue expression profiling, polymorphism detection and association analysis with fishy taint in eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Mo

    Full Text Available Quail eggs comprise a significant and favourable part of table eggs in certain countries. Some quail eggs, however, present fishy off-flavor which directly influences their quality. It is reported that flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 is associated with fish-odour trait in human and animal products. FMO3 is responsible for the degradation of trimethylamine (TMA in vivo. Loss-of-function mutations in FMO3 gene can result in defective TMA N-oxygenation, giving rise to disorder known as "fish-odour syndrome" in human, as well as the fishy off-flavor in cow milk and chicken eggs. In order to reveal the genetic factor of fishy taint in quail eggs, we cloned the cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene, investigated FMO3 mRNA expression level in various tissues, detected SNPs in the coding region of the gene and conducted association analysis between a mutation and the TMA content in quail egg yolks. The 1888 bp cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene encoding 532 amino acids was obtained and characterized. The phylogenetic analysis revealed quail FMO3 had a closer relationship with chicken FMO3. The FMO3 mRNA was highly expressed in liver and kidney of quail. Nine SNPs were detected in the coding sequence of quail FMO3 gene, including a nonsense mutation (Q319X which was significantly associated with the elevated TMA content in quail egg yolks. Genotype TT at Q319X mutation loci was sensitive to choline. With addition of choline in the feed, the quails with homozygote TT at the Q319X mutation loci laid fish-odour eggs, indicating an interaction between genotype and diet. The results indicated that Q319X mutation was associated with the fishy off-flavor in quail eggs. Identification of the unfavorable allele T of quail FMO3 gene can be applied in future quail breeding to eliminate fishy off-flavor trait in quail eggs.

  17. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus-related sequences in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J A; Cywinski, A; Chen, P J; Taylor, J M

    1986-08-01

    We detected sequences related to the avian retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus within the genome of the Japanese quail, a species previously considered to be free of endogenous avian leukosis virus elements. Using low-stringency conditions of hybridization, we screened a quail genomic library for clones containing retrovirus-related information. Of five clones so selected, one, lambda Q48, contained sequence information related to the gag, pol, and env genes of Rous sarcoma virus arranged in a contiguous fashion and spanning a distance of approximately 5.8 kilobases. This organization is consistent with the presence of an endogenous retroviral element within the Japanese quail genome. Use of this element as a high-stringency probe on Southern blots of genomic digests of several quail DNA demonstrated hybridization to a series of high-molecular-weight bands. By slot hybridization to quail DNA with a cloned probe, it was deduced that there were approximately 300 copies per diploid cell. In addition, the quail element also hybridized at low stringency to the DNA of the White Leghorn chicken and at high stringency to the DNAs of several species of jungle fowl and both true and ruffed pheasants. Limited nucleotide sequencing analysis of lambda Q48 revealed homologies of 65, 52, and 46% compared with the sequence of Rous sarcoma virus strain Prague C for the endonuclease domain of pol, the pol-env junction, and the 3'-terminal region of env, respectively. Comparisons at the amino acid level were also significant, thus confirming the retrovirus relatedness of the cloned quail element.

  19. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed sup(95m)Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, male and female Japanese quail were chronically fed alfalfa grown on solutions containing TcO 4 which was mixed into a commercial turkey starter. The objective was to estimate concentration ratios and transfer coefficients from Tc incorporated into alfalfa tissue to quail eggs, edible tissues and other organs. (author)

  20. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  1. Distribution and metabolism of selenite and selenomethionine in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Ohbo, Ai; Tani, Yuta; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-05-01

    Compared to the many studies on the physiological and toxicological effects of selenium (Se) in mammals, avian Se metabolism is still an unexplored topic. Some birds are useful as poultry for human nutrition. Moreover, birds belong to higher trophic levels in the biosphere and thus may play an important role in Se circulation in the ecosystem in the same way as mammals do. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and metabolism of Se in an experimental bird, the Japanese quail, which was fed drinking water containing sodium selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet). The highest concentration of Se was detected in the pancreas, followed by down feathers, liver, and kidneys. SeMet was more efficiently incorporated into the quail than selenite. The specific and preferable distribution of Se to the high molecular weight fraction in the serum of the quail was observed only in the SeMet-ingestion group. As in mammals, selenosugar and trimethylselenonium were the major metabolites in quail excreta. Three unknown Se metabolites were detected by HPLC-ICP-MS. Although part of the metabolic pathway of Se in the Japanese quail fed selenite and SeMet was the same as that observed in mammals, the bird also showed certain avian-specific metabolic process for Se.

  2. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  3. [Photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts during parasitization and after detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hu, Fei; Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Jun; Kong, Chui-Hua

    2007-08-01

    The study on the photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts showed that there was a negative correlation between the photosynthetic pigment content (PPC) of C. japonica and its hosts. The PPC increased in the C. japonica-preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves, but decreased in its less preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves. The leaves parasitized by C. japonica and their neighboring far from the parasitized ones had a lowered net photosynthesis rate P(n), and the decreasing order accorded with that of parasitization. The decrease of P(n) for C. japonica-less preferred hosts was mainly due to the stomatal factors, but that for the preferred hosts was regulated by multi-factors. Under light, the PPC of C. japonica detached from preferred hosts increased faster than that of C. japonica detached from less preferred hosts, but the dry matter decrease was in adverse. In dark, however, the changes in PPC and dry matter content of C. japonica were not significant, whatever hosts it was detached from.

  4. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Trapa japonica Shell Extract Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DooJin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Geunpyo; Kim, Jong Dai

    2017-01-01

    Trapa japonica shell contains phenolic compounds such as tannins. Studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of Trapa japonica shell cultivated in Korea are still unclear. Antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities were measured by in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, reducing power, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and iron chelating ability in 3T3-L1 cells. We also measured the total phenol and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) in Trapa japonica shell extract. Our results show that TPC and TFC of Trapa japonica shell extract were 157.7±0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 25.0±1.95 mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. Trapa japonica shell extract showed strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and other methods. Especially, the whole antioxidant activity test of Trapa japonica shell extract exhibited higher levels than that of butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. Furthermore, Trapa japonica shell extract inhibited lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Trapa japonica shell extract possessed a significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic property, which suggests its potential as a natural functional food ingredient. PMID:29333386

  6. Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Energy value of meat in selected species of feathered game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vitula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare gross energy (GE in breast and thigh muscles in the following six species of feathered game reared in Europe: guineafowl (Numida meleagris, common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, chukar (Alectoris chucar, grey partridge (Perdix perdix and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. Calorimetric analysis revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05 and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences between individual species in the content of energy in breast and thigh muscles. The highest content of energy (recalculated to dry matter was found in breast muscles from wild turkey (24.75 MJ·kg-1 and Japanese quail (24.57 MJ·kg-1 whereas the highest content of energy (recalculated to dry matter in thigh muscles was found in Japanese quail and grey partridge. Highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences in the energy content were also found between breast and thigh muscles in all studied game species except for wild turkey. Differences in the content of energy in muscles between individual species occur mainly due to different contents of fat in muscles. This is also confirmed by high correlation coefficients between the content of energy and the content of fat in breast (r = 0.912 and thigh muscles (r = 0.878. Our study provides more specific data on the amount of energy in muscles of major species of feathered game reared in Europe and significantly extends current knowledge in this field.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hatchability and embryonic development of quail eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlany, P.; Sinkovicsne Hlubik, I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of quail and hen's eggs was examined. The goals of the examinations were to determine the LD 50 and LD 100 values, to establish the effect of single and multiple irradiation on embryonic development and to get some information on the embryonation of eggs produced by quails and their progeny grown from irradiated eggs. It was shown that 200 rad dose has significant stimulation effect of the hatching results of quail eggs. The LD 50 and LD 100 values were about 800 to 850 rad and 1600 rad, respectively. Repeated irradiation on the progeny-generations proved to be unambiguously deleterious on embryonation. High doses changed the rhythm of embryonal mortality, showing a peak under the irradiation and in the first three days of incubation, and significantly enhanced the number of teratological types. (author)

  9. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  10. Extremely Low Genomic Diversity of Rickettsia japonica Distributed in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers". The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  12. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  13. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Graciene Conceição dos; Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio; Vieira Filho, Javer Alves; Molino, Andréa de Britto; Pelicia, Kleber; Berto, Daniella Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, eg...

  14. Identification and characterisation of ROS modulator 1 in Lampetra japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on chemical constituents of Polygala japonica Houtt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting-zhao; ZHANG Wei-dong; LIU Run-hui; CHEN Hai-sheng; ZHANG Chuan; SU Juan; XU Xi-ke

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents of Polygala japonica Houtt.. Methods:The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatographies with silical gel, RP-silical gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data (IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC). Results: Totally 15 compounds were obtained from Polygala japonica Houtt. And their structures were identified as castaprenol-12 (Ⅰ), β-sitosterol (Ⅱ), stigmasterol (Ⅲ),stigmasta-7,22-di-ene-3-one (Ⅳ), n-dotriacontanol ( Ⅴ ), n-hexadecanol ( Ⅵ ), arachidic acid (Ⅶ), erogosterol (Ⅷ), kaempferol (Ⅸ), quercetin (Ⅹ), daucosterol (Ⅺ), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (Ⅻ),coumaric acid (ⅩⅢ), rhamnocitrin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (ⅪⅤ), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (ⅩⅤ). Conclusion: Compounds Ⅰ , Ⅲ , Ⅳ, Ⅴ , Ⅵ, Ⅶ, Ⅷ, Ⅻ , ⅩⅢ and ⅩⅣ were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing and De Novo analysis of Youngia japonica using the illumina platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Peng

    Full Text Available Youngia japonica, a weed species distributed worldwide, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is an ideal plant for studying the evolution of Asteraceae plants because of its short life history and abundant source. However, little is known about its evolution and genetic diversity. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted for the first time for the comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. The Y. japonica transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 21,847,909 high-quality reads for Y. japonica and assembled them into contigs. A total of 51,850 unigenes were identified, among which 46,087 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 41,752 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. We mapped 9,125 unigenes onto 163 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. In addition, 3,648 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource currently available for Y. japonica. C4 photosynthesis unigenes were found in the biological process of Y. japonica. There were 5596 unigenes related to defense response and 1344 ungienes related to signal transduction mechanisms (10.95%. These data provide insights into the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. Numerous SSRs contributed to the development of novel markers. These data may serve as a new valuable resource for genomic studies on Youngia and, more generally, Cichoraceae.

  17. Different gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in Lonicera japonica revealed by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P≤0.05 between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6,602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including Metabolic process, Response to stimulus, Cellular process and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future.

  18. Penggunaan Berbagai Jenis Minyak Sebagai Sumber Energi Dalam Ransum Untuk Menurunkan Kadar Kolestrol Telur Puyuh (Cortunix-cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Aida Fitri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. A study on the use vegetable oil as energy source in diet to decrease cholestrol concentration of quail egg conducted at exprimental Farm-Syiah Kuala University. The study was designed by Completely Randomized Design., divided into 5 treatments of vegetable oil source; soybean oil; coconut oil, palm oil, corn oil and zaitun oil. Result of present study showed that the difference in vegetable oil source in diet affected cholestrol concentration of quail diet. The use of palm or corn oil in quail diet has a more positive affect to decrease cholestrol concentration of quail egg. Corn oil in diet decrease 18.7 % cholesetrol and 23.8 % LDL compared to coconut oil. Differences in vegetable oil source in diet also significantly affected egg production but dit not affected body weight gain of quail.

  19. Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqiang; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui; Chen Shunhua

    2002-01-01

    The research on the behaviors of 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14 C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos 14 C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos or 14 C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

  20. Neuropeptidomic analysis of the embryonic Japanese quail diencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sköld Karl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous peptides such as neuropeptides are involved in numerous biological processes in the fully developed brain but very little is known about their role in brain development. Japanese quail is a commonly used bird model for studying sexual dimorphic brain development, especially adult male copulatory behavior in relation to manipulations of the embryonic endocrine system. This study uses a label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry approach to analyze the influence of age (embryonic days 12 vs 17, sex and embryonic day 3 ethinylestradiol exposure on the expression of multiple endogenous peptides in the developing diencephalon. Results We identified a total of 65 peptides whereof 38 were sufficiently present in all groups for statistical analysis. Age was the most defining variable in the data and sex had the least impact. Most identified peptides were more highly expressed in embryonic day 17. The top candidates for EE2 exposure and sex effects were neuropeptide K (downregulated by EE2 in males and females, gastrin-releasing peptide (more highly expressed in control and EE2 exposed males and gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone related protein 2 (more highly expressed in control males and displaying interaction effects between age and sex. We also report a new potential secretogranin-2 derived neuropeptide and previously unknown phosphorylations in the C-terminal flanking protachykinin 1 neuropeptide. Conclusions This study is the first larger study on endogenous peptides in the developing brain and implies a previously unknown role for a number of neuropeptides in middle to late avian embryogenesis. It demonstrates the power of label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to analyze the expression of multiple endogenous peptides and the potential to detect new putative peptide candidates in a developmental model.

  1. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail).

  2. Organizational effects of diethylstilbestrol on brain vasotocin and sexual behavior in male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Montoncello, Barbara; Mura, Elena; Pessatti, Marzia; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2005-04-15

    In Japanese quail, we previously described a sexual dimorphism of the parvocellular vasotocin system of the limbic region that, as the reproductive behavior, is steroid-sensitive and is organized during embryonic life by the exposure to estradiol. We verified in this study whether diethylstilbestrol, a chemical xenoestrogen, has analogous organizational effects on the vasotocin system of limbic regions and on copulatory behavior of male Japanese quail. We injected in the yolk sac of 3 day-old quail embryos diethylstilbestrol or estradiol benzoate (a treatment which suppresses male copulatory behavior in adulthood and reduces vasotocin innervation), or sesame oil (control). No further hormonal manipulations were performed after hatching. Sexual behavior was recorded in males at the age of 6 weeks. Estradiol- and diethylstilbestrol-treated males exhibited a total suppression of copulatory behavior. After behavioral tests, all males were sacrificed and brain sections processed for vasotocin immunocytochemistry. Significant decrease in the density of vasotocin immunoreactivity was detected in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and in the lateral septum of diethylstilbestrol-treated males. The magnocellular vasotocin neurons were, in contrast, not affected. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that embryonic treatment with diethylstilbestrol induces a full sex reversal of behavioral phenotype as well as a significant decrease of vasotocin expression in the preoptic-limbic region in male Japanese quail. Therefore, the parvocellular vasotocin system could represent an optimal model to investigate the effects of pollutants on neural circuits controlling reproductive functions.

  3. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Darras, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2008). s. 96-102 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Japanese quail * Growth phases * Carcase quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2008

  4. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  5. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  6. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  7. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lontchi-Yimagou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4 consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results: In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL and 4 (59.41 mg/dL compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl, although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p <0.05 in groups 3 (106.52 mg/dL and 4 (109.65 mg/dL compared to group 2 (65.82 mg/dL. Quail eggs had no effect on oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and catalase. Conclusions: The consumption of quail eggs by diabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile.

  8. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  9. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  10. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  11. An annotated review of the Salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The whereabouts of the salamander types described by Temminck & Schlegel in the Fauna Japonica (1838) are discussed and lectotypes are selected from the syntypes for the following nominal species : Salamandra naevia Temminck & Schlegel, S. unguiculata Temminck & Schlegel, S. subcristata Temminck &

  12. Study on the isolation of active constituents in Lonicera japonica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lonicera japonica has antibacterial and gall bladder-protective effects. Objective: To study the .... Dexamethasone acetate cream (999 Pi Yan. Ping), xylene, dry yeast ... 3 ml of yeast solution. (concentration of 20%) at dorsal skin, after inducing.

  13. Characteristic features of computed tomography (CT) in hepatic schistosomiasis japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakemi, Taisuke; Sakai, Terufumi; Majima, Yasuo [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-06-01

    Characteristic finding of CT in the liver of hepatic schistosomiasis japonica were compared with histological changes. The study was made on 7 cases with schistosomatic liver cirrhosis (SLC) and 7 SLC cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Characteristic CT findings were high density funicular patterns showing turtle shell appearance (4 cases), high density spotty patterns (3 cases) and both mixed patterns (7 cases). These patterns were not changed by contrast medium study. Funicular and mixed patterns were observed in both lobes of the liver, however, spotty patterns were seen only in the right lobe. It was difficult to distinguish liver tissue surrounded by funicular patterns from HCC lesion. Histopathological study of autopsied livers and CT scanning of thin cut livers revealed that high density funicular patterns represent deposits of calcified schistosomal ova in the fibrous septa.

  14. Distribution and metabolism of galactitol in Euonymus japonica L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersig, M.R.; Negm, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of [ 14 C]-galactitol was studied in immature and mature leaves of Euonymus japonica L. The highest rates of galactitol metabolism occurred in young expanding leaves. After a 12 h incubation in [ 14 C]-galactitol, the proportions of label remaining in galactitol were 82 and 96% in immature and mature tissues, respectively. A NAD dependent galactitol dehydrogenase reaction was demonstrated in extracts from immature leaves. The product of this reaction was the aldose sugar, galactose. Label from [ 14 C]-galactitol was detected in two unidentified carbohydrates as well as in sucrose, glucose, fructose and galactose. When incubated with [ 14 C]-galactose, immature and mature leaf strips, respectively, accumulated 1 and 22% of the label in the form of galactitol

  15. Development of microsatellite markers from loquat, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, A D; Lopez-Capuz, I; Soriano, J M; Llacer, G; Romero, C; Badenes, M L

    2009-05-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a minor fruit which has become an interesting alternative into the European fruit industry. This interest resulted in a loquat germplasm collection established at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain. Currently, it is the main reservoir of this species outside Asia. We developed and characterized the first 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci from a CT/AG-enriched loquat genomic library. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.20 and 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.17 and 0.81, three markers were multilocus and eight loci departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These markers will facilitate diversity and genetic studies into the species. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  17. Variação sazonal na morfologia dos ductos eferentes distais em codorna doméstica mantida em cativeiro experimental Morphologic seasonal variability on the distal efferent ducts of domestic quail under experimental captive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Orsi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo diferenças expressivas foram observadas na estrutura dos ductos eferentes distais (DED de codorna doméstica Coturnix coturnix, da variedade italiana, mantida em cativeiro experimental durante dois anos, durante as quatro estações do ano. A variabilidade morfológica dos DED foi mais marcante na primavera e no outono, eqüivalendo às fases ativa e quiescente do ciclo reprodutivo anual (ciclo testicular nesta ave. Nessas fases do ciclo, diferenças significativas foram observadas na ultraestrutura das células principais (P e ciliadas (C do epitélio de revestimento tubular e nos calibres tubulares. Estes tiveram valores médios maiores na primavera, com valores similares no verão e no inverno, e valores médios menores observados no outono. Na primavera, no citoplasma apical de células P, notou-se maior complexidade organelar, inferindo-se a ocorrência de processos endocitóticos ativos. A quiescência outonal caracterizou-se por redução do calibre tubular dos DED, luz tubular vazia de espermatozóides, degenerações de organelas citoplasmáticas e "debridamentos" citoplasmáticos apicais em células P e C. No inverno e verão, correspondentes às fases recrudescente e regressiva, respectivamente, do ciclo testicular nesta espécie, os dados obtidos foram, de modo geral, similares aos observados na primavera.Some expressive differences were noted on the distal efferent ducts (DED morphology in domestic quail of the Italian variety along the year. The birds were maintained on experimental captive breeding along two consecutive years, before the morphologic studies. Morphologic differences on the DED had been more evident in spring and autumn respectively, the active and quiescent phases of the annual testis cycle. Variability more expressive was noted among the principal (P and ciliated (C epithelial cells and in tubular diameters of DED, during the two focused seasons. Spring features of DED were marked by relative

  18. Effect of Katuk leaf (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr suplementation in the diet on reproductive function of Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein, and sterol compounds. This study was aimed to determine whether phytosterol in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf affected the reproductive system of female quails. One hundred and fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old and divided into three dietary treatment, with five replicates and 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 diet with 9% SA ethanol extract (TEK; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (TDK. The TDK-fed quails laid their first eggs at 46 day of age, compared with the TEK (52 day and the control groups (53 day. The highest fertility (94.55% and hatchability (93.29% were obtained from the TDK fed quails at the age of 23 and 24 weeks, respectively. These findings indicated that the reproductive system of female quails were improved not only by phytosterol in SA leaf, but also by the β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol in SA leaf.

  19. Essential Oil from Cryptomeria japonica Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells via Mitochondrial Stress and Activation of Caspases

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Kim, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica) has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle), and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and p...

  20. Role Of SYNBIOTICS And Low Level GAMMA Irradiation Treatments In Improving Performance Of Japanese Quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A total number of 800 Japanese quail eggs were obtained from a parent flock maintained the poultry research unit of the Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Centre at Inshas, Egypt, and used in the present study. Before incubating the eggs, they were divided into two equal groups of 400 eggs each; the 1 st group was exposed to a low level of gamma irradiation at 50 rad before sitting while the 2 nd group did not exposed to gamma irradiation. After hatching of the two groups, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatching weight were determined. Hatched quail chicks from each group (1 and 2) were divided into four identical subgroups and all fed the basal diet but with a different supplement. The diet of the 1 st subgroup was supplemented with 2.5% Lactobacilli, the 2 nd with 1.5% lactose, the 3 rd with 2.5% Lactobacilli plus 1.5% lactose, while the 4 th subgroup was fed the basal diet only and served as control. The results showed decreased embryonic mortality and increased hatchability and hatching weight due to exposing quail eggs to low level of gamma radiation as compared to non-exposed eggs. The average body weight and the relative weights of carcass, testis and oviduct, egg production, egg weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulins, RBC, WBC and Hb values were increased significantly (P th week due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet. Significant reduction (P<0.05) in the intestinal wall index was observed due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet of hatched quails. In conclusion, adding Lactobacilli and/or lactose to the basal diet of hatched Japanese quails improved performance as well as blood constituents and intestinal wall index. The magnitude of this improvement was even greater when both supplements were combined. In addition, the exposure of eggs to low level of gamma radiation (50 rad) improved hatchability and hatching weight of Japanese quail eggs, but no relationship to dietary

  1. Tissue localization of DDT and PCB isomers (octa- and tetrachlorobiphenyl) in laying quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, I.; Hoegman, P.-G.; Larsson, Y.; Olsson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Whole-body autoradiography of DDT- 14 C, 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl- 14 C and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'=octachlorobiphenyl- 14 C in laying quails indicated a strong deposition of radioactivity in the yolk of the growing follicles and the egg, confirming this to be a significant excretion route of lipophilic environmental pollutants in laying birds. A specific uptake of DDT and octachlorobiphenyl, but not of tetrachlorobiphenyl, was observed in the cortical cords of the adrenals. The octachlorobiphenyl was concentrated also in the ovarian stroma. Both DDT and the tetrachlorobiphenyl were excreted in the bile juice to the small intestine. No such excretion of octachlorobiphenyl was observed, indicating its rate of metabolization to be low. All compounds were accumulated and stored in the body fat. A previously described specific accumulation of 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the respiratory tract of mice was not observed in the quail. (author)

  2. Effect of Long-Term Hypodynamy on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Small Intestine in Japanese Quail Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Lenhardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional development of the small intestine was investigated in Japanese quail chicks subjected to simulated microgravity (hypodynamy on the second day after hatching and reared under these conditions to 63 days of age. On days 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56 and 63 the activity of brush-border-bound alkaline phosphatase (AP in the duodenum and jejunum were determined in experimental animals as well as in control quail chicks housed in a floor box during these periods. As compared with control quails the experimental animals displayed a significantly increased enzyme activity until day 42 in the duodenum and day 35 in the jejunum (P < 0.001 whereas in older quails no significant enzymatic differences between these groups was found. However, a decrease in food consumption due to a partial physical constraint cannot be excluded. Moreover, the results suggested that the activity of AP in the control birds did not change substantially during all the periods examined. In contrast, in older hypodynamy quail the AP activity significantly decreased in the duodenum on days 56 and 63 and in the jejunum on days 42, 56 and 63, respectively. These results indicate that a the enhanced intestinal function in early periods of life may reflect the higher sensitivity of small intestine to simulated weightlessness, b the decrease of the AP activity in older animals to the level of controls might be considered as a part of intestinal mechanisms involved in adaptation of quail chicks to long-term hypodynamy, c different activity of AP in the small intestine of Japanese quail may not have resulted only from hypodynamy but also due to decreased food intake.

  3. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  4. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  5. Reproductive performance of breeder quails fed diets supplemented with L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Farzinpour, A; Vaziry, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe 3 O 4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages. Four quails (one male and three females) were raised in each cage (50 × 15 × 17 cm). Egg production, feed consumption and egg weight were recorded daily and calculated on a hen per day basis. Egg components, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks hatched from their eggs were measured at the end of the experiment. The percentage of egg production and egg mass of the 6 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Throughout the experimental period, the highest weekly egg weight was recorded for the 60 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group. Fertility was improved by diet supplemented with iron, both FeSO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs. The breeder fed Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs had the highest day-old chicks weight. The results of this study showed that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles that were coated by L-cysteine could improve availability and utilization of iron in diet. Finally, it was proposed that Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs could be used as feed additives in quails. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El-Barkouky, E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  7. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Taleb, A M; Ezzat, I E; El-Barkouky, E [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness.

  8. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  9. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2017), č. článku e02002. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30983S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ALV-J * antiretroviral resistance * Na+/H+ exchanger * New World quail * retroviral receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  10. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  12. Dopamine modulates male sexual behavior in Japanese quail in part via actions on noradrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Charlotte A; Dejace, Christel; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-08-30

    In rats, dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior through its combined action on D1- and D2-like receptors, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as well as other brain areas. In Japanese quail, systemic injections of dopaminergic drugs suggested a similar pharmacology but central injections have never been performed. Recent electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that DA effects in the MPOA of quail are mediated mainly through the activation of alpha2-noradrenergic receptors. Previous studies of DA action on behavior used specific dopaminergic agonists/antagonists and therefore unintentionally avoided the potential cross-reaction with alpha2-receptors. The present study was thus designed to investigate directly the effects of DA on male sexual behavior and to test whether the interaction of DA with heterologous receptors affects this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of DA or NE inhibited copulation in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic injections of yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, modulated copulation in a bimodal manner depending on the dose injected. Interestingly, a behaviorally ineffective dose of yohimbine markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of DA when injected 15min before. Together, these results show for the first time that i.c.v. injections of DA itself inhibit male sexual behavior in quail and suggest that the interaction of DA with alpha2-receptors has behavioral significance.

  13. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  14. Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.

  15. Effects of exposure to clothianidin on the reproductive system of male quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Junko; Danjo, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Tatsumi, Atsutoshi; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Sekijima, Tsuneo; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a neonicotinoid developed in the 1990s as an insecticide having selective toxicity, but it was later found to cause reproductive abnormalities in rats through oxidative stress. There is an attempt to preserve endangered animals, including the Japanese crested ibis, in Japan. However, there is a concern that neonicotinoid affects the reproduction of this bird, since it is used in its habitat. CTD toxicity in the birds is poorly understood, so we investigated whether or not the daily oral administration of CTD has any deleterious effects on the reproductive functions of mature male quails as experimental animals. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 or 7 quails each, treated orally with 0, 0.02, 1 or 50 mg CTD/kg body weight (Control, CTD0.02, CTD1 and CTD50). After that the males bred with untreated females to estimate the egg weights, and rates of fertilization and normal development, the testes, liver and spleen were examined histologically. Vacuolization and the number of germ cells having fragmented DNA in seminiferous tubules, and the number and size of vacuoles in hepatocytes increased dose-dependently. There were no significant differences in egg weights and fertilization rates between the groups, but some eggs of the CTD1 and CTD50 groups failed to develop, and embryonic length decreased dose-dependently. Thus, it was found that CTD affected the reproduction of the male quail through the fragmentation of germ cells and the inhibition or delay of embryonic development.

  16. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  17. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ABU TALEB, A M [Biological Applications Dept., Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zaable, Inshas (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet {+-} 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  18. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  19. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  20. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  1. Uses of irradiation or sodium tripolyphosphate for shelf-life extension of quail carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma iraadiation or sodium tripolyphoshate (STPP) for increasing shelf-life of quail carcasses during cold storage. The quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaked in 3% STPP. The effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated during cold storage (4± 1C degree). The results indicated that, the chemical compositions of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation or soaking in STPP. Futhermore, treatment had no deterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. Meanwhile, irradiation of samples at doses of 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged the shelf-life for 15,21,24 and 9 days at 4 ± 1 Cdegree in comparison with 6 days for control samples. Moreover, the acid value (A.V), peroxide value (P.V) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value were increased after irradiation, while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content had no real change by this treatment. On the other hand, soakking in STPP treatment decreased these values and gradual increases were observed during cold storage

  2. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  3. Improving the microbial safety and quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the microbial safety quality of quail carcasses. One hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. The examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated. The results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation treatment. Furthermore, irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and kGy greatly reduced its microbial count. Moreover, irradiation doses of 2 and 4 kGy completely destroyed salmonella and enterococcus faecalis, respectively. In addition, the acid value, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value were increased after irradiation. On the other hand, irradiation treatment had no real effects on the total volatile basic nitrogen content and amino acid composition of samples under investigation

  4. Amino Acid Levels in Muscle Tissue of Six Wild Feathered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Straková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare the levels of amino acids (AAs in breast and thigh muscles of six species of feathered game of the same age. The experiment involved the following species: wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, chukar partridge (Alectoris chucar, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and grey partridge (Perdix perdix. The highest content of AAs was found in the chukar partridge (breast: 815.7 ± 47.71 g/kg; thigh: 771.4 ± 107.0 g/kg, on a dry matter basis, the lowest levels of AAs were found in Japanese quail (breast: 734.2 ± 45.07 g/kg and grey partridge (thigh: 614.9 ± 49.66 g/kg. In all examined species, the level of histidine in breast muscles differed (P ≤ 0.01 from that in thigh muscles. In all investigated species, the levels of essential AAs in breast muscles were higher (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles, whereas the levels of non-essential AAs in breast muscles were lower (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles. Breast muscles are therefore more valuable than thigh muscles because of the content of essential AAs.

  5. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko

    1986-11-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis.

  6. [Luring effect of the fermented Laminaria japonica to Oncomelania hupensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, An-ning; Ni, Hong; Wang, Wan-xian; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To study the attraction effect of the food attractants on Oncomelania hupensis. Oncomelania snail food was prepared with the fermented kelp (Laminaria japonica) mixed with corn starch. Snails were fed with the food and kept for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h at 15, 25, 35 degrees C respectively. Meanwhile, snail-killing effect was tested by granules containing jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisama heterophyllum) with or without the fermented kelp under the condition of 25 degrees C, 30% or 60% soil humidity. The snail-attracting rate of the fermented kelp was affected by the temperature, highest under 25 degrees C and lowest under 35 degrees C at any time point, with a rate of 80.3% in 48 h at 25 degrees C which was higher than that of the control (17.0%) (Pjack-in-the-pulpit with fermented kelp (85.3%) was higher than that of the group without fermented kelp (26.8%) (P<0.05). The mortality under 60% of soil humidity was higher than that under 30% humidity (P<0.01). The fermented kelp shows a strong luring effect to the Oncomelania snails.

  7. Emission of floral volatiles from Mahonia japonica (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Joanne M; MacTavish, Hazel S; Clery, Robin A

    2002-07-01

    Flowering Mahonia japonica plants were subjected to controlled environments and the floral volatiles emitted from whole racemes (laterals) were trapped by Porapak Q adsorbent and analysed by GC-FID. An experiment with photoperiods of 6 and 9 h at constant temperature (10+/-1 degrees C) demonstrated that photoperiod was the stimulus for enhanced emission of most volatiles. Small quantitative differences in emitted fragrance composition were observed between light and dark periods and between plants acclimatised to different photoperiods. Maximum rates of emission occurred in the middle of the light period; aromatic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and indole) displayed a more rapid increase and subsequent decline compared with monoterpenes (cis- and trans-ocimene and linalool). When the photoperiod was extended from 6 to 9 h, maximum rates of emission continued throughout the additional 3 h. Total emission (microg/h) of volatiles was 2-fold greater in the day-time (DT) (39.7 microg/h) compared with the night-time (NT) (19.8 microgg/h) under a 6 h photoperiod and was not significantly different from total emission under a 9 h photoperiod.

  8. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

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    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  9. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts.

  10. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko.

    1986-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis. (author)

  11. Growth modeling of Cryptomeria japonica by partial trunk analysis

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    Vinícius Morais Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth pattern of Cryptomeria japonica increment (L. F. D. Don. and to describe the probability distribution in stands stablished at the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State. Twenty trees were sampled in a 34 years-old stand, with 3 m x 2 m spacing. Wood disks were taken from each tree at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH to perform partial stem analysis. Diameter growth series without bark were used to generate the average cumulative growth curves for DBH (cm, mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI. From the increment data, the frequency distribution was evaluated by means of probability density functions (pdfs. The mean annual increment for DBH was 0.78 cm year-1 and the age of intersection of CAI and MAI curves was between the 7th and 8th years. It was found that near 43% of the species increments are concentrated bellow 0.5 cm. The results are useful to define appropriate management strategies for the species for sites similar to the studying regions, defining for example ages of silvicultural intervention, such as thinning.

  12. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Sophora japonica Transcriptome Using RNA-seq

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    Liucun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophora japonica Linn (Chinese Scholar Tree is a shrub species belonging to the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. In this study, RNA sequencing of S. japonica transcriptome was performed to produce large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. Approximate 86.1 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 143010 unique transcripts and 57614 unigenes. The average length of unigenes was 901 bps with an N50 of 545 bps. Four public databases, including the NCBI nonredundant protein (NR, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG, were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST procedure. A total of 27541 of 57614 unigenes (47.8% were annotated for gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology. Moreover, an interaction network of unigenes in S. japonica was predicted based on known protein-protein interactions of putative orthologs of well-studied plant genomes. The transcriptome data of S. japonica reported here represents first genome-scale investigation of gene expressions in Faboideae plants. We expect that our study will provide a useful resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics, functional genomics, and protein-protein interaction in S. japonica.

  13. Microcosm investigation of growth and phytoremediation potential of Azolla japonica along nitrogen gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Song, Uhram

    2017-10-03

    Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.

  14. The influence of a probiotic supplementation on memory in quail suggests a role of gut microbiota on cognitive abilities in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parois, Severine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Kraimi, Narjis; Gabriel, Irène; Leterrier, Christine

    2017-07-28

    The gut microbiota is involved in host behaviour and memory in mammals. Consequently, it may also influence emotional behaviour and memory in birds. Quail from two genetic lines with different fearfulness (LTI: long tonic immobility, n=37; STI: short tonic immobility, n=32) were either or not supplemented with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) from hatching. Emotional reactivity was measured in a tonic immobility test (d6 and 7 of age) and two open-field tests (d13-15; d22-24). Memory was measured in a test rewarded with mealworms, where quail had to remember the cups previously visited (d34-36). Quail endured a 5-days stress period from days 17 to 21 to help revealing the potentially beneficial effect of the probiotic. As expected, STI quail were less fearful compared to the LTI quail (p0.05), except in the tonic immobility test where supplemented STI quail had lower immobility duration (p=0.0001). Regarding the memory test, the two lines had similar performances. Quail fed with probiotics made fewer errors (p=0.040). There was no significant correlation between traits of emotional reactivity and of memory. In conclusion, the supplementation with Pediococcus acidilactici as a probiotic, affected a specific trait of emotional reactivity in STI quail, and improved memory in both lines, whichstrengthens the idea that the influence of gut microbiota on the host behaviour and memory seen in mammals is shared by birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica Thunb. [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica Thunb. 名詞 一般 *... * * * ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica Thunb .

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ...ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica

  17. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Wasabia japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Wasabia japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ワサ...ビ ワサビ ワサビ Thesaurus2015 200906097830728309 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Wasabia japonica

  19. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  20. Utilization of Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr meal and extract as ration substitution to produce low chollesterol Japanese Quail product

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    Sri Subekti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein and phytosterol compound. This study was aimed to determine the ability of phytosterols in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf to obtain poultry product that has low cholesterol content. One hundred fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old, divided into three treatment diets, five replicates with 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 Control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 Diet with 9% SA ethanol 70% extract (SAE; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (SAM. Kolesterols were determined with CHOD-PAP-Method by Human, there is enzymatic Colorimetric Test for Cholesterol with Lipid Clearing Factor. The result showed that total cholesterol in the egg yolk, carcass and liver of SAE and SAM treated quails were lower (P<0.05 than that of the control-treated quails, except the cholesterol content in the serum. These findings indicated that the cholesterol concentration of female quails was decreased due to phytosterol content in katuk leaf.

  1. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  2. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

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    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  4. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  5. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

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    Hossam M Abdallah

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1, sophoricoside (2, sophorabioside (3, sophoraflavonoloside (4, genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2β-D-glucopyranoside (6 and rutin (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  6. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

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    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

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    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  8. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  9. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrino, F.; Mathis, A.; Veronesi, E.; Lang, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16–24- h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a True- Beam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. (author)

  10. [Mechanisms of subspecies differentiation in a filial generation of rice indica-japonica hybridization under different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Tong; Jin, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Qing-Shan; Xu, Hai; Chen, Wen-Fu; Xu, Zheng-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Indica-japonica hybridization is one of the most important breeding methods in China, whereas identifying subspecies differentiation mechanisms is the key in indica-japonica hybridization breeding. By using InDels (Insert/Deletion) and ILPs (Intron Length Polymorphism), an analysis was made on the F6 populations derived from the hybridization of indica-japonica (Qishanzhan/Akihikari) planted in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces and generated by bulk harvesting (BM), single-seed descent methods (SSD), and pedigree method (PM). No segregation distortion was observed for the BM and SSD populations. The frequency distribution of japonica kinship percentage (Dj) was concentrated in 40%-60%. The PM populations in the two provinces presented indica-deviated distribution (30%-55%), with significant difference between Guangdong (38%) and Liaoning (42%). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the Dj and the kinship of functional gene regions in the BM and SSD populations. However, part of the positive correlation was broken in the PM populations that showed a regular distribution in the genotype patterns of indica and japonica loci. The above results demonstrated that artificial selection could be the main factor affecting the population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization, and, with the synergistic effect of natural selection, induced the phenomenon of segregation distortion. There existed a close relationship between the differentiation of subspecies and the important agronomic traits, which could be the main reason why indica-japonica hybridiation breeding could not achieve the expected effect of combining the two subspecies advantages.

  11. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  12. Genetic analysis of partial egg production records in Japanese quail using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; Farahat, G S; Emam, A M; El-Full, E A

    2017-08-01

    The main objectives of this study were to detect the most appropriate random regression model (RRM) to fit the data of monthly egg production in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail and to test the consistency of different criteria of model choice. Data from 1,200 female Japanese quails for the first 5 months of egg production from 4 consecutive generations of an egg line selected for egg production in the first month (EP1) was analyzed. Eight RRMs with different orders of Legendre polynomials were compared to determine the proper model for analysis. All criteria of model choice suggested that the adequate model included the second-order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects, and the third-order for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. Predictive ability of the best model was the highest among all models (ρ = 0.987). According to the best model fitted to the data, estimates of heritability were relatively low to moderate (0.10 to 0.17) showed a descending pattern from the first to the fifth month of production. A similar pattern was observed for permanent environmental effects with greater estimates in the first (0.36) and second (0.23) months of production than heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between separate production periods were higher (0.18 to 0.93) than their phenotypic counterparts (0.15 to 0.87). The superiority of the selected line over the control was observed through significant (P egg production in earlier ages (first and second months) than later ones. A methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of egg production in Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Genetic analyses of partial egg production in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K; Zerehdaran, S; Barzanooni, B; Lotfi, E

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion. A model with second order of LP for fixed effects, second order of LP for additive genetic effects and third order of LP for permanent environmental effects (MTRR23) was found to be the best. 4. According to the MTRR23 model, direct heritability for EW increased from 0.26 in the second week to 0.53 in the sixth week of egg production, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.48 to 0.1. Direct heritability for EN was low, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.57 to 0.15 during the production period. 5. For each trait, estimated genetic correlations among weeks of egg production were high (from 0.85 to 0.98). Genetic correlations between EW and EN were low and negative for the first two weeks, but they were low and positive for the rest of the egg production period. 6. In conclusion, random regression models can be used effectively for analysing egg production traits in Japanese quail. Response to selection for increased egg weight would be higher at older ages because of its higher heritability and such a breeding program would have no negative genetic impact on egg production.

  14. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes. Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively, and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively. The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05 of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05 isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm is recommended for quail egg production.

  15. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  16. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  17. Innate olfactory responses of Asobara japonica toward fruits infested by the invasive spotted wing Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect parasitoids are often manipulated to improve biological control programs for various arthropod pests. Volatile compounds can be a relevant cue used by most parasitoid hymenoptera for host or host microhabitat location. We studied olfactory responses of the braconid Asobara japonica Belokobyls...

  18. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  19. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  20. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  1. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as these two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''.

  2. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu

    1982-01-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as ours two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''

  3. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  5. Comparison between the effects of animal and plant basal diets on productivity of Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, known as m ad cow disease , make the European commission to take an action for preventing the spread of such disease by banning the feeding ruminant tissue and animal by-products to farm animals. This study suggested to compare between two basal diets originated from either plants or animal and their effects on some physiological parameters related to the bird growth. A total number of 800 one day old unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into two groups containing 400 birds each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 100 birds. Group one the birds were fed on animal diet and group two fed on plant diet. The two diets contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 4% fat and contains 3200 Kcal/kg diet in starter, while the layer diet contained 21% CP and 4% fat and contains 3000 Kcal/kg diet. Growth data were obtained by weighing the quails individually every week until 6 th weeks, 6 th months and 1 2th months. Eggs were collected daily and weighed for eight months starting from the onset of first egg lying. At 8 th month, a sample of 8 quails was sacrificed, organ weighted and blood samples were collected. Carcass composition was performed to determine % fat, % protein, % ash and total moisture. Hematological and histological parameters, liver and kidney functions, total protein, albumin, globulin, estradiol, testosterone, cholesterol and total lipids were evaluated. The results showed significant increase in body weights gain in one and three weeks only in animal protein diet but no difference were shown between animal and plant diet after 4 weeks and until 12 month. No difference between animal and plant diets were noted in total dry solids (TDS), fat %, ash and protein of TDS and egg production. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, total protein, albumin, hematological parameters and total lipids showed non-significant values. The histological parameters

  6. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  7. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A

    2011-01-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  8. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Berto,DA; Garcia,EA; Móri,C; Faitarone,ABG; Pelícia,K; Molino,AB

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.72...

  9. Infecção natural por Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas comercializadas em mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp. in domestic fowls sold at local markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saucier Gomes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a ocorrência, a morfometria de oocistos e os períodos patentes de Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas, patos (Anas platyrhynchos, pintos (Gallus gallus e codornas (Coturnix japonica, naturalmente infectadas, provenientes de dois mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Houve diferenças quanto à ocorrência da infecção entre os dois locais e entre pintos e patos, mas não entre codornas. Para a morfometria, foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas medidas dos diâmetros maior e menor e para o índice morfométrico calculado (P0,05. Na comparação do período de eliminação, patos tiveram um maior período com maiores quantidades de oocistos eliminados. Codornas e pintos apresentaram dinâmica de eliminação semelhante e não houve diferença quanto à concentração de oocistos. Pintos foram mais susceptíveis à infecção seguidos por patos e codornas. Pode-se concluir que a infecção natural por Cryptoporidium sp. foi frequente nas aves estudadas. Patos, pintos e codornas podem ser disseminadores do protozoário em mercados municipais do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Assim, podem constituir risco de infecção.The objective of the current study was comparing the dynamic and occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the morphometry and elimination period of oocysts in naturally infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, chickens (Gallus gallus and Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica from two local markets of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. There were significant differences considering the occurrence of infection between the two markets, and also between chickens and ducks, but not among Japanese quails. Also, significant statistical differences were observed in morphometry, considering the major and minor diameters of oocysts and the calculated morphometric index (P0.05. According to the elimination period, ducks eliminated oocysts for a longer period and in a higher number

  10. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Soil-Root Strength Performance of Alternanthera Ficoidea and Zoysia Japonica as Green Roof Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Muhamad Firdaurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of awareness on environmentalism has demanded that all parties involved in built environment to implement green technology in their construction projects. Great care must be taken when designing a green roof system including the selection of plants and appropriate substrates. This study was performed to investigate the soil-root composite strength of two types of green roof vegetation (A. Ficoidea and Z. Japonica at different growth periods for up to 6 months. Both plants were planted in six plastic plots (45 cm × 29 cm × 13 cm containing a mixture of perlite, vermiculite and organic soil. Every two months, a series of direct shear tests were conducted on a sample from each species to determine the root-soil shear strength. The tests continued until the 6th month. The average results showed that Z. Japonica had higher soil-root shear strength (49.1 kPa compared to A. Ficoidea after two months of growth. In the 4th month however, A. Ficoidea managed to surpass Z. Japonica (28.7 kPa versus 18.5 kPa in terms of shear strength. However, their average peak shear strength decreased sharply compared to the previous month. Lastly, in six months, A. Ficoidea sustained a higher average peak soil shear strength (56.5 kPa compared to Z. Japonica (14.3 kPa. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. Ficoidea may offer a better soil reinforcement than Z. japonica and thus it could potentially be a good choice of green roof vegetation.

  12. Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Ikeda, Hajime; Yi, Ting-shuang; Takabe-Ito, Eriko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-06-01

    The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  14. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Salah, H.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El Barkouky, E.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  15. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  16. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of mercury and its transfer to the egg in the laying quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Urakawa, N; Ikeda, M

    1971-01-01

    Autoradiographic and tracer techniques were employed to investigate the distribution and movement of radiomercury in the form of /sup 203/Hg-nitrate, and its transfer to eggs in laying quails. After injection, the radiomercury tended to concentrate in the kidneys and ova, plateauing about 12 hours after injection. Within the egg, the mercury concentrated in the yolk.

  17. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  18. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  19. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  20. The Effect of Divergent Selection on 4-wk BW on the Shape of Growth Curve in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Beyki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term divergent selection on the shape growth curve in different lines of Japanese quail. The Quail lines utilized in this study were two divergently selected for high (HW and low (LW 4-wk body weight during 7 generation and also a control line (C. The Richard function parameters were used to describe growth curves of different lines. The weight at hatch was approximately similar among lines (8.08 g, 7.55 g and 8.76 g for HW, LW and C line respectively. The results of current study indicated that the selected lines (HW & LW were immediately diverged from the C line after hatch. Sexes within each line had no difference in average growth rate, age and body weight at inflection point and adult body weight. However significant differences were found in the growth curve parameters among lines. The results of current study indicated that short term divergent selection for 4-wk BW in Japanese quail can change the growth pattern and the carcass compartments of the selected birds. Therefore to avoid undesirable side effects due to selection in Japanese quails it is recommended to consider the growth pattern changes of the selected birds in the breeding programs

  1. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  3. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  4. Interactions between aromatase (estrogen synthase) and dopamine in the control of male sexual behavior in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-05-01

    In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists profoundly influences male sexual behavior. How the steroid-sensitive neural network and dopamine interact physiologically, remains largely unknown. It is often implicitly assumed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, stimulates male sexual behavior via the modification of dopaminergic transmission. We have now identified in quail two possible ways in which dopamine could potentially affect sexual behavior by modulating the aromatization of testosterone into an estrogen. One is a long-acting mechanism that presumably involves the modification of dopaminergic transmission followed by the alteration of the genomic expression of aromatase. The other is a more rapid mechanism that does not appear to be dopamine receptor-mediated and may involve a direct interaction of dopamine with aromatase (possibly via substrate competition). We review here the experimental data supporting the existence of these controls of aromatase activity by dopamine and discuss the possible contribution of these controls to the activation of male sexual behavior.

  5. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  6. Factorial correspondence analysis of fear-related behaviour traits in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, S; Roussot, O; Delaby, C; Faure, J M.; Mills, A; Leterrier, C; Guéméné, D; Constantin, P; Mills, M; Lepape, G; Beaumont, C

    2003-02-28

    Factorial correspondence analysis was performed on 341 quails from a F2 cross between two lines divergently selected on the duration of tonic immobility over 29 generations. Several fear- or stress-related traits were recorded, i.e. tonic immobility duration, number of inductions needed to induce tonic immobility, open-field behaviour (time spent walking, latency before first movement and number of defecations), asymmetry of tibia lengths and corticosterone concentration after restraint stress. Variables were categorised in classes and analysed by factorial correspondence analysis. The first axis was mostly described by open-field behaviour, and the second by tonic immobility traits (duration of tonic immobility and number of inductions), which showed that these behaviours were almost independent. No relationship was found between axes of the factorial correspondence analysis and corticosterone concentration or asymmetry of tibia lengths, showing that these variables reflected other characteristics of stress susceptibility than those described by tonic immobility and open-field behaviour. These results show that reaction to stress of quails is a multidimensional trait and cannot be summarised by one trait.

  7. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  8. Effect of immobilized lipase supplementation of diets on the performance of the Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; Saleh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, lipase was immobilized onto two different supports, agarose and gelatin. Some physico-chemical properties of the free and immobilized lipase such as optimum temperature, optimum ph and storage stability were studied. Storage of the enzymes for 2 months showed that the free enzyme lost its activity, while the immobilized on the gelatin showed better resistance towards ph and temperature variations than that immobilized onto agarose. Four experiments were conducted to test the effect of the immobilized lipase supplementation on the productive performance of the Japanese quails. During the first 3 weeks, the addition of lipase to poultry diets caused an increase in the body weight gain of birds than the enzyme-free diet. An obvious improvement in quail day egg production during the laying period was observed with the groups fed on a diet supplemented with 3000 and 2000 I U of immobilized lipase per kilogram feed. Blood cholesterol was not affected with lipase addition, while total lipids were significantly increased. Significant reduction was also observed in thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) as compared with the control group

  9. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  10. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  11. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  12. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Mauleon, Ramil; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Bruskiewich, Richard; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-01-01

    -plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress

  13. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  14. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J J; Rao, V Appa; Rajini, R Asha; Mishra, B P; Sarangi, N R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  15. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  16. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey and directly (via pollen exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica.

  17. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb , and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50 μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. - Highlights: • Anti-oxidative feedback of Zostera japonica to the heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined. • The endangered intertidal seagrass Z. japonica had a high metal accumulation potential. • Z. japonica might be a potential indicator in monitoring programs using SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  18. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  19. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  20. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  1. Antimicrobial evaluation of the crude extract of symbiotic fungi from marine sponge Reniera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge-derived microbes are one of the rich sources of bioactive natural products with a broad spectrum of bioactivities. The present work focuses on the isolation and antimicrobial screening of the marine sponge-associated fungi from Reniera japonica MNP-2016. The results indicated that five fungi (L1-2, L2-1, L4, L8-1 and L14 were successfully isolated. Bioassay tests showed that only strain L14 had strong inhibitory effect on the pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. 18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain L14 was ascribed to Aspergillus genus. To the best of our knowledge, this work was the first report on the isolation and antimicrobial evaluation of fungi from R. japonica.

  2. Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) producing (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Evi; Albersmeier, Andreas; Spohn, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons: the chro......We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons...

  3. Effect of shed rooftype and babassu pie on the productive characteristics of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane de Oliveira Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the effects of shed roof(SR typeand the inclusion of babassu pie (BP in rations on the productive characteristics ofmeat quailsfrom days 14 to 28 and days14 to 40. We studied 896 meatquails. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, using four types of shedroofs (fiber cement, ceramic, straw, and painted fiber cement and four rations (with 0, 5, 10, and 15% inclusion of babassu pie. The performance variables evaluated from 14 to 28 and 14 to 40 days included food intake (FI, g/bird, mean weight gain (WG, g/bird, food conversion (FC, g/g, mean live weight on day 28 (MW28, g/bird, mean live weight on day 40 (MW40, g/bird, and energy efficiency (EF; g Mcal. After slautherthe birds on day 40, we measured the carcass weight (CW and the carcass yield (CY, %, obtained for the breast (BY, legs (LGY, and wings (WINGY. We also obtained the relative weight of the heart (HRW, liver (LRW, gizzard (GRW, and intestine (IRW. To compare the economic efficiency between the experimental rations, we analyzed the cost of ration per kg of carcass (CC and determined the gross margin (GM. Between day 14 and day 28, we found that the use of SR influenced the FI28, WG28, and the MW28 of the quails (p 0.05, but it linearly improved WG28, FC28, MW28, and EF28. Between days 14 and 40, we found that SR influenced the WG40, FC40, MW40, and EF40 of the quails (p < 0.05 and that a BP increased the FI40, WG40, and MW40 in a quadratic manner. SR and BP did not affect the CW, BY, WINGY, LGY, HRW, LRW,or IRW. However, BP influenced MGRW, which increased linearly with the inclusion of BP. We concluded that a ceramic roof provides better environmental conditions than do other shed roofs. The inclusion of BP improved the performance characteristics, and it was technically feasible to include up to 15% BP in the rations of meat quails. Based on the current cost analysis, however, the inclusion of BP is economically

  4. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman : foliar feeding on wine grapes in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, T. Jude

    1986-01-01

    The natural infestation level for 1985 of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia failed to reduce berry quality, yield or shoot growth in a commercial vineyard. Intensive postveraison foliage feeding by Japanese beetle resulted 1n fruit with lower soluble solids and higher total titratable acidity at harvest, but did not affect pH, sugar per berry, berry weight, yield, leaves per vine or shoot length. Intensive previraison feeding a...

  5. Evolution and Expansion of the Prokaryote-Like Lipoxygenase Family in the Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which

  6. Distribution of Tributyltin in Tissues of Mature Japanese Whiting, Sillago japonica and Their Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Hisashi; Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Suguru; Imoto, Hisaya; Kang, Ik Joon; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has continued to pollute the coastal areas therein following global regulation for its use as an anti-fouling agent. The tissue dynamics of TBT in fish have been extensively documented, but few studies on maternal transfer of TBT have been performed. Previously, we reported that TBT was maternally transferred from parent fish to eggs. The present study examined the distribution of TBT in the tissues and spawned eggs of Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica, after dietary exp...

  7. Effect of Slave Raiding of Polyergus samurai on Nest Persistency of Its Host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of slave raiding of Polyergus samurai on nest persistency of its host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica was investigated. Nest persistence rate after the raiding season was not different between raided and unraided nests. Many raided nests stopped aboveground activities for 2-3 weeks after a raiding but surviving workers maintained underground nest structure. These observations suggest that it is required to reconsider the previous interpretation that the raided nests died out from ...

  8. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  9. Mapping of incidence and management of invasive species Fallopia japonica at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukova, Z.; Krskova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of one of the most dangerous invasive species Fallopia japonica was conducted at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia: in the cadastral territory of Zazriva, in the village Parnica towards Kralovany, in the village Kralovany and the city of Dolny Kubin - Zaskalie, stretch Timravina in the Lower Orava in late summer and early autumn 2009. We recorded by field survey 24 invading Japanese knotweed in the area of 12.238 m 2 . (authors)

  10. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  11. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  12. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue sampl...

  13. Effect of Egg Size on Predation by White-Footed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. DeGraaf; T. J. Maier

    1996-01-01

    We compared predation by wild-trapped, caged white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) on eggs of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix) and Zebra Finches (Poephila guttata) to test the effect of egg size. Nine male and nine female mice were weighed, acclimated to cages for 24 h, and presented with two wicker nests,...

  14. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  15. Activation of vitellogenin II gene expression by steroid hormones in the old Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Upadhyay, R; Kanungo, M S

    1998-11-01

    Alterations in the basal transcription rates of eukaryotic genes are believed to involve the binding of trans-acting factor(s) with specific DNA sequences in the promoter. We show here two interrelated events for the VTGII gene of the old, non-egg laying Japanese quail: alterations in the structure of the chromatin encompassing the gene, and binding of trans-acting factors to the promoter of the gene. Estradiol/progesterone alone or together cause alterations in the conformation of the chromatin of the promoter region of the gene. This may allow free access of nuclear protein(s) to the cis-acting elements, ERE, PRE and NF1, in the promoter of the gene and cause activation of transcription.

  16. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  17. Diurnal rhythm of pituitary gonadotropic activity of male Japanese quail in relation to testicular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Mineo; Koga, Osamu; Nishiyama, Hisayoshi

    1977-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were exposed to 14-hr (5:00-19:00) light:10-hr darkness (14 L:10D) from 1 day to 28 days of age and exposed to 8 L (5:00-13:00); 16D from 29 days to 49 days of age. Thereafter the birds were again transferred to 14L:10D for photostimulation. Gonadotropic activities of the anterior lobes of the pituitary were measured at various times during the 24-hr period in relation to testicular growth with a blossary method based on sup(32P)-uptake by one-day-old chick tests. The mean testicular weights increased from the 2nd to 35th day of exposure to 14L:10D and an abrupt increase was observed between the 7th and 21st day. Thereafter the weight reached a plateau. Under 8L:16D and on the 1st day of exposure to 14L:10D, no diurnal changes in the pituitary gonadotropic activity were observed but on the 2nd day the activity showed a peak at 19:00 (14 hr after the onset of light). On the 7th and 21st day, two peaks of the activity were found at 8:00 (3 hr after the onset of light) and 22:00 (17 hr after the onset of light or 3 hr after the onset of darkness). However, only one peak was found at 19:00 (14 hr after the onset of light) on the 35th and 49th day. These results indicate that the diurnal rhythm of pituitary gonadotropic activity of male quail appears after transfer of the birds from short days to long days, and that the diurnal pattern changes with photoperiodically induced testicular growth. (auth.)

  18. In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White Egg female quails, which can be genetically sexed by their plumage color after hatching, were prepared, and test materials dissolved in olive oil were injected into the air-chamber on day 10 of incubation. After sexual maturation of hatched chicks, we observed egg production by females and the egg quality and male-typical reproductive behavior, and then examined reproductive system morphology and serum steroid concentrations in both sexes. Treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5-50 ng/g egg), dose-dependently reduced the eggshell thickness and strength of eggs. A few females treated with 5 ng/g DES per egg produced soft-shelled/ unmarked eggs, and all laying females treated with 50 ng/g egg produced eggs completely lacking shells. DES also induced shortening of the left oviduct and abnormal development of the right oviduct in a dose-dependent manner, while testis weight was reduced symmetrically. In addition, 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10-1,000 ng/g egg), which previously showed relatively high estrogenic activity in vitro, caused dose-dependent shortening of the left oviduct and reduction in testis weight. The methods for evaluating endocrine disrupting effects and preparing experimental birds proposed in the present study are expected to facilitate assays for avian reproductive toxicology.

  19. Enterococci Isolated from Japanese Quails Exposed to Microgravity Conditions and Stability of their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci isolated from the crop and caecum of Japanese quails exposed to 7 day conditions of microgravity were re-vitalized after their dry-freezing long storage. Originally, the strains were isolated from Japanese quails after their landing from flight onboard the orbital station Mir during the experiment in August 1990. Because taxonomy as well as the studies concerning the bacteriocins, especially those produced by enterococci, have been continually developed for years, the aim of this study was to confirm species identification, stability of the properties of enterococci as well as to test new properties after their long storage. Genotyping allotted the strains to the species E. faecium. Lactic acid production was detected in similar amounts in the strains before and after their long-storage in dry-frozen form. The strains were vancomycinsensitive and kanamycin-resistant before as well as after their long-time storage. Variability in sensitivity to different antibiotics was found among the strains tested even before and after longtime storage. Each of the strains possessed at least one structural enterocin gene. The structural genes for enterocin A, P, B, L50B were detected in E. faecium EP7. E. faecium EP2, EEP4 have the genes for ent A, B, L50B. The gene for ent P was detected only in the strain EP7. The most often detected was ent A gene followed by ent genes B, L50B. All strains inhibited growth of at least 4 out of 15 indicators. The stability of the enterococcal properties determined before as well as after their dry-freezing was not influenced during their long-term storage; moreover, new properties were determined.

  20. Adjustment of equations to predict the metabolizable energy of corn for meat type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Junior Pasquetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metabolizable energy (ME determination for foods used in quail diets, through metabolism assays, takes time, infrastructure and financial resources, which makes the development of prediction equations based on proximal composition of foods to estimate the ME values of particular interest. The objective of this study was to adjust the prediction equations of metabolizable energy (ME of corn for quail. The chemical compositions of 12 maize varieties were determined and a metabolism assay was carried out in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of these corn varieties. The values of chemical composition, AME and AMEn, converted to dry matter, were used to adjust the prediction equations. The initial adjustment of simple and multiple linear regression of the AME and AMEn was performed using the values of crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral (NDF and acid (ADF detergent fiber, mineral matter (MM, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P as regressors (full model. To adjust the prediction equations the statistical procedure of simple and multiple linear regression was used, with the technique of indirect elimination (Backward. There was adjustment of 10 prediction equations, in which five were for AME and another five for AMEn, the R² values of which ranged from 0.20 to 0.75 and from 0.21 to 0.78, respectively. For all adjusted equations, negative correlations for MM were observed, which may be related to its dilutive effect of the gross energy contained in corn. In conclusion, the equations that showed better adjustment were AME= 5605.46 - 385.074CP + 111.648EE + 48.1133NDF + 303.924ADF - 929.931MM (R²= 0.75 and AMEn= 5878.16 - 403.937CP + 81.9618EE + 41.8954NDF + 303.506FDA - 901.621MM (R²= 0.78.

  1. Effect of boiled oil as dietary supplements for Japanese Quail on serum protein fractions and intestinal and hepatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, Y.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the levels of serum protein fractions and testosterone, in addition to histopathological changes of small intestine and liver of Japanese quail following feeding with diets containing different concentrations of boiled oil (BO). Male Japanese quails (n=120), arranged into four groups each of three replicates, were supplemented with BO at 1%, 2% and 4% at the expense of 4% cotton seed oil (CSO). At the end of the experiment (10 weeks), three birds from each replicate were slaughtered and serum, small intestine and liver were collected for the determination of total testosterone, total protein, albumin and globulin fractions and fat studying the histology of small intestine and liver. The data revealed that feeding with BO led to decrease of total proteins and β-globulins in addition to cellular damages of small intestine and liver. This effect was increased with increasing the BO concentration in the diet

  2. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Powder on the Performance and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Japanese quail chicks (1 d old were used in a 42-d trial to study the effects of Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E on growth performance and meat quality. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails in each, using a 4×2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Results showed that supplementing the basal diet with Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E significantly affected growth performance at 21 d of age (P. Dietary treatments significantly affected 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and water holding capacity (WHC values of breast meat (P. The value of TBARS in breast meat was not affected by dietary levels of Artichoke leaf powder, whereas the value decreased significantly by vitamin E treatment (P. Quails receiving 1.5 percent Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had significantly lower breast meat WHC than those  receiving the basal diet (P. Breast meat crude fat and WHC were affected by gender (P. Dietary 3 percent Artichoke leaf powder increased the b* values of thigh meat compared with the control. The lightness of thigh and breast meat and also redness of thigh meat were affected by gender (P. In general, the results indicated that supplementation of diet by Artichoke leaf powder did not improve growth performance of quails, but may have a potential to improve the oxidative stability and meat quality.

  4. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  5. The formation of pollen in male flowers and yearly atmospheric pollen counts of Cryptomeria japonica in the following year

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    Hideaki Taira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of yearly atmospheric pollen counts is a very important component in the prevention of allergenic symptoms. We investigated the relationship between atomspheric pollen counts and the formation of male flowers of Cryptomeriajaponica D. Don (C. japonica. An atmospheric pollen survey of C. japonica was conducted from 1983 to 1996 using a Durham’s sampler. A regression analysis was performed between the total pollen count and July temperature in previous years. The atmospheric pollen counts of C. japonica had a high positive correlation with the mean temperature in July of the previous year. However, the predicted using average mean July temperature records of the previous year were insufficient, especially in years following high pollen count. In experimental conditions, using 60 C. japonica trees in pots, the formation of male flowers was shown to increase with a rise in incubation temperature. In a forest of C. japonica, our results showed that the length and weight of new needle growth from old needles, which produced many flowers in the previous year, were shorter and lighter, respectively. These aerobiological and plant physiological studies provide evidence that a smaller number of pollen counts are a common result in a year following one in which many male flowers are produced, even if the mean July temperature of that year was high.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) using RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-Ke; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lü, Li-Min; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Lu, Hui; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-12-30

    Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L. japonica were cloned. We evaluated the stability of these genes under various experimental treatments by RT-qPCR using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct) and one comparative (RefFinder) algorithm. We identified genes showing the most stable levels of expression: DIMT, 18S rRNA, and RPL13 during different stages; AK, RPL13, and TBP among sexes; EF1A, PPI, and RPL27 in different tissues, and EF1A, RPL13, and PPI in adults fed on different diets. Moreover, the expression profile of a target gene (odorant receptor 1, OR1) studied during the developmental stages confirms the reliability of the chosen selected reference genes. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in L. japonica and will benefit subsequent genomics and functional genomics research on this natural enemy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of using different levels of Nigella sativa meal on the growth performance and meat quality of Japanese quails

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    Tayebeh Mousapour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Nigella sativa meal (NSM on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, egg yolk cholesterol and meat quality in Japanese quail. For this purpose 300 one-day old Japanese quail chicks in a completely randomized design was used with five treatments in four replicates containing 15 birds each(. The experimental diets were control group (without NSM and diets containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of NSM. Feed intake of birds fed diets with 5 and 15% of NSM were statistically higher than control group. Weight gain in birds fed with 15% of NSM was significantly higher than control group. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed diets with 20% of NSM was statistically higher than control. No significant treatment effect was observed on egg yolk cholesterol, blood parameters (including triglyceride, HDL and total cholesterol concentrations and meat quality parameters (TBA, WHC, Dripping loss, Cooking loss. And also the use of different levels of NSM had no any significant effect on internal organs weight, except gizzard. NSM significantly decreased feed costs compared to control group. So, by using NSM up to 15% in Japanese quails diets, can improve weight gain and feed conversion ratio and decrease feed and meat production costs.

  8. Effect of different levels of selenium and vitamin E on blood biochemical parameters in the Japanese quail

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    hossein zadeh adamnejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-administration of vitamin E and selenium has positive effects on growth performance of avian species, but their effect is not fully elicited in the Japanese quail. Also, controversial reports exist for the effect of vitamin E and selenium on avian performance. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of selenium (0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and vitamin E (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg in the diet of the Japanese quail. Birds received mesh diet from the start of the study, then selenium and vitamin E were added on day 17. At the end of the study, after food deprivation for 6 hours, Japanese quail (1 male and 1 female were selected and blood samples collected for biochemical investigations and determination of glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. There was significant decrease in cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels and significant decrease in albumin and total protein levels on day 35 (p

  9. Effect of using garlic or curcumin or parsley on the growth performance, meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.; Wakwak, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two grams of powdered garlic or curcumin or parsley were added separately to each kg of the diet of unsexed Japanese quail aged one day old in an attempt to evaluate growth performance, serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine hormone, small intestine thickness and caecal microbial count to improve meat quality and egg production. The quails were hold in equal 4 groups; each group contained three replicates of 30 birds. Birds were watered and fed ad libitum for 7 weeks then 69 chicks from each group (6 males and 17 females for each replicate) were transferred into laying cages for another 6 weeks while 3 birds from each replicate were slaughtered for serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine, small intestine thickness, microbial count and carcass fatty acid determination. The data revealed that addition of each of the tested herb supplements caused significant increase in body weight, while there was non-significant changes in serum cholesterol, T3, small intestine thickness and total bacterial count. In addition, there was significant increase in unsaturated fatty acids and significant decrease in saturated fatty acids of carcass. The three additives caused remarkable increases in egg production and hatch ability %, besides augmenting the fertility % and number of ovarian follicles. It may be concluded that addition of 2g garlic or curcumin or parsley powder to each kg of the diet of Japanese quail favored consumer expectation in relation to meat quality and egg production and prolonged feed preservation

  10. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Wahab, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  11. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

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    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  12. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  13. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  14. Isolation, identification, and serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum from quails in Indonesia with typical infectious coryza disease symptoms

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    Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swab was obtained and directly streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and blood agar plate (BAP, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Staphylococcus spp. was cross-streaked onto the BAP to show the satellite growth. The observation of the morphology of the suspected colony, Gram staining, and biochemical tests (catalase test, oxidase test, urease test, peptone test, and carbohydrate fermentation such as maltose, mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol are done to identify the species of bacteria. This research also detects the serovar of A. paragallinarum using hemagglutination inhibition test. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using several antibiotics against five A. paragallinarum isolates that were cultured on Mueller-Hinton Agar and added with antibiotic discs, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Results: Five isolates out of nine suspected isolates (55.5% were A. paragallinarum. The growth of isolates from quails did not depend on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD (NAD-independent. Sensitivity test was done using the five identified A. paragallinarum isolates, results showed that they were 100% sensitive to amoxicillin (AMC and ampicillin (AMP; 100% resistant toward amikacin (AK, erythromycin (E, gentamycin (CN, and tetracycline (TE; 80% resistant toward kanamycin (K and trimethoprim (W; 60% resistant toward chloramphenicol (C; and 20

  15. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  16. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system.

  17. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

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    Safaa Yehia Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR. Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plants (N = 16 for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ (Polygonaceae shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81% compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Anhui Agricultural Univ., Hefei; Hu Fanrong; Zhang Linlin; Wang Xueyan; Wu Dianxing; Ma Chuanxi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were investigated in the current paper, using embryonic calli derived from the mature seeds of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). The result indicated that the GUS transient expression rates were enhanced with the increasing doses when treated by doses lower than 4 Gy, however it would be decreased when treated by doses higher than 4 Gy. Based on the survival rate and GUS transient expression rate, 2 Gy is the optimal dose for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Further observation found that 36 hours reculture after gamma irradiation is the most appropriate for agrobacterium infection. (authors)

  19. Quantifying quality of life and disability of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica.

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    Tie-Wu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the "EQ-5D plus", ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%, usual activities (87.9%, and anxiety or depression (80.9%. The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30-44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥ 60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patient-preference disability

  20. Induction of mutation with gamma irradiation in camellia (Camellia Japonica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Diying; Shen Shoujiang; Wang Yanjun

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the radiosensitivity and mutagenic effects in Camellia (Camellia Japonica L.) were carried out with the shoot cuttings, one-year seedlings and three or four-year plants irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays. Results obtained showed that the radiosensitivities varied greatly in cultivars and in different parts of the plant. The suitable irradiation doses for shoot cuttings are 1-3 krad. The treatment of low doses (bellow 2 kard) resulted in higher frequency of mutation with plants of high sensitivity to γ-rays. The frequencies of mutation in flower color and type were 2.5-12.0%. The mutant with ornamental value has been obtained

  1. DNA variation in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica

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    Balakirev Evgeniy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS, plastid (rbcLS and mitochondrial (COI DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP and its two common morphological varieties, known as the “longipes” (LON and “shallow-water” (SHA forms seeking to clarify their taxonomical status and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. japonica. Results The data show that the TYP and LON forms are very similar genetically in spite of drastic differences in morphology, life history traits, and ecological preferences. Both, however, are genetically quite different from the SHA form. The two Saccharina lineages are distinguished by 109 fixed single nucleotide differences as well as by seven fixed length polymorphisms (based on a 4,286 bp concatenated dataset that includes three gene regions. The GenBank database reveals a close affinity of the TYP and LON forms to S. japonica and the SHA form to S. cichorioides. The three gene markers used in the present work have different sensitivity for the algal species identification. COI gene was the most discriminant gene marker. However, we have detected instances of interspecific COI recombination reflecting putative historical hybridization events between distantly related algal lineages. The recombinant sequences show highly contrasted level of divergence in the 5’- and 3’- regions of the gene, leading to significantly different tree topologies depending on the gene segment (5’- or 3’- used for tree reconstruction. Consequently, the 5’-COI “barcoding” region (~ 650 bp can be misleading for identification purposes, at least in the case of algal species that might have experienced historical hybridization events. Conclusion Taking into account

  2. Use of gamma-rays sensitivity for discrimination of upland cultivars of groups Indican and Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luis Roberto Franco

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-five upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated in relation to gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds were subjected to seven doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes in randomised complete block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse during the year of 1992. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M 1 generation, were evaluated. The results showed that the sensitivity to the radiation at doses 300 and 360 Gy was useful for distinguishing Indican and Japonica groups. (author)

  3. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  4. DNA damage in gill cells of Corbicula japonica exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors

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    Valentina Vladimirovna Slobodskova

    2015-06-01

    The results are presented as the percentage distribution of nuclei in the various damage classes and summarized in an index of DNA integrity or genetic damage index GDI (Cavas, Kohen, 2008: The results from our study showed significant level of DNA damage from the C. japonica which were collected from polluted sites. Unpolluted sites were described as with no or minimal DNA strand breaks. Mollusks collected at polluted areas (estuary Razdolnaya river, lagoon Tihaya showed high levels of DNA damage, GDI is equal to 3.22±0.2 and 3.11±0.7 in gills respectively. C. japonica obtained from a ‘clean’ areas (estuary Artemovka river, estuary Partizanskaya river demonstrate less high level of DNA damage destruction, GDI is equal to 0,6±0,08 and 0,71±0,12 in gills respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydro peroxides were determined by the TBA reaction. The absorbance was read at 532 nm after removal of substances (TBARS formed was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of 1.56*105 M-1 cm -1 formed per g dry weight. C. japonica sampled at Artemovka estuary, Partizanskaya estuary, Razdolnaya estuary, Tihaya lagoon showed LPX level (3.46±0.59, 5.62±0.82, 12.85±0.52, 15.32±1.13 nmol TBARS/g dry wt in gills respectively. In conclusion, it can be noted that in the course of the experiment we found a clear relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of peroxidation products (MDA in the gills of bivalve C. japonica, collected from sites with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. It should be emphasized that the shellfish that live in polluted areas are likely to be in a state of oxidative stress, which is one of the causes the degradation of DNA.

  5. Microtropiosides A-F: ent-Labdane diterpenoid glucosides from the leaves of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yuka; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio

    2010-04-01

    From a 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica, collected in the Okinawa islands, six ent-labdane glucosides, named microtropiosides A-F, were isolated together with one known acyclic sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations determined by application of the beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift-trend rule in (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The breeding of Japonica Yanjing 10 rice mutant induced by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian; Jiao Juan; He Zhentian; Wang Lin

    2011-01-01

    The dry seed of mid-maturing Japonica rice Yanjing 10 was used for space mutation breeding which was carried by a satellite for 15 days in 2006. Through three generations of breeding, a group of mutants were obtained. In the article, we reported in detail the breeding procedures, proposed the breeding technical method for space mutation for rice improvement. Planting multiple seedlings per hill to prohibit tillering at SP 1 generation, and bulked selection in combination with directional selection at the SP 2 ∼ SP 3 generation were the two key points of the breeding methods. (authors)

  7. Acidulants for japanese quails housed at high stocking rates at finishing phase

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    Ana Paula de Oliveira Saccomani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quail for being an alternative species will be able to supply a new market niche due to its fast growth, high laying rate, low feed intake, in addition to the increase of the acceptance of its products by the consumer. A growing interest in raising the stocking rates in the cages as an alternative to increase the performance of the stock is noticed; although studies demonstrate that high densities can result into unfavorable environment to the birds’ welfare with alterations in the performance of the flocks and as a stressing factor being able to alter the production and profitability of the flock. At high stocking rates, the birds become predisposed to aggressiveness reactions, presenting cannibalism behavior, besides the combination of factors such as pH, temperature, ventilation and humidity deficiency which create environmental conditions favorable for certain benign bacteria which utilize uric acid of the manure through their enzymatic complexes and produce ammonia, causing stress to birds and which can cause damages to performance with significant economic losses to the producer.  The experiment with 112-day duration was conducted with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of acidulants in the Japanese quails’ drinking water and verifying the effect on the stocking rate in cages. A completely randomized design with four treatments (2 stocking rates of quails x 2 additions of and 5 replications of 24 and 36 birds per cage, corresponding to the stocking rates of 141.67 and 94.44 cm2/bird, respectively, receiving or not acidulant in the water (acetic, lactic and phosphoric acid was utilized. Performance was evaluated through egg weight (EWg, egg yield (%Laying., egg mass (EMg/bird/day, feed intake (FIg/bird/day, feed conversion (FCkg/dz and FCkg/kg and mortality (%Mort. No significant statistical differences about the performance (P>0.05 were found. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the density for daily feed intake with

  8. An application of CART algorithm in genetics: IGFs and cGH polymorphisms in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Selçuk

    2017-04-01

    The avian insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGFs) and avian growth hormone (cGH) genes are the most important genes that can affect bird performance traits because of its important function in growth and metabolism. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of variation in growth-related traits is of importance for continued improvement and increased rates of genetic gain. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of cGH and IGFs genes in Japanese quail using conventional least square method (LSM) and CART algorithm. Therefore, this study was aimed to demonstrate at determining the polymorphisms of two genes related growth characteristics via CART algorithm. A simulated data set was generated to analyze by adhering the results of some poultry genetic studies which it includes live weights at 5 weeks of age, 3 alleles and 6 genotypes of cGH and 2 alleles and 3 genotypes of IGFs. As a result, it has been determined that the CART algorithm has some advantages as for that LSM.

  9. Influence of long-term hypodynamy on spongy bone tissue in Japanese quails

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    Lucia Tarabová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weightlessness can cause various damages especially on the musculoskeletal system both in animals and humans. The aim of our study was to observe the influence of simulated, long-term microgravity on the spongy bone tissue of the femur in Japanese quails. A total of 80 cockerels at the age of 2 days were exposed to simulated microgravity – hypodynamy. After days 56, 63, 90 and 180, six birds from the experimental group and six birds from the control group were euthanised. Samples for histological examination were collected from femur epiphysis. The whole femur of the other limb was used for the analysis of the calcium content. Microscopic examination showed differences between experimental and control animals in the spongy bone tissue after every day of the experiment. In the experimental animals, there were numerous, big, multinucleated cells osteoclasts, lying on the bone trabeculae surface, which were damaged. The highest difference in the calcium content in femurs between the control and experimental animals was found after 90 days of hypodynamy. This study builds on short-term hypodynamy experiments; such long periods had never been studied before in birds. Because our findings are similar to those found in osteoporotic bone tissue, it could by useful in the development of countermeasures against the negative influence of microgravity and immobilization.

  10. Estimation of Digestible Lysine Requirements of Japanese Quail during the Starter Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashoori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of digestible lysine requirements of Japanese quail during the 7-21d period. Graduation level of L-lysine.HCL were added to the basal diet at the expense of corn starch to create different levels of digestible lysine ranged from 0.75 to 1.35% of diet. Growth performance and carcass composition were evaluated during the experiment. The results showed that incremental levels of digestible lysine significantly affected the body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed intake (FI, breast meat yield (BMY and thigh meat yield (TMY. Either linear broken- line or quadratic broken line model were used to get break points of digestible lysine as a requirement. Based on linear broken line analysis, the break points for FCR and BMY were 0.99 and 1.04 % of diet, respectively. Using the quadratic broken-line model, the estimated Lys requirements for BWG, FCR, and BMY were 1.11, 1.04, and 1.15% of diet, respectively. The results showed that the Lys needs for optimum BMY was higher than BWG and FCR.

  11. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Aouacheria, Abdel; Nouvion, Anne-Laure; Ronot, Xavier; Gillet, Germain

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 v-src tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 v-src , we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 v-src inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 v-src inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells

  12. The negative influence of high-glucose ambience on neurogenesis in developing quail embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologically, such that neural tube defects (NTDs developed. In addition, we found that high glucose impaired nerve differentiation at dorsal root ganglia and in the developing limb buds, as revealed by neurofilament (NF immunofluorescent staining. The dorsal root ganglia are normally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs, so we examine the delamination of NCCs from dorsal side of the neural tube. We established that high glucose was detrimental to the NCCs, in vivo and in vitro. High glucose also negatively affected neural differentiation by reducing the number and length of neurites emanating from neurons in culture. We established that high glucose exposure caused an increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS generation by primary cultured neurons. We hypothesized that excess ROS was the factor responsible for impairing neuron development and differentiation. We provided evidence for our hypothesis by showing that the addition of vitamin C (a powerful antioxidant could rescue the damaging effects of high glucose on cultured neurons.

  13. Effects of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feiwei; Hao, Haitao

    2016-12-01

    Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups, which received physiological saline and 75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) LJP, respectively, by gavage once a day for 28 days. This was followed by a forced swimming test and measurements of various biochemical parameters. LJP increased swimming time to exhaustion, the liver and muscle glycogen content, and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the serum, liver, and muscle, which were accompanied by corresponding decreases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the same tissues. Furthermore, decreases in blood lactic acid and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were observed. LJP enhanced exercise endurance and protected mice against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  14. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  15. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts Stachys riederi var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Meirong; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2018-05-17

    The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole (15.43%), anisole (9.43%), 1,8-cineole (8.07%), geraniol (7.89%), eugenol (4.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.47%), caryophyllene (4.21%) and linalool (4.07%). Five active constituents (acetanisole, anisole, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and geraniol) were identified by bioactivity-directed fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against maize weevils ( Sitophilus zeamais ) and booklice ( Liposcelis bostrychophila ), with LC 50 values of 15.0 mg/L and 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol and anisole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the oil against booklice. 1,8-Cineole showed stronger toxicity, and anisole as well as eugenol exhibited the same level of fumigant toxicity as the essential oil against maize weevils. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults and L. bostrychophila , with LC 50 values of 21.8 µg/adult and 287.0 µg/cm², respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of S. riederi var. japonica and its isolates show potential as fumigants, and for their contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); He Xingyuan, E-mail: hexy@iae.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Chen Wei; Yuan Fenghui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan Kun [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Tao Dali [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L{sup -1} Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L{sup -1}, the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L{sup -1} Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 {+-} 0.71 and 286.12 {+-} 9.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  18. Is sexual motivational state linked to dopamine release in the medial preoptic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleitz-Nelson, H K; Dominguez, J M; Cornil, C A; Ball, G F

    2010-04-01

    The medial preoptic area (mPOA) is a key site for the dopaminergic enhancement of male sexual behavior. Dopamine release increases in the rat mPOA with mating, supporting the critical stimulatory role played by preoptic dopamine on male sexual behavior. However, it has been questioned whether dopamine is specifically related to the occurrence of male sexual behavior and not simply involved in general arousal. To address this question, we asked whether dopamine release in the mPOA is linked to the production of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that exhibits a much shorter temporal pattern of copulation than rats and does not have an intermittent organ, resulting in a very different topography of their sexual response. Extracellular samples from the mPOA of adult sexually experienced male quail were collected every 6 min before, during, and after exposure to a female using in vivo microdialysis and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Extracellular dopamine significantly increased in the presence of a female and returned to baseline after removal of the female. However, quail that failed to copulate did not display this increased release. These findings indicate that it is not solely the presence of a female that drives dopamine release in males, but how a male responds to her. Furthermore, in quail that copulated, dopamine release did not change in samples collected during periods of no copulation. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that dopamine action in the mPOA is specifically linked to sexual motivation and not only to copulatory behavior or physical arousal.

  19. Maternal influence on eggshell maculation: implications for cryptic camouflaged eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 1 (2016), s. 303-310 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * camouflage * Coturnix coturnix japonica * eggs hell maculation * Protoporphyrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of olive leaves on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Λευτέρης

    cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were determined. ... Keywords: Pimpinella anisum, vitamin E, Coturnix japonica, performance, egg .... 8 mg vitamin B2; 3 mg vitamin B6; 20 μg vitamin B12; 85 mg vitamin niacin; 20 mg pantothenic.

  1. Protective effects against H2O2-induced damage by enzymatic hydrolysates of an edible brown seaweed, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Jae; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Soo; Jung, Bok-Mi; Kim, Kui-Shik; Je, Jae-Young; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2009-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of Laminaria japonica were evaluated for antioxidative activities using hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA and cell damage. In addition, activities of antioxidative enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, of the enzymatic hydrolysates from L. japonica were also estimated. L. japonica was first enzymatically hydrolyzed by seven carbohydrases (Dextrozyme, AMG, Promozyme, Maltogenase, Termamyl, Viscozyme, and Celluclast [all from Novo Co., Novozyme Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark]) and five proteinases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase, Protamex, Alcalase [all from Novo Co.], and pancreatic trypsin). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Promozyme and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates from L. japonica were the highest as compared to those of the other carbohydrases and proteinases, and their 50% inhibitory concentration values were 1.67 and 317.49 mug/mL, respectively. The pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica exerted a protective effect on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. We also evaluated the protective effect on hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells via propidium iodide staining using a flow cytometer. The AMG and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica dose-dependently protected PC12 cells against cell death caused by hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage. Additionally, we analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase in L. japonica-treated cells. The activity of all antioxidative enzymes was higher in L. japonica-treated cells compared with the nontreated cells. These results indicate that enzymatic hydrolysates of L. japonica possess antioxidative activity.

  2. Optimizing soaking and germination conditions to improve gamma-aminobutyric acid content in japonica and indica germinated brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a well-known functional food due to its high content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study was designed to test the difference of producing GABA in two domesticated rice genotypes (indica and japonica rice), and the effects of adding exogenous glutamic acid or

  3. Sympatric spawning but allopatric distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata: temperature- and oceanic current-dependent sieving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-San Han

    Full Text Available Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24 °C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them "temperate" and "tropical" eels, respectively.

  4. Predicting the spatial distribution of Lonicera japonica, based on species occurrence data from two watersheds in Western Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....

  5. Sympatric spawning but allopatric distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata: temperature- and oceanic current-dependent sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-San; Yambot, Apolinario V; Zhang, Heng; Hung, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24 °C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them "temperate" and "tropical" eels, respectively.

  6. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE NON-INDIGENOUS SEAGRASS, DWARF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA JAPONICA ASCHER. & GRAEB.), IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...

  7. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  8. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zuo

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  9. Essential Oil from Cryptomeria japonica Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells via Mitochondrial Stress and Activation of Caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle, and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The essential oil induced the apoptosis of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the sub-G1 ratio. The essential oil also induced rapid and transient caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP of the KB cells. Treating the cells with the oil also caused changes in the mitochondrial level of the Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The essential oil of C. japonica may have potential as a cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agent.

  10. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  11. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  12. Metal accumulation in the polychaete Hediste japonica with emphasis on interaction between heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuhong; Zhou Qixing

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in the polychaete Hediste japonica exposed to the mixture of Cd (or Cu) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was investigated and compared with that exposed to single Cd (or Cu). The increased bioavailability of Cd or Cu with exposure concentrations resulted in an increase in the accumulation and net accumulation rate of Cd or Cu during single metal exposure. The net accumulation rate of Cd increased, but the net accumulation rate of Cu decreased with exposure time during single metal exposure, suggesting that H. japonica could actively regulate Cu burden in their body by inhibition of absolute uptake or promotion of excretion. The interactions between Cd (or Cu) and PHCs had complicated influences on the net accumulation rate of Cd and Cu in H. japonica under the condition of the binary mixture, which are dependent on their concentration combinations and exposure time. - The influences of petroleum hydrocarbons on Cd and Cu accumulation in H. japonica depend on their concentration combinations and exposure time

  13. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  14. Diaphorina citri Induces Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus Plant Volatiles to Repel and Reduce the Performance of Propylaea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants.

  15. Functional analysis of SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 during the myogenic differentiation of quail myoblast cells

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    Si Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Owing to the public availability of complete genome sequences, including avian species, massive bioinformatics analyses may be conducted for computational gene prediction and the identification of gene regulatory networks through various informatics tools. However, to evaluate the biofunctional activity of a predicted target gene, in vivo and in vitro functional genomic analyses should be a prerequisite. Methods Due to a lack of quail genomic sequence information, we first identified the partial genomic structure and sequences of the quail SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 (SH3RF2 gene. Subsequently, SH3RF2 was knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived SH3RF2 mutant sublines were established to study the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in quail myoblast (QM7 cells during muscle differentiation. Results Through a T7 endonuclease I assay and genotyping analysis, we established an SH3RF2 knockout (KO QM7#4 subline with 61 and 155 nucleotide deletion mutations in SH3RF2. After the induction of myotube differentiation, the expression profiles were analyzed and compared between regular QM7 and SH3RF2 KO QM7#4 cells by global RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion We did not detect any statistically significant role of SH3RF2 during myotube differentiation in QM7 myoblast cells. However, additional experiments are necessary to examine the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in cell proliferation and muscle growth.

  16. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA: a study from a child labor perspective

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    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli, and testing for Salmonella spp.. The results were compared with the standards provided by the Resolution RDC nº 12/2001, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: The vendors were mostly female (57.5% students (95.0% aged 8 to 17 years. The most common reason for working was supplementation of the family income (57.5%. The mean gross income was R$38.31/day. Most of them presented inadequate personal hygiene but they recognized that foods could cause diseases. Many (47.5% vendors reported washing their hands up to twice daily. Mean mesophilic aerobic microorganism and coagulase-positive staphylococcus counts were 2.43 and 2.01 log colony-forming unit/g, respectively, and the estimated thermotolerant coliform contamination was 0.98 log most probable number/g. Escherichia coli was found in 15.0% of the samples and none contained Salmonella spp. Most (55.0% samples were noncompliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The results evidenced the presence of minors selling quail eggs on beaches of Salvador and suggest risk to consumers' health because of the detected contamination and vendors' ignorance of principles of hygiene.

  17. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

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    Shasha eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS and –resistant (RES, have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3 to 5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol. At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of 4 species of Lachnospiraceae, 3 species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail’s cecal environment

  19. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  20. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  1. Effects of first formant onset frequency on [-voice] judgments result from auditory processes not specific to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluender, K R; Lotto, A J

    1994-02-01

    When F1-onset frequency is lower, longer F1 cut-back (VOT) is required for human listeners to perceive synthesized stop consonants as voiceless. K. R. Kluender [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 83-96 (1991)] found comparable effects of F1-onset frequency on the "labeling" of stop consonants by Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) trained to distinguish stop consonants varying in F1 cut-back. In that study, CVs were synthesized with natural-like rising F1 transitions, and endpoint training stimuli differed in the onset frequency of F1 because a longer cut-back resulted in a higher F1 onset. In order to assess whether earlier results were due to auditory predispositions or due to animals having learned the natural covariance between F1 cut-back and F1-onset frequency, the present experiment was conducted with synthetic continua having either a relatively low (375 Hz) or high (750 Hz) constant-frequency F1. Six birds were trained to respond differentially to endpoint stimuli from three series of synthesized /CV/s varying in duration of F1 cut-back. Second and third formant transitions were appropriate for labial, alveolar, or velar stops. Despite the fact that there was no opportunity for animal subjects to use experienced covariation of F1-onset frequency and F1 cut-back, quail typically exhibited shorter labeling boundaries (more voiceless stops) for intermediate stimuli of the continua when F1 frequency was higher. Responses by human subjects listening to the same stimuli were also collected. Results lend support to the earlier conclusion that part or all of the effect of F1 onset frequency on perception of voicing may be adequately explained by general auditory processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Kecernaan protein dan energi metabolis akibat pemberian zat aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus pada burung puyuh japonica betina umur 16-50 hari

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    Meina Yuniarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of crude protein and energy is used to measure digestibility in poultry, digestible shows of feed substances absorbed by the body which will affect the productivity of quail. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of red dragon fruit liquid additif (Hylocereus polyrhizus, digestibility protein and metabolizable energy by quail female age 16-50 days. Experiment used 200 japanese quails females, 7 weeks age with average body weight of 13.61±0.49 g. The study was conducted in battery cages. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 5 replications: T0 (control, T1 (Award liquid additives red dragon fruit twice a day, T2 (one a day and T3 (two days. The dose of a liquid additive is 5 ml/quail. Observation of digestibility of crude protein (KcPK and the energy carried by the method of total collection for 3 days, measurements using a bomb calorimeter gross energy and protein analysis using Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using a variety of test F at the level 5%, followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (UJBD there is significant effect of the treatment each treatment was showed liquid additives red dragon fruit was not significant (P> 0.05 on crude protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy. The conclusion, the given of liquid additives red dragon fruit did not increase digestibility of crude protein and apparent metabolizable energy. Keywords: quail, red dragon fruit, digestibility of crude protein

  3. Toxicity of Heliotropium dolosum, Heliotropium circinatum, and Senecio vernalis in Parental Quail and Their Progeny, with Residue Evaluation of Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERÖKSÜZ, Yesari; ÇERİBAŞI, Ali Osman; ÇEVİK, Aydın; ERÖKSÜZ, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In all, 160 Japanese quail (80 male and 80 female) were divided into 4 groups (3 test groups and 1 control group). The test groups were fed a diet containing aerial parts (leaves, stems, and flowers) of Senecio vernalis (SV group), Heliotropium dolosum (HD group), or Heliotropium circinatum (HC group) at the level of 30% for 6 weeks, and the control group was fed 0% in order to evaluate parental and progenial toxicity, along with the transference of alkaloid residues to their eggs. The pyrrol...

  4. Viability of quail embryos and nestlings from the eggs exposed to gamma-radiation, vibration and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.F.; Shafirkin, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The viability of quail embryos and nestlings from the incubation eggs exposed (in) to gamma-radiation at a dose of 300 cGy and stored for 15 days or (ii) to gamma-radiation at a dose of 300 cGy and stored for 30 days or (iii) to vibration with the acute egg end oriented contrary to the vibration front and stored for 30 days did not decrease as compared to that of the controls stored for the same time period. The viability diminished if the radiation dose was increased to 600-1200 cGy of if the egg orientation during vibration was changed

  5. Comparison of animal and plant proteins for young pen-reared bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1945-01-01

    Bobwhite quail chicks, when given a choice of balanced diets in which the essential difference was the protein supplement, showed preferences for one diet containing 49 per cent peanut oil meal, another containing a mixture of 9 per cent meat and bone scraps (50% protein) with 38 per cent soybean oil meal, and a third (control) diet containing a mixture of 16 per cent dried buttermilk with 42 per cent soybean oil meal, in contrast to diets containing sardine meal or menhaden fish meal. ....Feeding tests during the first five weeks of life showed that diets containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal consistently gave high live weights, low mortality, and high efficiency of feed utilization. Diets with 9 to 10 per cent menhaden meal produced nearly as good results....Live weights, survival, and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly better on a diet containing 9 per cent meat and bone scrap (50% protein) than on one with 9 per cent meat scrap (55% protein), but not as good as with diets containing fish meal without meat....The chicks grew and survived more successfully on diets containing either soybean oil meal or peanut oil meal as the sole protein supplement, than on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole protein concentrate. None of these was as satisfactory as the diets containing fish meal.....All chicks died on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole source of protein. All three of these concentrates, however, gave satisfactory results, when used as 10 per cent of the diet. In fact, survival and efficiency of feed utilization were nearly as good on a diet containing 10 per cent dried buttermilk, 10 per cent linseed oil meal, 10 per cent peanut oil meal, and 27 per cent soybean oil meal, as on diets containing fish meal.

  6. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

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    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  7. Osteoclast cell-surface specializations and nuclear kinetics during egg-laying in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Medullary bone deposits serve as a reservoir of labile calcium for egg-shell calcification in birds. Quantitative transmission-electron-microscope methods and light-microscope autoradiographic cell-population-kinetic analyses were used to determine changes in cell-surface specializations and population dynamics of medullary bone osteoclasts during egg-laying in Japanese quail. Prior to egg-shell formation, from 0 to about 8 hours after the previous oviposition, very few osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. The appearance of ruffled borders coincided with the beginning of egg-shell calcification, about 9-10 hours after the previous oviposition. During egg-shell calcification, about 10-21 hours after the previous oviposition, most osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. Ruffled borders disappeared at the completion of egg-shell calcification and commencement of egg-shell pigmentation. Thus, functional activities of medullary bone osteoclasts appear to be closely synchronized with egg-shell calcification during egg-laying. From 1 to 48 hours after a single injection of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR), very few labeled osteoclast nuclei were seen during egg-laying. Following multiple injections of 3H-TdR, the percentage of labeled nuclei reached a peak at about 170 hours after the first injection. At this peak-labeling time, relatively few of the osteoclast profiles that had labeled nuclei had two or more; although the average number of nuclei per osteoclast profile was about 3.6. These kinetic data suggest that the medullary bone osteoclast population has a prolonged rate of turnover compared to rapid changes in cell activities associated with each 24-hour egg-laying cycle; and collectively they would suggest that rapid changes in osteoclast functions occur independently of changes in cell-population dynamics

  8. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

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    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  9. Effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails

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    Wang Tianshan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly-used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.

  10. On the influence of storage duration on rheological properties of liquid egg products and response of eggs to impact loading - Japanese quail eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, May (2015), s. 86-94 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg quality * japanese quail * haugh units * storage duration * non-Newtonian fluid * non-destructive impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 3.199, year: 2015

  11. The effect of nano-selenium particles and sodium selenite on humoral immunity indices of quails using foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1

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    Ebrahim Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of inhibition of aflatoxin B1 by various sources of selenium and to compare the effect of nano selenium and sodium selenite on humoral immunity of quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD using six treatments and four replicates of ten quail chicks per replicate. Two hundred forty quails were divided in six groups vis. control: without aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group2: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group3: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm nano selenium. Group4: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm sodium selenite. Group5: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm nano selenium. Group6: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm sodium selenite. To evaluate the humoral immunity response 0.2­ml of sheep red blood cell (SRBC solution was injected into breast muscle of quails at day 35 and blood sampling was conducted after a week. Newcastle vaccine was injected at day 28 and the antibody titer was determined after two weeks. The highest level of titer of antibody against the SRBC solution was related to the group which received 0.06 ppm nano selenium (p

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls as inducers of hepatic porphyria in Japanese quail, with special reference to δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity, fluorescence, and residues in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Strik, J.T.W.A.; Holsteyn, C.W.M. van; Pennings, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were orally dosed, daily for 7 days, with 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, and 0 mg PCB (Aroclor 1260) per kg body weight. The birds receiving 1000 mg/kg died. A dose-related increase in liver and liver: body weight ratio was found. Macroscopic and microscopic examination under

  13. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

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    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  14. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 3. Onset of sexual maturity and basic characteristics of early lay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2007), s. 551-558 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : embryonicdevelopment * postnatal development * Japanese quail Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.071, year: 2007

  15. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  16. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W.; Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T.; Shen, H.; Yang, M.; Mi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  17. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.c [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, M.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  18. Alnuheptanoid B: A new Cyclic Diarylheptanoid from Alnus japonica Stem Bark

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    Sabrin R.M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cyclic diarylheptanoid namely alnuheptanoid B (3, along with four known cyclic diarylheptanoids: myricanone (1, (+-S-myricanol (2, myricanone 5-O- b -D-glucopyranoside (4, and (+-S-myricanol 5-O- b -D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from Alnus japonica Steud (Betulaceae stem bark. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, 1D ( 1H and 13C, 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC, and HRESIMS, as well as optical rotation measurement. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 are reported for the first time from the plant. All isolated compounds 1-5 were tested for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using DPPH assay and carrageenin induced rat paw edema model, respectively. They displayed significant antioxidant activity in relation to propyl gallate (positive control. Compound 2 demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect at a dose 10 mg/kg.

  19. Breeding of Hangtian 36-an early-maturing variety of japonica rice by space mutation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Bao Genliang; Zhang Mingxian; Xu Jianlong; Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Hangtian 36; an early-maturing late Japonica rice variety with high grain quality and disease resistance was developed from the mutagenesis progeny of Bing 1067 carried by the recoverable satellite. Hangtian 36 has advantages over the original variety Bing 1067 in mature duration, grain quality and blast resistance. It has strong tolerant ability to late sow, varying from sowing date of single cropping to the end of July. So it is an ideal variety suitable for the use of emergency situation, such as in the natural disaster year resulting from typhoon. This variety was officially registered by Zhejiang Committee on Variety Registration in 2006, and is adaptable in the region of Zhejiang province and the Yangtze River delta. The successful breeding of Hangtian 36 showed that space mutation is an effective method of simultaneous improvement for multiple traits of rice. (authors)

  20. Cloning of genes and enzymatic characterizations of novel dioscorin isoforms from Dioscorea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam, has been shown to possess carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. In the present study, dioscorin from Dioscorea japonica was confirmed as a glycoprotein using the enhanced concanavalin A-peroxidase staining method, and the protein was shown to have both N- and O-glycans. Following the gene cloning, four full-length isoforms of dioscorin were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity purification and anion-exchange chromatography for structural and biochemical experiments. It was clearly observed that the recombinant dioscorins had carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. However, the dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were markedly decreased in recombinant dioscorins compared with native dioscorin. The decreased activities were closely related to the loss of the glycosylation from the protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Herbological studies of Coptidis rhizoma (Part 2): on the old Japanese name of Coptis japonica makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M; Mikage, M

    1999-01-01

    The rhizome of Coptis plant of the family ranunculaceae has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a crude drug (Huanglian in present Chinese). In Japan, the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (the botanical name of which is "Ohren" in modern Japanese) has been utilized as a crude drug since the Nara era. The Japanese name in those days was "Kakumakusa based on descriptions in old books written in the Heian era. It changed to "Kakumikusa" early in the Edo era, and then changed again to Kakumakusa later in the Edo era. Through this herbological study, it was conjectured as follows: The resemblance between Chinese characters (or MA) and (or MI) in cursive style caused mis-copying of the character. After the "Honzo-wamyo, written in the Heian era, was revised in the late Edo era, and on which the name was accurately written as Kakumakusa, the mistake was corrected.

  2. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

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    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  3. Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica

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    Ai-Li Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  4. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size

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    David L. Oldeschulte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0 and second- (v2.0 generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb, which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%, genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%, and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165 were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8% and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%, as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0, and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0, including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15–20 KYA.

  5. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldeschulte, David L; Halley, Yvette A; Wilson, Miranda L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Brashear, Wesley; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Bickhart, Derek M; Decker, Jared E; Sewell, John F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2017-09-07

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata ) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second- (v2.0) generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb) was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb), which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%), genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%), and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165) were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8%) and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%), as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0), and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0), including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15-20 KYA. Copyright © 2017 Oldeschulte et al.

  6. Non PCR-amplified Transcripts and AFLP fragments as reduced representations of the quail genome for 454 Titanium sequencing

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    Leterrier Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism discovery is now routinely performed using high-throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries. Our objective was to adapt 454 GS FLX based sequencing methodologies in order to obtain the largest possible dataset from two reduced representations libraries, produced by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag for the transcribed fraction of the genome. Findings The expressed fraction was obtained by preparing cDNA libraries without PCR amplification from quail embryo and brain. To optimize the information content for SNP analyses, libraries were prepared from individuals selected in three quail lines and each individual in the AFLP library was tagged. Sequencing runs produced 399,189 sequence reads from cDNA and 373,484 from genomic fragments, covering close to 250 Mb of sequence in total. Conclusions Both methods used to obtain reduced representations for high-throughput sequencing were successful after several improvements. The protocols may be used for several sequencing applications, such as de novo sequencing, tagged PCR fragments or long fragment sequencing of cDNA.

  7. Dispersal of estradiol-17 beta from the site of injection in the pectoral muscles of Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    Exogenous estrogens, if given in sufficient quantity, stimulate vitellogenesis in the males of vitellogenic species. In the present study, ethanolic solutions of estradiol-17 beta (E2), labeled with 16-alpha-( SVI)iodoestradiol (( SVI)E2) or sodium iodide (Na SVI), were injected into the pectoral muscles of male Japanese quail. The rate of dispersal of the estradiol from the site of injection was measured in vivo during 4 days. The curves of radioactivity appeared to be diphasic. The dose percentages forming the second phase of these curves and the half-time for the second phase were: for 16 mumol E2 (( SVI)E2 label)/100 g body weight, 84.6% and 27.6 hr; for 6 pmol ( SVI)E2/100 g, 20.0% and 17.2 hr; for 16 mumol E2 (Na SVI label)/100 g, 6.7% and 99.0 hr, and for Na SVI, 6.1% and 83.1 hr. Thus, in male quail the estradiol-induced stimulation of vitellogenesis apparently resulted from a continuing hormonal pressure on the liver during the period of study and not from a rapid flow of E2 to the liver shortly after injection.

  8. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed /sup 95m/Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    Previous coefficients for transfer of technetium from feed to poultry have utilized default values. These investigations examined the uptake and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in male and female Japanese quail following their ingestion of Tc incorporated into alfalfa during growth. Approximately 8% of the daily ingested Tc was transferred to eggs. Biological half-time was one to two days. After 10 days of feeding, 80% of the Tc was in yolk, 20% in albumin, and less than 1% in shell and associated membranes. The Tc levels in albumin reached a maximum between three and five days, compared to six to seven days for yolk. Laying female quail contained 27% of the daily-ingested Tc compared to 5% for males. However, approximately 23% of the daily female Tc intake was contained in the developing ova and reproductive organs. The highest Tc concentrations were in oocytes of laying hens, followed by the fully formed unlaid egg and the ovaries. The uterine shelled egg contained five times the amount of Tc present in other edible tissues combined. For males, the gizzard contained about 53% of the Tc in other edible tissues, followed by muscle (25%), liver (19%), and heart (3%). The transfer coefficient (pCi/kg edible tissue per pCi/day) for plant-incorporated /sup 95m/Tc was about 0.35 day/kg for both sexes. 17 references, 4 tables

  9. The use of statistical procedures for comparison of the production of eggs considering different treatments and lines of quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To make inferences concerning a population, parametric methods are traditionally used for sample data analysis assuming that these come from ordinary populations, which not always happens. Most of the times such assumption leads to inadequate conclusions and decisions, especially when the data are distributed asymmetrically. It was aimed on this work to adjust some plausible models for this type of data, aiming to compare eggs productions in quails of different lines through frequentist and Bayesian methods. In the analyzed data it could be verified that the parametric and non-parametric frequentist procedures were, in general, equally conclusive. The Bayesian procedure was the only one which detected difference between the yellow and red lines, regarding the preconized energy diet, and between the blue and yellow for the second eclosion group. By the frequentist methods differences between the blue and red lines were not found; however, given a Poisson distribution for the eggs production, through multiple comparisons between the posterior mean under the Bayesian focus, differences were found between all lines. For being more sensitive, besides flexible, such procedure detected differences not observed by the traditional methods between the yellow and red lines, in the higher energy diet; between the blue and the red one in the second eclosion group and in general. It was concluded that quails of the yellow line showed bigger eggs production, regardless of the eclosion group and diet. Such results raise the discussion on the appropriate use of methods and procedures for statistical data analysis.

  10. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  11. Relevance of the Physicochemical Properties of Calcined Quail Eggshell (CaO as a Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

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    Leandro Marques Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CaO solid derived from natural quail eggshell was calcined and employed as catalyst to produce biodiesel via transesterification of sunflower oil. The natural quail eggshell was calcined at 900°C for 3 h, in order to modify the calcium carbonate present in its structure in CaO, the activity phase of the catalyst. Both precursor and catalyst were characterized using Hammett indicators method, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196°C, and distribution particle size. The maximum biodiesel production was of 99.00 ± 0.02 wt.% obtained in the following transesterification reaction conditions: XMR (sunflower oil/methanol molar ratio of 1 : 10.5 mol : mol, XCAT (catalyst loading of 2 wt.%, XTIME (reaction time of 2 h, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, and temperature of 60°C.

  12. The effect of reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) treatment on the plasma levels of iodothyronines in growing Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezgoda, J.; Wronska-Fortuna, D.; Sechman, A.; Bobek, S.; Sowa, J.

    1994-01-01

    It has been established that 3.3',5-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) acts hipermetabolically, whereas 3'3.5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T 3 , rT 3 ) acts hypometabolically. The normal ratio of T 3 to rT 3 in domestic flows fluctuates around 10. Since the excess of T 3 may promote catabolic processes and lower weight gain, the aim of this experiment was to find the optimal ratio of T 3 :rT 3 in blood plasma which corresponds with the greatest weight gain in Japanese quail. Reverse T 3 was given in drinking water (1 μg rT 3 /ml) for 3, 10, 20 or 30 days. It has been found that T 3 /rT 3 ratio of about 5, after 20 days of rT 3 administration, stimulated the weight gain of Japanese quail of both sexes from 7 to 44% with more pronounced effect in female birds. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

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    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  14. Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Cheng; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Liu, I-Min

    2012-11-23

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair.

  15. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

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    Jose Daniel Abacar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG, brown rice yield (BRY, milled rice yield (MRY, degree of milling (DM, amylose content (AC, protein content (PC, and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from 2.15 to 12.49 t/hm2 with a mean of 6.4 t/hm2 and number of grains per square meter contributed for 94.64% in grain yield variation. For quality traits, all rice mutants had short size (grain length ≤ 5.5 mm and bold shape (grain length to width ratio = 1.10–2.00. Most of rice mutants (87.5% had PCG values below 20%. All mutants had MRY values above 50%, AC values below 20%, and PC values below 10%. Percentage of chalky grains was significantly negatively correlated with MRY and positively correlated with DM. BRY and MRY were significantly negatively correlated with DM. PC was significantly and positively correlated with MRY and negatively correlated with DM, while AC had no significant correlation with these quality traits. It was concluded that there were 25 rice mutants which fulfilled the major requirements of Jiangsu standard japonica rice such as low percentage of chalky grains, low amylose content, optimal protein content, and which could be used as elite germplasms. Thus the mutants identified may lead to significant progress in improvement of rice quality.

  16. Lodging Resistance of Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa L.): Morphological and Anatomical Traits due to top-Dressing Nitrogen Application Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Wu, Xiaoran; Ding, Yanfeng; Li, Ganghua; Li, Jingyong; Weng, Fei; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-12-01

    Lodging in rice production often limits grain yield and quality by breaking or bending stems. Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates are the cause of poor lodging resistance in rice, but little is known about the effect of top-dressing N application rates on the mechanical strength of japonica rice plants, especially how the anatomical structure in culms is affected by N. In this study, field experiments on two japonica rice varieties with three top-dressing N application rates, 0 kg N ha(-1) (LN), 135 kg N ha(-1) (MN), and 270 kg N ha(-1) (HN) as urea, were conducted. Wuyunjing23, a lodging-resistant japonica rice cultivar and W3668, a lodging-susceptible japonica rice cultivar were used. The lodging index, breaking strength, morphological and anatomical traits in culms were measured in this study. The visual lodging rate in japonica rice differed remarkably between genotypes and top-dressing N treatments. The higher lodging index of rice plants was primarily attributed to the weak breaking strength of the lower internodes. The longer elongated basal internodes were responsible for higher plant height and a higher lodging index. Correlation analysis showed that breaking strength was significantly and positively correlated with the thickness of the mechanical tissue but was significantly and negatively correlated with the inner diameter of the major axis (b2). With increasing top-dressing N rates, the sclerenchyma cells of the mechanical tissues and the vascular bundles of the Wuyunjing23 cultivar varied little. The plant height, inner diameter of the minor axis (a2) and b2 increased significantly, but the area of the large vascular bundle (ALVB) and the area of the small vascular bundle (ASVB) decreased significantly and resulted in lower stem strength and a higher lodging index under higher top-dressing N conditions. The culm diameter of the W3668 cultivar increased slightly with no significant difference, and the sclerenchyma cells in the mechanical

  17. Distribution and excretion of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to egg and bone in laying female and estrogenized male Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Sakuta, M; Okamoto, K; Urakawa, N

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to the egg were investigated in laying Japanese quail. Furthermore, the influence of estrogens on the tissue uptake of /sup 115m/cadmium was analyzed in adult male quail. Whole-body sections of a laying quail were prepared. Autoradiograms were made in birds killed 1, 24, 48, 96, 192 and 384 hours after a single injection of /sup 115m/cadmium chloride. During the first 48 hours following the injection, high concentrations of /sup 115m/cadmium were detected in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, proventriculus, uterus and small intestine. In eggs laid, /sup 115m/cadmium was detected only in the yolk. Its amount in the yolk was the highest in the second egg and decreased afterwards in the increasing order of oviposition sequence. The amount of the second egg was 0.21 percent of the given. In the male quail after estrogenization, the concentration of /sup 115m/cadmium increased in the femur and decreased in the liver, whole blood, and blood corpuscle, but was not affected at all in the kidney or blood plasma. These effects were dependent on the dose of estradiol benzoate. The cumulative contents of /sup 115m/cadmium in feces and urine for 192 hours were 28.42 +/- 0.73 (mean +/- standard error) percent of the dose given in laying quail, 25.83 +/- 0.91 percent in untreated males, and 27.81 +/- 0.63 percent in estrogenized males. It appeared that the increased uptake of cadmium in the femur by the estrogenization was roughly parallel with the formation of intramedullary bone. 22 references, 8 figures.

  18. Comparison of the uptake and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate in Indica and Japonica rice plants using the tracer 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta, T.C.; Ohira, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of 15 N-labeled ammonium and nitrate and their assimilation in 4-week-old Indica and Japonica rice plants were studied during 24 hr exposure to 2 mM solutions of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and/or Na 15 NO 3 . Although there was no clear difference in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NH 4+ , significant differences in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NO 3- by both varieties were observed. When NH 4+ or NO 3- was supplied exclusively, the Indica rice plants absorbed the latter more effectively than the Japonica. In addition, despite a preference for uptake of NH 4+ rather than NO 3- as shown by both varieties when both forms were supplied together, the relative amounts of NO 3- uptake by the Indica were higher than those of Japonica. On the other hand, the Indica rice plants reduced the absorbed 15 NO 3- more rapidly than the Japonica. The incorporation 15 NO 3- into the ethanol insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Indica rice also exceeded that of the Japonica. These results suggest that the Indica has the ability to utilize NO 3- as a nitrogen source more effectively than the Japonica rice plants. (author)

  19. Preventive effect of Dioscorea japonica on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin involving down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Izumi; Toda, Keisuke; Takeda, Yasunori; Mega, Takuto; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Kawakami, Yuki; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Kimoto, Masumi; Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Murakami, Makoto; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko

    2018-03-01

    Hyperproduced prostaglandin E 2 by cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 evokes several pathophysiological responses such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Dioscorea japonica on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin. Dioscorea japonica feeding and Dioscorea japonica extract topical application suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and inhibited tumor formation, hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analyses showed the immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in tumor keratinocytes and stronger immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells). Treatment with Dioscorea japonica decreased the immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. These results indicate that Dioscorea japonica may have inhibitory effects on inflammation and carcinogenesis via suppression of the prostaglandin E 2 synthetic pathway.

  20. Effects of Swertia japonica extract and its main compound swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2011-09-01

    The Swertia japonica is used clinically as a remedy for gastrointestinal symptoms in Japan. We examined the effects of a S. japonica and swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in atropine-, dopamine-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-treated mice. All three preparations inhibited reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility induced by dopamine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, ip). Neither the powder, swertiamarin, nor itopride had any effect on the reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility caused by 5-HT (4 mg/kg, ip). These findings suggest that the powder and swertiamarin stimulate gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility by inhibiting the dopamine D(2) receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.