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Sample records for quadrupole ion trap

  1. Resonance methods in quadrupole ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole ion trap is widely used in the chemical physics community for making measurements on dynamical systems, both intramolecular (e.g. ion fragmentation reactions) and intermolecular (e.g. ion/molecule reactions). In this review, we discuss linear and nonlinear resonances in quadrupole ion traps, an understanding of which is critical for operation of these devices and interpretation of the data which they provide. The effect of quadrupole field nonlinearity is addressed, with important implications for promoting fragmentation and achieving unique methods of mass scanning. Methods that depend on ion resonances (i.e. matching an external perturbation with an ion's induced frequency of motion) are discussed, including ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection.

  2. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  3. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  4. Confining rigid balls by mimicking quadrupole ion trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Wenkai; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    The rotating saddle not only is an interesting system that is able to trap a ball near its saddle point, but can also intuitively illustrate the operating principles of quadrupole ion traps in modern physics. Unlike the conventional models based on the mass-point approximation, we study the stability of a ball in a rotating-saddle trap using rigid-body dynamics. The stabilization condition of the system is theoretically derived and subsequently verified by experiments. The results are compared with the previous mass-point model, giving large discrepancy as the curvature of the ball is comparable to that of the saddle. We also point out that the spin angular velocity of the ball is analogous to the cyclotron frequency of ions in an external magnetic field utilized in many prevailing ion-trapping schemes.

  5. Trapping, retention and laser cooling of Th3+ ions in a multisection linear quadrupole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Vasil'ev, O. S.; Derevyashkin, S. P.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Lebedinskii, Yu. Yu.; Poteshin, S. S.; Sysoev, A. A.; Tkalya, E. V.; Tregubov, D. O.; Troyan, V. I.; Khabarova, K. Yu.; Yudin, V. I.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    A multisection linear quadrupole trap for Th3+ ions is described. Multiply charged ions are obtained by the laser ablation method. The possibility of trapping and retention of ˜103 ions is demonstrated in macroscopic time scales of ˜30 s. Specific features of cooling Th3+ ions on the electron transitions with wavelengths of 1088, 690 and 984 nm in Th3+ ion are discussed; a principal scheme of a setup for laser cooling is presented.

  6. Correlation between y-type ions observed in ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Carly A; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide.

  7. Direct trace analysis of metals and alloys in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Song, K S; Yang, M; Cha, H K; Lee, J M; Lee, G H

    1999-01-01

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer adopting a quadrupole ion-trap and laser ablation/ionization method was constructed. The developed system was tested for composition analysis of some metals (Cu, stainless), and alloys (hastalloy C, mumetal) by mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed by using laser ablation from a sample probe tip followed by a mass analysis with the quadrupole ion-trap. The quadrupole ion-trap was modified to enable laser ablation by a XeCl excimer laser pulse that passed radially through the ring electrode. A mass scan of the produced ions was performed in the mass selective instability mode wherein trapped ions were successively detected by increasing the rf voltage through the ring electrode. Factors affecting the mass resolution, such as pressure of buffer gas and ablation laser power, are discussed.

  8. A quadrupole ion trap as low-energy cluster ion beam source

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, N; Kanayama, T

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic energy distribution of ion beams was measured by a retarding field energy analyzer for a mass-selective cluster ion beam deposition system that uses a quadrupole ion trap as a cluster ion beam source. The results indicated that the system delivers a cluster-ion beam with energy distribution of approx 2 eV, which corresponded well to the calculation results of the trapping potentials in the ion trap. Using this deposition system, mass-selected hydrogenated Si cluster ions Si sub n H sub x sup + were actually deposited on Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces at impact kinetic energy E sub d of 3-30 eV. Observation by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) demonstrated that Si sub 6 H sub x sup + cluster ions landed on the surface without decomposition at E sub d =3 eV, while the deposition was destructive at E sub d>=18 eV. (author)

  9. Ion sponge: a 3-dimentional array of quadrupole ion traps for trapping and mass-selectively processing ions in gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Linfan; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the concept of ion sponge has been explored for developing 3D arrays of large numbers of ion traps but with simple configurations. An ion sponge device with 484 trapping units in a volume of 10 × 10 × 3.2 cm has been constructed by simply stacking 9 meshes together. A single rf was used for trapping ions and mass-selective ion processing. The ion sponge provides a large trapping capacity and is highly transparent for transfer of ions, neutrals, and photons for gas phase ion processing. Multiple layers of quadrupole ion traps, with 121 trapping units in each layer, can operate as a single device for MS or MS/MS analysis, or as a series of mass-selective trapping devices with interlayer ion transfers facilitated by AC and DC voltages. Automatic sorting of ions to different trapping layers based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios was achieved with traps of different sizes. Tandem-in-space MS/MS has also been demonstrated with precursor ions and fragment ions trapped in separate locations.

  10. Infrared ion spectroscopy in a modified quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer at the FELIX free electron laser laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jonathan; Berden, Giel; Gebhardt, Christoph R.; Oomens, Jos

    2016-10-01

    We report on modifications made to a Paul-type quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and discuss its application in infrared ion spectroscopy experiments. Main modifications involve optical access to the trapped ions and hardware and software coupling to a variety of infrared laser sources at the FELIX infrared free electron laser laboratory. In comparison to previously described infrared ion spectroscopy experiments at the FELIX laboratory, we find significant improvements in efficiency and sensitivity. Effects of the trapping conditions of the ions on the IR multiple photon dissociation spectra are explored. Enhanced photo-dissociation is found at lower pressures in the ion trap. Spectra obtained under reduced pressure conditions are found to more closely mimic those obtained in the high-vacuum conditions of an Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. A gas-mixing system is described enabling the controlled addition of a secondary gas into helium buffer gas flowing into the trap and allows for ion/molecule reactions in the trap. The electron transfer dissociation (ETD) option of the mass spectrometer allows for IR structure characterization of ETD-generated peptide dissociation products.

  11. Linear mass scans in quadrupole ion traps using the inverse Mathieu q scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T; Pulliam, Christopher J; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-11-30

    Secular frequency scanning is a method of mass selectively scanning ions out of a quadrupole ion trap by linearly ramping the frequency of the resonance ejection signal through ion secular frequencies at constant rf amplitude and frequency. The method is electronically much simpler than resonance ejection but it requires a complex nonlinear calibration procedure to correlate mass-to-charge with time. A method of secular frequency scanning in quadrupole ion traps is described in which mass-to-charge is linear with time. This method, termed an "inverse Mathieu q scan", contrasts with linear frequency sweeping which requires a complex nonlinear mass calibration procedure. In the current method, mass scans are forced to be linear with time by scanning the frequency of the supplementary ac so that there is an inverse relationship between the ejected ion's Mathieu q parameter and time. In all cases, excellent mass spectral linearity is observed. The rf amplitude is shown to control both the scan range and the scan rate, whereas the ac amplitude and scan rate influence the mass resolution. The scan rate depends linearly on the rf amplitude, a unique feature of this scan. Although changes in either rf or ac amplitude affect the positions of peaks in time, they do not change the mass calibration procedure since this only requires a simple linear fit of m/z vs time. Space charge effects are shown to give rise to significant changes in resolution as well as to mass shifts. A method of secular frequency scanning which provides a linear mass scale has been demonstrated. The inverse Mathieu q scan offers a significant increase in mass range and power savings while maintaining access to linearity, paving the way for a mass spectrometer based completely on ac waveforms for ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparison of quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.; DeVita, W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often analyzed using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD) because of the sensitivity of this detection technique toward this class of compounds. However, use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can provide additional selectivity, thus minimizing the likelihood of false positive results from interfering compounds. GC/MS provides a higher degree of confidence in the identification of the chromatographic peaks, but is often limited, in comparison to GC/ECL, by its sensitivity. The two most common mass analyzers used are quadrupole and ion trap detectors. In this study the authors propose to document the capabilities of both quadrupole and ion trap analyzer for analysis of PCBs. They will compare and contrast the sensitivities and linear ranges for these compounds. Sensitivities will be assessed by signal-to-noise ratio comparisons. Linearity of the calibrated range will also be investigated through evaluation of the relative response factors versus concentration of PCB for a fixed concentration of internal standard. Estimations will be made of the appropriate linear ranges on the two instruments and comparisons made in both the full scan and selected ion modes.

  13. Laser-induced acoustic desorption coupled with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Steven C; Amundson, Lucas M; Duan, Penggao; Vinueza, Nelson R; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2010-01-15

    In recent years, laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been demonstrated to provide a valuable technique for the analysis of a wide variety of nonvolatile, thermally labile compounds, including analytes that could not previously be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Although FT-ICR instruments are very powerful, they are also large and expensive and, hence, mainly used as research instruments. In contrast, linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers are common due to several qualities that make these instruments attractive for both academic and industrial settings, such as high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and experimental versatility. Further, the relatively small size of the instruments, comparatively low cost, and the lack of a magnetic field provide some distinct advantages over FT-ICR instruments. Hence, we have coupled the LIAD technique with a commercial LQIT, the Thermo Fischer Scientific LTQ mass spectrometer. The LQIT was modified for a LIAD probe by outfitting the removable back plate of the instrument with a 6 in. ConFlat flange (CFF) port, gate valve, and sample lock. Reagent ions were created using the LQIT's atmospheric pressure ionization source and trapped in the mass analyzer for up to 10 s to allow chemical ionization reactions with the neutral molecules desorbed via LIAD. These initial experiments focused on demonstrating the feasibility of performing LIAD in the LQIT. Hence, the results are compared to those obtained using an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Despite the lower efficiency in the transfer of desorbed neutral molecules into the ion trap, and the smaller maximum number of available laser pulses, the intrinsically higher sensitivity of the LQIT resulted in a higher sensitivity relative to the FT-ICR.

  14. A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap for the cooling and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Dilling, J; Henry, S; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Lamour, E; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Szerypo, J

    2002-01-01

    A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide and beam buncher has been installed at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometry experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The apparatus is being used as a beam cooling, accumulation, and bunching system. It operates with a buffer gas that cools the injected ions and converts the quasicontinuous 60- keV beam from the ISOLDE facility to 2.5-keV beam pulses with improved normalized transverse emittance. Recent measurements suggest a capture efficiency of the ion guide of up to 40% and a cooling and bunching efficiency of at least 12% which is expected to still be increased. The improved ISOLTRAP setup has so far been used very successfully in three on-line experiments. (12 refs).

  15. Positive ion chemistry in the exhaust plumes of an air craft jet engine and a burner: investigations with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.

    2000-07-01

    Using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer detailed composition analyses were made of positive ions in the exhaust of an aircraft jet engine and of a jet fuel burner. For both scenarios complex organic ions with large mass numbers were most abundant. By employing the MS{sup 2}-mode of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, mass selected trapped ions were intendently broken up and characteristic fragment ions were observed. The latter indicate that the parent ions contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen which is indicative of oxygenated hydrocarbons. This contrasts recent composition measurements of negative ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust made by our group which revealed that negative ions contain the inorganic acid H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Our present measurements support the view that positive ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust contain preferably organic molecules. (author)

  16. Degradation study of enniatins by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A B; Meca, G; Font, G; Ferrer, E

    2013-12-15

    Enniatins A, A1, B and B1 (ENs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and are normal contaminants of cereals and derivate products. In this study, the stability of ENs was evaluated during food processing by simulation of pasta cooking. Thermal treatments at different incubation times (5, 10 and 15 min) and different pH (4, 7 and 10) were applied in an aqueous system and pasta resembling system (PRS). The concentrations of the targeted mycotoxins were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. High percentages of ENs reduction (81-100%) were evidenced in the PRS after the treatments at 5, 10 and 15 min of incubation. In contrast to the PRS, an important reduction of the ENs was obtained in the aqueous system after 15 min of incubation (82-100%). In general, no significant differences were observed between acid, neutral and basic solutions. Finally, several ENs degradation products were identified using the technique of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

  17. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dearth, M.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Environmental Research Consortium

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  18. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  19. Correlation between y-Type Ions Observed in Ion Trap and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion tr...

  20. Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of H2, He, O2, and Ar by Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Harrison, W. W.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for quantitative analysis of hydrogen and helium as well as other permanent gases is demonstrated. The customized instrument utilizes the mass selective instability mode of mass analysis as with commercial instruments; however, this instrument operates at a greater RF trapping frequency and without a buffer gas. With these differences, a useable mass range from 2 to over 50 Da is achieved, as required by NASA for monitoring the Space Shuttle during a launch countdown. The performance of the ion trap is evaluated using part-per-million concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon mixed into a nitrogen gas stream. Relative accuracy and precision when quantitating the four analytes were better than the NASA-required minimum of 10% error and 5% deviation, respectively. Limits of detection were below the NASA requirement of 25-ppm hydrogen and 100-ppm helium; those for oxygen and argon were slightly higher than the requirement. The instrument provided adequate performance at fast data recording rates, demonstrating the utility of an ion trap mass spectrometer as a real-time quantitative monitoring device for permanent gas analysis.

  1. High-cooling-efficiency cryogenic quadrupole ion trap and UV-UV hole burning spectroscopy of protonated tyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Wako, Hiromichi; Kato, Daichi; Fujii, Masaaki

    2017-02-01

    The cooling efficiency of a cryogenic three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is drastically improved by using copper electrodes instead of conventional stainless-steel ones. The temperature of trapped ions (protonated tyrosine TyrH+) was estimated based on the ultraviolet (UV) photo-dissociation spectra. The UV spectrum of TryH+ shows almost no hot bands, and thus the high cooling efficiency of the copper ion trap was proven. The temperature was also estimated by simulating the observed band contour in the UV spectra, which is determined by the population in the rotationally excited levels. From the simulations, the temperature of TryH+ was estimated to be ∼13 K, while that in the stainless-steel QIT was 45-50 K. In addition, to demonstrate the advantage of the copper QIT, UV-UV hole burning (HB) spectra, i.e. conformation-selected UV spectra, were measured. It was confirmed that four different conformers, A∼D, coexist in the ultra-cold protonated tyrosine. By comparing with the calculated Franck-Condon spectra, their structural assignments were discussed, including the orientation of the OH group.

  2. Sequencing and characterization of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation and boronic acid derivatization in a quadrupole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Michael; Hargrove, Amanda; Shabbir, Shagufta H; Anslyn, Eric V; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    A simplified method for determining the sequence and branching of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is described. An IR-active boronic acid (IRABA) reagent is used to derivatize the oligosaccharides before IRMPD analysis. The IRABA ligand is designed to both enhance the efficiency of the derivatization reaction and to facilitate the photon absorption process. The resulting IRMPD spectra display oligosaccharide fragments that are formed from primarily one type of diagnostic cleavage, thus making sequencing straightforward. The presence of sequential fragment ions, a phenomenon of IRMPD, permit the comprehensive sequencing of the oligosaccharides studied in a single stage of activation. We demonstrate this approach for two series of oligosaccharides, the lacto-N-fucopentaoses (LNFPs) and the lacto-N-difucohexaoses (LNDFHs).

  3. Comprehensive lipidome analysis by shotgun lipidomics on a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena

    2015-01-01

    , including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap...... of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MS(ALL), featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS(2) analysis using both HCD...... and CID and ITMS(3) analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MS(ALL) method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome...

  4. Identification of phosphorylation sites of proteins by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorylation sites of two phosphorylated proteins, bovine b-casein and myelin basic protein (MBP), were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QITMS). The tryptic digest of each protein was separated by HPLC, the molecular weight of each peptide was determined by ESI-QITMS on line, and MS/MS spectrum of each peptide was simultaneously obtained by the combination of collision-induced desorption (CID) technique and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of QITMS. The phosphorylated peptide was identified by looking into whether the difference between the observed and predicted molecular weights of a peptide is 80 u or its integral multiple. Then the phosphorylation site was identified through manual interpretation of the MS/MS spectrum of the phosphorylated peptide or automatic SEQUEST data base-searching.

  5. Identification of phosphorylation sites of proteins by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车发云; 邵晓霞; 夏其昌

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorylation sites of two phosphorylated proteins, bovine β-casein and myelin basic protein (MBP), were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QITMS). The tryptic digest of each protein was separated by HPLC, the molecular weight of each peptide was determined by ESI-QITMS on line, and MS/MS spectrum of each peptide was simultaneously obtained by the combination of collision-induced desorption (CID) technique and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of QITMS. The phosphorylated peptide was identified by looking into whether the difference between the observed and predicted molecular weights of a peptide is 80 u or its integral multiple. Then the phosphorylation site was identified through manual interpretation of the MS/MS spectrum of the phosphorylated peptide or automatic SEQUEST data base-searching.

  6. Analysis of lightweight gases by quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry for the safety of the American Space Shuttle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottens, Andrew Keith

    The quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) was patented nearly 50 years ago, when it was proposed for trace analysis of lightweight gas mixtures. Though a commercial success, QITMS has been used with analytes of ever-increasing size. We evaluated QITMS for quantifying lightweight gas mixtures with the performance compared to other mass analyzer technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses mass spectrometers to monitor the amount of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in the nitrogen-purged Space Shuttle. The explosive hazard of the cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen used to propel the Space Shuttle makes leak detection imperative. The two present-day leak detectors are remotely located because of their large size and sensitivity to vibration. Analysis is delayed by up to 45 s, and only two samples can be monitored simultaneously. In 2000, NASA initiated the Advanced Hazardous Gas Detection project to develop a compact, rugged, and fast mass spectrometer to be placed in multiple locations next to the Space Shuttle to provide real-time analysis with increased redundancy. The QITMS instrumentation was modified specifically for this application. The RF drive frequency was increased to 2.5 MHz to adequately trap lightweight hydrogen and helium ions. Internal ionization was preferred for use without a collision gas, along with an open source configuration that provided rapid sample replacement. The modern electronics incorporated were controlled by customized software. Analytes were found to react rapidly with abundant background gases. The QITMS operating conditions were optimized to minimize negative effects of ion-molecule reactions while maximizing analytical performance. A custom segmented scan function was developed with a total scan time of 14 ms, averaging 70 scans per data point at the required 1 Hz update rate. The QITMS met requirements for detection limits, accuracy, precision, response time, and recovery time. The linear

  7. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockett, Mark H.; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Svendsen, Annette; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2016-05-01

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g., 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.

  8. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.

  9. A Generic Multiple Reaction Monitoring Based Approach for Plant Flavonoids Profiling Using a Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Yan, Ru

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites serving a variety of functions in plants and associating with a number of health benefits for humans. Typically, they are co-identified with many other secondary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. The limited data quality of untargeted workflow calls for a shift from the breadth-first to the depth-first screening strategy when a specific biosynthetic pathway is focused on. Here we introduce a generic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approach for flavonoids profiling in plants using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer. The approach includes four steps: (1) preliminary profiling of major aglycones by multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI); (2) glycones profiling by precursor ion triggered EPI scan (PI-EPI) of major aglycones; (3) comprehensive aglycones profiling by combining MIM-EPI and neutral loss triggered EPI scan (NL-EPI) of major glycone; (4) in-depth flavonoids profiling by MRM-EPI with elaborated MRM transitions. Particularly, incorporation of the NH3 loss and sugar elimination proved to be very informative and confirmative for flavonoids screening. This approach was applied for profiling flavonoids in Astragali radix ( Huangqi), a famous herb widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in China. In total, 421 flavonoids were tentatively characterized, among which less than 40 have been previously reported in this medicinal plant. This MRM-based approach provides versatility and sensitivity that required for flavonoids profiling in plants and serves as a useful tool for plant metabolomics.

  10. Comprehensive lipidome analysis by shotgun lipidomics on a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MS(ALL), featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS(2) analysis using both HCD and CID and ITMS(3) analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MS(ALL) method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome quantification covering 311 lipid species encompassing 20 lipid classes, and identification of 202 distinct molecular glycerophospholipid species when applying a novel high confidence filtering strategy. The work presented here validates the performance of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for in-depth lipidome analysis.

  11. Investigation of the gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of aromatic dicarboxylic acids in a quadrupole ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuk, Joseph E.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2007-11-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions of four deprotonated aromatic dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid) with D2O were performed in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Experimental results showed significant differences in the rate and extent of exchange when the relative position of the carboxylic acid groups varied. Spontaneous and near complete exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom occurred when the carboxylic acid groups were in the meta-position, whereas no additional exchange was observed for either the ortho- or para-isomers or for the structurally similar naphthalic acid. Computational investigations support the participation of several possible exchange mechanisms with the contribution of each relying heavily on the relative orientation of the acid moieties. A relay mechanism that bridges the deprotonation site and the labile hydrogen site appears to be responsible for the H/D exchange of not only the labile hydrogen atom of isophthalic acid, but also for the formation of a stable carbanion and corresponding subsequent exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom. The impact of hydrogen bonding on the relay mechanism is demonstrated by the reaction of phthalic acid as the extent and rate of reaction are greatly retarded by the favorable interaction of the two carboxylic acid groups. Finally, a flip-flop mechanism is likely responsible for the exchange of both terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid where the reactive sites are too remote for exchange via relay.

  12. Metabolite Profile of Salidroside in Rats by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Xuejiao; Zheng, Jian; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2015-10-21

    In the present work, the salidroside metabolite profile in rat urine was investigated, and subsequently the metabolic pathways of salidroside were proposed. After administrations of salidroside at an oral dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg, rat urine samples were collected and pretreated with methanol to precipitate the proteins. The pretreated samples were analyzed by an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with an HSS T3 column and detected by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-trap-MS). A total of eight metabolites were detected and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their protonated ions in the urine samples. The results elucidated that salidroside was metabolized via glucuronidation, sulfation, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, methylation, and dehydroxylation pathways in vivo.

  13. Fragmentation pathways of synthetic and naturally occurring coumarin derivatives by ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xianrui; Han, Xiaomei

    2015-09-15

    Synthetic and natural coumarin derivatives possess a wide range of biological activities. Fragmentation pathway studies are important in identifying both naturally occurring coumarins and synthetic coumarins with novel structures and properties. The fragmentation pathways of eleven coumarin derivatives are investigated by electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n) ) and ESI quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) in positive mode. Compounds 1-9 in this study were newly synthesized in our laboratory. Compounds 10 and 11 were isolated from the root of Zanthoxylum armatum. The major fragmentation pathways for 11 coumarin derivatives are greatly affected by the heterocyclic ring structures and the side-chain substituents. Typical losses of small neutral molecules, such as CH3 CH2 OH, CH2 =CH2 , CO, and H2 O, are observed for compounds 1-5. Compounds 6-9 share similar fragmentation pathways through losses of CO, aromatic rings, and the coumarin skeleton. The main product ions at m/z 205, 219, and 220 observed for compounds 10 and 11 are produced by the loss of C5 H12 O2 , C4 H10 O2 , and the C4 H9 O2 radical, respectively. The fragmentation pathways of 11 coumarin derivatives are elucidated based on ITMS(n) and QTOFMS spectral data. Differences in the structures of the heterocyclic rings and side-chain substituents strongly affect the fragmentation pathways of the coumarins. The present results will facilitate further research into the fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of these classes of compounds with diverse structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  15. Multistage Fragmentation of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry System and Pseudo-MS3 of Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Characterize Certain (E)-3-(Dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S. Abdelhameed; Adnan A. Kadi; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Angawi, Rihab F.; Mohamed W. Attwa; Al-Rashood, Khalid A.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS3 of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion tr...

  16. Negative chemiions formed in jet fuel combustion: new insights from jet engine and laboratory measurements using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclaear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements were made of mass numbers and composition of negative chemiions produced in jet fuel combustion in the exhaust of a jet engine and of a burner in the laboratory. The measurements made by a novel quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus revealed the presence of three major ion families: ions containing an HSO{sub 4}{sup -} ''core's' or an NO{sub 3}{sup -} ''core's' and {sup O}HC-ions{sup .} The latter which contain C and H atoms and in part also 0 atoms can be divided into two subfamilies with even and odd mass numbers. It is proposed that the O HC ions are formed by free-electron attachment to HC and OHC molecules and/or ion-molecule reactions of primary negative chemiions with HC and OHC molecules. It is also proposed that HSO{sub 4}{sup -}- and NO{sub 3}{sup -}- containing ions are formed by ion-molecule reactions involving OHC ions and the sulfur- and reactive nitrogen-containing molecules H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, SO{sub 3} and NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}. (author)

  17. Multistage fragmentation of ion trap mass spectrometry system and pseudo-MS3 of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry characterize certain (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali S; Kadi, Adnan A; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Angawi, Rihab F; Attwa, Mohamed W; Al-Rashood, Khalid A

    2014-01-01

    A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS(3) of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS(3) technique via its comparison with the MS(3) mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a-j) were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS(3) may simulate the MS(3) of ion trap spectrometry system.

  18. Multistage Fragmentation of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry System and Pseudo-MS3 of Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Characterize Certain (E-3-(Dimethylamino-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Abdelhameed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS3 of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS3 technique via its comparison with the MS3 mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E-3-(dimethylamino-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a–j were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS3 may simulate the MS3 of ion trap spectrometry system.

  19. Comprehensive profiling of N-acylhomoserine lactones produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis using liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortori, Catharine A; Atkinson, Steve; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Barrett, David A

    2007-01-01

    A method for the comprehensive profiling of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) family of bacterial quorum-sensing molecules is presented using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap (QqQLIT) mass spectrometry. Information-dependent acquisition (IDA), using triggered combinations of triple-quadrupole and linear ion trap modes in the same LC-MS/MS run, was used to simultaneously screen, quantify and identify multiple AHLs in a single sample. This MS method uses common AHL fragment ions attributed to the homoserine moiety and the 3-oxo-, 3-hydroxy- or unsubstituted acyl side chains, to identify unknown AHLs in cell-free culture supernatants in an unbiased manner. This LC-MS technique was applied to determine the relative molar ratios of AHLs produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the consequences of inactivating by mutation either or both of the AHL synthase genes (ypsI and ytbI) on AHL profile and concentration. The Y. pseudotuberculosis wild type but not the ypsI ytbI double mutant produced at least 24 different AHLs with acyl chains ranging from C4 to C15 with or without 3-oxo or 3-hydroxy substituents. YtbI, in contrast to YpsI, could direct the synthesis of all of the AHLs identified. The most abundant and hence most biologically relevant Y. pseudotuberculosis AHLs were found to be the 3-oxo-substituted C6, C7 and C8 AHLs and the unsubstituted C6 and C8 compounds. The LC-QqQLIT methodology is broadly applicable to quorum-sensing signal molecule analysis and can provide comprehensive AHL profiles and concentrations from a single sample and simultaneously collect confirmatory spectra for each AHL identified.

  20. Wide-scope screening and quantification of 50 pesticides in wine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a wide scope screening method of pesticides in wine was established using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). Information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiments are used to obtain both MS and MS/MS information for LC-QTOF MS analysis. For LC-QqLIT MS analysis, MS/MS spectra of target pesticides were simultaneously acquired using Enhanced Product Ion (EPI) mode at very low concentrations to increase the confidence in analytical results of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by library searching. Method validation was carried out using 50 pesticides commonly used in vineyards. The LOQs, linearity, repeatability were determined and good enough for quantification. The screening and quantification results obtained using LC-QTOF MS and LC-QqLIT MS were compared. Contaminants were screened against libraries containing over 2800 compounds based on accurate mass, isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra searching to extend the scope of this methodology to non-target screening.

  1. Rapid quantification of four major bioactive alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by pressurised liquid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Jiang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Xiujin; Zhu, Zhenou; Lei, Xinxiang

    2011-05-30

    A new method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTrap-MS) analysis has been developed for the identification and quantification of four major alkaloids in extracts of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. PLE extractions were performed using 90% ethanol; temperature was set at 100°C and pressure at 1500 psi. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge™ C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 3.5 μm) eluted by a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions (MRMs) mode, monitoring two MRM transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus (EPI) of the linear ion trap. The novel LC-QTrap-MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and fulfils the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  2. Comparison of triple quadrupole, hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole, time-of-flight and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometers in drug discovery phase metabolite screening and identification in vitro--amitriptyline and verapamil as model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousu, Timo; Herttuainen, Jukka; Tolonen, Ari

    2010-04-15

    Liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is a superior analytical technique for metabolite profiling and identification studies performed in drug discovery and development laboratories. In the early phase of drug discovery the analytical approach should be both time- and cost-effective, thus providing as much data as possible with only one visit to the laboratory, without the need for further experiments. Recent developments in mass spectrometers have created a situation where many different mass spectrometers are available for the task, each with their specific strengths and drawbacks. We compared the metabolite screening properties of four main types of mass spectrometers used in analytical laboratories, considering both the ability to detect the metabolites and provide structural information, as well as the issues related to time consumption in laboratory and thereafter in data processing. Human liver microsomal incubations with amitriptyline and verapamil were used as test samples, and early-phase 'one lab visit only' approaches were used with all instruments. In total, 28 amitriptyline and 69 verapamil metabolites were found and tentatively identified. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was the only approach detecting all of them, shown to be the most suitable instrument for elucidating as comprehensive metabolite profile as possible leading also to lowest overall time consumption together with the LTQ-Orbitrap approach. The latter however suffered from lower detection sensitivity and false negatives, and due to slow data acquisition rate required slower chromatography. Approaches with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ) and hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Q-Trap) provided the highest amount of fragment ion data for structural elucidation, but, in addition to being unable to produce very high-important accurate mass data, they suffered from many false negatives, and especially with the Qq

  3. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  4. MS/MS studies for the selective detection of isomeric biogenic VOCs using a Townsend Discharge Triple Quadrupole Tandem MS and a PTR-Linear Ion Trap MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed MS/MS investigations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS equipped with a Townsend Discharge ion source and a Proton Transfer Reaction Linear Ion Trap (PTR-LIT mass spectrometer. Both instruments use H2O chemical ionization to produce protonated molecular ions. Here we report a study of the application of these instruments to determine methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR and a series of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, myrcene, ocimene and sesquiterpenes (humulene and farnesene. Both instruments achieved sub-ppb detection limits in the single MS mode and in the MS/MS mode for differentiating MVK and MACR. Collision induced dissociation (CID of protonated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was studied under the high-energy, single-to-few collision conditions of the QqQ-MS instrument and under the low-energy, multiple collision conditions of the PTR-LIT. Differences and similarities in the breakdown curves obtained are discussed. In addition, we performed MS4 of protonated limonene to illustrate the analytical power of the PTR-LIT. In spite of the progress we have made, the selective on-line mass-spectrometric detection of individual monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes in complex mixtures currently does not yet seem to be possible.

  5. Quantification of intermediate-abundance proteins in serum by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a single-quadrupole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shanhua; Shaler, Thomas A; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-08-15

    A method is presented to quantify intermediate-abundance proteins in human serum using a single-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer-in contrast, for example, to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Stable-isotope-labeled (tryptic) peptides are spiked into digested protein samples as internal standards, aligned with the traditional isotope dilution approach. As a proof-of-concept experiment, four proteins of intermediate abundance were selected, coagulation factor V, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and thyroxine binding globulin. Stable-isotope-labeled peptides were synthesized with one tryptic sequence from each of these proteins. The normal human serum concentration ranges of these proteins are from 1 to 30 microg/mL (or 20 to 650 pmol/mL). These labeled peptides and their endogenous counterparts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring, a multiplexed form of the selected reaction monitoring technique. For these experiments, only one chromatographic dimension (on-line reversed-phase capillary column) was used. Improved limits of detection will result with multidimensional chromatographic methods utilizing more material per sample. Standard curves of the spiked calibrants were generated with concentrations ranging from 3 to 700 pmol/mL using both neat solutions and peptides spiked into the complex matrix of digested serum protein solution where ion suppression effects and interferences are common. Endogenous protein concentrations were determined by comparing MS/MS peak areas of the endogenous peptides to the isotopically labeled internal calibrants. The derived concentrations from a normal human serum pool (neglecting loss of material during sample processing) were 9.2, 110, 120, and 246 pmol/mL for coagulation factor V, adiponectin, CRP, and thyroxine binding globulin, respectively. These concentrations generally agree with the reported normal ranges for these proteins. As a measure of analytical reproducibility of this

  6. Differential fragmentation patterns of pectin oligogalacturonides observed by nanoelectrospray quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry using automated spectra interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutenda, Kudzai E; Matthiesen, Rune; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    ' (VEMS) for structural annotation. In the analyzed oligogalacturonides of lower DP, the generation of C/Y ions, i.e. ions retaining the glycosidic oxygen, was higher than that of B/Z ions. In general, with oligogalacturonides of higher DP, the B/Z ions were generated more abundantly. Oligogalacturonides...

  7. A validated hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap LC-MS method for the analysis of morphine and morphine glucuronides applied to opiate deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon

    2009-05-30

    A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration.

  8. Simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin in fresh pufferfish and pufferfish-based products using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tao; Tan, Zhijun; Zhao, Chunxia; Zheng, Guanchao; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we established a comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). TTX was extracted by 1% acetic acid-methanol, and most of the lipids were then removed by freezing lipid precipitation, followed by purification and concentration using immunoaffinity columns (IACs). Matrix effects were substantially reduced due to the high specificity of the IACs, and thus, background interference was avoided. Quantitation analysis was therefore performed using an external calibration curve with standards prepared in mobile phase. The method was evaluated by fortifying samples at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 75.8%-107%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. The TTX calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1 000 μg/L, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/g and a quantification limit of 1 ng/g. Using this method, samples can be further analyzed using an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment, in the positive mode, from a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injection, which can provide an extra level of confirmation by matching the full product ion spectra acquired for a standard sample with those from an enhanced product ion (EPI) library. The scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method enabled TTX to be screened for, and TTX was positively identified using the IDA and EPI spectra. This method was successfully applied to analyze a total of 206 samples of fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products. The results from this study show that the proposed method can be used to quantify and identify TTX in a single run with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for the analysis of complex matrix pufferfish samples.

  9. Simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin in fresh pufferfish and pufferfish-based products using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tao; Tan, Zhijun; Zhao, Chunxia; Zheng, Guanchao; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we established a comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). TTX was extracted by 1% acetic acid-methanol, and most of the lipids were then removed by freezing lipid precipitation, followed by purification and concentration using immunoaffinity columns (IACs). Matrix effects were substantially reduced due to the high specificity of the IACs, and thus, background interference was avoided. Quantitation analysis was therefore performed using an external calibration curve with standards prepared in mobile phase. The method was evaluated by fortifying samples at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 75.8%-107%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. The TTX calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1 000 μg/L, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/g and a quantification limit of 1 ng/g. Using this method, samples can be further analyzed using an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment, in the positive mode, from a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injection, which can provide an extra level of confirmation by matching the full product ion spectra acquired for a standard sample with those from an enhanced product ion (EPI) library. The scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method enabled TTX to be screened for, and TTX was positively identified using the IDA and EPI spectra. This method was successfully applied to analyze a total of 206 samples of fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products. The results from this study show that the proposed method can be used to quantify and identify TTX in a single run with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for the analysis of complex matrix pufferfish samples.

  10. HPLC/ESI-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry for characterization and direct quantification of amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2002-01-01

    An amphoteric (cocamidopropylbetaine, CAPB) and a nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactant were characterized by electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as to their homologue distribution and ionization/fragmentation chemistry. Quantitative methods involving reversed-phase gradient HPLC and (+)ESI-MSn were developed to directly determine these surfactants in hydroponic plant growth medium that received simulated graywater. The predominant homologues, 12 C alkyl CAPB and 9 EO AE, were monitored to represent the total amount of the respective surfactants. The methods demonstrated dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 ng (r2 > 0.996) for CAPB and 8-560 ng (r2 > 0.998) for AE homologue mixture, corresponding to minimum quantification limits of 25 ppb CAPB and 0.4 ppm AE with 20-microL injections. This translated into an even lower limit for individual components due to the polydispersive nature of the surfactants. The procedure was successfully employed for the assessment of CAPB and AE biodegradation in a hydroponic plant growth system used as a graywater bioreactor.

  11. Analysis of anthelmintics in surface water by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnčić, Mirta; Gros, Meritxell; Babić, Sandra; Kaštelan-Macan, Marija; Barcelo, Damia; Petrović, Mira

    2014-03-01

    A method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS) has been developed to investigate occurrence of 10 anthelmintic drugs from different structural groups (moxidectin, flubendazole, fenbendazole, levamisol, mebendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, triclabendazole, febantel and praziquantel) in surface water. Analytes were pre-concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) using hydrophilic-lipophilic polymeric based sorbent. Quantification of investigated analytes was done using deuterated compounds as internal standards in order to minimize matrix effect. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples at two concentration levels were above 75% for most of the analytes. The main advantages of developed method are fast separation using UHPLC and therefore short analysis time, combined with good sensitivity which is demonstrated by low ngL(-1) detection limits. The developed method was applied for analysis of anthelmintics in the Llobregat River (NE Spain) and its main tributaries (rivers Anoia and Cardener). Eight out of ten anthelmintics were detected in all analyzed samples with the concentrations in low ngL(-1) level. The method fills the gap on analytical methodologies for determination of anthelmintic drugs in the environment.

  12. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in water and human urine by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/quadrupole ion trap spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, S; Song, M; Hall, B; Brodbelt, J

    2001-05-01

    A simple method of detection was developed for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). The method involves the derivatization of GHB using a hexyl-chloroformate procedure in aqueous media (such as water or urine), extraction of the derivatization product directly from the sample using solid-phase microextraction, and subsequent separation and detection with gas chromatography quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The deuterated form of GHB (GHB-D6) is used as an internal standard for quantitation. The method was linear for GHB-spiked pure water samples from 2 to 150 microg/mL GHB with a detection limit of 0.2 microg/mL. Spiked urine samples showed linearity from 5 to 500 microg/mL GHB with a detection limit of 2 microg/mL. The SPME-GC/MS method is applied to actual case samples, and the results are compared to those values obtained using a conventional GC/MS method. Sensitivity and linearity are comparable to those seen using traditional methods of separation, yet the SPME method is superior due to the simplicity, speed of analysis, reduction in solvent waste, and ability to differentiate between GHB and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).

  14. HPLC/ESI-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry for characterization and direct quantification of amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2002-01-01

    An amphoteric (cocamidopropylbetaine, CAPB) and a nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactant were characterized by electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as to their homologue distribution and ionization/fragmentation chemistry. Quantitative methods involving reversed-phase gradient HPLC and (+)ESI-MSn were developed to directly determine these surfactants in hydroponic plant growth medium that received simulated graywater. The predominant homologues, 12 C alkyl CAPB and 9 EO AE, were monitored to represent the total amount of the respective surfactants. The methods demonstrated dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 ng (r2 > 0.996) for CAPB and 8-560 ng (r2 > 0.998) for AE homologue mixture, corresponding to minimum quantification limits of 25 ppb CAPB and 0.4 ppm AE with 20-microL injections. This translated into an even lower limit for individual components due to the polydispersive nature of the surfactants. The procedure was successfully employed for the assessment of CAPB and AE biodegradation in a hydroponic plant growth system used as a graywater bioreactor.

  15. Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange of 5'- and 3'-mononucleotides in a quadrupole ion trap: exploring the role of conformation and system energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuk, Joseph E; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2007-04-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions for deprotonated 2'-deoxy-5'-monophosphate and 2'-deoxy-3'-monophosphate nucleotides with D(2)O were performed in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. To augment these experiments, molecular modeling was also conducted to identify likely deprotonation sites and potential gas-phase conformations of the anions. A majority of the 5'-monophosphates exchanged extensively with several of the compounds completely incorporating deuterium in place of their labile hydrogen atoms. In contrast, most of the 3'-monophosphate isomers exchanged relatively few hydrogen atoms, even though the rate of the first two exchanges was greater than observed for the 5'-monophosphates. Mononucleotides that failed to incorporate more than two deuterium atoms under default reaction conditions were often found to exchange more extensively when reactions were performed under higher energy conditions. Integration of the experimental and theoretical results supports the use of a relay exchange mechanism and suggests that the exchange behavior depends highly on the identity and orientation of the nucleobase and the position and flexibility of the deprotonated phosphate moiety. These observations also highlight the importance of the distance between the various participating groups in addition to their gas-phase acidity and basicity.

  16. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

    2014-02-01

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  17. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.

  18. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric quantitation of sulfamethazine and its metabolites: direct analysis of swine urine by triple quadrupole and by ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, G; Pieraccini, G; Villanelli, F; Moneti, G; Triolo, A

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new method for the quantitation of trace amounts of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and its main metabolite, N4-acetylsulfamethazine (Ac-SMZ), in swine urine, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometric analysis of crude urine after addition of internal standard and simple dilution with water. The aim was to determine whether residues of this sulfamidic drug, normally administered to swine in order to prevent infectious diseases, were present in urine at levels lower than those permitted by regulatory authorities before human consumption (EU Project SMT, contract number CT 96-2092). A 10 microL volume of diluted urine was injected into a very short, narrow-bore chromatographic column (Zorbax SB-C18 2.1 i. d. x30 mm length, 3.5 microm pore size). Elution of the analytes of interest was achieved in less than seven minutes using a rapid gradient (from 20 to 80% methanol in 3 minutes). Either a PE Sciex API 365 triple quadrupole (QqQ), operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, or a Finnigan LCQ ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer, operated in narrow-range product ion scan, was used as the final detector. Electrospray (ESI) was used as the ionization technique. A comparison of the two tandem mass spectrometers was performed by analyzing the same set of test samples, at three concentration levels, on three different days. Linearity of responses of the calibration standards, intra- and inter-assay precision of the samples, specificity and limits of detection were evaluated for both systems. Both the QqQ and the IT instrument was suitable for rapid, sensitive and specific determination of the analytes, although the overall performance of the QqQ was slightly superior in terms of linearity, precision and sensitivity.

  19. Selenium metabolomics in yeast using complementary reversed-phase/hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) liquid chromatography-electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaudguilhem, C.; Bierla, K.; Ouerdane, L.; Preud' homme, H. [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Yiannikouris, A. [Alltech Inc., 3031 Catnip Hill Pike, Nicholasville, KY (United States); Lobinski, R., E-mail: ryszard.lobinski@univ-pau.fr [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of bimodal chromatographic separation enlarged amount of compounds identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allowed the largest scale ever (>60 compounds) speciation analysis of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimated concentration of compounds was given. - Abstract: A high efficiency chromatographic separation on a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase was developed for a large-scale separation of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast prior to their identification by electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS{sup n}). The reversed-phase (RP) separation mode offered distinctly higher separation efficiency than the hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) mode. The latter was nevertheless complementary and useful to validate the detection of several compounds. The method allowed the detection of 64 metabolites including 30 Se-Se or Se-S conjugates (3 triple S/Se/S ones) and 14 selenoethers. 21 previously unreported metabolites were detected on the basis of the selenium isotopic pattern usually matched with the sub-ppm mass accuracy. 9 of these metabolites were subsequently identified using the multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) mass spectrometry. The identified metabolites (and their groups) were quantified on-line by ICP-MS fitted with a frequency-matching generator allowing a quasi-uniform response over the large (20-90%) acetonitrile mobile phase concentration range. The morphology of HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms was remarkably similar to that of HPLC multi-ion extracted ESI-MS chromatograms. The detection limits obtained by ICP MS and ESI MS were 1 and 2 ppb, respectively.

  20. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Method for Quantitation of Domperidone in Chinese Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; CHU Yang; ZHANG Yun-hui; WU Dan; GU Jing-kai

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method based on LC/MS/MS was developed and validated for the determination of domperidone in human plasma. Domperidone and internal standard, tramadol, were extracted from plasma with diethyl ether-dichloromethane(60: 40, volume ratio) and separated by reversed-phase HPLC with methanol-water-ammonia solution(80: 20: 0.2, volume ratio) as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out via multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) on a Q-trapTM LC/MS/MS system(Q-trapTM). The assay result was linear over a concentration range of 0.1-30 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 ng/mL. The inter- and intra-day precision levels were within 7.52% and 12. 9%, respectively, whereas the accuracy was within a range of 87. 3%-114%. This method has been successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in Chinese healthy volunteers given an oral dose of 10 mg.

  1. Trace level determination of beta-blockers in waste waters by highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Meritxell; Pizzolato, Tânia-Mara; Petrović, Mira; de Alda, Maria José López; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-02

    This paper describes the development of an analytical methodology to determine eight beta-blockers in waste waters using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as extraction and pre-concentration material, followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). The advantages offered by MIPs, in terms of selectivity and specificity, were compared with the most commonly polymeric materials used (the lipophilic-hydrophilic balanced Oasis HLB cartridges). Even though recoveries achieved with both sorbents were similar, ranging from 50 to 110% for sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent and 40-110 for STP influent, respectively, MIPs provided lower method detection limits than Oasis HLB, due to their specificity for target analytes and closely related analogues. Method detection limits (MDL) achieved using MIPs ranged from 0.2 to 6.4 ng/L for STP effluent and from 0.4 to 6.5 ng/L for STP influent. To highlight the advantages of MIPs against conventional polymeric cartridges, a detailed matrix effects study as well as cross reactivity tests were performed. For the latter purpose, the extraction efficiency of some pharmaceuticals and pesticides belonging to different therapeutic classes was assessed. LC-QqLIT MS, used for quantification and confirmation, proved to be a powerful analytical tool, as instrumental detection limits (IDL) achieved ranged from 0.2 to 2.7 pg injected (in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM)). In addition the inclusion of high sensitive MS/MS scans for each compound when working in Information Dependent Acquisition mode (IDA) provided extra confirmation for unequivocal identification of target compounds in complex environmental matrices.

  2. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  3. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  4. Quantification of urinary o,o'-dityrosine, a biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, by high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. A comparison with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Hilmi; Coolen, Stefan; Meerman, John H N

    2005-11-15

    We recently described an isotope dilution reversed-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of oxidized amino acids in human urine, including o,o'-dityrosine, a specific marker of protein oxidation. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to use a triple quadrupole instrument for the analysis of this biomarker in urine. The two instruments were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Results showed that the triple quadrupole instrument reaches 2.5-fold higher sensitivity (LOD=0.01 microM) compared to the previously used ion-trap instrument. Precision of the present assay is as follows: in-day variation is 4.6% and inter-day variation is 17%. The currently developed method was applied to a group of smoker urine samples. The mean urinary o,o'-dityrosine concentration was 0.08+/-0.01 microM. Expressed per urinary creatinine concentration, this corresponds to 10.1+/-0.4 micromol/mol creatinine. This is comparable to the previously reported values of 5.8+/-0.3 micromol/mol creatinine in non-smokers night-time urines, and 12.3+/-5 micromol/mol creatinine in day-time urines measured by the ion-trap instrument.

  5. Advanced stored waveform inverse Fourier transform technique for a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V M; Cotter, R J

    1996-01-01

    The stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT) technique is used for broadband excitation of ions in an ion-trap mass spectrometer to perform mass-selective accumulation, isolation, and fragmentation of peptide ions formed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Unit mass resolution is achieved for isolation of ions in the range of m/z up to 1300 using a two-step isolation technique with stretched-in-time narrow band SWIFT pulses at the second stage. The effect of 'stretched-in-time' waveforms is similar to that observed previously for mass-scan-rate reduction. The asymmetry phenomenon resulting from the stretched ion-trap electrode geometry is observed during application of normal and time-reversed waveforms and is similar to the asymmetry effects observed for forward and reverse mass scans in the resonance ejection mode. Mass-selective accumulation of ions from multiple laser shots was accomplished using a method described earlier that involves increasing the trapping voltage during ion introduction for more efficient trapping of ions.

  6. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  7. Novel radio-frequency ion trap with spherical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Houshyar

    2014-01-01

    Confinement of single ions in a novel radio-frequency (RF) quadrupole ion trap with spherical shape is investigated. An optimization of this spherical ion trap (SIT) is carried out in order to suppress its nonlinearity substantially by eliminating the electric octupole moment. Hence, a trapping potential and consequently an electric field very similar to the ideal quadrupole ion trap (QIT) are obtained. Afterwards, three stability regions for the optimized SIT are numerically computed. The regions coincide well with those reported in the literature for the ideal QIT. The reason is attributed to the zero electric octupole moment of our proposed trap. The SIT simple geometry and relative ease of fabrication along with its increased trapping volume compared to the conventional hyperbolic quadrupole ion trap, make it an appropriate choice for miniaturization.

  8. A toroidal trap for the cold $^{87}Rb$ atoms using a rf-dressed quadrupole trap

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, A; Ram, S P; Tiwari, S K; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping of cold $^{87}Rb$ atoms in a toroidal geometry using a rf-dressed quadrupole magnetic trap formed by superposing a strong radio frequency (rf) field on a quadrupole trap. This rf-dressed quadrupole trap has minimum of the potential away from the quadrupole trap centre on a circular path which facilitates the trapping in the toroidal geometry. In the experiments, the laser cooled atoms were first trapped in the quadrupole trap, then cooled evaporatively using a weak rf-field, and finally trapped in the rf-dressed quadrupole trap. The radius of the toroid could be varied by varying the frequency of the dressing rf-field. It has also been demonstrated that a single rf source and an antenna can be used for the rf-evaporative cooling as well as for rf-dressing of atoms. The atoms trapped in the toroidal trap may have applications in realization of an atom gyroscope as well as in studying the quantum gases in low dimensions.

  9. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples.

  10. Planar Ion Trap Geometry for Microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, M J; Stick, D; Rabchuk, J A; Monroe, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel high aspect ratio radiofrequency linear ion trap geometry that is amenable to modern microfabrication techniques. The ion trap electrode structure consists of a pair of stacked conducting cantilevers resulting in confining fields that take the form of fringe fields from parallel plate capacitors. The confining potentials are modeled both analytically and numerically. This ion trap geometry may form the basis for large scale quantum computers or parallel quadrupole mass spectrometers. PACS: 39.25.+k, 03.67.Lx, 07.75.+h, 07.10+Cm

  11. An introduction to the trapping of clusters with ion traps and electrostatic storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredy, R; Bernard, J; Chen, L; Montagne, G; Li, B; Martin, S [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR 5579, LASIM (France)

    2009-08-14

    This paper presents an introduction to the application of ion traps and storage devices for cluster physics. Some experiments involving cluster ions in trapping devices such as Penning traps, Paul traps, quadrupole or multipole linear traps are briefly discussed. Electrostatic ion storage rings and traps which allow for the storage of fast ion beams without mass limitation are presented as well. We also report on the recently developed mini-ring, a compact electrostatic ion storage ring for cluster, molecular and biomolecular ion studies. (review)

  12. Peptide profiling of Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin using high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Vissers, Johannes Petrus Cornelis; De Cecco, Martin; Claereboudt, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrolysin, a parenteral peptide preparation produced by controlled digestion of porcine brain proteins, is an approved nootropic medicine in some countries. However, it is also easily and globally available on the Internet. Nevertheless, until now, its exact chemical composition was unknown. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-IM-TOF MS), combined with UniProt pig protein database search and PEAKS de novo sequencing, we identified 638 unique peptides in an Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin sample. The main components in this sample originate from tubulin alpha- and beta-chain, actin, and myelin basic protein. No fragments of known neurotrophic factors like glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were found, suggesting that the activities reported in the literature are likely the result of new, hitherto unknown cryptic peptides with nootropic properties.

  13. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  14. Cold Trapped Ions as Quantum Information Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Sasura, M; Sasura, Marek; Buzek, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    In this tutorial we review physical implementation of quantum computing using a system of cold trapped ions. We discuss systematically all the aspects for making the implementation possible. Firstly, we go through the loading and confining of atomic ions in the linear Paul trap, then we describe the collective vibrational motion of trapped ions. Further, we discuss interactions of the ions with a laser beam. We treat the interactions in the travelling-wave and standing-wave configuration for dipole and quadrupole transitions. We review different types of laser cooling techniques associated with trapped ions. We address Doppler cooling, sideband cooling in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit, sympathetic cooling and laser cooling using electromagnetically induced transparency. After that we discuss the problem of state detection using the electron shelving method. Then quantum gates are described. We introduce single-qubit rotations, two-qubit controlled-NOT and multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates. We also comment on...

  15. Numerical calculations of potential distribution in non-ideal quadrupole trap and simulations of anharmonic oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anita Gupta; Pushpa M Rao

    2008-03-01

    A quadrupole ion trap consisting of electrode structures symmetric about -axis is an important tool for conducting several precision experiments. In practice the field inside the trap does not remain purely quadrupolar, and can be calculated using numerical methods. We have used boundary element method to calculate the potential inside the truncated as well as symmetrically misaligned quadrupolar ion trap. The calculated potential values are fitted to multipole expansion and the weights of multipole moments have been evaluated by minimizing the least square deviation. The higher-order multi-pole contribution in the fabricated hyperbolic electrodes due to truncation and machining imperfections is discussed. Non-linear effects arising due to the superposition of octupole moment manifest as anharmonic oscillations of trapped ions in the non-ideal Paul trap. Theoretical simulations of non-linear effects have been carried out.

  16. Methanol chemical ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry of O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) and its degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, D K

    2000-10-06

    Mass spectrometric analysis of O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) degradation products by electron ionization produces extensive fragmentation with little or no molecular ion information making product identification difficult. Milder chemical ionization (CI) is commonly used to provide molecular mass and structure confirmation. In this study, methanol was used as a CI reagent in combination with an ion trap detector for detection and identification of over 30 compounds present in a thermally degraded sample of VX. The use of methanol provides superior results for this class of compounds with less fragmentation than commonly observed with gas reagents and offers logistical advantages for on-site analysis by being easier to transport and safer to use than gas cylinders.

  17. Non-target screening of Allura Red AC photodegradation products in a beverage through ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    The study deals with the identification of the degradation products formed by simulated sunlight photoirradiation in a commercial beverage that contains Allura Red AC dye. An UHPLC-MS/MS method, that makes use of hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap, was developed. In the identification step the software tool information dependent acquisition (IDA) was used to automatically obtain information about the species present and to build a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the species considered. The results indicate that the identified degradation products are formed from side-reactions and/or interactions among the dye and other ingredients present in the beverage (ascorbic acid, citric acid, sucrose, aromas, strawberry juice, and extract of chamomile flowers). The presence of aromatic amine or amide functionalities in the chemical structures proposed for the degradation products might suggest potential hazards to consumer health.

  18. Ion trap system for radioactive ions at JYFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of the ion trap project in Jyvaeskylae is to improve the quality of radioactive beams at IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line), in terms of transverse emittance, energy spread and purity. This improvement is achieved with an aid of an RFQ cooler/buncher and a mass-selective cylindrical Penning trap (mass resolving power up to 10{sup 5}). Their final purpose is to produce cooled isobarically pure beams of exotic radioactivities mainly of exotic neutron-rich isotopes from fission (including refractory elements). In the Penning trap ions are confined in three dimensions in a superposition of static quadrupole electric and homogeneous magnetic fields. The magnetic field confines the ions in two dimensions in a plane perpendicular to the field direction. A confinement in the third, magnetic field direction (parallel to the trap axis) is done by a quadrupole electric field. The Penning trap system in Jyvaeskylae (JYFLTRAP) will contain two cylindrical Penning traps placed inside the same superconducting magnet (B=7 T). The first, purification trap, will accept cooled (continuous or bunched) beams from the RFQ cooler/buncher and perform the isobaric purification. The latter is - done using a combination of a buffer gas cooling and an azimuthal quadrupole RF-field providing mass- dependent centering of ions. This, in turn, allows mass-selective ejection of ions in short pulses. Clean monoisotopic bunched beams will be delivered for the nuclear spectroscopy studies, collinear laser spectroscopy experiments and precise nuclear mass measurements (10{sup -7} precision). The latter will be performed in the second, precision Penning trap (author)

  19. Multi-mycotoxin Analysis of Finished Grain and Nut Products Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Positive Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Orbital Ion Trap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Ding; Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Paul; Wittenberg, James B; Trucksess, Mary W; Hayward, Douglas G; Lee, Nathaniel S; Chang, James S

    2015-09-23

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography using positive electrospray ionization and quadrupole orbital ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was evaluated for analyzing mycotoxins in finished cereal and nut products. Optimizing the orbital ion trap mass analyzer in full-scan mode using mycotoxin-fortified matrix extracts gave mass accuracies, δM, of mycotoxin-dependent, ranging from 0.02 to 11.6 μg/kg. Mean recoveries and standard deviations for mycotoxins from acetonitrile/water extraction at their relevant fortification levels were 91 ± 10, 94 ± 10, 98 ± 12, 91 ± 13, 99 ± 15, and 93 ± 17% for corn, rice, wheat, almond, peanut, and pistachio, respectively. Nineteen mycotoxins with concentrations ranging from 0.3 (aflatoxin B1 in peanut and almond) to 1175 μg/kg (fumonisin B1 in corn flour) were found in 35 of the 70 commercial grain and nut samples surveyed. Mycotoxins could be identified at δM mycotoxins in finished grain and nut products.

  20. Metabolic profile of naringenin in the stomach and colon using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego-Lagarón, Naiara; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira

    2016-02-20

    Several biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic) are attributed to naringenin (NAR)-a predominant flavonoid of citrus fruit and tomato-despite its low bioavailability after ingestion. NAR undergoes extensive metabolism when crossing the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteric, hepatic and microbial metabolites, some of them with recognized beneficial effects on human health. This study sought to provide new insights into the metabolism of NAR in regions of the gastrointestinal tract where it has been less studied: the stomach and colon. With this purpose, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry technique (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was used for an accurate identification of NAR metabolites, and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole was used for their identification and quantification. The combination of both analytical techniques provided a broader metabolic profile of NAR. As far as we know, this is the first in-depth metabolic profiling study of NAR in the stomach of mice. Three of the metabolites determined using the LC-LTQ-Orbitrap could not be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS in stomach perfusion samples: apigenin, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and phloroglucinol. The number of colonic metabolites determined using the LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was more than twice the number identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

  1. Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sunil; Verma, Gunjan; Vishwakarma, Chetan; Noaman, Md; Rapol, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.

  2. Evaluation of multiple reaction monitoring cubed for the analysis of tachykinin related peptides in rat spinal cord using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailleux, Floriane; Beaudry, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Targeted peptide methods generally use HPLC-MS/MRM approaches. Although dependent on the instrumental resolution, interferences may occur while performing analysis of complex biological matrices. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) is a technique, which provides a significantly better selectivity, compared with HPLC-MS/MRM assay. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) allows the detection and quantitation by enriching standard MRM with secondary product ions that are generated within the linear ion trap. Substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are tachykinin peptides playing a central role in pain transmission. The objective of this study was to verify whether HPLC-MS/MRM(3) could provide significant advantages over a more traditional HPLC-MS/MRM assay for the quantification of SP and NKA in rat spinal cord. The results suggest that reconstructed MRM(3) chromatograms display significant improvements with the nearly complete elimination of interfering peaks but the sensitivity (i.e. signal-to-noise ratio) was severely reduced. The precision (%CV) observed was between 3.5% and 24.1% using HPLC-MS/MRM and in the range of 4.3-13.1% with HPLC-MS/MRM(3), for SP and NKA. The observed accuracy was within 10% of the theoretical concentrations tested. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) may improve the assay sensitivity to detect difference between samples by reducing significantly the potential of interferences and therefore reduce instrumental errors.

  3. A hybrid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy in a forensic laboratory for opioid, cocaine and amphetamine classes in human urine using a hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael

    2010-10-29

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 μg mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 μg mL(-1)) in the study were ≥0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine.

  4. Characterization of cardamonin metabolism by P450 in different species via HPLC-ESI-ion trap and UPLC-ESI-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqi HE; Li YANG; Yong LIU; Jiang-wei ZHANG; Jun TANG; Juan SU; Yuan-yuan LI; Yan-liu LU; Chang-hong WANG; Ling YANG; Zheng-tao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To characterize the metabolism of cardamonin by the P450 enzymes in human and animal liver microsomes. Methods: Cardamonin was incubated with both human and animal liver microsomal incubation systems containing P450 reaction factors. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify the metabolites. Serial cardamonin dilutions were used to perform a kinetic study in human liver microsomes. Selective inhibitors of 7 of the major P450 isozymes were used to inhibit cardamonin hydroxylation to identify the isozymes involved in cardamonin metabolism. The cardamonin hydroxylation metabolic capacities of human and various other animals were investigated using the liver microsomal incubation system.Results: Two metabolites generated by the liver microsome system were detected and identified as hydroxylated cardamonin. The K_m and V_ (max) values for cardamonin hydroxylation were calculated as 32μmol/L and 35 pmotmol·~(-1)·mg~(-1), respectively.Fruafylline and clomethiazole significantly inhibited cardamonin hydroxylation. Guinea pigs showed the highest similarity to humans with respect to the metabolism of cardamonin.Conclusion: CYP 1A2 and 2E1 were identified as the P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of cardamonin in human liver microsomes. Furthermore, our research suggests that guinea pigs could be used in the advanced pharmacokinetic studies of cardamonin in vivo.

  5. Optimization of RF multipole ion trap geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghänel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2017-02-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) traps are ideal places to store cold ions for spectroscopic experiments. Specific multipole configurations are suited best for different applications but have to be modified to allow e.g. for a proper overlap of a laser beam waist with the ion cloud. Therefore the corresponding trapping fields should be shaped accordingly. To achieve this goal highly accurate electrical potentials of rf multipole traps and the resulting effective trapping potentials are calculated using the boundary element method (BEM). These calculations are used to evaluate imperfections and to optimize the field geometry. For that purpose the complex fields are reduced to a small set of multipole expansion coefficients. Desirable values for these coefficients are met by systematic changes of real trap dimensions from CAD designs. The effect of misalignment of a linear quadrupole, the optimization of an optically open Paul trap, the influence of steering electrodes (end electrode and ring electrode) on a 22-pole ion trap and the effect of the micro motion on the lowest reachable temperatures in such a trap are discussed.

  6. Trapping ions with lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Cormick, Cecilia; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    This work theoretically addresses the trapping an ionized atom with a single valence electron by means of lasers, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of the net charge of the particle. In our model, the coupling between the ion and the electromagnetic field includes the charge monopole and the internal dipole, within a multipolar expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian. Specifically, we perform a Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation, taking into account the motion of the center of mass. The net charge produces a correction in the atomic dipole which is of order $m_e/M$ with $m_e$ the electron mass and $M$ the total mass of the ion. With respect to neutral atoms, there is also an extra coupling to the laser field which can be approximated by that of the monopole located at the position of the center of mass. These additional effects, however, are shown to be very small compared to the dominant dipolar trapping term.

  7. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    an inspiring speech at the MIT Physics of Computation 1st Conference in 1981, Feynman proposed the development of a computer that would obey the...on ion trap based 36 quantum computing for physics and computer science students would include lecture notes, slides, lesson plans, a syllabus...reading lists, videos, demonstrations, and laboratories. 37 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] R. P. Feynman , “Simulating physics with computers,” Int. J

  8. P202-S Expanding the Capabilities of Peptide MRM-Based Assays in Plasma Using a Hybrid Triple-Quadrupole Linear Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, C.

    2007-01-01

    As the study of protein biomarkers increases in importance, technical limitations to the detection of low-abundance proteins and high-throughput, high-precision quantitation remain to be overcome. The complexity and dynamic range of the plasma proteome makes the task of specific, quantitative detection even more challenging. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) capabilities of triple quadrupole MS systems have been explored as solutions to this challenge due to their well-known sensitivity and ...

  9. Controlling the quantum state of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, C

    2000-01-01

    brace quadrupole transition enables the transfer of the ion's motional state into the ground state with up to 99.9 % probability. Different aspects of the cooling process are investigated. In particular, a measurement of the length of time that the ion spends on average in the final state after switching off the cooling lasers (heating time) is made. In contrast to prior experiments, this time is found to be orders of magnitude longer than the time required to manipulate the ion's quantum state. By coherently exciting the ion after preparing it in Fock states of motion, the coherence time is probed and found to be on the order of a millisecond, thus allowing the realization of a few quantum gates. Coherence-limiting processes have been investigated, as well as first steps towards extending the experiments to the case of two trapped ions. In addition to the experiments mentioned above, the possibility of performing cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions is explored. How to efficiently couple the quadrupole t...

  10. Determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and metabolites in liver, muscle and kidney samples by pressurized liquid extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonamides are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of sulfonamides residues in food is an issue of great concern. Throughout the present work, a method for the targeted analysis of 16 sulfonamides and metabolites residue in liver of several species has been developed and validated. Extraction and clean-up has been statistically optimized using central composite design experiments. Two extraction methods have been developed, validated and compared: i) pressurized liquid extraction, in which samples were defatted with hexane and subsequently extracted with acetonitrile and ii) ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile and further liquid-liquid extraction with hexane. Extracts have been analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation procedure has been based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and included the assessment of parameters such as decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Method׳s performance has been satisfactory, with CCα values within the range of 111.2-161.4 µg kg(-1), limits of detection of 10 µg kg(-1) and accuracy values around 100% for all compounds.

  11. The electric quadrupole moment of molecular hydrogen ions and their potential for a molecular ion clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, D.; Schiller, S.

    2014-01-01

    The systematic shifts of the transition frequencies in the molecular hydrogen ions are of relevance to ultra-high-resolution radio-frequency, microwave and optical spectroscopy of these systems, performed in ion traps. We develop the ab initio description of the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of this class of molecules with the static electric field gradients present in ion traps. In good approximation, it is described in terms of an effective perturbation Hamiltonian. An approximate treatment is then performed in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We give an expression of the electric quadrupole coupling parameter valid for all hydrogen molecular ion species and evaluate it for a large number of states of H{2/+}, HD+, and D{2/+}. The systematic shifts can be evaluated as simple expectation values of the perturbation Hamiltonian. Results on radio-frequency, one-photon electric dipole (E1), and two-photon E1 transitions between hyperfine states in HD+ are reported. For two-photon E1 transitions between rotationless states, the shifts vanish. For a large subset of rovibrational one-photon transitions, the absolute values of the quadrupole shifts range from 0.3 to 10 Hz for an electric field gradient of 108 V/m2. We point out an experimental procedure for determining the quadrupole shift which will allow reducing its contribution to the uncertainty of unperturbed rovibrational transition frequencies to the 1 × 10-15 fractional level and, for selected transitions, even below it. The combined contributions of black-body radiation, Zeeman, Stark and quadrupole effects are considered for a large set of transitions, and it is estimated that the total transition frequency uncertainty of selected transitions can be reduced below the 1 × 10-15 level.

  12. Implementation of Ion/Ion Reactions in a Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Chrisman, Paul A.; Erickson, David E.; Liu, Jian; Liang, Xiaorong; Londry, Frank A.; Yang, Min J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    A commercial quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been adapted for ion/ion reaction studies. To enable mutual storage of oppositely charged ions in a linear ion trap, the oscillating quadrupole field of the second quadrupole of the system (Q2) serves to store ions in the radial dimension while auxiliary RF is superposed on the end lenses of Q2 during the reaction period to create barriers in the axial dimension. A pulsed dual electrospray (ESI) source is directly coupled to the instrument interface for the purpose of proton transfer reactions. Singly and doubly charged protein ions as high in mass as 66 kDa are readily formed and observed after proton transfer reactions. For the modified instrument, the mass resolving power is about 8000 for a wide m/z range and the mass accuracy is ~20 ppm for external calibration and ~5 ppm for internal calibration after ion/ion reactions. Parallel ion parking is demonstrated with a six-component protein mixture, which shows the potential application of reducing spectral complexity and concentrating certain charge states. The current system has high flexibility with respect to defining MSn experiments involving collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion/ion reactions. Protein precursor and CID product masses can be determined with good accuracy, providing an attractive platform for top-down proteomics. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) ion/ion reactions are implemented by using a pulsed nano-ESI/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) dual source for ionization. The reaction between protonated peptide ions and radical anions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene formed exclusively c- and z- type fragment ions. PMID:16771545

  13. An Integrated Mirror and Surface Ion Trap with a Tunable Trap Location

    CERN Document Server

    Van Rynbach, Andre; Kim, Jungsang

    2016-01-01

    We report a demonstration of a surface ion trap fabricated directly on a highly reflective mirror surface, which includes a secondary set of radio frequency (RF) electrodes allowing for translation of the quadrupole RF null location. We introduce a position-dependent photon scattering rate for a $^{174}$Yb$^+$ ion in the direction perpendicular to the trap surface using a standing wave of retroreflected light off the mirror surface directly below the trap. Using this setup, we demonstrate the capability of fine-tuning the RF trap location with nanometer scale precision and characterize the charging effects of the dielectric mirror surface upon exposure to ultra-violet light.

  14. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  15. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  16. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayr, Michael; Kumph, Muir; Partel, Stefan; Edlinger, Johannes; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  17. Comparison of two ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approaches for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in wastewater using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry: evaluation of green parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; Moreno, A Uclés

    2014-08-22

    Two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) approaches including temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TCIL-DLLME) and ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) were compared for the extraction of six benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) from wastewater samples prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS). Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized and the most significant green parameters were quantified and compared. The best results were obtained using the US-IL-DLLME procedure, which employed the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. US-IL-DLLME procedure was fast, easy, low environmental toxicity and, it was also able to successfully extract all selected benzoylureas. This method was extensively validated with satisfactory results: limits of detection and quantification were in the range 0.5-1.0 ng L(-1) and 1.5-3.5 ng L(-1), respectively, whereas recovery rates ranged from 89 to 103% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 13.4%. The applicability of the method was assessed with the analysis of effluent wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant located in an agricultural zone of Almería (Spain) and the results indicated the presence of teflubenzuron at mean concentration levels of 11.3 ng L(-1). US-IL-DLLME sample treatment in combination with LC-QqLIT-MS/MS has demonstrated to be a sensitive, selective and efficient method to determine benzoylurea insecticides in wastewaters at ultra-trace levels.

  18. Pattern formation with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experiment to study collective behavior in a nonlinear medium of trapped ions. Using laser cooling and heating and an anharmonic trap potential, one can turn an ion into a nonlinear van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. A chain of ions interacting electrostatically has stable plane waves for all parameters. The system also behaves like an excitable medium, since a sufficiently large perturbation generates a travelling pulse. Small chains exhibit multistability and limit cycles. We account for noise from spontaneous emission in the amplitude equation and find that the patterns are observable for realistic experimental parameters. The tunability of ion traps makes them an exciting setting to study nonequilibrium statistical physics.

  19. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  20. The electric quadrupole moment of molecular hydrogen ions and their potential for a molecular ion clock

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Dimitar

    2013-01-01

    The systematic shifts of the transition frequencies in the molecular hydrogen ions are of relevance to ultra-high-resolution radio-frequency, microwave and optical spectroscopy of these systems, performed in ion traps. We develop the ab-initio description of the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of this class of molecules with the static electric field gradients present in ion traps. In good approximation, it is described in terms of an effective perturbation hamiltonian. An approximate treatment is then performed in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We give an expression of the electric quadrupole coupling parameter valid for all hydrogen molecular ion species and evaluate it for a large number of states of H2+, HD+, and D2+. The systematic shifts can be evaluated as simple expectation values of the perturbation hamiltonian. Results on radio-frequency (M1), one-photon electric dipole (E1) and two-photon E1 transitions between hyperfine states in HD+ are reported. For two-photon E1 transitions b...

  1. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  2. Electron attachment to anionic clusters in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Franklin, E-mail: franklin.martinez@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics (Germany); Bandelow, Steffi; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz; Vass, Albert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Ion traps are versatile tools for the investigation of gas-phase cluster ions, allowing, e.g., cluster-size selection and extended reaction times. Taking advantage of their particular storage capability of simultaneous trapping of electrons and clusters, Penning traps have been applied for the production of clusters with high negative charge states. Recently, linear radio-frequency quadrupole traps have been demonstrated to be another candidate to produce polyanionic clusters. Operation with rectangular, rather than harmonic, radio-frequency voltages provides field-free time slots for unhindered electron passage through the trap. Several aspects of electron-attachment techniques by means of Penning and radio-frequency traps are addressed and recent experimental results are presented.

  3. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  4. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  5. Naturally occurring glucosinolates in plant extracts of rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) identified by liquid chromatography coupled with negative ion electrospray ionization and quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Rubino, Alessandra; Lelario, Filomena; Bufo, Sabino A

    2007-01-01

    A method for the comprehensive profiling of intact glucosinolates (GLSs), major and minor, occurring in leaves and seeds of rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) is presented using optimized reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). ESI-ITMS in the negative mode was confirmed to be very suitable to analyze these compounds in crude extracts. After extraction from the plant material with methanol/water (70:30 v/v) at 70 degrees C, the analytes of interest were separated on a C18 column using an eluent acidified with formic acid (0.1%) and modified with acetonitrile. All the GLSs found in leaves of rocket salad gave good signals corresponding to the deprotonated precursor ion, [M-H]-. Although the mass spectra also exhibited an analytically important non-covalent adduct ion at [2M-H]-, the structures of glucosinolates were confirmed by extensive sequential MS analysis, thereby substantially improving the identification of unknown compounds. The results obtained not only revealed in leaves of E. sativa at least twelve species of GLSs including seven aliphatic compounds (glucoraphanin with [M-H]- at m/z ratio of 436, glucoerucin at m/z 420, 4-mercaptobutyl-GLS at m/z 406, progoitrin/epiprogoitrin at m/z 388, sinigrin at m/z 358, 4-methylpentyl- and n-hexyl-GLS at m/z 402) and three indole glucosinolates (i.e., three N-heterocyclic compounds: 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin and 5-hydroxyglucobrassicin at m/z 463, and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin at m/z 477), but also two structurally related compounds containing one intermolecular disulfide linkage (4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyldisulfanyl)butyl-GLS at m/z 600 and a dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl-GLS at m/z 811). This latter symmetric disulfide was previously considered as an artefact formed during extraction of GLSs from vegetative tissues. Glucosinolates were detected in the leaves with a wide range of contents (10-200 micromol/g) and a great variation in the composition. Only

  6. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, W C

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol for using trapped ions to measure rotations via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry. The trap allows the interferometer to enclose a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without losing contrast. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, thermal states with many phonons should be sufficient for operation.

  7. Design of blade-shaped-electrode linear ion traps with reduced anharmonic contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, K.; Che, H.; Ge, Y. P.; Xu, Z. T.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zehuanglu@mail.hust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lan, Y. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2015-09-21

    RF quadrupole linear Paul traps are versatile tools in quantum physics experiments. Linear Paul traps with blade-shaped electrodes have the advantages of larger solid angles for fluorescence collection. But with these kinds of traps, the existence of higher-order anharmonic terms of the trap potentials can cause large heating rate for the trapped ions. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the dependence of higher-order terms of trap potentials on the geometry of blade-shaped traps, and offer an optimized design. A modified blade electrodes trap is proposed to further reduce higher-order anharmonic terms while still retaining large fluorescence collection angle.

  8. Multisectional linear ion trap and novel loading method for optical spectroscopy of electron and nuclear transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, Alexey A; Troyan, Victor I; Borisyuk, Peter V; Krasavin, Andrey V; Vasiliev, Oleg S; Palchikov, Vitaly G; Avdeev, Ivan A; Chernyshev, Denis M; Poteshin, Sergey S

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the development of atomic and nuclear frequency standards because of the important contribution of methods for precision time and frequency measurements to the development of fundamental science, technology, and the economy. It is also conditioned by their potential use in optical clocks and quantum logic applications. It is especially important to develop a universal method that could allow one to use ions of most elements effectively (including ones that are not easily evaporated) proposed for the above-mentioned applications. A linear quadrupole ion trap for the optical spectroscopy of electron and nuclear transitions has been developed and evaluated experimentally. An ion source construction is based on an ultra-high vacuum evaporator in which a metal sample is subjected to an electron beam of energy up to 1 keV, resulting in the appearance of gaseous atoms and ions of various charge state. The linear ion trap consists of five successive quadrupole sections including an entrance quadrupole section, quadrupole mass filter, quadrupole ion guide, ion-trap section, and exit quadrupole section. The same radiofrequency but a different direct current voltage feeds the quadrupole sections. The instrument allows the mass and energy selected trapping of ions from ion beams of various intensities and their localization in the area of laser irradiation. The preliminary results presented show that the proposed instrument and methods allow one to produce effectively up to triply charged thorium ions as well as to trap ions for future spectroscopic study. The instrument is proposed for future use in optical clocks and quantum logic application development.

  9. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  10. Quantum Games in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia Maria [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: noa@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Shingo [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujiwara@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Shuichi [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: hasegawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-10-09

    We propose a general, scalable framework for implementing two-choices-multiplayer Quantum Games in ion traps. In particular, we discuss two famous examples: the Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma and the Quantum Minority Game. An analysis of decoherence due to intensity fluctuations in the applied laser fields is also provided.

  11. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Wada, M; Naimi, S; Smorra, C; Sonoda, T; Mita, H; Takamine, A; Okada, K; Ozawa, A; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ~27% for 23Na+ and ~5.1% for 7Li+ has been achieved.

  12. Classification of Jet Fuels by Fuzzy Rule-Building Expert Systems Applied to Three-Way Data by Fast Gas Chromatography-Fast Scanning Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    car - rier gas speed, and a higher head pressure, etc., fast GC separation can be realized. Compared with conventional GC, fast GC offers the...themost common, sensitive, and informativedetectors for GC, MS has promise for the composition-property correlation studyof jet fuels. Time-of-flight ( ToF ... ToF -MS [42]. However, they have the disadvantage of relatively higher costs to purchase and maintain compared to ion trap mass spectrometers. Most

  13. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  14. Collision-induced dissociation pathways of yeast sphingolipids and their molecular profiling in total lipid extracts: a study by quadrupole TOF and linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Christer S.; Moehring, Thomas; Bahr, Ute

    2006-01-01

    and the long chain base moieties in individual molecular species. By selecting m/z of class-specific fragment ions for multiple precursor ion scanning, we profiled yeast sphingolipids in total lipid extracts on a QqTOF mass spectrometer. Thus, a combination of QqTOF and LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry lends......TOF) instrument produced fragments of inositol-containing head groups, which were specific for each lipid class. MS(n) analysis performed on a hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ Orbitrap) mass spectrometer with better than 3 ppm mass accuracy identified fragment ions specific for the amide-linked fatty acid...... itself to rapid, comprehensive and structure-specific profiling of the molecular composition of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in important model organisms, such as fungi and plants....

  15. Pharmaceutical metabolite profiling using quadrupole/ion mobility spectrometry/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric C Y; New, Lee Sun; Yap, Chun Wei; Goh, Lin Tang

    2009-02-01

    The use of hybrid quadrupole ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/IMS/TOFMS) in the metabolite profiling of leflunomide (LEF) and acetaminophen (APAP) is presented. The IMS drift times (T(d)) of the drugs and their metabolites were determined in the IMS/TOFMS experiments and correlated with their exact monoisotopic masses and other in silico generated structural properties, such as connolly molecular area (CMA), connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), principal moments of inertia along the X, Y and Z Cartesian coordinates (MI-X, MI-Y and MI-Z), inverse mobility and collision cross-section (CCS). The correlation of T(d) with these parameters is presented and discussed. IMS/TOF tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS(2) and MS(3)) were successfully performed on the N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine glutathione (NAPQI-GSH) adduct derived from the in vitro microsomal metabolism of APAP. As comparison, similar experiments were also performed using hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QTRAPMS) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The abilities to resolve the product ions of the metabolite within the drift tube and fragment the ion mobility resolved product ions in the transfer travelling wave-enabled stacked ring ion guide (TWIG) demonstrated the potential applicability of the Q/IMS/TOFMS technique in pharmaceutical metabolite profiling.

  16. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  17. Oxford ion-trap quantum computing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D M; Donald, C J S; Home, J P; McDonnell, M J; Ramos, A; Stacey, D N; Stacey, J-P; Steane, A M; Webster, S C

    2003-07-15

    We describe recent progress in the development of an ion-trap quantum information processor. We discuss the choice of ion species and describe recent experiments on read-out for a ground-state qubit and photoionization trap loading.

  18. Ion trapping for quantum information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jin-yin; WANG Yu-zhu; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed the recent pro-gresses on the ion trapping for quantum information process-ing and quantum computation. We have first discussed the basic principle of quantum information theory and then fo-cused on ion trapping for quantum information processing.Many variations, especially the techniques of ion chips, have been investigated since the original ion trap quantum compu-tation scheme was proposed. Full two-dimensional control of multiple ions on an ion chip is promising for the realization of scalable ion trap quantum computation and the implemen-tation of quantum networks.

  19. Production of rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong-Fang; Kong, Ling-Ran; Li, Kai; Jiang, Kai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally produced rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole (OPQ) trap. A far blue-detuned focused laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm is plugged in the center of the magnetic quadrupole trap to increase the number of trapped atoms and suppress the heating. A radio frequency (RF) evaporative cooling in the magneto-optical hybrid trap is applied to decrease the atom temperature into degeneracy. The atom number of the condensate is $1.2(0.4)\\times10^5$ and the temperature is below 100 nK. We have also studied characteristic behaviors of the condensate, such as phase space density (PSD), condensate fraction and anisotropic expansion.

  20. Nonlinear ion trap stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Visan, Gina G, E-mail: bmihal@infim.r [Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomistilor Str. Nr. 409, 077125 Magurele-Bucharest, Jud. Ilfov (Romania)

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an ion confined in a nonlinear Paul trap. The equation of motion for the ion is shown to be consistent with the equation describing a damped, forced Duffing oscillator. All perturbing factors are taken into consideration in the approach. Moreover, the ion is considered to undergo interaction with an external electromagnetic field. The method is based on numerical integration of the equation of motion, as the system under investigation is highly nonlinear. Phase portraits and Poincare sections show that chaos is present in the associated dynamics. The system of interest exhibits fractal properties and strange attractors. The bifurcation diagrams emphasize qualitative changes of the dynamics and the onset of chaos.

  1. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  2. Superdense Coding via Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tao; FENG Mang; GAO Ke-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Superdense coding plays an important role in quantum information and can be performed with trapped ions. By confining the ions in a linear trap or a trap-cavity setup, we propose schemes to implement a reliable superdense coding by means of bichromatic radiation method. Experimental feasibility and reliability for achieving our schemes is discussed in detail.

  3. Trapping ions from a fast beam in a radio-frequency ion trap: The relaxation of the ion cloud and its resulting column density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Annette; Nielsen, Kristian M. E.; Pedersen, Henrik B.

    2014-06-01

    The relaxation of trapped Cl2- ions and their resulting column density in a multipole radio-frequency (RF) ion trap have been investigated after loading the trap from an initial fast-moving beam exploiting a mechanism described recently [A. Svendsen et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 043410 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043410] where the injection is mediated through the exchange of energy between ions and the oscillating RF field. The temporal relaxation of the energy distribution of the trapped ion cloud was probed by observing the evolution of the resulting time-of-flight distribution of ions after extraction and fragment mass analysis in a quadrupole mass filter. The ion energy distribution was found to be essentially stationary after ˜20 ms. The resulting column density of trapped ions after relaxation was probed by two-dimensional position-resolved photodissociation of the trapped Cl2- ions. A detailed statistical analysis of the ion column density in the ring-electrode trap is given, and by comparison to the experimental data, a value of the maximum adiabaticity parameter of ηmax≃0.28 is inferred. It is further demonstrated how the present experimental system allows for time-resolved mass spectrometry by probing explicitly the populations of both parent (Cl2-) and daughter (Cl-) ions as a function of time after closing the trap and after laser irradiation. Finally, it is discussed how the setup can be used to obtain absolute photodissociation cross sections via a tomographic method without assumptions on the decay law for the trapped ions.

  4. Laser spectroscopy of trapped Th^3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Adam; Campbell, Corey; Churchill, Layne; Depalatis, Michael; Naylor, David; Kuzmich, Alex; Chapman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    We are applying the techniques of laser cooling and ion trapping to investigate the low lying nuclear isomeric state in ^229Th. We will confine Th^3+ atoms in an RF trap [1] and sympathetically cool them with barium ions. The ions are produced by laser ablation from a thorium metal target by the third harmonic of a Q-switched YAG laser. Using mass-spectroscopic techniques we separate out the Th^3+ ions from the plume of ablation products. We once trapped we will observe fluorescence from the trapped ions using transitions at 984 nm and 690 nm. [1] Peik E. and Tamm Chr., Europhysics Letters, 61 (2) (2003)

  5. Telecloning Quantum States with Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for telecloning quantum states with trapped ions. The scheme is based on a single ion interacting with a single laser pulse. In the protocol, an ion is firstly measured to determine whether the telecloning succeeds or not, and then another ion is detected to complete the whole procedure. The required experimental techniques are within the scope of what can be obtained in the ion-trap setup.

  6. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  7. Harmonic analysis and field quality improvement of an HTS quadrupole magnet for a heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Kim, Do Gyun; Kim, Jong Won [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, the iron-dominated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) quadrupole magnets are being developed for heavy ion accelerators. Field analyses for iron-dominated quadrupole magnets were based on the normal-conducting (NC) quadrupole magnet early in the development for accelerators. Some conclusions are still in use today. However, the magnetic field of iron-dominated HTS quadrupole magnets cannot fully follow these conclusions. This study established an HTS quadrupole magnet model and an NC quadrupole magnet model, respectively. The harmonic characteristics of two magnets were analyzed and compared. According to the comparison, the conventional iron-dominated quadrupole magnets can be designed for maximum field gradient; the HTS quadrupole magnet, however, should be considered with varying field gradient. Finally, the HTS quadrupole magnet was designed for the changing field gradient. The field quality of the design was improved comparing with the result of the previous study. The new design for the HTS quadrupole magnet has been suggested.

  8. Electrostatic quadrupole accelerator for the heavy ion fusion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Eylon, S.

    1994-07-01

    A full scale (2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +}), low emittance injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Project has been built at LBL It consists of a 750 key diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provide strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The actual operation of this new machine has exceeded design parameters. Design of the accelerator, report on experiments performed in connection with the evaluation and characterization of the ESQ and corresponding 3D Particle in Cell simulations will be presented.

  9. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  10. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... access for laser cooling. All the parts for the trap have been made in our institute [1]. The electrodes and the spacers were laser cut in the collaboration with the group of P.  Balling. In our group we have developed a technique to manufacture lensed optical fibers. The trap is now assembled...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  11. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Matthias F; Monz, Thomas; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps requires high radio-frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Hybrid ion, atom and light trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Ram, N Bhargava; Rangwala, S A

    2013-01-01

    We present an unique experimental arrangement which permits the simultaneous trapping and cooling of ions and neutral atoms, within a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The versatility of this hybrid trap experiment enables a variety of studies with trapped mixtures. The motivations behind the production of such a hybrid trap system are explained, followed by details of how the experiment is put together. Several experiments that have been performed with this system are presented and some opportunities with this system are discussed. However the primary emphasis is focussed on the aspects that pertain to the trapped ions, in this hybrid system.

  13. A comprehensive library-based, automated screening procedure for 46 synthetic cannabinoids in serum employing liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with high-temperature electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Laura M; Kneisel, Stefan; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Considering the vast variety of synthetic cannabinoids and herbal mixtures - commonly known as 'Spice' or 'K2' - on the market and the resulting increase of severe intoxications related to their consumption, there is a need in clinical and forensic toxicology for comprehensive up-to-date screening methods. The focus of this project aimed at developing and implementing an automated screening procedure for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in serum using a liquid chromatography-ion trap-MS (LC-MS(n)) system and a spectra library-based approach, currently including 46 synthetic cannabinoids and 8 isotope labelled analogues. In the process of method development, a high-temperature ESI source (IonBooster(TM), Bruker Daltonik) and its effects on the ionization efficiency of the investigated synthetic cannabinoids were evaluated and compared to a conventional ESI source. Despite their structural diversity, all investigated synthetic cannabinoids benefitted from high-temperature ionization by showing remarkably higher MS intensities compared to conventional ESI. The employed search algorithm matches retention time, MS and MS(2)/MS(3) spectra. With the utilization of the ionBooster source, limits for the automated detection comparable to cut-off values of routine MRM methods were achieved for the majority of analytes. Even compounds not identified when using a conventional ESI source were detected using the ionBooster-source. LODs in serum range from 0.1 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml. The use of parent compounds as analytical targets offers the possibility of instantly adding new emerging compounds to the library and immediately applying the updated method to serum samples, allowing the rapid adaptation of the screening method to ongoing forensic or clinical requirements. The presented approach can also be applied to other specimens, such as oral fluid or hair, and herbal mixtures and was successfully applied to authentic serum samples. Quantitative MRM results of samples with

  14. Active Stabilization of Ion Trap Radiofrequency Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K G; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Monroe, C

    2016-01-01

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a rf Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to better than 10 Hz, or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  15. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  16. Surface ion trap structures with excellent optical access for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, P.; Blain, M.; Benito, F.; Chou, C.; Clark, C.; Descour, M.; Ellis, R.; Haltli, R.; Heller, E.; Kemme, S.; Sterk, J.; Tabakov, B.; Tigges, C.; Stick, D.

    2013-05-01

    Microfabricated surface electrode ion traps are necessary for the advancement of trapped ion quantum information processing as it offers a scalable way for realizing complex trap structures capable of storing and controlling many ions. The most promising way of performing two-qubit quantum gates in a chain of trapped ions is to focus laser beams on individual ions of the chain to drive gates. However, in surface ion traps the close proximity of the ions to the surface and the size of the chips usually cannot accommodate the tightly focused laser beams necessary to address individual ions parallel to the chip surface. Here we present a surface electrode ion trap monolithically fabricated in standard silicon technology that implements a linear quadrupole trap on a bowtie shaped chip with a narrow section that is only 1.2 mm wide. Laser beams parallel to the surface can be focused down to a waist of 4 μm with enough separation from the trap chip to prevent light scattering. The trap structure incorporates two Y-junctions for reordering ions and is optimized for quantum information processing. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Coupled gas and ion transport in quadrupole interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugroot, M [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Groth, C P T [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Thomson, B A [MDS SCIEX, Concord, Ontario, L4K 4V8 (Canada); Baranov, V [MDS SCIEX, Concord, Ontario, L4K 4V8 (Canada); Collings, B A [MDS SCIEX, Concord, Ontario, L4K 4V8 (Canada); French, J B [MDS SCIEX, Concord, Ontario, L4K 4V8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    The transport of free ions through highly under-expanded jet flows of neutral gases and in the presence of applied electric fields is investigated by continuum-based (fluid) numerical simulations. In particular, numerical results are described which are relevant to ion flows occurring in quadrupole interfaces of mass spectrometer systems. A five-moment mathematical model and parallel multi-block numerical solution procedure are developed for predicting the ion transport. The model incorporates the effects of ion-neutral collision processes and is used in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes model and flow solver for the neutral gas to examine the key influences controlling the ion motion. The effects of the neutral gas flow, electric fields (both dc and rf) and flow field geometry on ion mobility are carefully assessed. The capability of controlling the charged particle motions through a combination of directed neutral flow and applied electric field is demonstrated for these high-speed, hypersonic, jet flows. The neutral dynamics is shown to have a strong influence on the ion transport whereas the electric field imparts a more gradual effect. The combined effect of the applied (dc and rf) electric field and neutral collision processes with the dilute neutral gas results in a strong tendency for ion focusing towards the axis of symmetry, with the overall efficiency governed by the mass-to-charge ratio.

  18. A grooved planar ion trap design for scalable quantum information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei-Bang; Wan Jin-Yin; Cheng Hua-Dong; Liu Liang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new electrode design for a grooved surface-electrode ion trap,which is fabricated in printed-circuitboard technology with segmented electrodes.This design allows a laser beam to get through the central groove to avoid optical access blocking and laser scattering from the ion trap surface.The confining potentials are modeled both analytically and numerically.We optimize the radio frequency (rf) electrodes and dc electrodes to achieve the maximum trap depth for a given ion height above the trap electrodes.We also compare our design with the reality ion chip MI I for practical considerations.Comparison results show that our design is superior to MI I.This ion trap design may form the basis for large scale quantum computers or parallel quadrupole mass spectrometers.

  19. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  20. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

    2004-11-10

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

  1. Modeling and Optimizing RF Multipole Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghaenel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Radio frequency (rf) ion traps are very well suited for spectroscopy experiments thanks to the long time storage of the species of interest in a well defined volume. The electrical potential of the ion trap is determined by the geometry of its electrodes and the applied voltages. In order to understand the behavior of trapped ions in realistic multipole traps it is necessary to characterize these trapping potentials. Commercial programs like SIMION or COMSOL, employing the finite difference and/or finite element method, are often used to model the electrical fields of the trap in order to design traps for various purposes, e.g. introducing light from a laser into the trap volume. For a controlled trapping of ions, e.g. for low temperature trapping, the time dependent electrical fields need to be known to high accuracy especially at the minimum of the effective (mechanical) potential. The commercial programs are not optimized for these applications and suffer from a number of limitations. Therefore, in our approach the boundary element method (BEM) has been employed in home-built programs to generate numerical solutions of real trap geometries, e.g. from CAD drawings. In addition the resulting fields are described by appropriate multipole expansions. As a consequence, the quality of a trap can be characterized by a small set of multipole parameters which are used to optimize the trap design. In this presentation a few example calculations will be discussed. In particular the accuracy of the method and the benefits of describing the trapping potentials via multipole expansions will be illustrated. As one important application heating effects of cold ions arising from non-ideal multipole fields can now be understood as a consequence of imperfect field configurations.

  2. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  3. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  4. Space-time crystals of trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Quan, H T; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Peng; Duan, L-M; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-10-19

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking can lead to the formation of time crystals, as well as spatial crystals. Here we propose a space-time crystal of trapped ions and a method to realize it experimentally by confining ions in a ring-shaped trapping potential with a static magnetic field. The ions spontaneously form a spatial ring crystal due to Coulomb repulsion. This ion crystal can rotate persistently at the lowest quantum energy state in magnetic fields with fractional fluxes. The persistent rotation of trapped ions produces the temporal order, leading to the formation of a space-time crystal. We show that these space-time crystals are robust for direct experimental observation. We also study the effects of finite temperatures on the persistent rotation. The proposed space-time crystals of trapped ions provide a new dimension for exploring many-body physics and emerging properties of matter.

  5. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y., E-mail: yito@riken.jp [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Schury, P. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Wada, M.; Naimi, S. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Smorra, C. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sonoda, T. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Takamine, A. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366 (Japan); Okada, K. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Fast cooling time: 2 ms. • High efficiency: ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +}. • 100% Duty cycle with double trap system. -- Abstract: A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +} has been achieved.

  6. Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; /TechSource, Santa Fe /Los Alamos; Borden, Michael J.; O' Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; /Los Alamos; Pivi, Mauro T.F.; /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 {micro}s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

  7. High-precision experiments on a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boell, O.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    A single, trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Two Ra{sup +} experiments are under construction at KVI. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for an all-optical, high-stability frequency standard, i.e. a clock. The off-the-shelf availability of semiconductor lasers for all necessary transitions is highly advantageous. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. The same system and experimental hardware will be used to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics by measuring Atomic Parity Violation. This will serve as a low-energy test of the running of the electroweak mixing angle. Recent calculations have shown Ra{sup +} to be the superior candidate. Recently we have succeeded in the production and efficient slowing down of isotopes around {sup 213}Ra at the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI. Progress has been made in the development of ion traps and in the laser set-up in a dedicated laser laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of the radium ion and the first ever trapping of this particle are planned in the near future.

  8. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  9. Electron beam ion traps and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ya-Ming; Roger HUTTON

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction to the historical background and current status of electron beam ion traps (EBITs)is presented. The structure and principles of an EBIT for producing highly charged ions are described. Finally,EBITs as a potential tool in hot-plasma diagnostics and in studying frontier problems of highly charged ion physicsare discussed.

  10. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  11. Surface-electrode trap with an integrated permanent magnet for generating a magnetic-field gradient at trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yuji; Shimizu, Kenji; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji; Tanaka, Utako

    2017-01-01

    We report on a surface-electrode trap with SmCo magnets arranged in a quadrupole configuration underneath the trap electrode. Because the distance between the magnets and the trapped ions can be as little as several hundred micrometers, a large magnetic field is produced without any heat management. The magnetic-field gradient was measured using the Zeeman splitting of a single trapped 40Ca+ ion at several positions, and a field gradient of 36 T m-1 was obtained. Such a field gradient is useful for the generation of a state-dependent force, which is important for quantum simulation and/or quantum gate operation using radio-frequency or microwave radiation.

  12. Surface-electrode trap with an integrated permanent magnet for generating a magnetic-field gradient at trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yuji; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji; Tanaka, Utako

    2016-01-01

    We report on a surface-electrode trap with SmCo magnets arranged in a quadrupole configuration underneath the trap electrode. Because the distance between the magnets and the trapped ions can be as little as several hundred micrometers, a large magnetic field is produced without any heat management. The magnetic-field gradient was measured using the Zeeman splitting of a single trapped $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion at several positions, and a field gradient of 36 T/m was obtained. Such a field gradient is useful for the generation of a state-dependent force, which is important for quantum simulation and/or quantum gate operation using radio-frequency or microwave radiation.

  13. Novel Ion Trap Design for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Márquez Seco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel ion trap design which facilitates the integration of an optical fiber cavity into the trap structure. The optical fibers are confined inside hollow electrodes in such a way that tight shielding and free movement of the fibers are simultaneously achievable. The latter enables in situ optimization of the overlap between the trapped ions and the cavity field. Through numerical simulations, we systematically analyze the effects of the electrode geometry on the trapping characteristics such as trap depths, secular frequencies and the optical access angle. Additionally, we simulate the effects of the presence of the fibers and confirm the robustness of the trapping potential. Based on these simulations and other technical considerations, we devise a practical trap configuration that isviable to achieve strong coupling of a single ion.

  14. Long lifetimes in optical ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We report on single Barium ions confined in a near-infrared optical dipole trap for up to three seconds in absence of any radio-frequency fields. Additionally, the lifetime in a visible optical dipole trap is increased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the state-of-the-art using an efficient repumping method. We characterize the state-dependent potentials and measure an upper bound for the heating rate in the near-infrared trap. These findings are beneficial for entering the regime of ultracold interaction in atom-ion ensembles exploiting bichromatic optical dipole traps. Long lifetimes and low scattering rates are essential to reach long coherence times for quantum simulations in optical lattices employing many ions, or ions and atoms.

  15. Precision spectroscopy of trapped radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Violation (APV) can be measured in a single trapped and laser cooled Ra{sup +}, enabling a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy is being performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structure, isotope shift and lifetime provide benchmark for the required atomic theory. The experimental set up to perform laser cooling of the trapped radium ions and trapping of a single radium ion is under way.

  16. Scaling the ion trap quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, C; Kim, J

    2013-03-08

    Trapped atomic ions are standards for quantum information processing, serving as quantum memories, hosts of quantum gates in quantum computers and simulators, and nodes of quantum communication networks. Quantum bits based on trapped ions enjoy a rare combination of attributes: They have exquisite coherence properties, they can be prepared and measured with nearly 100% efficiency, and they are readily entangled with each other through the Coulomb interaction or remote photonic interconnects. The outstanding challenge is the scaling of trapped ions to hundreds or thousands of qubits and beyond, at which scale quantum processors can outperform their classical counterparts in certain applications. We review the latest progress and prospects in that effort, with the promise of advanced architectures and new technologies, such as microfabricated ion traps and integrated photonics.

  17. Extending the dynamic range of the ion trap by differential mobility filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adam B; Coy, Stephen L; Kafle, Amol; Glick, James; Nazarov, Erkinjon; Vouros, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A miniature, planar, differential ion mobility spectrometer (DMS) was interfaced to an LCQ classic ion trap to conduct selective ion filtration prior to mass analysis in order to extend the dynamic range of the trap. Space charge effects are known to limit the functional ion storage capacity of ion trap mass analyzers and this, in turn, can affect the quality of the mass spectral data generated. This problem is further exacerbated in the analysis of mixtures where the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions results in premature trap saturation with non-targeted species, thereby reducing the number of parent ions that may be used to conduct MS/MS experiments for quantitation or other diagnostic studies. We show that conducting differential mobility-based separations prior to mass analysis allows the isolation of targeted analytes from electrosprayed mixtures preventing the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions and premature trap saturation with analytically unrelated species. Coupling these two analytical techniques is shown to enhance the detection of a targeted drug metabolite from a biological matrix. In its capacity as a selective ion filter, the DMS can improve the analytical performance of analyzers such as quadrupole (3D or linear) and ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion traps that depend on ion accumulation.

  18. Extending the Dynamic Range of the Ion Trap by Differential Mobility Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adam B.; Coy, Stephen L.; Kafle, Amol; Glick, James; Nazarov, Erkinjon

    2013-01-01

    A miniature, planar, differential ion mobility spectrometer (DMS) was interfaced to an LCQ classic ion trap to conduct selective ion filtration prior to mass analysis in order to extend the dynamic range of the trap. Space charge effects are known to limit the functional ion storage capacity of ion trap mass analyzers and this, in turn, can affect the quality of the mass spectral data generated. This problem is further exacerbated in the analysis of mixtures where the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions results in premature trap saturation with non-targeted species, thereby reducing the number of parent ions that may be used to conduct MS/MS experiments for quantitation or other diagnostic studies. We show that conducting differential mobility-based separations prior to mass analysis allows the isolation of targeted analytes from electrosprayed mixtures preventing the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions and premature trap saturation with analytically unrelated species. Coupling these two analytical techniques is shown to enhance the detection of a targeted drug metabolite from a biological matrix. In its capacity as a selective ion filter, the DMS can improve the analytical performance of analyzers such as quadrupole (3-D or linear) and ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion traps that depend on ion accumulation. PMID:23797861

  19. Micromotion in trapped atom-ion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Barrett, Murray; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of the harmonic approximation, where the radio-frequency ion trap is treated as a harmonic trap, in the problem regarding the controlled collision of a trapped atom and a single trapped ion. This is equivalent to studying the effect of the micromotion since this motion must be neglected for the trapped ion to be considered as a harmonic oscillator. By applying the transformation of Cook and Shankland we find that the micromotion can be represented by two periodically oscillating operators. In order to investigate the effect of the micromotion on the dynamics of a trapped atom-ion system, we calculate (i) the coupling strengths of the micromotion operators by numerical integration and (ii) the quasienergies of the system by applying the Floquet formalism --- a useful framework for studying periodic systems. It turns out that the micromotion is not negligible when the distance between the atom and the ion traps is shorter than a characteristic distance. Within this range the energy diagr...

  20. Quantum Logic Between Distant Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Olmschenk, S; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Moehring, D L; Monroe, C

    2009-01-01

    Trapped atomic ions have proven to be one of the most promising candidates for the realization of quantum computation due to their long trapping times, excellent coherence properties, and exquisite control of the internal atomic states. Integrating ions (quantum memory) with photons (distance link) offers a unique path to large-scale quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. In this article, we present a detailed review of the experimental implementation of a heralded photon-mediated quantum gate between remote ions, and the employment of this gate to perform a teleportation protocol between two ions separated by a distance of about one meter.

  1. Development of a quadrupole trap apparatus for UHV measurements of levitated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Joyce; Nagornykh, Pavel; McAdams, Ian; Kane, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Completely decoupling graphene from any substrate opens up new possibilities for measurement of its electrical and mechanical properties as well as the exploration of novel methods of crystal growth and fabrication of 2D materials. We levitate a charged micron-scale few-layer graphene-like flake in an electrical AC quadrupole trap and induce rotation using a circularly polarized laser beam. We aim to achieve an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment (stretching (via rotation at frequencies greater than 100 MHz), to perform thermodynamic measurements on the particles as they are heated by the laser, and to avoid chemical contamination of the particles. Measurements of particles in UHV require two technologies: (1) the reliable capture of particles and their introduction into a UHV environment, and (2) a center-of-mass cooling method to prevent particle loss. This talk will focus on the first challenge. We will discuss improvements to the sample preparation and to the trapping procedure, describe a method of transferring particles from the initial capture trap to a second trap in a UHV chamber, and present a model of the trap potential. Finally, we will discuss preliminary work on the deposition of particles onto a conducting substrate after they have been cooled and oriented parallel to the substrate.

  2. Optical probing of Eu ions confined in an RF trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pushpa M Rao; Anita Gupta

    2012-01-01

    The Eu ions confined in an RF quadrupole trap, has been optically detected. Using a tunable dye laser which is pumped by a Nd-YAG pulsed laser system, the resonance ${}^9S_4–6 p_{3/2}$, = 5 transition of the Eu ions have been excited and the resulting fluorescence to the metastable ${}^9 D_{4−6}$ state has been detected. In preparation to determine the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the odd isotopes we found the optimum trapping operating point. We have also observed a number of instabilities inside the region of the stability for an ideal trap. These non-linear resonances arise from higher-order contributions to the ideal quadrupole potential.

  3. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  4. Prolonging coherence in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study pulse sequences that dynamically decouple 9Be+ ions from their decohering environment. The noise environment the ions see is artificially synthesized to emulate a variety of physical systems. By incorporating measurement feedback...

  5. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds.

  6. Studies of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission using Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, Kevin; Aprahamian, A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Burkey, M.; Caldwell, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Kolos, K.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G. E.; Norman, E. B.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Pérez Galván, A.; Sh, K. S.; Strauss, S. Y.; Wang, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap to confine radioactive ions allows indirect measurements of beta-delayed neutron (BDN) emission. By determining the recoil energy of the beta-decay daughter ions it is possible to study BDN emission, as the neutron emission can impart a significantly larger nuclear recoil than from beta-decay alone. This method avoids most of the systematic uncertainties associated with direct neutron detection but introduces dependencies on the specifics of the decay and interactions of the ion with the RF fields. The decays of seven BDN precursors were studied using the Beta-decay Paul Trap (BPT) to confine fission fragments from the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The analysis of these measurements and results for the branching ratios and neutron energy spectra will be presented. Supported by the NSF under grant PHY-1419765, and the U.S. DOE under the NEUP project 13-5485, contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL) and DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and award DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  7. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Andreas; Ruster, Thomas; Dawkins, Sam T; Ott, Konstantin; Hettrich, Max; Singer, Kilian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  8. Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorini, Grahame; Brown, Kenneth R; Harter, Alexa W; Doret, S Charles

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access, and enables rapid turnaround and flexiblity for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360 degrees of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics, and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.

  9. Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorini, Grahame; Wright, Kenneth; Brown, Kenneth R.; Harter, Alexa W.; Doret, S. Charles

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access and enables rapid turnaround and flexibility for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360° of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.

  10. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  11. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  12. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  13. Precision Measurement of the Quadrupole Transition Matrix Element in a Single Trapped $^{40}$Ca$^{+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, H; Guan, H; Li, C; Shi, T; Gao, K

    2016-01-01

    We report the first experimental determination of the $4s \\ ^{2}S_{1/2} $ $\\leftrightarrow $ $3d \\ ^{2}D_{5/2}$ quadrupole transition matrix element in $^{40}$Ca$^+$ by measuring the branching ratio of the $3d \\ ^{2}D_{5/2} $ state decaying into the ground state $4s \\ ^{2}S_{1/2} $ and the lifetime of the $3d \\ ^{2}D_{5/2} $ state, using a technique of highly synchronized measurement sequence for laser control and highly efficient quantum state detection for quantum jumps. The measured branching ratio and improved lifetime are, respectively, 0.9992(80) and 1.1652(46) s, which yield the value of the quadrupole transition matrix element (in absolute value) 9.737(43)~$ea_{0}^{2}$ with the uncertainty at the level of 0.44\\%. The measured quadrupole transition matrix element is in good agreement with the most precise many-body atomic structure calculations. Our method can be universally applied to measurements of transition matrix elements in single ions and atoms of similar structure.

  14. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  15. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  16. Quantum computation with ions in microscopic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašura, Marek; Steane, Andrew M.

    2002-12-01

    We discuss a possible experimental realization of fast quantum gates with high fidelity with ions confined in microscopic traps. The original proposal of this physical system for quantum computation comes from Cirac and Zoller (Nature 404, 579 (2000)). In this paper we analyse a sensitivity of the ion-trap quantum gate on various experimental parameters which was omitted in the original proposal. We address imprecision of laser pulses, impact of photon scattering, nonzero temperature effects and influence of laser intensity fluctuations on the total fidelity of the two-qubit phase gate.

  17. One single trapped and laser cooled radium ion: Towards an all-optical atomic clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, Oscar; Wansbeek, Lotje; Willmann, Lorenz; Timmermans, Rob; Jungmann, Klaus [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    One single trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for an all-optical frequency standard (*clock*). This system provides a long coherence time and tractable systematics. If the ion is laser cooled to the Lamb-Dicke regime, first order Doppler shifts are eliminated. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for such a high stability clock, using commercially available semiconductor lasers in the visible regime. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. Further, the radium ion is an excellent candidate for a high sensitivity experiment to search for a time variation of the finestructure constant.

  18. A Single Laser Cooled Trapped 40Ca+ Ion in a Miniature Paul Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Hua-Lin; GUAN Hua; HUANG Xue-Ren; LI Jiao-Mei; GAO Ke-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have observed the phenomenon of phase transition of a few trapped ions in a miniature Paul trap. Judging from the quantum jump signals, a single laser-cooled trapped Ca+ ion has been realized. The ion temperature is estimated to be 22mK. The result shows that the amplitude of ion micromotion is strongly dependent on the rf voltage.

  19. Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S; Rotter, D; Hennrich, M; Blatt, R [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rohde, F; Schuck, C; Almendros, M; Gehr, R; Dubin, F; Eschner, J [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av del Canal OlImpic, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)], E-mail: francois.dubin@icfo.es

    2009-01-15

    We observe quantum interference of photons emitted by two continuously laser-excited single ions, independently trapped in distinct vacuum vessels. High contrast two-photon interference is observed in two experiments with different ion species, Ca{sup +} and Ba{sup +}. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by Bloch equation calculations. In particular, we show that the coherence of the individual resonance fluorescence light field is determined from the observed interference.

  20. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.

    2016-12-01

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.

  1. Quantum Degenerate Fermi-Bose Mixtures of 40K and 87Rb Atoms in a Quadrupole-Ioffe Configuration Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG De-Zhi; CHEN Hai-Xia; WANG Peng-Jun; YU Xu-Dong; GAO Feng; ZHANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report on the attainment of quantum degeneracy of 40K by means of efficient thermal collisions with the evaporatively cooled 87Rb atoms.In a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap,potassium atoms are cooled to 0.5 times the Fermi temperature.We obtain up to 7.59 × 105 degenerate fermions 40K.

  2. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  3. Feedback cooling of a single trapped ion

    CERN Document Server

    Bushev, P; Wilson, A; Dubin, F; Becher, C; Eschner, J; Blatt, R; Steixner, V; Rabl, P; Zoller, P; Bushev, Pavel; Rotter, Daniel; Wilson, Alex; Dubin, Francois; Becher, Christoph; Eschner, Juergen; Blatt, Rainer; Steixner, Viktor; Rabl, Peter; Peter Zoller

    2005-01-01

    Based on a real-time measurement of the motion of a single ion in a Paul trap, we demonstrate its electro-mechanical cooling below the Doppler limit by homodyne feedback control (cold damping). The feedback cooling results are well described by a model based on a quantum mechanical Master Equation.

  4. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ejtemaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order-of-magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  5. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaee, S.; Haljan, P. C.

    2017-07-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of Yb+ 171 ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order of magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  6. Simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones in muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry%液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱同时确证和测定肌肉中16种同化甾体激素残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿伟; 蔡雪; 林黎明; 陈亮珍; 梁成珠; 鲍蕾; 汤志旭; 牛增元; 王凤美

    2012-01-01

    采用液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱(LC-Q/Trap-MS)建立了肌肉中16种同化甾体激素类物质(ASs)残留的同时确证及测定方法.肌肉中的ASs采用乙腈超声辅助提取,正己烷脱脂,氨基固相萃取柱净化,CAPCELL PAKC18 MGⅢ柱(150 mm×2.0 mm,5.0μm)分离,0.1% (v/v)甲酸-乙腈溶液和0.1% (v/v)甲酸-5 mmol/L甲酸铵水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;预设定多反应监测( sMRM)-信息依赖性采集(IDA)-增强子离子扫描(EPI)模式检测,在线EPI谱库确证,内标法定量.结果表明,16种ASs在线性范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999);定量限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为0.029~ 0.36 μg/kg;3个添加水平(0.5、2.0和20 μg/kg)下的回收率为89.9% ~ 118%;相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.3%~16.2%.该方法准确灵敏,一次性完成16种ASs的确证和测定,可有效用于肌肉组织中ASs残留的监测分析.%A comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones (ASs, including andorgens, gestagens and their esters) in muscle samples was developed with liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q/Trap-MS). The ASs in muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile under ultrasonic assistance. The extract was defatted by n-hexane with liquid-liquid partitioning and followed by clean-up with NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The separation of ana-lytes was carried out on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG Ⅲ column (150 mm ×2.0 mm, 5. 0 μm) using mobile phases of 0.1 % ( v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution with gradient elution. A scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) in positive mode as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was adopted in mass spectrometry acquisition. On-line lab-built MS/MS library and internal standards were employed for the

  7. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  8. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-02

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  9. Ion injection optimization for a linear Paul trap to study intense beam propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Chung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX is a linear Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear transverse dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in periodic-focusing quadrupole magnetic transport systems. Externally created cesium ions are injected and trapped in the long central electrodes of the PTSX device. In order to have well-matched one-component plasma equilibria for various beam physics experiments, it is important to optimize the ion injection. From the experimental studies reported in this paper, it is found that the injection process can be optimized by minimizing the beam mismatch between the source and the focusing lattice, and by minimizing the number of particles present in the vicinity of the injection electrodes when the injection electrodes are switched from the fully oscillating voltage waveform to their static trapping voltage.

  10. Development and Characterization of a 171Yb+ Miniature Ion Trap Frequency Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Partner, Heather L

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of a low-power, high-stability miniature atomic frequency standard based on 171Yb+ ions. The ions are buffer-gas cooled and held in a linear quadrupole trap that is integrated into a sealed, getter-pumped vacuum package, and interrogated on the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition. We hope to achieve a long-term fractional frequency stability of 10^-14 with a miniature clock that consumes only 50 mW of power and occupies a volume of 5 cm^3. I discuss our progress over several years of work on this project. We began by building a conventional tabletop clock to use as a test bed while developing several designs of miniature ion-trap vacuum packages, while also developing techniques for various aspects of the clock operation, including ion loading, laser and magnetic field stabilization, and a low power ion trap drive. The ion traps were modeled using boundary element software to assist with the design and parameter optimization of new trap geometries. We expect a novel trap...

  11. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with (40)Ca(+) and (88)Sr(+) ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in (40)Ca(+) is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10(-15) at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped (40)Ca(+) ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  12. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M. F.; van Mourik, M. W.; Postler, L.; Nolf, A.; Lakhmanskiy, K.; Paiva, R. R.; Möller, S.; Daniilidis, N.; Häffner, H.; Kaushal, V.; Ruster, T.; Warschburger, C.; Kaufmann, H.; Poschinger, U. G.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Schindler, P.; Monz, T.; Blatt, R.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40Ca+ and 88Sr+ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40Ca+ is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ṡ 10-15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40Ca+ ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  13. An in situ trap capacitance measurement and ion-trapping detection scheme for a Penning ion trap facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Ashif; Banerjee, Kumardeb; Das, Parnika; Ray, Kalyankumar; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar; Dam, Bivas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection. The setup is tested for the in situ measurement of trap capacitance at room temperature and the results are found to comply with those obtained from measurements using a high Q parallel resonant circuit setup driven by a standard RF signal generator. The Colpitts oscillator is also tested successfully for supplying RF power to the high Q resonant circuit, which is required for the detection of trapped electrons/ions.

  14. Micromotion Compensation and Photoionization of Ions in a Linear Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yi; ZHOU Fei; CHEN Liang; WAN Wei; FENG Mang

    2011-01-01

    @@ e confinement of ions in an electromagnetic trap is a prerequisite of sideband cooling and quantum information processing.For a string of ions in a linear ion trap,we report our recent efforts of compensating for micromotion of the ions by three methods,which yields narrower fluorescence spectra and lower temperature.We also achieve a photoionization scheme that loads the ions deterministically into the linear trap from an atomic beam.%The stable confinement of ions in an electromagnetic trap is a prerequisite of sideband cooling and quantum information processing. For a string of ions in a linear ion trap, we report our recent efforts of compensating for micromotion of the ions by three methods, which yields narrower fluorescence spectra and lower temperature. We also achieve a photoionization scheme that loads the ions deterministically into the linear trap from an atomic beam.

  15. Space-Time Crystals of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Space-Time Crystals of Trapped Ions Tongcang Li,1 Zhe-Xuan Gong ,2,3 Zhang- Qi Yin,3,4 H. T. Quan,5 Xiaobo Yin,1 Peng Zhang,1 L.-M. Duan,2,3 and Xiang...Z.-X. Gong , G.-D. Lin, and L.-M. Duan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 265703 (2010). [12] K. Kim, M.-S. Chang, S. Korenblit, R. Islam, E. E. Edwards, J. K

  16. Quantum Computation by Pairing Trapped Ultracold Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芒; 朱熙文; 高克林; 施磊

    2001-01-01

    Superpositional wavefunction oscillations for the implementation of quantum algorithms modify the desired interference required for the quantum computation. We propose a scheme with trapped ultracold ion-pairs beingqubits to diminish the detrimental effect of the wavefunction oscillations, which is applied to the two-qubitGrover's search. It can be also found that the qubits in our scheme are more robust against the decoherencecaused by the environment, and the model is scalable.

  17. Quantum computation with ``hot`` trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.F.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schneider, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Milburn, G.J. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The authors describe two methods that have been proposed to circumvent the problem of heating by external electromagnetic fields in ion trap quantum computers. Firstly the higher order modes of ion oscillation (i.e., modes other than the center-of-mass mode) have much slower heating rates, and can therefore be employed as a reliable quantum information bus. Secondly they discuss a recently proposed method combining adiabatic passage and a number-state dependent phase shift which allows quantum gates to be performed using the center-of-mass mode as the information bus, regardless of its initial state.

  18. Type of spiral wave with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuting; Li, Haihong; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2011-12-01

    Pattern formation in ultracold quantum systems has recently received a great deal of attention. In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional model system simulating the dynamics of trapped ions. We find a spiral wave that is rigidly rotating, but with a peculiar core region in which adjacent ions oscillate in antiphase. The formation of this spiral wave is ascribed to the excitability previously reported by Lee and Cross. The breakup of the spiral wave is probed and, especially, an extraordinary scenario of the disappearance of the spiral wave, caused by spontaneous expansion of the antiphase core, is unveiled.

  19. Screening of drugs and toxic compounds with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Duretz, Bénédicte; Deporte, Didier; Lachatre, Gérard; Marquet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, general unknown screening is used to detect and identify exogenous compounds. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive general unknown screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. After solid-phase extraction, separation was performed using gradient reversed-phase chromatography. The mass spectrometer was operated in the information-dependent acquisition mode, switching between a survey scan acquired in the Enhanced Mass Spectrometry mode with dynamic subtraction of background noise and a dependent scan obtained in the enhanced product ion scan mode. The complete cycle time was 1.36 s. A library of 1000 enhanced product ion-tandem mass spectrometry spectra in positive mode and 250 in negative mode, generated using 3 alternated collision tensions during each scan, was created by injecting pure solutions of drugs and toxic compounds. Comparison with HPLC-diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of 36 clinical samples showed that linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry could identify most of the compounds (94% of the total). Some compounds were detected only by 1 of the other 2 techniques. Specific clinical cases highlighted the advantages and limitations of the method. A unique combination of new operating modes provided by hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers and new software features allowed development of a comprehensive and efficient method for the general unknown screening of drugs and toxic compounds in blood or urine.

  20. Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    trap quantum computer . This architecture has two separate layers of scalability: the first is to increase the number of ion qubits in a single trap...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 02-06-2016 1-Aug-2010 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ion trap quantum computation , scalable modular architectures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  1. Resonance activation and collision-induced-dissociation of ions using rectangular wave dipolar potentials in a digital ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2014-04-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ions by resonance activation in a quadrupole ion trap is usually accomplished by resonance exciting the ions to higher kinetic energy, whereby the high kinetic energy ions collide with a bath gas, such as helium or argon, inside the trap and dissociate to fragments. A new ion activation method using a well-defined rectangular wave dipolar potential formed by dividing down the trapping rectangular waveform is developed and examined herein. The mass-selected parent ions are resonance excited to high kinetic energies by simply changing the frequency of the rectangular wave dipolar potential and dissociation proceeds. A relationship between the ion mass and the activation waveform frequency is also identified and described. This highly efficient (CID) procedure can be realized by simply changing the waveform frequency of the dipolar potential, which could certainly simplify tandem mass spectrometry analysis methods.

  2. In-Vacuum Electronics for Microfabricated Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Guise, Nicholas D; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Volin, Curtis; Brown, K R; Merrill, J True; Harter, Alexa W; Amini, Jason M; Lust, Lisa M; Muldoon, Kelly; Carlson, Doug; Budach, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The advent of microfabricated ion traps for the quantum information community has allowed research groups to build traps that incorporate an unprecedented number of trapping zones. However, as device complexity has grown, the number of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) channels needed to control these devices has grown as well, with some of the largest trap assemblies now requiring nearly one hundred DAC channels. Providing electrical connections for these channels into a vacuum chamber can be bulky and difficult to scale beyond the current numbers of trap electrodes. This paper reports on the development and testing of an in-vacuum DAC system that uses only 9 vacuum feedthrough connections to control a 78-electrode microfabricated ion trap. The system is characterized by trapping single and multiple $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. The measured axial mode stability, ion heating rates, and transport fidelities for a trapped ion are comparable to systems with external(air-side) National Instruments PXI-6733 DACs.

  3. Prospects for quantum computation with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; James, D.F.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past decade information theory has been generalized to allow binary data to be represented by two-state quantum mechanical systems. (A single two-level system has come to be known as a qubit in this context.) The additional freedom introduced into information physics with quantum systems has opened up a variety of capabilities that go well beyond those of conventional information. For example, quantum cryptography allows two parties to generate a secret key even in the presence of eavesdropping. But perhaps the most remarkable capabilities have been predicted in the field of quantum computation. Here, a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, and an overview of the in trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos are presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are discussed.

  4. Weak interactions in trapped single radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, L.; Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    The electroweak theory has been confirmed to great precision in high-energy accelerator experiments. One of the outstanding successful predictions of the theory was the existence of the Z{sup 0} boson, that is mixed with the photon and mediates interactions that do not conserve parity. The mixing angle varies with sca le due to the polarization of the vacuum by particle-antiparticle pairs. This has only poorly been tested. Interference of Z{sup 0} and photon exchange between the electrons and quarks in an atom or ion results in a tiny breakdown of parity selection rules. A high-precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle at low momentum scales is possible by monitoring quantum jumps in one single trapped Ra ion with precision laser and radiofrequency techniques combined. The proof of principle was recently given in pilot measurements at Seattle with one single Ba ion. A Ra{sup +} experiment can now be envisaged with a precision that, together wit h planned experiments at intermediate energy, can confirm the quantum structure of the electroweak theory over some five orders of magnitude in momentum scale. Such an experiment has been started at the TRI{mu}P facility of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, where the needed radioactive Ra isotopes can be produced online. The experiment uses will use a radiofrequency trap and is possible using several all solid state lasers in an elaborate time switching scheme.

  5. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, M F; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120~dB reduction of 50~Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than $\\pm$20~nm over 2~s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with $^{\\mathrm{40}}$Ca$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ and $^{\\mathrm{88}}$Sr$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in $^{\\mathrm{40}}$Ca$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ is characterized yielding a min...

  6. Many-Body Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Schaetz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. We report on the progress in experimentally simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions.

  7. Development of a linear ion trap/orthogonal-time-of-flight mass spectrometer for time-dependent observation of product ions by ultraviolet photodissociation of peptide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Schwartz, Jae C; Reilly, James P

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid linear ion trap/orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer has been developed to observe time-dependent vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation product ions. In this apparatus, a reflectron TOF mass analyzer is orthogonally interfaced to an LTQ using rf-only octopole and dc quadrupole ion guides. Precursor ions are generated by electrospray ionization and isolated in the ion trap. Subsequently they are directed to the TOF source where photodissociation occurs and product ions are extracted for mass analysis. To detect photodissociation product ions having axially divergent trajectories, a large rectangular detector is utilized. With variation of the time between photodissociation and orthogonal extraction in the TOF source, product ions formed over a range of times after photoexcitation can be sampled. Time-dependent observation of product ions following 157 nm photodissociation of a singly charged tryptic peptide ion (NWDAGFGR) showed that prompt photofragment ions (x- and v-type ions) dominate the tandem mass spectrum up to 1 micros after the laser shot, but the intensities of low energy thermal fragment ions (y-type ions) become comparable several microseconds later. Different proton mobilization time scales were observed for arginine- and lysine-terminated tryptic peptides.

  8. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  9. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap): An experimental realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Towards Quantum Simulations Using a Chip Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chenglin; Wright, Ken; Brennan, Daniel; Ji, Geoffrey; Monroe, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    We report our current experimental progress towards using chip ion traps for quantum simulation. Current progress is being made using a micro-fabricated symmetric trap from GTRI. This trap implements a novel two level design that combines the benefits of both surface traps and linear four-rod traps. The trap has 50 electrodes which allow for the fine control of the DC potential needed to create large anharmonic potentials, to join and split ion chains and to shuttle ions along the trapping axis similar to many surface traps. However this trap also has a much deeper trapping depth than conventional surface traps and improved optical access via an angled slot through the chip wide enough to accommodate higher power laser light which could cause surface charging or damage in a traditional chip trap. These advantages should allow trapping of long ion chains. We hope to use these features as the next step in increasing the size of current quantum simulations being done at Univ of Maryland, which are aimed at exploring quantum phenomena in spin systems in a regime inaccessible to classical simulation. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI. We acknowledge the GTRI team of J. Amini, K. Brown, A. Harter, F. Shaikh, R. Slusher, and C. Volin for the fabrication of the trap.

  11. Integrated Diffractive Optics for Surface Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streed, Erik; Ghadimi, Moji; Blums, Valdis; Norton, Benjamin; Connor, Paul; Amini, Jason; Volin, Curtis; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David

    2016-05-01

    Photonic interconnects are a bottleneck to achieving large-scale trapped ion quantum computing. We have modified a Georgia Tech Research Institute microwave chip trap by using e-beam lithography to write reflective diffractive collimating optics (80 μm x 127 μm, f=58.6 μm, λ=369.5nm) on the center electrode. The optics have an NA of 0.55 x 0.73, capturing 13.2% of the solid angle. To evaluate the optics 174Yb+ was loaded by isotope selective photo-ionization from a thermal oven and then shuttled to imaging sites. Near diffraction limited sub-wavelength ion images were obtained with an observed spot sized FWHM of 338 nm x 268 nm vs. a diffraction limit of 336 nm x 257 nm. The total photon collection efficiency was measured to be 5.2+/-1.2%. Coupling into a single mode fiber of up to 2.0+/-0.6% was observed, limited by mismatch in the coupling optics. Image mode quality indicates coupling up to 4% may be possible. Funding from Australian Research Council and IARPA.

  12. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k{sub {tau}}{rho}{sub bi} {much_lt} 1, where {rho}{sub bi} is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented.

  13. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  14. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  15. Successive Resonances for Ion Ejection at Arbitrary Frequencies in an Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-09-01

    The use of successive resonances for ion ejection is demonstrated here as a method of scanning quadrupole ion traps with improvement in both resolution and sensitivity compared with single frequency resonance ejection. The conventional single frequency resonance ejection waveform is replaced with a dual-frequency waveform. The two included frequencies are spaced very closely and their relative amplitudes are adjusted so that the first frequency that ions encounter excites them to higher amplitudes where space charge effects are less prominent, thereby giving faster and more efficient ejection when the ions come into resonance with the second frequency. The method is applicable at any arbitrary frequency, unlike double and triple resonance methods. However, like double and triple resonance ejection, ejection using successive resonances requires the rf and AC waveforms to be phase-locked in order to retain mass accuracy and mass precision. The improved performance is seen in mass spectra acquired by rf amplitude scans (resonance ejection) as well as by secular frequency scans.

  16. Efficient Fiber Optic Detection of Trapped Ion Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    VanDevender, A P; Amini, J; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2010-01-01

    Integration of fiber optics may play a critical role in the development of quantum information processors based on trapped ions and atoms by enabling scalable collection and delivery of light and coupling trapped ions to optical microcavities. We trap 24Mg+ ions in a surface-electrode Paul trap that includes an integrated optical fiber for detecting 280-nm fluorescence photons. The collection numerical aperture is 0.37 and total collection efficiency is 2.1 %. The ion can be positioned between 80 \\mum and 100 \\mum from the tip of the fiber by use of an adjustable rf-pseudopotential.

  17. Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintert, F; Wunderlich, C

    2001-12-17

    A quantum information processor is proposed that combines experimental techniques and technology successfully demonstrated either in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments or with trapped ions. An additional inhomogeneous magnetic field applied to an ion trap (i) shifts individual ionic resonances (qubits), making them distinguishable by frequency, and (ii) mediates the coupling between internal and external degrees of freedom of trapped ions. This scheme permits one to individually address and coherently manipulate ions confined in an electrodynamic trap using radiation in the radiofrequency or microwave regime.

  18. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Doret, S Charles; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C -S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled DC electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on DC electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/eleme...

  19. Ion-ion reactions for charge reduction of biopolymer at atmospheric pressure ambient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming Zhou; Jian Hua Ding; Xie Zhang; Huan Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization source (EESI) was adapted for ion-ion reaction, which was demonstrated by using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the first ion-ion reaction of biopolymers in the atmospheric pressure ambient.

  20. Test of Lorentz symmetry with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned

    2016-05-01

    The outcome of an experiment should not depend on the orientation of the apparatus in space. This important cornerstone of physics is deeply engrained into the Standard Model of Physics by requiring that all fields must be Lorentz invariant. However, it is well-known that the Standard Model is incomplete. Some theories conjecture that at the Planck scale Lorentz symmetry might be broken and measurable at experimentally accessible energy scales. Therefore, a search for violation of Lorentz symmetry directly probes physics beyond the Standard model. We present a novel experiment utilizing trapped calcium ions as a direct probe of Lorentz-violation in the electron-photon sector. We monitor the energy between atomic states with different orientations of the electronic wave-functions as they rotate together with the motion of the Earth. This is analogous to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. To remove magnetic field noise, we perform the experiment with the ions prepared in the decoherence-free states. Our result improves on the most stringent bounds on Lorentz symmetry for electrons by 100 times. The experimental scheme is readily applicable to many ion species, hence opening up paths toward much improved test of Lorentz symmetry in the future. (Ph. D. Advisor: Hartmut Haeffner, University of California, Berkeley).

  1. An Atomic Abacus: Trapped ion quantum computing experiments at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Brian

    2003-03-01

    Trapped atomic ions are an ideal system for exploring quantum information science because deterministic state preparation and efficient state detection are possible and coherent manipulation of atomic systems is relatively advanced. In our experiment, a few singly charged Be ions are confined by static and radio-frequency electric fields in a micro-machined linear Paul trap. The internal and motional states of the ions are coherently manipulated using applied laser light. Our current work focuses on demonstrating the necessary ingredients to produce a scalable quantum computing scheme and on simplifying and improving quantum logic gates. I will speak about a new set of experiments that was made possible by recent improvements in trap technology. A novel trap with multiple trapping regions was used to demonstrate the first steps towards a fully scalable quantum computing scheme. Single ions were ``shuttled" between trapping regions without disturbing the ion's motional and internal state, and two ions were separated from a single to two different trapping zones. Improvements in the trap manufacturing process has led to a reduction of nearly two orders of magnitude in the ion's motional heating rate, making possible two new improved logic gates. The first gate utilizes the wave-packet nature of the ions to tune the laser-atom interaction and achieve a controlled-NOT gate between a single ion's spin and motional states. The second, a two-ion phase gate, uses phase-space dynamics to produce a state-sensitive geometric phase. I will end with a quick look at experiments using a Mg ion to sympathetically cool a simultaneously trapped Be ion and a glimpse of the next generation of ions traps currently under construction.

  2. Microfabricated surface trap for scalable ion-photon interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Herskind, Peter F; Shi, Molu; Ge, Yufei; Cetina, Marko; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    The combination of high-finesse optical mirrors and ion traps is attractive for quantum light-matter interfaces, which represents an enabling resource for large scale quantum information processing. We report on a scalable approach to ion-photon interfaces based on a surface electrode ion trap that is microfabricated on top of a dielectric mirror, with additional losses due to fabrication as low as 80 ppm for light at 422 nm. Stable trapping of single 88 Sr+ ions is demonstrated and the functionality of the mirror is verified by light collection from, and imaging of, the ion $169 \\pm 4 \\mu$m above the mirror. Sensitivity to laser induced charging of the trap and substrate as well as anomalous heating of the ion at 15 K is evaluated and found comparable to similar traps fabricated on conventional substrates without dielectric mirror coatings.

  3. Is there a speed limit for trapped ion quantum computers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a speed limit for quantum processing for trapped ion quantum computers using the Kielpinski-Monroe-Wineland (KMW) architecture. The limiting speed for single-ion shuttling between a storage trap and a logic trap is constrained by the need to avoid excessive ion heating, excessive dephasing and decoherence due to the D.C. Stark effect. We estimate the relative significance of these errors and find that dephasing is dominant. We find that the minimum magnitude of dephasing is quadratic in the time of flight, and an inverse cubic in the operational time scale; from these relations, a limit on the operational speed of ion-trap quantum computers is deduced. Without subsequent phase correction, the maximum speed a qubit can be transferred across a 100 micron-long trap, without excessive error, in about 10 ns for calcium ion and 50 ps for beryllium ion.

  4. A System for Trapping Barium Ions in a Microfabricated Surface Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Richard D; Sakrejda, Tomasz; Wright, John; Zhou, Zichao; Blinov, Boris B

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing of microfabricated surface ion traps. Our system uses a modular design and is based on an in-vacuum PCB with integrated filters. We have used this system to successfully trap and cool barium ions. We have demonstrated ion 'dark' lifetimes of 31.6 s +- 3.4 s and controlled shuttling of ions using a custom 96 electrode control system with an update rate of 40 kHz.

  5. Trapped ion simulation of molecular spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangchao; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Shuaining; Huh, Joonsuk; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-05-01

    Boson sampling had been suggested as a classically intractable and quantum mechanically manageable problem via computational complexity theory arguments. Recently, Huh and co-workers proposed theoretically a modified version of boson sampling, which is designed to simulate a molecular problem, as a practical application. Here, we report the experimental implementation of the theoretical proposal with a trapped ion system. As a first demonstration, we perform the quantum simulation of molecular vibronic profile of SO2, which incorporates squeezing, rotation and coherent displacements operations, and the collective projection measurement on phonon modes. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China 11CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, National Natural Science Foundation of China 11374178, 11574002. Basic Science Research Program of Korea NRF-2015R1A6A3A04059773.

  6. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, Peter D. D., E-mail: pschwin@sandia.gov; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm{sup 3} in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of {sup 171}Y b{sup +}. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10{sup −11}/τ{sup 1/2}.

  7. Technologies for trapped-ion quantum information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eltony, Amira M; Shi, Molu; Bylinskii, Alexei; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L

    2015-01-01

    Scaling-up from prototype systems to dense arrays of ions on chip, or vast networks of ions connected by photonic channels, will require developing entirely new technologies that combine miniaturized ion trapping systems with devices to capture, transmit and detect light, while refining how ions are confined and controlled. Building a cohesive ion system from such diverse parts involves many challenges, including navigating materials incompatibilities and undesired coupling between elements. Here, we review our recent efforts to create scalable ion systems incorporating unconventional materials such as graphene and indium tin oxide, integrating devices like optical fibers and mirrors, and exploring alternative ion loading and trapping techniques.

  8. Technologies for trapped-ion quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltony, Amira M.; Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Bylinskii, Alexei; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2016-12-01

    Scaling up from prototype systems to dense arrays of ions on chip, or vast networks of ions connected by photonic channels, will require developing entirely new technologies that combine miniaturized ion trapping systems with devices to capture, transmit, and detect light, while refining how ions are confined and controlled. Building a cohesive ion system from such diverse parts involves many challenges, including navigating materials incompatibilities and undesired coupling between elements. Here, we review our recent efforts to create scalable ion systems incorporating unconventional materials such as graphene and indium tin oxide, integrating devices like optical fibers and mirrors, and exploring alternative ion loading and trapping techniques.

  9. Ion beam properties after mass filtering with a linear radiofrequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, R., E-mail: Rafael.Ferrer@fys.kuleuven.be [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kwiatkowski, A.A.; Bollen, G.; Lincoln, D.L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Morrissey, D.J.; Pang, G.K. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ringle, R. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Savory, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The properties of ion beams passing through a linear radiofrequency quadrupole mass filter were investigated with special attention to their dependence on the mass resolving power. Experimentally, an increase of the transverse emittance was observed as the mass-to-charge selectivity of the mass filter was raised. The experimental behavior was confirmed by beam transport simulations. -- Highlights: • The ion-optical properties of a Quadrupole Mass Filter (QMF) are presented. • Measured beam emittances follow a trend to larger values for smaller A/Q ratios and increasing mass resolution. • The experimental behavior was confirmed by beam transport simulations. • The use of a QMF for mass filtering comes at the cost of emittance growth of the ion beam.

  10. Grover search algorithm in an ion trap system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    Two schemes for the implementation of the two-qubit Grover search algorithm in the ion trap system are proposed.These schemes might be experimentally realizable with presently available techniques. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  11. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  12. Photodissociation of Trapped Rb2+: Implications for Simultaneous Trapping of Atoms and Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, S.; Ray, Tridib; Dutta, Sourav; Allouche, A. R.; Vexiau, Romain; Dulieu, Olivier; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The direct photodissociation of trapped 85Rb2+ (rubidium) molecular ions by the cooling light for the 85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) is studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Vibrationally excited Rb2+ ions are created by photoionization of Rb2 molecules formed photoassociatively in the Rb MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap. The decay rate of the trapped Rb2+ ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is observed. The photodissociation mechanism due to the MOT light is expected to be active and therefore universal for all homonuclear diatomic alkali metal molecular ions.

  13. Photodissociation of trapped Rb$^+_2$ : Implications for hybrid molecular ion-atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Dutta, Sourav; Allouche, A R; Vexiau, Romain; Dulieu, Olivier; Rangwala, S A

    2016-01-01

    We observe direct photodissociation of trapped $^{85}$Rb$_2^+$ molecular ions in the presence of cooling light for the $^{85}$Rb magneto optical trap (MOT). Vibrationally excited Rb$_{2}^{+}$ ions are created by photoionization of Rb$_{2}$ molecules formed photoassociatively in the rubidium (Rb) MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap co-centric with the MOT. The decay rate of the trapped Rb$_{2}^{+}$ ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is established. The photodissociation mechanism due to the MOT light is expected to be active and therefore universal for all homonuclear diatomic alkali metal molecular ions.

  14. Dynamics of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, P

    2013-01-01

    A linear ion trap setup has been developed for studying the dynamics of trapped ion cloud and thereby realizing possible systematics of a high precision measurement on a single ion within it. The dynamics of molecular nitrogen ion cloud has been investigated to extract the characteristics of the trap setup. The stability of trap operation has been studied with observation of narrow nonlinear resonances pointing out the region of instabilities within the broad stability region. The secular frequency has been measured and the motional spectra of trapped ion oscillation have been obtained by using electric dipole excitation. It is applied to study the space charge effect and the axial coupling in the radial plane.

  15. Ion traps in nuclear physics-Recent results and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, Tommi; Kankainen, Anu; Äystö, Juha

    2016-11-01

    Ion traps offer a way to determine nuclear binding energies through atomic mass measurements with a high accuracy and they are routinely used to provide isotopically or even isomerically pure beams of short-living ions for post-trap decay spectroscopy experiments. In this review, different ion-trapping techniques and progresses in recent nuclear physics experiments employing low-energy ion traps are discussed. The main focus in this review is on the benefit of recent high accuracy mass measurements to solve some key problems in physics related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics as well as neutrinos. Also, several cases of decay spectroscopy experiments utilizing trap-purified ion samples are summarized.

  16. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  17. Cold atom-ion experiments in hybrid traps

    CERN Document Server

    Härter, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, a novel field of physics and chemistry has developed in which cold trapped ions and ultracold atomic gases are brought into contact with each other. Combining ion traps with traps for neutral atoms yields a variety of new possibilities for research and experiments. These range from studies of cold atom-ion collisions and atom-ion chemistry to applications in quantum information science and condensed matter related research. In this article we give a brief introduction into this new field and describe some of the perspectives for its future development.

  18. Beam-transport study of an isocentric rotating ion gantry with minimum number of quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Marius [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Slovakia); Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH (Fotec), Viktor-Kaplan 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)]. E-mail: marius.pavlovic@stuba.sk; Griesmayer, Erich [Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH (Fotec), Viktor-Kaplan 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Seemann, Rolf [Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH (Fotec), Viktor-Kaplan 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2005-06-11

    A beam-transport study of an isocentric gantry for ion therapy is presented. The gantry is designed with the number of quadrupoles down to the theoretical minimum, which is the feature published for the first time in this paper. This feature has been achieved without compromising the ion-optical functions of the beam-transport system that is capable of handling non-symmetric beams (beams with different emittances in vertical and horizontal plane), pencil-beam scanning, double-achromatic optics and beam-size control. Ion-optical properties of the beam-transport system are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT-code.

  19. Comparative numerical studies of ion traps with integrated optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podoliak, Nina; Keller, Matthias; Horak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study a range of radio-frequency ion trap geometries and investigate the effect of integrating dielectric cavity mirrors on their trapping potential. We aim to identify ion trap and cavity configurations that are best suited for achieving small cavity volumes and thus large ion-photon coupling as required for scalable quantum information networks. In particular, we investigate the trapping potential distortions caused by the dielectric material of the cavity mirrors for different mirror orientations with respect to the trapping electrodes, as well as for mirror misalignment. We also analyze the effect of the mirror material properties such as dielectric constants and surface conductivity, and study the effect of surface charges on the mirrors. The smallest trapping potential distortions are found if the cavities are aligned along the major symmetry axis of the electrode geometries. These cavity configurations also appear to be the most stable with respect to any mirror misalignment.

  20. A Scalable Microfabricated Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, Peter; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Lobser, Daniel; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Rembetski, John; Resnick, Paul; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Stick, Daniel L.; Blain, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP) relies on complex microfabricated trap structures to enable scaling of the number of quantum bits. Building on previous demonstrations of surface-electrode ion traps, we have designed and characterized the Sandia high-optical-access (HOA-2) microfabricated ion trap. This trap features high optical access, high trap frequencies, low heating rates, and negligible charging of dielectric trap components. We have observed trap lifetimes of more than 100h, measured trap heating rates for ytterbium of less than 40quanta/s, and demonstrated shuttling of ions from a slotted to an above surface region and through a Y-junction. Furthermore, we summarize demonstrations of high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates realized in this trap. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  1. Quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成志; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap system. We discuss the quantum entanglement between the ion and phonons by using reduced entropy, and that between two degrees of freedom of the vibrational motion along x and y directions by using quantum relative entropy. We discuss also the influence of initial state of the system on the quantum entanglement and the relation between two entanglements in the trapped ion system.

  2. Quantum entanglement in a two—dimensional ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成志; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap system.we discuss the quantum entanglement between the ion and phonons by using reduced entropy,and that between two degrees of freedom of the vibrational motion along x and y directions by using quantum relative entropy.We discuss also the influence of initial state of the system on the quantum entanglement and the relation between two entanglements in the trapped ion system.

  3. Integrated optics architecture for trapped-ion quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielpinski, D.; Volin, C.; Streed, E. W.; Lenzini, F.; Lobino, M.

    2016-12-01

    Standard schemes for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP) involve the manipulation of ions in a large array of interconnected trapping potentials. The basic set of QIP operations, including state initialization, universal quantum logic, and state detection, is routinely executed within a single array site by means of optical operations, including various laser excitations as well as the collection of ion fluorescence. Transport of ions between array sites is also routinely carried out in microfabricated trap arrays. However, it is still not possible to perform optical operations in parallel across all array sites. The lack of this capability is one of the major obstacles to scalable trapped-ion QIP and presently limits exploitation of current microfabricated trap technology. Here we present an architecture for scalable integration of optical operations in trapped-ion QIP. We show theoretically that diffractive mirrors, monolithically fabricated on the trap array, can efficiently couple light between trap array sites and optical waveguide arrays. Integrated optical circuits constructed from these waveguides can be used for sequencing of laser excitation and fluorescence collection. Our scalable architecture supports all standard QIP operations, as well as photon-mediated entanglement channels, while offering substantial performance improvements over current techniques.

  4. Ion-neutral transport through quadrupole interfaces of mass-spectrometer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugroot, M.; Groth, C.P.T. [Univ. of Toronto, Inst. for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: jugroot@utias.utoronto.ca; groth@utias.utoronto.ca; Thomson, B.A.; Baranov, V.; Collings, B.A.; French, J.B. [MDS SCIEX, Concord, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The transport of free ions through highly under-expanded jet flows of neutral gases and in the presence of applied electric fields is investigated by continuum-based numerical simulations. In particular, numerical results are described which are relevant to ion flows occurring in quadrupole interfaces of mass spectrometer systems. A five-moment mathematical model and parallel multi-block numerical solution procedure is developed for predicting the ion transport. The model incorporates the effects of ion-neutral collision processes and is used in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes model and flow solver for the neutral gas to examine the key influences controlling the ion motion. The effects of the neutral gas flow, electric fields (both dc and rf), and flow field geometry on ion mobility are carefully assessed. The capability of controlling the charged particle motions through a combination of directed neutral flow and applied electric field is demonstrated for these high-speed, hypersonic, jet flows. (author)

  5. Ion cyclotron resonance detection techniques at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eibach, M.; Smorra, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Nagy, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Penning trap mass spectrometry the mass of stored ions is obtained via a determination of the cyclotron frequency ({nu}{sub c}=qB/(2 {pi} m)), for which two different techniques are available. The destructive time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance (TOF-ICR) technique, based on the measurement of the flight time of excited ions, is the established method for measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It is not ideally suited for rarely produced ion species, since typically some hundred ions are required for a single resonance spectrum. At the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP therefore a non-destructive narrow-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection system is being developed. It is based on the detection of the image currents induced by the stored ions in the trap electrodes and will ultimately reach single ion sensitivity. TRIGA-TRAP also features broad-band FT-ICR detection for the coarse identification of the trap content. Additionally, the TOF-ICR detection system has been recently improved to utilize the Ramsey excitation technique to gain in precision, and the position information of the ion impact to further suppress background events in the final time-of-flight spectrum.

  6. Charting molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines by fatty acid scanning and ion trap MS3 fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekroos, Kim; Ejsing, Christer S.; Bahr, Ute

    2003-01-01

    The molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in total lipid extracts was characterized by a combination of multiple precursor ion scanning on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and MS3 fragmentation on an ion trap mass spectrometer. Precursor ion spectra for 50 acyl...... spectrometer quantified the relative amount of their positional isomers, thus providing the most detailed and comprehensive characterization of the molecular composition of the pool of PCs at the low-picomole level. The method is vastly simplified, compared with conventional approaches, and does not require...... preliminary separation of lipid classes or of individual molecular species, enzymatic digestion, or chemical derivatization. The approach was validated by the comparative analysis of the molecular composition of PCs from human red blood cells. In the total lipid extract of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells...

  7. A single strontium Rydberg ion confined in a Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Gerard; Pokorny, Fabian; Zhang, Chi; Kress, Florian; Maier, Christine; Haag, Johannes; Bodart, Quentin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Hennrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Trapped Rydberg ions are a promising new system for quantum information processing. They have the potential to join the precise quantum operations of trapped ions and the strong, long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms. Technically, the ion trap will need to stay active while exciting the ions into the Rydberg state, else the strong Coulomb repulsion will quickly push the ions apart. Thus, a thorough understanding of the trap effects on Rydberg ions is essential for future applications. Here we report the observation of two fundamental trap effects. First, we investigate the interaction of the Rydberg electron with the quadrupolar electric trapping field. This effect leads to Floquet sidebands in the spectroscopy of Rydberg D-states whereas Rydberg S-states are unaffected due to their symmetry. Second, we report on the modified trapping potential in the Rydberg state compared to the ground state which results from the strong polarizability of the Rydberg ion. We observe the resultant energy shifts as a ...

  8. A scheme of quantum phase gate for trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement two-qubit controlled quantum phase gate(CQPG) via a single trapped twolevel ion located in the standing wave field of a quantum cavity, in which the trap works beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit. When the light field is resonant with the atomic transition |g〉←→|e〉of the ion located at the antinode of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the internal and external states of the trapped ion; while the frequency of the light field is chosen to be resonant with the first red sideband of the collective vibrational mode of the ion located at the node of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the cavity mode and the collective vibrational mode of the trapped ion. Neither the Lamb-Dicke approximation nor the assistant classical laser is needed. Also we can generate a GHZ state if assisted with a classical laser.

  9. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...... motional state onto one of the collective modes of the ion pair. The quantum state of this vibrational eigenmode is subsequently measured through sideband excitation of the bright ion. Physical processes to implement the desired state transfer are derived and the accomplishment of the scheme is evaluated...

  10. Optical and magnetic measurements of gyroscopically stabilized graphene nanoplatelets levitated in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornykh, Pavel; Coppock, Joyce E.; Murphy, Jacob P. J.; Kane, B. E.

    2017-07-01

    Using optical measurements, we demonstrate that the rotation of micron-scale graphene nanoplatelets levitated in a quadrupole ion trap in high vacuum can be frequency-locked to an applied radiofrequency electric field Erf. Over time, frequency-locking stabilizes the nanoplatelet so that its axis of rotation is normal to the nanoplatelet and perpendicular to Erf. We observe that residual slow dynamics of the direction of the axis of rotation in the plane normal to Erf is determined by an applied magnetic field. We present a simple model that accurately describes our observations. From our data and model, we can infer both a diamagnetic polarizability and a magnetic moment proportional to the frequency of rotation, which we compare to theoretical values. Our results establish that trapping technologies have applications for materials measurements at the nanoscale.

  11. Efficient fluorescence collection and ion imaging with the "tack" ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Kurz, N; Dietrich, M R; Blinov, B B

    2011-01-01

    Trapped, laser-cooled ions produce intense fluorescence. Detecting this fluorescence enables efficient measurement of quantum state of qubits based on trapped atoms. It is desirable to collect a large fraction of the photons to make the detection faster and more reliable. Additionally, efficient fluorescence collection can improve speed and fidelity of remote ion entanglement and quantum gates. Here we show a novel ion trap design that incorporates metallic spherical mirror as the integral part of the trap itself, being its RF electrode. The mirror geometry enables up to 35% solid angle collection of trapped ion fluorescence; we measure a 25% effective solid angle, likely limited by imperfections of the mirror surface. We also study properties of the images of single ions formed by the mirror and apply aberration correction. Owing to the simplicity of its design, this trap structure can be adapted for micro-fabrication and integration into more complex trap architectures.

  12. Measurement of low-energy Na^+ -- Na total collision rate in an ion--neutral hybrid trap

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Blümel, R; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the total elastic and resonant charge-exchange ion-atom collision rate coefficient $k_\\mathrm{ia}$ of cold sodium (\\ce{Na}) with optically-dark low energy \\ce{Na+} ions in a hybrid ion-neutral trap. To determine $k_\\mathrm{ia}$, we measured the trap loading and loss from both a \\ce{Na} magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a linear radio frequency quadrupole Paul trap. We found the total rate coefficient to be $7.4 \\pm 1.9 \\times 10^{-8}$ cm$^3$/s for the type I \\ce{Na} MOT immersed within an $\\approx 140$ K ion cloud and $1.10 \\pm 0.25 \\times 10^{-7}$ cm$^3$/s for the type II \\ce{Na} MOT within an $\\approx 1070$ K ion cloud. Our measurements show excellent agreement with previously reported theoretical fully quantal \\textit{ab initio} calculations. In the process of determining the total rate coefficient, we demonstrate that a MOT can be used to probe an optically dark ion cloud's spatial distribution within a hybrid trap.

  13. Trapped Ion Chain Thermometry and Mass Analysis Through Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, V; Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature measurement of individual laser cooled ions in a linear Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatial extent along the linear Paul trap axis to the normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of `bright' ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the secular resonance frequency of vibration of the center-of-mass mode of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped `dark' ions. These techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains and under conditions of non-uniform heat load, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and making in-situ temperature measurements of individual trapped ions without requiring a scan over the Doppler cooling parameters.

  14. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  15. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three or four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  16. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three o()four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  17. From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, M-H; Casanova, J; Mezzacapo, A; McClean, J; Lamata, L; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Solano, E

    2014-01-07

    Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.

  18. Trapped ion imaging with a high numerical aperture spherical mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, G; Dietrich, M R; Kurz, N; Blinov, B B, E-mail: shugang@u.washington.ed [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-1560 (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Efficient collection and analysis of trapped ion qubit fluorescence is essential for robust qubit state detection in trapped ion quantum computing schemes. We discuss simple techniques of improving photon collection efficiency using high numerical aperture (N.A.) reflective optics. To test these techniques we placed a spherical mirror with an effective N.A. of about 0.9 inside a vacuum chamber in the vicinity of a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate stable and reliable trapping of single barium ions, in excellent agreement with our simulations of the electric field in this setup. While a large N.A. spherical mirror introduces significant spherical aberration, the ion image quality can be greatly improved by a specially designed aspheric corrector lens located outside the vacuum system. Our simulations show that the spherical mirror/corrector design is an easy and cost-effective way to achieve high photon collection rates when compared to a more sophisticated parabolic mirror setup.

  19. Trapping of short lived Ra{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, H.; Nunes Portela, M.; Seelen, D.; Dermois, O.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen, NL (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A precision measurement of atomic parity violation in order to determine electroweak mixing angle at low energy scale is underway at the KVI, University of Groningen. The experiment exploits the large sensitivity of a single trapped Ra{sup +} ion. It requires the trapping of short lived radium ions in a Paul trap. Our first laser spectroscopy on an ensemble of trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} isotopes employed buffer gas cooled ions in a linear Paul trap. It provided hyperfine structure of the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states and isotope shift of the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition. In a next step the buffer gas cooled Ra ions are extracted from the trap and transported in an electrostatic transport system towards a small Paul trap in an UHV environment. Here the ion can be cooled and subsequently microwave transitions between hyperfine states in the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} manifold can be driven in order to yield high precision results on the hyperfine constants. These results provide input for the ongoing precision atomic structure calculations.

  20. Preparation of Cluster States with Trapped Ions in Thermal Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing

    2007-01-01

    @@ A potential scheme is proposed for generating cluster states of many trapped ions in thermal motion, in which the effective Hamiltonian does not involve the external degree of freedom and thus the scheme is insensitive to the external state, allowing it to be thermal state. The required experimental techniques of the schemes are within the scope that can be obtained in the ion-trap setup.

  1. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzker, A [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in (Jonathan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. A 62 042307). Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in a traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  2. Isobar Suppression by Photodetachment in a Gas-Filled RF Quadrupole Ion Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Havener, Aaron; Havener, Charles; Liang, Felix

    2005-01-01

    A novel method is described for selective suppression of isobar contaminants in negative radioactive ion beams. Negative ion beams extracted from an ion source were decelerated to low energies and injected into a gas-filled radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion guide where the ions were cooled and unwanted ions were selectively removed by non-resonant photodetachment with photons of sufficient energy. Simulation studies show that the laser-ion interaction time in a 40 cm long RFQ ion guide can be on the order of milliseconds, thus, high efficiency photodetachment is possible with commercially available CW lasers. There are a number of adjacent-Z species whose negative ions are such that photodetachment can be used to suppress the unwanted negative ion species while leaving the species of interest intact. Examples of particular interest include suppressing the 56Co- component in a mixed 56Ni- + 56Co- beam and the 17O- component in a mixed 17O- + 17F- beam. In a proof-of-principle experiment a CW Nd:YAG laser at...

  3. Weighing of trapped ion crystals and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel scheme to measure the secular motion of trapped ions. Employing pulsed excitation and analysis of the fluorescence of laser cooled ions, the COM-mode frequency of single as well as entire ion crystals can be measured to an accuracy of better than 100 Hz within an interrogation on the order of seconds, limited only by the fluorescence collection efficiency and the background noise. We have used this method to measure the mass of ions and observed charge exchange collisions between trapped calcium isotopes.

  4. Trapped-Ion State Detection through Coherent Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Leibrandt, D R; Thorpe, M J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2011-01-01

    Quantum-limited experiments with trapped atomic ions rely on sensitive methods of detecting an ion's state. Current detection techniques are applicable only to relatively simple systems, which precludes most atomic and molecular species. Here, we demonstrate a technique that can be applied to a larger class of ion systems. We couple a "spectroscopy" ion (Al+) to a "control" ion (Mg+) in the same trap and perform state detection through off-resonant laser excitation of the spectroscopy ion that induces coherent motion. The motional amplitude, dependent on the spectroscopy ion state, is measured either by time-resolved photon counting, or by resolved sideband excitations. The first method provides a simplified way to distinguish "clock" states in Al+, which avoids ground state cooling and sideband transitions. The second method reduces spontaneous emission and optical pumping on the spectroscopy ion, which we demonstrate by nondestructively distinguishing Zeeman sublevels in the 1S0 ground state of Al+.

  5. Sympathetic cooling of $^4$He$^+$ ions in a radiofrequency trap

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, B; Schiller, S

    2004-01-01

    We have generated Coulomb crystals of ultracold $^4$He$^+$ ions in a linear radiofrequency trap, by sympathetic cooling via laser--cooled $^9$Be$^+$. Stable crystals containing up to 150 localized He$^+$ ions at $\\sim$20 mK were obtained. Ensembles or single ultracold He$^+$ ions open up interesting perspectives for performing precision tests of QED and measurements of nuclear radii. The present work also indicates the feasibility of cooling and crystallizing highly charged atomic ions using $^9$Be$^+$ as coolant.

  6. Investigation of Ion Transmission Effects on Intact Protein Quantification in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn H.; Appulage, Dananjaya Kalu; McAllister, Erin A.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, direct intact protein quantitation using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was demonstrated (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 886-896 (2016)). Even though QqQ-MS is known to provide extraordinary detection sensitivity for quantitative analysis, we found that intact proteins exhibited a less than 5% ion transmission from the first quadrupole to the third quadrupole mass analyzer in the presence of zero collision energy (ZCE). With the goal to enhance intact protein quantitation sensitivity, ion scattering effects, proton transfer effects, and mass filter resolution widths were examined for their contributions to the lost signal. Protein standards myoglobin and ubiquitin along with small molecules reserpine and vancomycin were analyzed together with various collision induced dissociation (CID) gases (N2, He, and Ar) at different gas pressures. Mass resolution settings played a significant role in reducing ion transmission signal. By narrowing the mass resolution window by 0.35 m/z on each side, roughly 75%-90% of the ion signal was lost. The multiply charged proteins experienced additional proton transfer effects, corresponding to 10-fold signal reduction. A study of increased sensitivity of the method was also conducted with various MRM summation techniques. Although the degree of enhancement was analyte-dependent, an up to 17-fold increase in sensitivity was observed for ubiquitin using a summation of multiple MRM transitions. Biological matrix, human urine, and equine plasma were spiked with proteins to demonstrate the specificity of the method. This study provides additional insight into optimizing the use and sensitivity of QqQ-MS for intact protein quantification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Amplification of infrared multiphoton dissociation efficiency in a quadruple ion trap using IR-active ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey J; Aguilar, Apolonio; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2006-12-15

    A strategy for increasing the efficiency of infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is described. IR-active ligands (IRALs) are incorporated into noncovalent complexes of the type [M2+(analyte) IRAL]+, where M is a transition metal such as copper or cobalt and IRAL is an auxiliary ligand with an IR-active phosphonate functional group. The complexes are formed via self-assembly in solution directly prior to ESI-MS analysis. We demonstrate this new IRMPD approach for the structural characterization of flavonoids. The fragment ions obtained by IRMPD are similar to those obtained by CAD and allow facile isomer differentiation of flavonoids. Fourier transform infrared absorption attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and energy-variable CAD experiments indicate that the high IRMPD efficiencies stem from the very large IR absorptivities of the IR-active ligands.

  8. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  9. Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Nabanita; Smith, Alexander D; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radiofrequency waveform is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Excellent detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bi-component Ca+/CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by reaction of Ca+ with CH3F. A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated TOF peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multi-component Coulomb crystals - demonstrated here for Ca+/NH3+/NH4+ and Ca+/CaOH+/CaOD+ crystals - and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.

  10. Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...

  11. Trapping Mode Dipolar DC Collisional Activation in the RF-Only Ion Guide of a Linear Ion Trap/Time-of-Flight Instrument for Gaseous Bio-Ion Declustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian K.; Gao, Yang; Londry, Frank A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of dipolar DC (DDC) to the RF-only ion guide (Q0) of a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer for collision-induced declustering of large bio-ions is described. As a broadband technique, ion trap DDC collision activation (CA) is employed to decluster ions simultaneously over a relatively broad mass-to-charge range. Declustering DDC CA can yield significantly narrower peaks relative to those observed in the absence of declustering methods, depending upon the extent of non-covalent adduction associated with the ions, and can also be used in conjunction with other methods, such as nozzle-skimmer collisional activation. The key experimental variables in the DDC experiment are the dipolar DC voltage (VDDC), VRF, and the time over which VDDC is applied. The VDDC/VRF ratio is key to the extent to which ion temperatures are elevated and also influences the upper mass-to-charge limit for ion storage. The VDDC/VRF ratio affects ion temperatures and upper m/z limit in opposing directions. That is, as the ratio increases, ion temperature increases whereas the upper m/z storage limit decreases. However, for a given VDDC/VRF ratio, the upper m/z storage limit can be increased by increasing VRF, at the expense of the lower m/z limit for ion storage. The key value of the approach is that it affords a relatively precise degree of control over ion temperatures as well as the time over which they are elevated to the higher temperature. The utility of the method is illustrated by the application of ion trap DDC CA in Q0 to oligonucleotide, protein, and multimeric protein complex analyte ions. PMID:24078247

  12. Optical cavity integrated surface ion trap for enhanced light collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Francisco M.

    Ion trap systems allow the faithful storage and manipulation of qubits encoded in the energy levels of the ions, and can be interfaced with photonic qubits that can be transmitted to connect remote quantum systems. Single photons transmitted from two remote sites, each entangled with one quantum memory, can be used to entangle distant quantum memories by interfering on a beam splitter. Efficient remote entanglement generation relies upon efficient light collection from single ions into a single mode fiber. This can be realized by integrating an ion trap with an optical cavity and employing the Purcell effect for enhancing the light collection. Remote entanglement can be used as a resource for a quantum repeater for provably secure long-distance communication or as a method for communicating within a distributed quantum information processor. We present the integration of a 1 mm optical cavity with a micro-fabricated surface ion trap. The plano-concave cavity is oriented normal to the chip surface where the planar mirror is attached underneath the trap chip. The cavity is locked using a 780 nm laser which is stabilized to Rubidium and shifted to match the 369 nm Doppler transition in Ytterbium. The linear ion trap allows ions to be shuttled in and out of the cavity mode. The Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission into the cavity mode would then allow efficient collection of the emitted photons, enabling faster remote entanglement generation.

  13. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.

    2013-01-01

    17 + . However, lasers pectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large (∼ 106 K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic...... linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by 9Be +  ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT...... will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies inIr 17+ , enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI....

  14. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Djekic, S. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Haeffner, H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Hermanspahn, N. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Moore, R. [McGill University (Canada); Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Weber, C. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Werth, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Duha; B Shikha; A A Mamun

    2011-08-01

    A dusty multi-ion plasma system consisting of non-isothermal (trapped) electrons, Maxwellian (isothermal) light positive ions, warm heavy negative ions and extremely massive charge fluctuating stationary dust have been considered. The dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves associated with negative ion dynamics, Maxwellian (isothermal) positive ions, trapped electrons and charge fluctuating stationary dust have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The basic features of such dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been identified. The implications of our findings in space and laboratory dusty multi-ion plasmas are discussed.

  16. Trapped-Ion State Detection through Coherent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Chou, C. W.; Leibrandt, D. R.; Thorpe, M. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate a general method for state detection of trapped ions that can be applied to a large class of atomic and molecular species. We couple a spectroscopy ion (Al+27) to a control ion (Mg+25) in the same trap and perform state detection through off-resonant laser excitation of the spectroscopy ion that induces coherent motion. The motional amplitude, dependent on the spectroscopy ion state, is measured either by time-resolved photon counting or by resolved sideband excitations on the control ion. The first method provides a simplified way to distinguish clock states in Al+27, which avoids ground-state cooling and sideband transitions. The second method reduces spontaneous emission and optical pumping on the spectroscopy ion, which we demonstrate by nondestructively distinguishing Zeeman sublevels in the S01 ground state of Al+27.

  17. Towards Non-Equilibrium Dynamics with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Ariel; Jubin, Sierra; Doret, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Atomic systems are superbly suited to the study of non-equilibrium dynamics. These systems' exquisite isolation from environmental perturbations leads to long relaxation times that enable exploration of far-from-equilibrium phenomena. One example of particular relevance to experiments in trapped ion quantum information processing, metrology, and precision spectroscopy is the approach to thermal equilibrium of sympathetically cooled linear ion chains. Suitable manipulation of experimental parameters permits exploration of the quantum-to-classical crossover between ballistic transport and diffusive, Fourier's Law conduction, a topic of interest not only to the trapped ion community but also for the development of microelectronic devices and other nanoscale structures. We present progress towards trapping chains of multiple co-trapped calcium isotopes geared towards measuring thermal equilibration and discuss plans for future experiments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. This work is supported by Cottrell College Science Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and by Williams College.

  18. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  19. High-fidelity transport of trapped-ion qubits through an X-junction trap array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakestad, R B; Ospelkaus, C; VanDevender, A P; Amini, J M; Britton, J; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2009-04-17

    We report reliable transport of (9)Be(+) ions through an "X junction" in a 2D trap array that includes a separate loading and reservoir zone. During transport the ion's kinetic energy in its local well increases by only a few motional quanta and internal-state coherences are preserved. We also examine two sources of energy gain during transport: a particular radio-frequency noise heating mechanism and digital sampling noise. Such studies are important to achieve scaling in a trapped-ion quantum information processor.

  20. The Temperature Effects on the Ion Trap Quantum Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin; JiatiLIN

    2001-01-01

    We consider one source of decoherence for a quantum computer composed of many trapped ions due to the thermal effects of the system in the presence of laser-ion interaction.The upper limit of the temperature at which the logical gate operations could be carried out reliably is given,and our result is agreement with the experiment.

  1. Evaluation of Pulse Counting for the Mars Organic Mass Analyzer (MOMA) Ion Trap Detection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Amerom, Friso H.; Short, Tim; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Kleyner, Igor; Cotter, Robert J.; Pinnick, Veronica; Hoffman, Lars; Danell, Ryan M.; Lyness, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Organic Mass Analyzer is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to identify organics and possible biological compounds on Mars. In the process of characterizing mass spectrometer size, weight, and power consumption, the use of pulse counting was considered for ion detection. Pulse counting has advantages over analog-mode amplification of the electron multiplier signal. Some advantages are reduced size of electronic components, low power consumption, ability to remotely characterize detector performance, and avoidance of analog circuit noise. The use of pulse counting as a detection method with ion trap instruments is relatively rare. However, with the recent development of high performance electrical components, this detection method is quite suitable and can demonstrate significant advantages over analog methods. Methods A prototype quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer with an internal electron ionization source was used as a test setup to develop and evaluate the pulse-counting method. The anode signal from the electron multiplier was preamplified. The an1plified signal was fed into a fast comparator for pulse-level discrimination. The output of the comparator was fed directly into a Xilinx FPGA development board. Verilog HDL software was written to bin the counts at user-selectable intervals. This system was able to count pulses at rates in the GHz range. The stored ion count nun1ber per bin was transferred to custom ion trap control software. Pulse-counting mass spectra were compared with mass spectra obtained using the standard analog-mode ion detection. Prelin1inary Data Preliminary mass spectra have been obtained for both analog mode and pulse-counting mode under several sets of instrument operating conditions. Comparison of the spectra revealed better peak shapes for pulse-counting mode. Noise levels are as good as, or better than, analog-mode detection noise levels. To artificially force ion pile-up conditions, the ion trap was overfilled

  2. Direct Measurement of Squeezing in the Motion of Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hao-Sheng; HU Ai-Qin; LIU Qiong; KUANG Le-Man

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a simple method that can be used to directly measure the squeezing of the quantum motional states of a trapped ion.Through the use of the interaction between the trapped ion and classical lasers, one can design a required coupling between the internal electronic and external vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and can transfer information of the expectation value of a vibrational operator to the atomic internal populations.Thus measurement of squeezing on the quantum motional state can directly be realized.By adjusting the phases of the interacting lasers, one can measure the squeezing of both position and momentum quadratures.

  3. A Linear RFQ Ion Trap for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatt, B.; Green, M.; Wodin, J.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Gratta, G.; LePort, F.; Montero Diez, M.; Neilson, R.; O' Sullivan, K.; Pocar, A.; Baussan, E.; Breidenbach, M.; Conley, R.; Fairbank Jr., W.; Farine, J.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Hauger, M.; Hodgson, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Neuchatel U. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /Alabama U.

    2008-01-14

    The design, construction, and performance of a linear radio-frequency ion trap (RFQ) intended for use in the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) are described. EXO aims to detect the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe to {sup 136}Ba. To suppress possible backgrounds EXO will complement the measurement of decay energy and, to some extent, topology of candidate events in a Xe filled detector with the identification of the daughter nucleus ({sup 136}Ba). The ion trap described here is capable of accepting, cooling, and confining individual Ba ions extracted from the site of the candidate double-beta decay event. A single trapped ion can then be identified, with a large signal-to-noise ratio, via laser spectroscopy.

  4. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  5. Ion Trapping, Storage, and Ejection in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Prost, Spencer A; Webb, Ian K; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Norheim, Randolph V; Baker, Erin S; Anderson, Gordon A; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D

    2015-06-16

    A new Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module, having electrode arrays patterned on a pair of parallel printed circuit boards (PCB), was constructed and utilized to investigate capabilities for ion trapping at a pressure of 4 Torr. Positive ions were confined by application of RF voltages to a series of inner rung electrodes with alternating phase on adjacent electrodes, in conjunction with positive DC potentials on surrounding guard electrodes on each PCB. An axial DC field was also introduced by stepwise varying the DC potentials applied to the inner rung electrodes to control the ion transport and accumulation inside the ion trapping region. We show that ions can be trapped and accumulated with up to 100% efficiency, stored for at least 5 h with no significant losses, and then could be rapidly ejected from the SLIM trap. The present results provide a foundation for the development of much more complex SLIM devices that facilitate extended ion manipulations.

  6. Installation and operation of a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher and offline commissioning of the TRIGA-SPEC ion beam preparation transfer line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    The dominant fraction of elements heavier than iron was created in stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron-capture reactions. The isotopic compositions of these elements are the fingerprints of the involved processes, and a huge amount of experimental data on these isotopes is required to support corresponding astrophysical calculations and models. The TRIGA-SPEC experiment aims to contribute to these data by the measurement of ground-state properties of neutron-rich heavy nuclides. It consists of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP for the determination of masses, Q-values and binding energies, and the collinear laser spectroscopy setup TRIGALASER for the determination of charge radii, nuclear spins, and moments. The nuclides of interest are produced by neutron-induced fission of an actinide target inside the research reactor TRIGA Mainz and ionized in an online ion source. In the context of this thesis, the two experiments were coupled to the reactor, completing the ion beam preparation transfer line. This included the implementation and commissioning of a radio-frequency quadrupole for the emittance reduction and accumulation of the ions. The functionality of the ion beam preparation was verified by successful test measurements of stable nuclides produced in the online ion source.

  7. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  8. Multiple and sequential data acquisition method: an improved method for fragmentation and detection of cross-linked peptides on a hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Breitwieser, Florian P; Huber, Marie L; Colinge, Jacques; Müller, André C; Bennett, Keiryn L

    2013-02-05

    The identification and validation of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry remains a daunting challenge for protein-protein cross-linking approaches when investigating protein interactions. This includes the fragmentation of cross-linked peptides in the mass spectrometer per se and following database searching, the matching of the molecular masses of the fragment ions to the correct cross-linked peptides. The hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos combines the speed of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) duty circle with high mass accuracy, and these features were utilized in the current study to substantially improve the confidence in the identification of cross-linked peptides. An MS/MS method termed multiple and sequential data acquisition method (MSDAM) was developed. Preliminary optimization of the MS/MS settings was performed with a synthetic peptide (TP1) cross-linked with bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS(3)). On the basis of these results, MSDAM was created and assessed on the BS(3)-cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) homodimer. MSDAM applies a series of multiple sequential fragmentation events with a range of different normalized collision energies (NCE) to the same precursor ion. The combination of a series of NCE enabled a considerable improvement in the quality of the fragmentation spectra for cross-linked peptides, and ultimately aided in the identification of the sequences of the cross-linked peptides. Concurrently, MSDAM provides confirmatory evidence from the formation of reporter ions fragments, which reduces the false positive rate of incorrectly assigned cross-linked peptides.

  9. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ions in Penning traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, John R

    2009-01-01

    The ability of Paul and Penning traps to contain ions for time periods ranging from milliseconds to minutes allows the trapped ions to be subjected to laser irradiation for extended lengths of time. In this way, relatively low-powered tunable infrared lasers can be used to induce ion fragmentation when a sufficient number of infrared photons are absorbed, a process known as infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). If ion fragmentation is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, a photodissociation action spectrum can be obtained. The development of widely tunable infrared laser sources, in particular free electron lasers (FELs) and optical parametric oscillators/amplifiers (OPO/As), now allows spectra of trapped ions to be obtained for the entire "chemically relevant" infrared spectral region. This review describes experiments in which tunable infrared lasers have been used to irradiate ions in Penning traps. Early studies which utilized tunable carbon dioxide lasers with a limited output range are first reviewed. More recent studies with either FEL or OPO/A irradiation sources are then covered. The ionic systems examined have ranged from small hydrocarbons to multiply charged proteins, and they are discussed in approximate order of increasing complexity.

  10. Observation and mitigation of ion trapping in Indus-2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saroj Jena; A D Ghodke

    2015-12-01

    The presence of trapped ions in electron storage rings causes considerable degradation in the performances of the beam, such as increase in beam size, reduction in beam lifetime, shifting of betatron tune, beam instabilities etc. This paper discusses the effects of ion trapping and its mitigation in Indus-2 electron storage ring. Ion-induced instability generating partial beam loss is one of the main barriers in higher beam current accumulation in any electron storage ring. Though there are several techniques to clear the ions from the electron beam path, in Indus-2, it is addressed mainly by filling the storage ring in partial bunch filling pattern. In order to improve the electron beam performance and to mitigate the ion-related problem, a suitable bunch filling pattern has been determined. The theoretical prediction and the result of optimal bunch filling pattern are presented in this paper.

  11. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, A; Singer, K; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  12. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  13. Online spectroscopy of trapped short-lived radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Non-Conservation (APNC) can be measured in a single trapped Ra{sup +}. This enables a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle (Weinberg angle) in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy has been performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structures, isotope shifts and lifetimes are important input for the required atomic theory, the precision of which is indispensable to extract the Weinberg angle. The experimental set up for laser cooling and trapping a single radium ion is underway.

  14. Entangling quantum gate in trapped ions via Rydberg blockade

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weibin

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the implementation of an entangling quantum gate between two trapped Ca$^+$ ions which is based on the dipolar interaction among ionic Rydberg states. In trapped ions the Rydberg excitation dynamics is usually strongly affected by mechanical forces due to the strong couplings between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in inhomogeneous electric fields. We demonstrate that this harmful effect can be overcome by using dressed states that emerge from the microwave coupling of nearby Rydberg states. At the same time these dressed states exhibit long range dipolar interactions which we use to implement a controlled adiabatic phase gate. Our study highlights a route towards a trapped ion quantum processor in which quantum gates are realized independently of the vibrational modes.

  15. Ion-Trapping Effect in UVSOR Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Toshio; Yonehara, Hiroto; Kinoshita, Toshio; Hasumoto, Masami

    1985-09-01

    UVSOR is an electron-stage ring dedicated to vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation research. The first beam was stored in the ring in November 1983, and from that time on, efforts have been devoted to improving the performance of the ring. Some inconvenient phenomena have been found during the accelerator studies. One of the most serious problems is the growth of the vertical size of the electron beam. This phenomenon is explained by the ion-trapping effect, in which the ions trapped in the electron beam change the operating point of the storage ring and enhance the coupling between horizontal and vertical oscillations, resulting in a considerable increase in the vertical beam size. This ion trapping was successfully cured by the RF knockout method, which excited the betatron oscillation.

  16. Scalable Digital Hardware for a Trapped Ion Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Emily; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2015-01-01

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for trapping and cooling the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  17. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  18. Ion trap with integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Yu, Peter; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported an ion trap experiment with an integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) [Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, 034013 (2014)] focussing on the improvement of mass resolution and detection limit due to sample preparation at millikelvin temperatures. The system utilizes a radio-frequency (RF) ion trap with asymmetric drive for storing and manipulating laser-cooled ions and features radial extraction into a compact $275$ mm long TOF drift tube. The mass resolution exceeds $m / \\Delta m = 500$, which provides isotopic resolution over the whole mass range of interest in current experiments and constitutes an improvement of almost an order of magnitude over other implementations. In this manuscript, we discuss the experimental implementation in detail, which is comprised of newly developed drive electronics for generating the required voltages to operate RF trap and TOFMS, as well as control electronics for regulating RF outputs and synchronizing the TOFMS extraction.

  19. Laser ablation loading of a radiofrequency ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, K; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Peik, E

    2012-01-01

    The production of ions via laser ablation for the loading of radiofrequency (RF) ion traps is investigated using a nitrogen laser with a maximum pulse energy of 0.17 mJ and a peak intensity of about 250 MW/cm^2. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to measure the ion yield and the distribution of the charge states. Singly charged ions of elements that are presently considered for the use in optical clocks or quantum logic applications could be produced from metallic samples at a rate of the order of magnitude 10^5 ions per pulse. A linear Paul trap was loaded with Th+ ions produced by laser ablation. An overall ion production and trapping efficiency of 10^-7 to 10^-6 was attained. For ions injected individually, a dependence of the capture probability on the phase of the RF field has been predicted. In the experiment this was not observed, presumably because of collective effects within the ablation plume.

  20. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  1. Decoherence of superposition states in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the decoherence of superpositions of hyperfine states of 9Be+ ions due to spontaneous scattering of off-resonant light. It was found that, contrary to conventional wisdom, elastic Raleigh scattering can have major...

  2. Franck-Condon Physics in a Single Trapped Ion

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Y M; Xu, Y Y; Zhou, F; Chen, L; Gao, Kelin; Feng, Mang; Lee, Chaohong

    2010-01-01

    We explore the Franck-Condon physics in a single ion confined in a spin-dependent potential, formed by the combination of a Paul trap and a gradient magnetic field. The correlation between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom called as electron-vibron coupling is induced by a nonzero gradient. The strong electron-vibron coupling could be employed to suppress or even block some quantum vibrational transitions of the trapped ion. This collective phenomenon is known as the Franck-Condon blockade. Furthermore, we propose how to apply the ionic Franck-Condon physics for quantum logic operation, preparation of motional Fock state and sideband cooling.

  3. Disordered complex systems using cold gases and trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    De, A S; Lewenstein, M; Ahufinger, V; Pons, M L; Sanpera, A; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ahufinger, Veronica; Pons, Marisa Ll.; Sanpera, Anna

    2005-01-01

    We report our research on disordered complex systems using cold gases and trapped ions, and address the possibility of using complex systems for quantum information processing. Two simple paradigmatic models of disordered complex systems are revisited here. The first one corresponds to a short range disordered Ising Hamiltonian (spin glasses), which can be implemented with a Bose-Fermi (Bose-Bose) mixture in a disordered optical lattice. The second model we address here is a long range disordered Hamiltonian, characteristic of neural networks (Hopfield model), which can be implemented in a chain of trapped ions with appropriately designed interactions.

  4. Potential distribution and transmission characteristics in a curved quadrupole ion guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Xiong, Caiqiao; Xu, Gaoping; Liu, Hao; Tang, Yin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Rui; Qiao, Haoxue; Tseng, Yao-Hsin; Peng, Wen-Ping; Nie, Zongxiu; Chen, Yi

    2011-02-01

    The potential distribution in the curved quadrupole is exactly characterized by the Laplace equation, and an approximate solution to the Laplace equation is calculated. We represent the Laplace equation under the coordinates named minimal rotation frame (MRF) and derive an expression on the hexapole and octopole superposition. Our conclusion is in agreement with the results by the numerical (SIMION) method. Based on the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method reported in our previous work, the nonlinear effects of ion motion are investigated in detail. The frequency shift of ion motion can be well eliminated by coupling the hexapole component with a positive octopole component, and the transmission efficiency of ions is found to decrease dramatically with the increase of the ionic kinetic energy in the z-direction. Furthermore, the transmission characteristics of ions are discussed with regards to the phase-space theory. The results show that the centrifugally introduced axis shift is mainly responsible for the ion losses. A modified direct current (dc) voltage supply pattern is hence proposed to compensate for this effect.

  5. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  6. Exact Quantum Logic Gates with a Single Trapped Cold Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦联福; 刘世勇; 雷啸霖

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative scheme to exactly implement one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates with a single trapped cold ion driven by a travelling laser field. The internal degree of freedom of the ion acts as the target qubit and the control qubit is encoded by two Fock states of the external vibration of the ion. The conditions to realize these operations, including the duration of each applied laser pulse and Lamb-Dicke parameter, are derived. In our scheme neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation is required. The multiquantum transition between the internal and external degrees of freedom of the ion is considered.

  7. Linear ion trap imperfection and the compensation of excess micromotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Yi; Wan Wei; Zhou Fei; Chen Liang; Li Chao-Hong; Feng Mang

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computing requires ultracold ions in a ground vibrational state,which is achieved by sideband cooling.We report our recent efforts towards the Lamb-Dicke regime which is a prerequisite of sideband cooling.We first analyse the possible imperfection in our linear ion trap setup and then demonstrate how to suppress the imperfection by compensating the excess micromotion of the ions.The ions,after the micromotion compensation,are estimated to be very close to the Doppler-cooling limit.

  8. Mobility-Selected Ion Trapping and Enrichment Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Webb, Ian K; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Zhang, Xing; Hamid, Ahmed M; Deng, Liulin; Karnesky, William E; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-02-02

    The integration of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the ability to trap ions in IMS-MS measurements is of great importance for performing reactions, accumulating ions, and increasing analytical measurement sensitivity. The development of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) offers the potential for ion manipulations in an extended and more effective manner, while opening opportunities for many more complex sequences of manipulations. Here, we demonstrate an ion separation and trapping module and a method based upon SLIM that consists of a linear mobility ion drift region, a switch/tee and a trapping region that allows the isolation and accumulation of mobility-separated species. The operation and optimization of the SLIM switch/tee and trap are described and demonstrated for the enrichment of the low abundance ions. A linear improvement in ion intensity was observed with the number of trapping/accumulation events using the SLIM trap, illustrating its potential for enhancing the sensitivity of low abundance or targeted species.

  9. A quantum parametric oscillator with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Shiqian; Hablutzel, Roland; Loh, Huanqian; Matsukevich, Dzmitry

    2015-01-01

    A system of harmonic oscillators coupled via nonlinear interaction is a fundamental model in many branches of physics, from biophysics to electronics and condensed matter physics. In quantum optics, weak nonlinear interaction between light modes has enabled, for example, the preparation of squeezed states of light and generation of entangled photon pairs. While strong nonlinear interaction between the modes has been realized in circuit QED systems, achieving significant interaction strength on the level of single quanta in other physical systems remains a challenge. Here we experimentally demonstrate such interaction that is equivalent to photon up- and down-conversion using normal modes of motion in a system of two Yb ions. The nonlinearity is induced by the intrinsic anharmonicity of the Coulomb interaction between the ions and can be used to simulate fully quantum operation of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator. We exploit this interaction to directly measure the parity and Wigner functions of ion ...

  10. Two-photon interaction between trapped ions and cavity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Semião, F L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the ordinary two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model (TPJCM) by considering the atom (or ion) to be trapped in a simple harmonic well. A typical setup would be an optical cavity containing a single ion in a Paul trap. Due to the inclusion of atomic vibrational motion, the atom-field coupling becomes highly nonlinear what brings out quite different behaviors for the system dynamics when compared to the ordinary TPJCM. In particular, we derive an effective two-photon Hamiltonian with dependence on the number operator of the ion's center-of-mass motion. This dependence occurs both in the cavity induced Stark-shifs and in the ion-field coupling, and its role in the dynamics is illustrated by showing the time evolution of the probability of occupation of the electronic levels for simple initial preparations of the state of the system.

  11. Quantum Reservoir Engineering with Laser Cooled Trapped Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, J.; Cirac, J.I.; Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-12-01

    We show how to design different couplings between a single ion trapped in a harmonic potential and an environment. The coupling is due to the absorption of a laser photon and subsequent spontaneous emission. The variation of the laser frequencies and intensities allows one to {open_quote}{open_quote}engineer{close_quote}{close_quote} the coupling and select the master equation describing the motion of the ion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. A System for Trapping Barium Ions in a Microfabricated Surface Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zichao; Wright, John; Graham, Richard; Sakrejda, Tomasz; Chen, Bing; Blinov, Boris; Musiqc Team

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing and development of microfabricated surface traps. Barium ions have been successfully cooled and trapped in this system. The dark lifetime of a single 138Ba + in this trap is up to 30s. And we can shuttle of ions at rate of 8 cm/s between different potential zones. Our system uses a modular design and is based on an in-vacuum PCB with integrated filters. Control of up to 96 DC electrodes is achieved with an update rate of 20 kHz using a custom FPGA based control system. Collection of fluorescence light over a numerical aperture of 0.28 has been achieved. This work is supported by IAPRA.

  13. Cluster observations of trapped ions interacting with magnetosheath mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror modes are among the most intense low frequency plasma wave phenomena observed in the magnetosheaths of magnetized planets. They appear as large amplitude non-propagating fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude and plasma density. These structures are widely accepted to represent a non-linear stage of the mirror instability, dominant in plasmas with large ion beta and a significant ion temperature anisotropy T/T>1. It has long been recognized that the mirror instability both in the linear and non-linear stage is a kinetic process and that the behavior of resonant particles at small parallel velocities is crucial for its development and saturation. While the dynamics of the instability and the effect of trapped particles have been studied extensively in theoretical models and numerical simulations, only spurious observations of the trapped ions were published to date. In this work we used data from the Cluster spacecraft to perform the first detailed experimental study of ion velocity distribution associated with mirror mode oscillations. We show a conclusive evidence for the predicted cooling of resonant ions at small parallel velocities and heating of trapped ions at intermediate pitch angles.

  14. Interfacing an ion mobility spectrometry based explosive trace detector to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozole, Joseph; Stairs, Jason R; Cho, Inho; Harper, Jason D; Lukow, Stefan R; Lareau, Richard T; DeBono, Reno; Kuja, Frank

    2011-11-15

    Hardware from a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) based explosive trace detector (ETD) has been interfaced to an AB/SCIEX API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. To interface the COTS IMS based ETD to the API 2000, the faraday plate of the IMS instrument and the curtain plate of the mass spectrometer were removed from their respective systems and replaced by a custom faraday plate, which was fabricated with a hole for passing the ion beam to the mass spectrometer, and a custom interface flange, which was designed to attach the IMS instrument onto the mass spectrometer. Additionally, the mass spectrometer was modified to increase the electric field strength and decrease the pressure in the differentially pumped interface, causing a decrease in the effect of collisional focusing and permitting a mobility spectrum to be measured using the mass spectrometer. The utility of the COTS-ETD/API 2000 configuration for the characterization of the gas phase ion chemistry of COTS-ETD equipment was established by obtaining mass and tandem mass spectra in the continuous ion flow and selected mobility monitoring operating modes and by obtaining mass-selected ion mobility spectra for the explosive standard 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT). This analysis confirmed that the product ion for TNT is [TNT - H](-), the predominant collision-induced dissociation pathway for [TNT- H](-) is the loss of NO and NO(2), and the reduced mobility value for [TNT - H](-) is 1.54 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1). Moreover, this analysis was attained for sample amounts of 1 ng and with a resolving power of 37. The objective of the research is to advance the operational effectiveness of COTS IMS based ETD equipment by developing a platform that can facilitate the understanding of the ion chemistry intrinsic to the equipment.

  15. Computer simulations for a deceleration and radio frequency quadrupole instrument for accelerator ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J.A., E-mail: j.eliades@alum.utoronto.ca; Kim, J.K.; Song, J.H.; Yu, B.Y.

    2015-10-15

    Radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) technology incorporated into the low energy ion beam line of an accelerator system can greatly broaden the range of applications and facilitate unique experimental capabilities. However, ten’s of keV kinetic energy negative ion beams with large emittances and energy spreads must first be decelerated down to <100 eV for ion–gas interactions, placing special demands on the deceleration optics and RFQ design. A system with large analyte transmission in the presence of gas has so far proven challenging. Presented are computer simulations using SIMION 8.1 for an ion deceleration and RFQ ion guide instrument design. Code included user-defined gas pressure gradients and threshold energies for ion–gas collisional losses. Results suggest a 3 mm diameter, 35 keV {sup 36}Cl{sup −} ion beam with 8 eV full-width half maximum Gaussian energy spread and 35 mrad angular divergence can be efficiently decelerated and then cooled in He gas, with a maximum pressure of 7 mTorr, to 2 eV within 450 mm in the RFQs. Vacuum transmissions were 100%. Ion energy distributions at initial RFQ capture are shown to be much larger than the average value expected from the deceleration potential and this appears to be a general result arising from kinetic energy gain in the RFQ field. In these simulations, a potential for deceleration to 25 eV resulted in a 30 eV average energy distribution with a small fraction of ions >70 eV.

  16. Enabling Technologies for Scalable Trapped Ion Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Gaultney, Daniel; Mount, Emily; Knoernschild, Caleb; Baek, Soyoung; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-05-01

    Scalability is one of the main challenges of trapped ion based quantum computation, mainly limited by the lack of enabling technologies needed to trap, manipulate and process the increasing number of qubits. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on individual ions in a chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Our current MEMS system is designed to steer 355 nm pulsed laser beams to carry out logic gates on a chain of Yb ions with a waist of 1.5 μm across a 20 μm range. In order to read the state of the qubit chain we developed a 32-channel PMT with a custom read-out circuit operating near the thermal noise limit of the readout amplifier which increases state detection fidelity. We also developed a set of digital to analog converters (DACs) used to supply analog DC voltages to the electrodes of an ion trap. We designed asynchronous DACs to avoid added noise injection at the update rate commonly found in synchronous DACs. Effective noise filtering is expected to reduce the heating rate of a surface trap, thus improving multi-qubit logic gate fidelities. Our DAC system features 96 channels and an integrated FPGA that allows the system to be controlled in real time. This work was supported by IARPA/ARO.

  17. Atomic parity violation in a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, O. O., E-mail: versolato@kvi.nl; Wansbeek, L. W.; Giri, G. S.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Atomic parity violation (APV) experiments are sensitive probes of the electroweak interaction at low energy. These experiments are competitive with and complementary to high-energy collider experiments. The APV signal is strongly enhanced in heavy atoms and it is measurable by exciting suppressed (M1, E2) transitions. The status of APV experiments and theory are reviewed as well as the prospects of an APV experiment using one single trapped Ra{sup + } ion. The predicted enhancement factor of the APV effect in Ra{sup + } is about 50 times larger than in Cs atoms. However, certain spectroscopic information on Ra{sup + } needed to constrain the required atomic many-body theory, was lacking. Using the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility at KVI in Groningen, short-lived {sup 212 - 214}Ra{sup + } ions were produced and trapped. First ever excited-state laser spectroscopy was performed on the trapped ions. These measurements provide a benchmark for the atomic theory required to extract the electroweak mixing angle to sub-1% accuracy and are an important step towards an APV experiment in a single trapped Ra{sup + } ion.

  18. A new ion mobility-linear ion trap instrument for complex mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Maleki, Hossein; Arndt, James R; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Yi, Jinghai; McBride, Carroll; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2014-08-19

    A new instrument that couples a low-pressure drift tube with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer is demonstrated for complex mixture analysis. The combination of the low-pressure separation with the ion trapping capabilities provides several benefits for complex mixture analysis. These include high sensitivity, unique ion fragmentation capabilities, and high reproducibility. Even though the gas-phase separation and the mass measurement steps are each conducted in an ion filtering mode, detection limits for mobility-selected peptide ions are in the tens of attomole range. In addition to ion separation, the low-pressure drift tube can be used as an ion fragmentation cell yielding mobility-resolved fragment ions that can be subsequently analyzed by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methods in the ion trap. Because of the ion trap configuration, these methods can be comprised of any number (limited by ion signal) of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) processes. The high reproducibility of the gas-phase separation allows for comparison of two-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS data sets in a pixel-by-pixel fashion without the need for data set alignment. These advantages are presented in model analyses representing mixtures encountered in proteomics and metabolomics experiments.

  19. Quantum Energy Teleportation with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a protocol of quantum energy teleportation that transports energy from the left edge of a linear ion crystal to the right edge by local operations and classical communication at a speed much higher than the speed of the phonon in the crystal. A probe qubit is strongly coupled with the phonon fluctuation in the ground state during short time and is projectively measured in order to get information about this phonon fluctuation. During the measurement process, phonons are excited by the time-dependent measurement interaction and energy of the excited phonons must be infused from outside the system. The obtained information is announced to the right edge of the crystal through a classical channel. Even though the phonons excited at the left edge do not arrive at the right edge yet when the information arrives at the right edge, we are able to soon extract energy from the ion at the right edge by using the announced information. Because the intermediate ions of the crystal are not excited during the ex...

  20. Quadrupole transitions in the bound rotational-vibrational spectrum of the deuterium molecular ion

    CERN Document Server

    Pilón, Horacio Olivares

    2013-01-01

    After the study of the three body molecular system H$_2^+$ ({\\it J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} {\\bf 45} 065101), their isotope, the deuterium molecular ion D$_2^+$ is studied. The three-body Schr\\"odinger equation is solved using the Lagrange-mesh method in perimetric coordinates. Energies and wave functions for four vibrational states $v=0-3$ and bound or quasibound states for total orbital momenta from 0 to 56 are calculated. The 1986 fundamental constant $m_d=3670.483014\\,m_e$ is used. The obtained energies have an accuracy from about 13 digits for the lowest vibrational state to at least 9 digits for the third vibrational excited state. Quadrupole transition probabilities per time unit between those states over the whole rotational bands were calculated. Extensive results are presented with six significant figures.

  1. Quadrupole transitions in the bound rotational-vibrational spectrum of the hydrogen molecular ion

    CERN Document Server

    Pilón, Horacio Olivares

    2013-01-01

    The three-body Schr\\"odinger equation of the H$_2^+$ hydrogen molecular ion with Coulomb potentials is solved in perimetric coordinates using the Lagrange-mesh method. The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation with variational accuracy and the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh. Energies and wave functions of up to four of the lowest vibrational bound or quasibound states for total orbital momenta from 0 to 40 are calculated. The obtained energies have an accuracy varying from about 13 digits for the lowest vibrational state to at least 9 digits for the third vibrational excited state. With the corresponding wave functions, a simple calculation using the associated Gauss quadrature provides accurate quadrupole transition probabilities per time unit between those states over the whole rotational bands. Extensive results are presented with six significant figures.

  2. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M; Versolato, O O; Windberger, A; Brunner, F R; Ballance, T; Eberle, S N; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; Hansen, A K; Gingell, A D; Drewsen, M; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2012-08-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H(2) partial pressure of about 10(-15) mbar (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been set up to provide cold Be(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions.

  3. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  4. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...... (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been...... set up to provide cold Be+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions....

  5. Phonon-Mediated Detection of Trapped Atomic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David

    2008-03-01

    Both quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology require sensitive detection of quantum states. Using trapped atomic ions, we investigate quantum non-demolition measurements in a two-species ion chain composed of Al^+ and Be^+. By mapping information from Al^+ to a shared phonon-mode then to Be^+ and detecting repetitively we have experimentally demonstrated a fidelity for state initialization and detection of 0.9994. We have also shown an increase in measurement efficiency through an adaptive procedure. Here we apply these ideas to the detection of states of multiple Al^+ using a single Be^+ ion, and describe the preparation of entangled states through measurement.

  6. Trapped ions in optical lattices for probing oscillator chain models

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Talukdar, Ishan; Kreuter, Axel; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    We show that a chain of trapped ions embedded in microtraps generated by an optical lattice can be used to study oscillator models related to dry friction and energy transport. Numerical calculations with realistic experimental parameters demonstrate that both static and dynamic properties of the ion chain change significantly as the optical lattice power is varied. Finally, we lay out an experimental scheme to use the spin degree of freedom to probe the phase space structure and quantum critical behavior of the ion chain.

  7. Scalable digital hardware for a trapped ion quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Gaultney, Daniel; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2016-12-01

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for loading, cooling, initialization, and detection of the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  8. Optimization of parameters of a surface-electrode ion trap and experimental study of influences of surface on ion lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, BaoQuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, XinFang; Xie, Yi; Chen, Ting; Wu, ChunWang; Wu, Wei; Chen, PingXing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the optimal design and fabrication of a gold-on-silica linear segmented surface-electrode ion trap. By optimizing the thickness and width of the electrodes, we improved the trapping ability and trap scalability. By using some practical experimental operation methods, we successfully minimized the trap heating rate. Consequently, we could trap a string of up to 38 ions, and a zigzag structure with 24 ions, and transport two trapped ions to different zones. We also studied the influences of the ion chip surface on the ion lifetime. The excellent trapping ability and flexibility of operation of the planar ion trap shows that it has high feasibility for application in the development a practical quantum information processor or quantum simulator.

  9. Characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of amino acids and (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide using ion trap and QqTOF electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jirasko, Robert; Holcapek, Michal; Kolarova, Lenka; Nadvornik, Milan; Popkov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using two different mass analyzers, ion trap and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass analyzer, for the structural characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-b

  10. Characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of amino acids and (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide using ion trap and QqTOF electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jirasko, Robert; Holcapek, Michal; Kolarova, Lenka; Nadvornik, Milan; Popkov, Alexander

    This work demonstrates the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using two different mass analyzers, ion trap and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass analyzer, for the structural characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of

  11. Analysis of VX on soil particles using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, G S; Appelhans, A D; Gresham, G L; Olson, J E; Jeffery, M; Wright, J B

    1999-07-01

    The direct detection of the nerve agent VX (methylphosphonothioic acid, S-[2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl] O-ethyl ester) on milligram quantities of soil particles has been achieved using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry (IT-SIMS). VX is highly adsorptive toward a wide variety of surfaces; this attribute makes detection using gas-phase approaches difficult but renders the compound very amenable to surface detection. An ion trap mass spectrometer, modified to perform SIMS, was employed in the present study. A primary ion beam (ReO4-) was fired on axis through the ion trap, where it impacted the soil particle samples. [VX + H]+, [VX + H]+ fragment ions, and ions from the chemical background were sputtered into the gas-phase environment of the ion trap, where they were either scanned out or isolated and fragmented (MS2). At a surface concentration of 0.4 monolayer, intact [VX + H]+, and its fragment ions, were readily observable above background. However, at lower concentrations, the secondary ion signal from VX became obscured by ions derived from the chemical background on the surface of the soil particles. MS2 analysis using the ion trap was employed to improve detection of lower concentrations of VX: detection of the 34S isotopic ion of [VX + H]+, present at a surface concentration of approximately 0.002 monolayer, was accomplished. The study afforded the opportunity to investigate the fragmentation chemistry of VX. Semiempirical calculations suggest strongly that the molecule is protonated at the N atom. Deuterium labeling showed that formation of the base peak ion (C2H4)N(i-C3H7)2+ involves transfer of the amino proton to the phosphonothioate moiety prior to, or concurrent with, C-S bond cleavage. To manage the risk associated with working with the compound, the vacuum unit of the IT-SIMS was located in a hood, connected by cables to the externally located electronics and computer.

  12. Multipole Electrodynamic Ion Trap Geometries for Microparticle Confinement under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Stan, Cristina; Visan, Gina T; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir E; Lapitsky, Dmitry S; Deputatova, Lidiya V; Syrovatka, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. An 8-electrode and a 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of the microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap was mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics was simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  13. Depletion of the excited state population in negative ions using laser photodetachment in a gas filled RF quadrupole ion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, A. O. [University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Hanstorp, D. [University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Forstner, Dr. Oliver [University of Vienna, Austria; Gibson, N. [Denison University, Granville, Ohio; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The depopulation of excited states in beams of negatively charged carbon and silicon ions was demonstrated using collisional detachment and laser photodetachment in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion guide filled with helium. The high-lying, loosely bound {sup 2}D excited state in C{sup -} was completely depleted through collisional detachment alone, which was quantitatively determined within 6%. For Si{sup -} the combined signal from the population in the {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D excited states was only partly depleted through collisions in the cooler. The loosely bound {sup 2}P state was likely to be completely depopulated, and the more tightly bound {sup 2}D state was partly depopulated through collisions. 98(2)% of the remaining {sup 2}D population was removed by photodetachment in the cooler using less than 2 W laser power. The total reduction of the excited population in Si{sup -}, including collisional detachment and photodetachment, was estimated to be 99(1)%. Employing this novel technique to produce a pure ground state negative ion beam offers possibilities of enhancing selectivity, as well as accuracy, in high-precision experiments on atomic as well as molecular negative ions.

  14. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  15. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, A V; Churchill, L R; Griffin, P F

    2007-01-01

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  16. Surface Planar Ion Chip for Linear Radio-Frequency Paul Traps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jin-Yin; QU Qiu-Zhi; ZHOU Zi-Chao; LI Xiao-Lin; WANG Yu-Zhu; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a surface planar ion chip which forms a linear radio frequency Paul ion trap. The electrodes reside in the two planes of a chip, and the trap axis is located above the chip surface. Its electric field and potential distribution are similar to the standard linear radio frequency Paul ion trap. This ion trap geometry may be greatly meaningful for quantum information processing.

  17. Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen G.

    Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.

  18. Miniaturized Sources and Traps for Spectroscopy of Multicharged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph; Guise, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Penning traps made extremely compact (earth (NdFeB) magnets have been used recently to isolate highly charged ions (HCI) for spectroscopy. For example, radiative lifetimes of metastable states are measured by observing the visible fluorescence emitted by isolated Ar XIV (441 nm, 2p 2P3/2 --> 2p 2P1/2) and Kr XVIII (637 nm, 3d 2D3/2 --> 3d 2D1/2) . These measurements use HCIs extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. For planned experiments, a new apparatus is being developed which will incorporate a ``mini-EBIT'' source using similar permanent-magnet structures. It combines a mini-EBIT and a compact Penning trap to facilitate production of multicharged ions including bare nuclei with nuclear charge in the range Z =1 to Z =10, in a cryogen-free setup with multiple ports for laser and atomic beam access to the isolated HCI. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states with transitions accessible to an optical frequency comb. Such engineered atomic systems are sought to enable tests of theory that could illuminate the proton radius puzzle. J.N. Tan, S.M. Brewer, and N.D. Guise, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023103 (2012).

  19. Cryogenic Linear Ion Trap for Large-Scale Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Guido; Hess, Paul; Kaplan, Harvey; Birckelbaw, Eric; Hernanez, Micah; Lee, Aaron; Smith, Jake; Zhang, Jiehang; Monroe, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Ions confined in RF Paul traps are a useful tool for quantum simulation of long-range spin-spin interaction models. As the system size increases, classical simulation methods become incapable of modeling the exponentially growing Hilbert space, necessitating quantum simulation for precise predictions. Current experiments are limited to less than 30 qubits due to collisions with background gas that regularly destroys the ion crystal. We present progress toward the construction of a cryogenic ion trap apparatus, which uses differential cryopumping to reduce vacuum pressure to a level where collisions do not occur. This should allow robust trapping of about 100 ions/qubits in a single chain with long lifetimes. Such a long chain will provide a platform to investigate simultaneously cooling of various vibrational modes and will enable quantum simulations that outperform their classical counterpart. Our apparatus will provide a powerful test-bed to investigate a large variety of Hamiltonians, including spin 1 and spin 1/2 systems with Ising or XY interactions. This work is supported by the ARO Atomic Physics Program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Measurement and Verification, the IC Fellowship Program and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  20. The kick-out mass selection technique for ions stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toker, Y; Altstein, N; Aviv, O; Rappaport, M L; Heber, O; Schwalm, D; Strasser, D; Zajfman, D [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: jtoker@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-09-15

    A simple mass selection technique which allows one to clean a keV ion beam of undesirable masses while stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) is described. The technique is based on the time-of-flight principle and takes advantage of the long storage times and self-bunching that are possible in this type of traps (self bunching being the effect that keeps ions of the same mass bunched in spite of their finite distributions of velocities and trajectories). As the oscillation period is proportional to the square root of the ion mass, bunches containing ions of different masses will separate in space with increasing storage time and can be kicked out by a pulsed deflector mounted inside the trap. A mass selector of this type has been implemented successfully in an EIBT connected to an Even-Lavie supersonic expansion source and is routinely used in ongoing cluster experiments.

  1. Infrared ion spectroscopy inside a mass-selective cryogenic 2D linear ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismesia, Adam P; Tesler, Larry F; Bell, Matthew R; Bailey, Laura S; Polfer, Nicolas C

    2017-07-27

    We demonstrate operation of the first cryogenic 2D linear ion trap (LIT) with mass-selective capabilities. This trap presents a number of advantages for infrared ion "action" spectroscopy studies, particularly those employing the "tagging/messenger" spectroscopy approach. The high trapping efficiencies, trapping capacities, and low detection limits make 2D LITs a highly suitable choice for low-concentration analytes from scarce biological samples. In our trap, ions can be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to achieve higher-resolution infrared spectra, and individual ions can be mass selected prior to irradiation for a background-free photodissociation scheme. Conveniently, multiple tagged analyte ions can be mass isolated and efficiently irradiated in the same experiment, allowing their infrared spectra to be recorded in parallel. This multiplexed approach is critical in terms of increasing the duty cycle of infrared ion spectroscopy, which is currently a key weakness of the technique. The compact design of this instrument, coupled with powerful mass selection capabilities, set the stage for making cryogenic infrared ion spectroscopy viable as a bioanalytical tool in small molecule identification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z

    2013-08-01

    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway.

  3. Non-destructive ion detection at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibach, Martin; Smorra, Christian [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, Thomas; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ketelaer, Jens; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Tests of nuclear mass models, studies of the nuclear structure of heavy elements and calculations of the astrophysical r-process require high precision atomic mass data. For this purpose the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has recently been set up in order to explore the less-known neutron-rich area of the nuclide chart. Certain nuclides of interest are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoide target with low rates, in the order of a few nuclides per second or less. Thus, the implementation of very efficient means of detection are necessary, such as the non-destructive Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) technique where ultimately a single trapped ion, with a half-life of longer than one second is sufficient for the entire mass measurement. The present status of the implementation of the FT-ICR detection at TRIGA-TRAP is presented. The potential benefit for other experiments is discussed.

  4. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518

  5. Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, V.; Friis, N.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose an implementation of such classical and quantum agents in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are ‘upgraded’ to their quantum counterparts by a nested process of adding coherent control, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.

  6. Quantum Entropic Dynamics of a Trapped Ion in a Standing Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain

    2000-01-01

    By performing a unitary transformation, we transform the Hamiltonian of the trapped ion in any position of standing wave to that of the normal Jaynes-Cummings model in ionic bare basis and we obtain a general evolution operator of the trapped ion system. We study the quantum entropic dynamics of the phonons and trapped ion.Our results show that, when the trapped ion is located at the node of standing wave, the quantum entropic dynamics of phonons and trapped ion are the same as the one of the field in the Jaynes-Cummings model.When the trapped ion deviatesfrom the node of standing wave, the entropies of the phonons and ion keep their maximum value except at the initial stage, and the phonons and trapped ion become extremely entangled.

  7. Towards the understanding of Decoherence on Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Terra-Cunha, M O

    2004-01-01

    Two mechanisms of decoherence in ion traps are studied, specially related to the experiment [Kielpinski et al., Science 291 (2001) 1013]. Statistical hypothesis are made about the unknown variables and the expected behaviour of the visibility of the best experimental pattern is calculated for each mechanism. Data from the experiment are analyzed and show to be insufficient to distinguish between them. We suggest improvements which can do this with slight modifications in the present facilities.

  8. Photon trap for neutralization of negative ions beams

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Ivanov, A A; Kotelnikov, I A

    2015-01-01

    For effectively neutralization of the powerful negative ions beams of hydrogen and deuterium the photon target is considered in long time. The attractiveness of the traditional approach (Fabry-Perot resonators) to their creation is limited to a number of stringent technical requirements and large economic costs. In this paper we propose a new concept of non-resonant photon trap (storage) for creation more technologically simple optical neutralizers.

  9. Generation of highly charged peptide and protein ions by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted infrared laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Kollas, Oliver; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2007-07-15

    We show that highly charged ions can be generated if a pulsed infrared laser and a glycerol matrix are employed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ion trap. Already for small peptides like bradykinin, doubly protonated ions form the most abundant analyte signal in the mass spectra. The center of the charge-state distribution increases with the size of the analyte. For example, insulin is detected with a most abundant ion signal corresponding to a charge state of four, whereas for cytochrome c, the 10 times protonated ion species produces the most intense signal. Myoglobin is observed with up to 13 charges. The high m/z ratios allow us to use the Paul trap for the detection of MALDI-generated protein ions that are, owing to their high molecular weight, not amenable in their singly protonated charge state. Formation of multiple charges critically depends on the addition of diluted acid to the analyte-matrix solution. Tandem mass spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged peptides are also presented. The findings allow speculations about the involvement of electrospray ionization processes in these MALDI experiments.

  10. Cavity sideband cooling of a single trapped ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibrandt, David R; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L

    2009-09-04

    We report a demonstration and quantitative characterization of one-dimensional cavity cooling of a single trapped (88)Sr(+) ion in the resolved-sideband regime. We measure the spectrum of cavity transitions, the rates of cavity heating and cooling, and the steady-state cooling limit. The cavity cooling dynamics and cooling limit of 22.5(3) motional quanta, limited by the moderate coupling between the ion and the cavity, are consistent with a simple model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 033405 (2001)] without any free parameters, validating the rate equation model for cavity cooling.

  11. Scalable Generation of Cluster State for Multiple Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Guang-Ling; HU Xiang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose an alternative scheme for preparing N-qubit cluster state by using a frequency-modulated laser field to simultaneously illuminate the trapped ions. Selecting the index of modulation yields the selective mechanisms of coupling and decoupling between the internal and external states of the ions. Based on the selective mechanisms,the highly entangled duster state is achieved. In our scheme, the vibration mode is only virtually excited.Thus the quantum operations are insensitive to the heating and lead to the high-fidelity quantum information processing.

  12. Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, S.; Randall, J.; Webster, S. C.; Lake, K.; Webb, A. E.; Cohen, I.; Navickas, T.; Lekitsch, B.; Retzker, A.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-11-01

    Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.

  13. Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, S; Randall, J; Webster, S C; Lake, K; Webb, A E; Cohen, I; Navickas, T; Lekitsch, B; Retzker, A; Hensinger, W K

    2016-11-25

    Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.

  14. Precision Spectroscopy on Single Cold Trapped Molecular Nitrogen Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegi, Gregor; Najafian, Kaveh; Germann, Matthias; Sergachev, Ilia; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The ability to precisely control and manipulate single cold trapped particles has enabled spectroscopic studies on narrow transitions of ions at unprecedented levels of precision. This has opened up a wide range of applications, from tests of fundamental physical concepts, e.g., possible time-variations of fundamental constants, to new and improved frequency standards. So far most of these experiments have concentrated on atomic ions. Recently, however, attention has also been focused on molecular species, and molecular nitrogen ions have been identified as promising candidates for testing a possible time-variation of the proton/electron mass ratio. Here, we report progress towards precision-spectroscopic studies on dipole-forbidden vibrational transitions in single trapped N2+ ions. Our approach relies on the state-selective generation of single N2+ ions, subsequent infrared excitation using high intensity, narrow-band quantum-cascade lasers and a quantum-logic scheme for non-destructive state readout. We also characterize processes limiting the state lifetimes in our experiment, which impair the measurement fidelity. P. O. Schmidt et. al., Science 309 (2005), 749. M. Kajita et. al., Phys. Rev. A 89 (2014), 032509 M. Germann , X. Tong, S. Willitsch, Nature Physics 10 (2014), 820. X. Tong, A. Winney, S. Willitsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010), 143001

  15. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jonauskas, Valda; Kyniene, Ausra; Kucas, Sigitas

    2013-01-01

    We present investigation of the influence of cascade emission to the formation of spectra from plasma created by electron beam ion trap (EBIT) in electron trapping mode. It has been shown that cascade emission can play an important role in the formation of spectra from the EBIT plasma. Process of the cascade emission takes place when ion having cycloidal orbit leaves electron beam where coronal approximation is applicable. Thus both processes - excitation from ground or metastable levels and cascade emission - take part in the population of levels. Demonstration is based on the investigation of $W^{13+}$ spectra. The present investigation helps to resolve long-standing discrepancies; in particular, the present structure of $W^{13+}$ spectra is in good agreement with measurements on electron beam ion trap. Lines in the experimental spectra are identified as $4f^{13} 5s 5p \\rightarrow 4f^{13} 5s^{2}$ and $4f^{12} 5s 5p^{2} \\rightarrow 4f^{12} 5s^{2} 5p$ transitions from Dirac-Fock-Slater calculations.

  16. Software development for a fluid portable ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.J.; Buchanan, M.V.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Most mass spectrometer data systems are developed and optimized for the benchtop GC/MS market and thus do not adequately address the requirements for direct sampling methods. Field analysis also places greater demands on real-time data processing including automated interpretation and quantification for target analytes. The current field portable ion trap mass spectrometers developed at ORNL are based on the Finnigan Magnum ion trap mass spectrometer which provides a procedure language for user programs. A series of these procedures has been developed to support direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry studies and is part of an overall software development strategy to address the needs of these direct sampling instruments for rapid field analysis and process monitoring. The general approach has been to create task oriented menus that lead a user through a complete analysis. Thus, the user is focused on completing tasks rather than learning and using all of the software components to complete the task. Additionally, user input has been minimized to save keyboard input and data logging time.

  17. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Roßnagel, Johannes; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion cr...

  18. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  19. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  20. All-optical ion generation for ion trap loading

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin; Keller, Matthias; 10.1007/s00340-011-4563-7

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the all-optical generation of ions by photo-ionisation of atoms generated by pulsed laser ablation. A direct comparison between a resistively heated oven source and pulsed laser ablation is reported. Pulsed laser ablation with 10 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses is shown to produce large calcium flux, corresponding to atomic beams produced with oven temperatures greater than 650 K. For an equivalent atomic flux, pulsed laser ablation is shown to produce a thermal load more than one order of magnitude smaller than the oven source. The atomic beam distributions obey Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with most probable speeds corresponding to temperatures greater than 2200 K. Below a threshold pulse fluence between 280 mJ/cm^2 and 330 mJ/cm^2, the atomic beam is composed exclusively of ground state atoms. For higher fluences ions and excited atoms are generated.

  1. Recent Results in Trapped-Ion Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Britton, J L; Meyer, V; Rowe, M A; Sackett, C A; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J

    2001-01-01

    We review recent experiments on entanglement, Bell's inequality, and decoherence-free subspaces in a quantum register of trapped \\be ions. We have demonstrated entanglement of up to four ions using the technique of M{\\o}lmer and S{\\o}rensen. This method produces the state |down down> + |up up> for two ions and the state |down down down down> + |up up up up> for four ions. We generate the entanglement deterministically in each shot of the experiment. Measurements on the two-ion entangled state violates Bell's inequality at the $8\\sigma$ level. Because of the high detector efficiency of our apparatus, this experiment closes the detector loophole for Bell's inequality measurements for the first time. This measurement is also the first violation of Bell's inequality by massive particles that does not implicitly assume results from quantum mechanics. Finally, we have demonstrated reversible encoding of an arbitrary qubit, originally contained in one ion, into a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) of two ions. The DFS-...

  2. An adjustable focusing system for a 2 MeV H- ion beam line based on permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Nirkko, M; Ereditato, A; Kreslo, I; Scampoli, P; Weber, M

    2012-01-01

    A compact adjustable focusing system for a 2 MeV H- RFQ Linac is designed, constructed and tested based on four permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). A PMQ model is realised using finite element simulations, providing an integrated field gradient of 2.35 T with a maximal field gradient of 57 T/m. A prototype is constructed and the magnetic field is measured, demonstrating good agreement with the simulation. Particle track simulations provide initial values for the quadrupole positions. Accordingly, four PMQs are constructed and assembled on the beam line, their positions are then tuned to obtain a minimal beam spot size of (1.2 x 2.2) mm^2 on target. This paper describes an adjustable PMQ beam line for an external ion beam. The novel compact design based on commercially available NdFeB magnets allows high flexibility for ion beam applications.

  3. Improved method for determination of the suppression of isobars in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, P; Hanstorp, D; Lindahl, A O [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Havener, C C; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yun, E-mail: pontus.andersson@physics.gu.s [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 208, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    An improved measurement of the limit of isobar suppression by photodetachment has been made. A gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide was used to slow down negative ions for the purpose of acquiring long interaction times with the applied laser light. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1064nm) was used to selectively deplete a beam of Co{sup -} ions inside the rf ion guide and the remaining ions was probed using photodetachment by another Nd:YAG laser and a neutral detector. The neutral detection system allowed for a detection limit more than one order of magnitude better than the previous measurements. With this improved detection method, we show that the suppression of Co{sup -} ions was at least four orders of magnitude.

  4. Integration of fluorescence collection optics with a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, Gregory R; Moehring, David L; Stick, Daniel; Highstrete, Clark; Fortier, Kevin M; Blain, Matthew G; Haltli, Raymond A; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro A; Briggs, Ronald D; Wendt, Joel R; Carter, Tony R; Samora, Sally; Kemme, Shanalyn A

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated an integrated optical system for collecting the fluorescence from a trapped ion. The system, consisting of an array of transmissive, dielectric micro-optics and an optical fiber array, has been intimately incorporated into the ion trapping chip without negatively impacting trapping performance. Considerations such as our choice of epoxies, vacuum feedthrough, and optical component materials did not degrade the vacuum environment, and we have demonstrated light detection as well as ion trapping and shuttling behavior comparable to trapping chips without integrated optics, with no modification to the control voltages of the trapping chip.

  5. Conversion electron spectroscopy of isobarically purified trapped radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, J.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O.B. 35 (Finland)

    2007-11-15

    The feasibility of the JYFLTRAP for in-trap spectroscopy has been studied. Several internally converted transitions have been measured for isomers of fission products with good accuracy. High-resolution spectroscopic data free of source effects have been obtained proving that trapped radioactive ions can provide excellent conversion electron sources. The shortest-lived isomer studied in this work was {sup 117m} Pd with a half-life of 19.1 ms, for which a superior peak-to-total ratio and an excellent line shape at the 9.9 keV conversion electron line have been observed. Detection efficiencies and related phenomena of the present setup are analyzed. (orig.)

  6. Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekitsch, Bjoern; Weidt, Sebastian; Fowler, Austin G; Mølmer, Klaus; Devitt, Simon J; Wunderlich, Christof; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2017-02-01

    The availability of a universal quantum computer may have a fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and on society as a whole. An increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working toward the realization of such a device. An arbitrarily large quantum computer may best be constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped ion-based scalable quantum computer module, making it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques, and are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength radiation-based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to a large size, we present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high error-threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault-tolerant operations. With appropriate adjustments, the proposed modules are also suitable for alternative trapped ion quantum computer architectures, such as schemes using photonic interconnects.

  7. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  8. Laser Controlling Wavepacket Trains of a Paul Trapped Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-Hua; HAI Wen-Hua; WU Yun-Wen

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the quantum and classical motions of a single Paul trapped ion interacting with a timeperiodic laser field. By using the test-function method, we construct n exact solutions of quantum dynamics that describe the generalized squeezed coherent states with the expectation orbits being the corresponding classical ones. The spacetime evolutions of the exact probability densities show some wavepacket trains. It is demonstrated analytically that by adjusting the laser intensity and frequency, we can control the center motions of the wavepacket trains. We also discuss the other physical properties such as the expectation value of energy, the widths and heights of the wavepackets, and the resonance loss of stability.

  9. Quantum teleportation by entanglement swapping with trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Cai Jian-Wu; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2006-01-01

    An effective teleportation scheme for an unknown ionic internal state via trapped ions is proposed without joint Bell-state measurement (BSM). In the constructed quantum channel process, we make use of entanglement swapping to avoid decrease in entanglement during the distributing of particles. Thus our scheme provides new prospects for quantum teleportation in a longer distance. The distinct advantage of our scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational mode. Furthermore, our scheme has no any individual optical access, and the successful probability also can reach 1.

  10. Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG HaoSheng; KUANG LeMan; ZHU XiWen; GAO KeLin

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode, in Lamb Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation, is described by a Jaynes-Cummingsmodel. For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal stateis prepared in a coherent superposition of states, coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass modeare discussed, particularly, a "weak" coherent state and a "weak" squeezed vacuum state are obtained. Collapse andrevival are also observed in this type of initial condition.

  11. Detecting yocto (10-24) newton forces with trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Uys3_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2574 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Uys3_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Detecting yocto(10−24)newton forces.... These measurements suggest that ion traps may form the basis of a new class of ultra-sensitive deployable force sensors. 1. Summary Measurement of extremely small forces is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from atomic-force-microscopy, to electron spin...

  12. Sympathetic cooling of 171 Yb+ qubit ions on a scalable ion trap chip using Yb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeong-Dae; Ahn, Jun Sik; Hong, Seokjun; Lee, Minjae; Cheon, Hongjin; Cho, Dongil ``Dan''; Kim, Taehyun

    2016-05-01

    To achieve ion trap based large-scale quantum computing devices, motional states of qubit ions must be regulated against heating from ion transportation or noise on the chip surface while leaving internal states of the ions intact. Sympathetic cooling is a natural solution for this problem, but trapping two different species of ions generally requires two sets of optical devices including separate lasers for each ion type, increasing the complexity and the cost of the setup. We tested Doppler-cooled 174 Yb+ ions to sympathetically cool 171 Yb+ qubit ions. Since these two isotopes have energy levels close to each other, the optical setup can be vastly simplified. We also verified that the tail of non-ideally focused cooling beam and the scattered light from the surface create excited state population in the 171 Yb+ qubit ions, as expected. This leads to occasional spontaneous emission events, which currently limits the coherence time of our qubit to a few seconds. We will also discuss our plans for optimizing the experiment, which may increase the coherence time by one or two orders of magnitude. This work was partially supported by ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP. [10043464, Development of quantum repeater technology for the application to communication systems].

  13. Digital quantum simulation of Dirac equation with a trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Casanova, Jorge; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhang, Jingning; Kim, Kihwan; Department Of Physical Chemistry Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in simulating relativistic effects in controllable physical system. We digitally simulate the Dirac equation in 3 +1 dimensions with a single trapped ion. We map four internal levels of 171Yb+ ion to the Dirac bispinor. The time evolution of the Dirac equation is implemented by trotter expansion. In the 3 +1 dimension, we can observe a helicoidal motion of a free Dirac particle which reduces to Zitterbewegung in 1 +1 dimension. This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2011CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 61033001, 61061130540. KK acknowledge the support from the recruitment program of global youth experts.

  14. Low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; García-Delgado, L. A.; Gómez-Fuentes, R.; García-Juárez, A.

    2016-09-01

    A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency. The resonant circuit components have been chosen, in this case, to operate at 1 MHz. In testings, the class-D stage operated at a maximum of 78 mW at 1.1356 MHz producing 225 V peak.

  15. Blueprint for a microwave trapped-ion quantum computer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekitsch, B.; Weidt, S.; Fowler, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped-ion based scalable quantum computer module which makes it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units......, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques and they are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength-radiation based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to an arbitrary size we...... present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high-error-threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault...

  16. Linear Ion Trap for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, William; Arevalo, Ricardo; Danell, Ryan; van Amerom, Friso; Pinnick, Veronica; Li, Xiang; Hovmand, Lars; Getty, Stephanie; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. MOMA includes a linear, or 2D, ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) that is designed to analyze molecular composition of (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated on a gas chromatograph and (ii) ions directly desorbed from solid samples at Mars ambient pressure using a pulsed laser and a fast-valve capillary ion inlet system. This "dual source" approach gives MOMA unprecedented breadth of detection over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. Analysis of nonvolatile, higher-molecular weight organics such as carboxylic acids and peptides even in the presence of significant perchlorate concentrations is enabled by the extremely short (~1 ns) pulses of the desorption laser. Use of the ion trap's tandem mass spectrometry mode permits selective focus on key species for isolation and controlled fragmentation, providing structural analysis capabilities. The flight-like engineering test unit (ETU) of the ITMS, now under construction, will be used to verify breadboard performance with high fidelity, while simultaneously supporting the development of analytical scripts and spectral libraries using synthetic and natural Mars analog samples guided by current results from MSL. ETU campaign data will strongly advise the specifics of the calibration applied to the MOMA flight model as well as the science operational procedures during the mission.

  17. Collisional cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Rangwala, S A

    2015-01-01

    The most generic cooling and thermalization pathway at the lowest temperatures is via elastic collisions. In hybrid ion-atom traps, ion cooling to temperatures where low partial wave collisions dominate require the collisional cooling mechanism to be well understood and controlled. There exists great uncertainty on whether cooling of light ions by heavier neutral atoms is possible. Here we experimentally demonstrate the cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms for the first time. We show that trapped 39K+ ions are cooled by localized ultracold neutral 85Rb atoms for an ion-atom mass ratio where most theoretical models predict ion heating. We demonstrate, based on detailed numerical simulation of our ion-cooling model, which is in excellent agreement with experiments, that cooling of ions by localized cold atoms is possible for any mass ratio. Our result opens up the possibility of studying quantum collisions and chemistry in trapped atom-ion systems.

  18. Multi-ion sensing of dipolar noise sources in ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, F.; Alonso, J.; Zambrini, R.

    2017-09-01

    Trapped-ion quantum platforms are subject to "anomalous" heating due to interactions with electric-field noise sources of nature not yet completely known. There is ample experimental evidence that this noise originates at the surfaces of the trap electrodes, and models assuming fluctuating pointlike dipoles are consistent with observations, but the exact microscopic mechanisms behind anomalous heating remain undetermined. Here we show how a two-ion probe displays a transition in its dissipation properties, enabling experimental access to the mean orientation of the dipoles and the spatial extent of dipole-dipole correlations. This information can be used to test the validity of candidate microscopic models, which predict correlation lengths spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we propose an experiment to measure these effects with currently available traps and techniques.

  19. Reliable transport through a microfabricated X-junction surface-electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Kenneth; Faircloth, Daniel L; Volin, Curtis; Doret, S Charles; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Landgren, David W; Denison, Douglas; Killian, Tyler; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap that supports controlled transport through the two-dimensional intersection of linear trapping zones arranged in a ninety-degree cross. The trap is fabricated with very-large-scalable-integration (VLSI) techniques which are compatible with scaling to a larger quantum information processor. The shape of the radio-frequency (RF) electrodes is optimized with a genetic algorithm to minimize axial pseudopotential barriers and to minimize ion heating during transport. Seventy-eight independent DC control electrodes enable fine control of the trapping potentials. We demonstrate reliable ion transport between junction legs, trapping of ion chains with nearly-equal spacing in one of the trap's linear sections, and merging and splitting ions from these chains. Doppler-cooled ions survive more than 10^5 round-trip transits between junction legs without loss and more than sixty-five consecutive round trips without lase...

  20. Ion Trap Quantum Computers: Performance Limits and Experimental Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard

    1998-03-01

    In a quantum computer information would be represented by the quantum mechanical states of suitable atomic-scale systems. (A single bit of information represented by a two-level quantum system is known as a qubit.) This notion leads to the possibility of computing with quantum mechanical superpositions of numbers ("quantum parallelism"), which for certain problems would make Quantum/quantum.html>quantum computation very much more efficient than classical computation. The possibility of rapidly factoring the large integers used in public-key cryptography is an important example. (Public key cryptosystems derive their security from the difficuty of factoring, and similar problems, with conventional computers.) Quantum computational hardware development is in its infancy, but an experimental study of quantum computation with laser-cooled trapped calcium ions that is under way at Los Alamos will be described. One of the pricipal obstacles to practical quantum computation is the inevitable loss of quantum coherence of the complex quantum states involved. The results of a theoretical analysis showing that quantum factoring of small integers should be possible with trapped ions will be presented. The prospects for larger-scale computations will be discussed.

  1. Trapped-ion antennae for the transmission of quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Harlander, Maximilian; Brownnutt, Micheal; Blatt, Rainer; Hänsel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    More than one hundred years ago Heinrich Hertz succeeded in transmitting signals over a few meters to a receiving antenna using an electromagnetic oscillator and thus proving the electromagnetic theory developed by James C. Maxwell[1]. Since then, technology has developed, and today a variety of oscillators is available at the quantum mechanical level. For quantized electromagnetic oscillations atoms in cavities can be used to couple electric fields[2, 3]. For mechanical oscillators realized, for example, with cantilevers[4, 5] or vibrational modes of trapped atoms[6] or ions[7, 8], a quantum mechanical link between two such oscillators has, to date, been demonstrated in very few cases and has only been achieved in indirect ways. Examples of this include the mechanical transport of atoms carrying the quantum information[9] or the use of spontaneously emitted photons[10]. In this work, direct coupling between the motional dipoles of separately trapped ions is achieved over a distance of 54 {\\mu}m, using the di...

  2. Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekitsch, Bjoern; Weidt, Sebastian; Fowler, Austin G.; Mølmer, Klaus; Devitt, Simon J.; Wunderlich, Christof; Hensinger, Winfried K.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of a universal quantum computer may have a fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and on society as a whole. An increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working toward the realization of such a device. An arbitrarily large quantum computer may best be constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped ion–based scalable quantum computer module, making it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques, and are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength radiation–based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to a large size, we present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high error–threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault-tolerant operations. With appropriate adjustments, the proposed modules are also suitable for alternative trapped ion quantum computer architectures, such as schemes using photonic interconnects. PMID:28164154

  3. Stick-slip nanofriction in cold-ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-03-01

    Trapped cold ions are known to form linear or planar zigzag chains, helices or clusters depending on trapping conditions. They may be forced to slide over a laser induced corrugated potential, a mimick of sliding friction. We present MD simulations of an incommensurate 101 ions chain sliding subject to an external electric field. As expected with increasing corrugation, we observe the transition from a smooth-sliding, highly lubric regime to a strongly dissipative stick-slip regime. Owing to inhomogeneity the dynamics shows features reminiscent of macroscopic frictional behaviors. While the chain extremities are pinned, the incommensurate central part is initially free to slide. The onset of global sliding is preceded by precursor events consisting of partial slips of chain portions further from the center. We also look for frictional anomalies expected for the chain sliding across the linear-zigzag structural phase transition. Although the chain is too short for a proper critical behavior, the sliding friction displays a frank rise near the transition, due to opening of a new dissipative channel via excitations of transverse modes. Research partly sponsored by Sinergia Project CRSII2 136287/1.

  4. Energy-resolved depth profiling of metal-polymer interfaces using dynamic quadrupole secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Vadillo, José M; Laserna, J Javier

    2009-08-01

    Quadrupole secondary ion mass spectrometry (qSIMS) characterization of a metallized polypropylene film used in the manufacturing of capacitors has been performed. Ar(+) primary ions were used to preserve the oxidation state of the surface. The sample exhibits an incomplete metallization that made it difficult to determine the exact location of the metal-polymer interface due to the simultaneous contribution of ions with identical m/z values from the metallic and the polymer layers. Energy filtering by means of a 45 degrees electrostatic analyzer allowed resolution of the metal-polymer interface by selecting a suitable kinetic energy corresponding to the ions generated in the metallized layer but not from the polymer. Under these conditions, selective analyses of isobaric interferences such as (27)Al(+) and (27)C(2)H(3) (+) or (43)AlO(+) and (43)C(3)H(7) (+) have been successfully performed.

  5. Detection of Isotopes of Mercury Ions by Resonant Ejection in Paul Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Ming; SHE Lei; LI Jiao-Mei; GAO Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to detect mercury ions confined in a Paul trap has been developed by resonant ejection. In this method, frequency of the additional ejection ac voltage is scanned instead of the amplitude of the rf drive voltage in conventional methods. It is possible not only to observe the spectra of the secular oscillation of the trapped ions directly, but also to eject the confined ions from the trap mass-selectively.

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF THE CERN SPS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTA ION TRAPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Balhan, Bruno; Barlow, Roger Andrew; Raffaele, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    At CERN, the SPS synchrotron is equipped with a slow extraction channel towards the fixed target beam lines in the North Area This channel includes five consecutive electrostatic septa, where the field free region and the active high field region are separated by an array of tungsten-rhenium wires. The field-free region provides for the circulating beam, while the high field region is used to deflect the extracted beam. Since the residual gas can be ionized by the orbiting beam, low energy ions could cross the wire array and enter the high field region and cause high voltage breakdown when accelerated onto the cathode. To prevent low energy ions from entering this high electric field region, a vertical field is applied to the orbiting beam using so-called ‘ion traps’ for active protection. The vertical field is created by electrodes placed inside the region containing the circulating beam. Due to electromagnetic coupling onto the ion trap electrodes observed with the high frequency LHC beam (25 ns spaced ...

  7. Arbitrary Waveform Generator for Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R; Britton, J W; Sawyer, B C; Amini, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of $\\pm$10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and de...

  8. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  9. Design, microfabrication, and analysis of micrometer-sized cylindrical ion trap arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, D.; Chang, J. P.; Fico, M.; Guymon, A. J.; Austin, D. E.; Blain, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A description of the design and microfabrication of arrays of micrometer-scale cylindrical ion traps is offered. Electrical characterization and initial ion trapping experiments with a massively parallel array of 5μm internal radius (r0) sized cylindrical ion traps (CITs) are also described. The ion trap, materials, and design are presented and shown to be critical in achieving minimal trapping potential while maintaining minimal power consumption. The ion traps, fabricated with metal electrodes, have inner radii of 1, 2, 5, and 10μm and range from 5to24μm in height. The electrical characteristics of packaged ion trap arrays were measured with a vector network analyzer. The testing focused on trapping toluene (C7H8), mass 91, 92, or 93amu, in the 5μm sized CITs. Ions were formed via electron impact ionization and were ejected by turning off the rf voltage applied to the ring electrode; a current signal was collected at this time. Optimum ionization and trapping conditions, such as a sufficient pseudopotential well and high ionization to ion loss rate ratio (as determined by simulation), proved to be difficult to establish due to the high device capacitance and the presence of exposed dielectric material in the trapping region. However, evidence was obtained suggesting the trapping of ions in 1%-15% of the traps in the array. These first tests on micrometer-scale CITs indicated the necessary materials and device design modifications for realizing ultrasmall and low power ion traps.

  10. Sideband cooling an ion to the quantum ground state in a Penning trap with very low heating rate

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J F; Thompson, R C; Segal, D M

    2014-01-01

    We report the laser cooling of a single $^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole $S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$ transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the $D_{5/2}$ and $P_{3/2}$ levels. We find the final phonon number to be $\\bar{n}=0.012\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be exceptionally low with $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=0.08\\pm 0.12~\\textrm{s}^{-1}$ and a scaled spectral noise density of $\\omega S_{\\omega}<1.6\\times10^{-10}~\\textrm{V}^{2}\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of $0.7\\pm 0.1~\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is limited primarily by the intensity noise of the probe laser.

  11. Two regimes in the decay behavior of ions from a linear r.f. Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, Jonathan; Wells, James; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop

    2016-05-01

    A linear Paul trap (LPT) enables ions to be trapped for use in a variety of experiments. In many of these experiments, such as those measuring charge exchange or sympathetic cooling, the decay of ions from the trap is used to measure some quantity of interest. This decay is typically modeled as a single exponential. We have found that in cases where the trap is loaded to high numbers of ions, the ion decay is better described by a double exponential decay function. We have experimentally examined the decay of ions from an LPT loaded by photoionization from a magneto-optical trap as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap. The LPT is loaded to steady-state, then the loading is stopped and the number of trapped ions as a function of time is monitored to determine the decay. We present numerical simulations and experimental results that demonstrate two distinct regions in the decay. For high steady-state values, the trap exhibits a double-exponential behavior. However, if the trap is filled to a steady-state value below a threshold, the decay recovers the typical single-exponential behavior. This behavior should be universal to any Paul trap regardless of the geometry or species trapped. NSF Grant No. PHY-1307874.

  12. Space charge effect on parametric resonances of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, P; De Munshi, D; Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a finite number of ions on their parametric resonances inside a Paul trap has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Coulomb coupling among the charged particles results in two distinct phenomena: one is the frequency shift of the trapped ion oscillators and second is the collective oscillation of the trapped ion cloud. We observe both in a linear trap configuration. It is found that the strength and the secular frequency of individual ion-oscillation decrease while the strength of the collective oscillation increases with increasing number of trapped ions. The observation has been modeled by considering the space charge potential as an effective dc potential inside the trap. It describes the observations well within the experimental uncertainties.

  13. Integrated Fiber-Mirror Ion Trap for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Birgit; Schüppert, Klemens; Casabone, Bernardo; Friebe, Konstantin; Stute, Andreas; Schmidt, Piet O; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Blatt, Rainer; Northup, Tracy E

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to $12$ for FFPCs longer than $200 \\mu$m in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber m...

  14. Conformation-specific spectroscopy of peptide fragment ions in a low-temperature ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Tobias N; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Paizs, Béla; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    We have applied conformer-selective infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy at low temperatures in an ion trap mass spectrometer for the spectroscopic characterization of peptide fragment ions. We investigate b- and a-type ions formed by collision-induced dissociation from protonated leucine-enkephalin. The vibrational analysis and assignment are supported by nitrogen-15 isotopic substitution of individual amino acid residues and assisted by density functional theory calculations. Under such conditions, b-type ions of different size are found to appear exclusively as linear oxazolone structures with protonation on the N-terminus, while a rearrangement reaction is confirmed for the a (4) ion in which the side chain of the C-terminal phenylalanine residue is transferred to the N-terminal side of the molecule. The vibrational spectra that we present here provide a particularly stringent test for theoretical approaches.

  15. Conformation-Specific Spectroscopy of Peptide Fragment Ions in a Low-Temperature Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Tobias N.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.; Paizs, Béla; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2012-06-01

    We have applied conformer-selective infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy at low temperatures in an ion trap mass spectrometer for the spectroscopic characterization of peptide fragment ions. We investigate b- and a-type ions formed by collision-induced dissociation from protonated leucine-enkephalin. The vibrational analysis and assignment are supported by nitrogen-15 isotopic substitution of individual amino acid residues and assisted by density functional theory calculations. Under such conditions, b-type ions of different size are found to appear exclusively as linear oxazolone structures with protonation on the N-terminus, while a rearrangement reaction is confirmed for the a 4 ion in which the side chain of the C-terminal phenylalanine residue is transferred to the N-terminal side of the molecule. The vibrational spectra that we present here provide a particularly stringent test for theoretical approaches.

  16. State-selected ion-molecule reactions with Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions in traps

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xin; Reyes, Juvenal Yosa; Germann, Matthias; Meuwly, Markus; Willitsch, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    State-selected Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions were employed for the first time in ion-molecule reaction studies using the prototypical charge-transfer process $\\mathrm{N_2^++N_2\\rightarrow N_2+N_2^+}$ as an example. By preparing the reactant ions in a well-defined rovibrational state and localizing them in space by sympathetic cooling to millikelvin temperatures in an ion trap, state- and energy-controlled reaction experiments with sensitivities on the level of single ions were performed. The experimental results were interpreted with quasi-classical trajectory simulations on a six-dimensional potential-energy surface which provided detailed insight into translation-to-rotation energy transfer occurring during charge transfer between N$_2$ and N$_2^+$.

  17. Plug-and-Play Planar Ion Traps for Scalable Quantum Computation and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jason; Denison, Douglas; Doret, S. Charles; Faircloth, Daniel; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Landgren, David; Martin, Kevin; Merrill, True; Ozakin, Arkadas; Pai, C. S.; Shaikh, Fayaz; Shappert, Chris; Volin, Curtis; Wright, Ken; Harter, Alexa; Slusher, Richart

    2011-05-01

    At the heart of most ion-based quantum information processing and simulation efforts is an RF-Paul trap to confine the ion qubits. Cutting edge experiments are transitioning from a few qubits to a few tens of qubits with many more qubits envisioned for the future. The underlying ion traps need to both grow with the experiments and provide additional features that can simplify and extend these experiments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing modeling and fabrication processes for these new generations of ion traps using silicon VLSI technology in surface- electrode geometries. Verified by detailed in-house trap characterization, GTRI has fabricated traps that approach the plug- and-play ideal and demonstrate reliable ion loading and transport, long dark lifetimes, and stable ion chains. Additional features are in development including junctions, integrated GHz range current guides for global qubit rotations, and micromirrors for light collection.

  18. Two-dimensional ion trap lattice on a microchip for quantum simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, R C; Weidt, S; Lake, K; Srinivasan, P; Webster, S C; Kraft, M; Hensinger, W K

    2013-01-01

    Using a controllable quantum system it is possible to simulate other highly complex quantum systems efficiently overcoming an in-principle limitation of classical computing. Trapped ions constitute such a highly controllable quantum system. So far, no dedicated architectures for the simulation of two-dimensional spin lattices using trapped ions in radio-frequency ion traps have been produced, limiting the possibility of carrying out such quantum simulations on a large scale. We report the operation of a two-dimensional ion trap lattice integrated in a microchip capable of implementing quantum simulations of two-dimensional spin lattices. Our device provides a scalable microfabricated architecture for trapping such ion lattices with coupling strengths between neighbouring ions sufficient to provide a powerful platform for the implementation of quantum simulations. In order to realize this device we developed a specialist fabrication process that allows for the application of very large voltages. We fabricated ...

  19. Ejection of Coulomb Crystals from a Linear Paul Ion Trap for Ion-Molecule Reaction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K A E; Pollum, L L; Petralia, L S; Tauschinsky, A; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P; Heazlewood, B R

    2015-12-17

    Coulomb crystals are being increasingly employed as a highly localized source of cold ions for the study of ion-molecule chemical reactions. To extend the scope of reactions that can be studied in Coulomb crystals-from simple reactions involving laser-cooled atomic ions, to more complex systems where molecular reactants give rise to multiple product channels-sensitive product detection methodologies are required. The use of a digital ion trap (DIT) and a new damped cosine trap (DCT) are described, which facilitate the ejection of Coulomb-crystallized ions onto an external detector for the recording of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra. This enables the examination of reaction dynamics and kinetics between Coulomb-crystallized ions and neutral molecules: ionic products are typically cotrapped, thus ejecting the crystal onto an external detector reveals the masses, identities, and quantities of all ionic species at a selected point in the reaction. Two reaction systems are examined: the reaction of Ca(+) with deuterated isotopologues of water, and the charge exchange between cotrapped Xe(+) with deuterated isotopologues of ammonia. These reactions are examples of two distinct types of experiment, the first involving direct reaction of the laser-cooled ions, and the second involving reaction of sympathetically-cooled heavy ions to form a mixture of light product ions. Extensive simulations are conducted to interpret experimental results and calculate optimal operating parameters, facilitating a comparison between the DIT and DCT approaches. The simulations also demonstrate a correlation between crystal shape and image shape on the detector, suggesting a possible means for determining crystal geometry for nonfluorescing ions.

  20. Wavelet-based method for time-domain noise analysis and reduction in a frequency-scan ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Szu-Wei; Shiu, Guo-Rung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2012-11-01

    We adopt an orthogonal wavelet packet decomposition (OWPD) filtering approach to cancel harmonic interference noises arising from an AC power source in time domain and remove the resulting rf voltage interference noise from the mass spectra acquired by using a charge detection frequency-scan quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. With the use of a phase lock resampling technique, the transform coefficients of the rf interference in signals become a constant, exhibiting a shift of the baseline in different rf phases. The rf interference is therefore removable by shifting the baselines back to zero in OWPD coefficients. The approach successfully reduces the time-domain background noise from 1367 electrons (rms) to 408 electrons (rms) (an improvement of 70 %) and removes the high frequency noise components in the charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. Unlike other smoothing or averaging methods commonly used in the mass-to-charge (m/Ze) domain, our approach does not cause any distortion of original signals.

  1. Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGHao-Sheng; KUANGLe-Man; 等

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode,in Lamb-Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation,is described by a Jaynes-Cummings model.For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal state is prepared in a coherent superposition of states,coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass mode are discussed,particularly,a“weak” coherent state and a “weak” squeezed vacuum state are obtained.Collapse and revival are also observed in this type of initial condition.

  2. Detecting unambiguously non-Abelian geometric phases with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinding; Hu Liangbin; Zhu Shiliang [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Z D [Department of Physics and Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Zhang Zhiming [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: slzhu@scnu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to disclose the noncommutative effects induced by a light-induced non-Abelian gauge structure with trapped ions. Under an appropriate configuration, a true non-Abelian gauge potential naturally arises in connection with the geometric phase associated with two degenerated dark states in a four-state atomic system interacting with three pulsed laser fields. We show that the population in the atomic state at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} in the parameter space can be significantly different from the composed counter-ordered path. This population difference is directly induced by the noncommutative feature of non-Abelian geometric phases and can be detected unambiguously with current technology.

  3. Gate Set Tomography on a trapped ion qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erik; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Gamble, John; Rundinger, Kenneth; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Sterk, Johathan; Maunz, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present enhancements to gate-set tomography (GST), which is a framework in which an entire set of quantum logic gates (including preparation and measurement) can be fully characterized without need for pre-calibrated operations. Our new method, ``extended Linear GST'' (eLGST) uses fast, reliable analysis of structured long gate sequences to deliver tomographic precision at the Heisenberg limit with GST's calibration-free framework. We demonstrate this precision on a trapped-ion qubit, and show significant (orders of magnitude) advantage over both standard process tomography and randomized benchmarking. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Investigating the origin of time with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Massar, Serge; Varón, Andrés F; Wunderlich, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Even though quantum systems in energy eigenstates do not evolve in time, they can exhibit correlations between internal degrees of freedom in such a way that one of the internal degrees of freedom behaves like a clock variable, and thereby defines an internal time, that parametrises the evolution of the other degrees of freedom. This situation is of great interest in quantum cosmology where the invariance under reparametrisation of time implies that the temporal coordinate dissapears and is replaced by the Wheeler-DeWitt constraint. Here we show that this paradox can be investigated experimentally using the exquisite control now available on moderate size quantum systems. We describe in detail how to implement such an experimental demonstration using the spin and motional degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion.

  5. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Barbara; Czeszumska, A.; Siegl, K.; Caldwell, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Burkey, M.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Marley, S.; Morgan, G.; Norman, E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Scielzo, N.; Sharma, K.; Strauss, S.

    2017-01-01

    Trapped radioactive ions suspended in vacuum allow for a new way to perform beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy. Decay branching ratios and energy spectra of the emitted neutrons are inferred from a measurement of the nuclear recoil, thereby circumventing the many limitations associated with direct neutron detection. Beta-delayed neutron measurements were carried out for 137-138,140I, 134-136Sb, and 144-145Cs at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The data collected are needed in many fields of basic and applied science such as nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and stockpile stewardship. Results for the isotopes 135-136Sb and 140I will be presented. Supported by NSF under PHY-1419765, and U.S. DOE under NEUP 13-5485, DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  6. VECSEL systems for generation and manipulation of trapped magnesium ions

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Shaun C; Leinonen, Tomi; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Slichter, Daniel H; Srinivas, Raghavendra; Wilson, Andrew C; Jördens, Robert; Guina, Mircea; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power, and intensity stability. Vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. Here we present and characterize VECSEL systems that can perform all laser-based tasks for quantum information processing experiments with trapped magnesium ions. For photoionization of neutral magnesium, 570.6$\\,$nm light is generated with an intracavity frequency-doubled VECSEL containing a lithium triborate (LBO) crystal for second harmonic generation. External frequency doubling produces 285.3$\\,$nm light for resonant interaction with the $^{1}S_{0}\\leftrightarrow$ $^{1}P_{1}$ transition of neutral Mg. Using an externally frequency-quadrupled VECSEL, we implement Doppler cooling of $^{25}$Mg$^{+}$ on the 279.6$\\,$nm $^{2}S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow...

  7. Fast scheme for generating quantum-interference states and G HZ state of N trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Cai Jian-Wu; Cao Shuai

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fast scheme to generate the quantum-interference states of N trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are driven by a standing-wave laser beam whose carrier frequency is tuned such that the ion transition can take place.We also propose a simple and fast scheme to produce the GHZ state of N hot trapped ions and this scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational motion, which is important from the viewpoint of decoherence.

  8. UV-sensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for integration in an ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Slichter, D H; Leibfried, D; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Wineland, D J

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with 76 +/- 4 % system detection efficiency at a wavelength of 315 nm and an operating temperature of 3.2 K, with a background count rate below 1 count per second at saturated detection efficiency. We propose integrating these detectors into planar surface electrode radio-frequency Paul traps for use in trapped ion quantum information processing. We operate detectors integrated into test ion trap structures at 3.8 K both with and without typical radio-frequency trapping electric fields. The trapping fields reduce system detection efficiency by 9 %, but do not increase background count rates.

  9. Measurement of an atomic quadrupole moment using dynamic decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Nitzan; Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Some of the best clocks today are ion-based optical clocks. These clocks are referenced to a narrow optical transition in a trapped ion. An example for such a narrow transition is the electric quadrupole E 2 transition between states with identical parity. An important systematic shift of such a transition is the quadrupole shift resulting from the electric field gradient inherent to the ion trap. We present a new dynamic decoupling method that rejects magnetic field noise while measuring the small quadrupole shift of the optical clock transition. Using our sequence we measured the quadrupole moment of the 4D5/2 level in a trapped 88 Sr+ ion to be 2 .973-0 . 033 + 0 . 026 ea02 , where e is the electron charge and a0 is the Bohr radius. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in 88 Sr+ based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.

  10. A proposal for a scalable universal bosonic simulator using individually trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    We describe a possible architecture to implement a universal bosonic simulator (UBS) using trapped ions. Single ions are confined in individual traps, and their motional states represent the bosonic modes. Single-mode linear operators, nonlinear phase-shifts, and linear beam splitters can be realized by precisely controlling the trapping potentials. All the processes in a bosonic simulation, except the initialization and the readout, can be conducted beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime. Aspects of our proposal can also be applied to split adiabatically a pair of ions in a single trap.

  11. Proton affinity determinations using the kinetic method in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourse, Bobette D.; Graham Cooks, R.

    1991-05-01

    Proton affinities for various compounds have been estimated using a quadrupole ion trap by generating and mass-selecting proton-bound dimers and measuring their dissociation kinetics (A-H+ -B --> AH+ + B and/or BH+ + A). From the relative abundances of the fragment ions ([BH+] and [AH+]), which are related to their relative proton affinities by ln ([AH+]/[BH+]) = [Delta]PA/RT, it is shown that the proton affinities of the alicyclic carboxylic acids decrease in the order: cyclohexane- > cyclopropane- > cyclopentane- > cyclobutanecarboxylic acid. Proton affinity values for these species, measured from their proton-bound dimers with specific ketones, esters and carboxylic acids of known PA, are determined to be 198.3 ± 0.2 kcal mol-1, 198.0 ± 0.2 kcal mol-1, 197.8 ± 0.2 kcal mol-1 and 197.0 ± 0.2 kcal mol-1, respectively. The major contribution to the estimated uncertainties in these values results from the uncertainties in literature proton affinity values for the reference compounds. Proton affinity differences of meta and para deuterated benzoic acid proton-bound to benzoic acid (kH/kD = 1.0 ± 0.1 and 0.9 ± 0.1, respectively), for acetophenone proton-bound to deuterated-acetophenone (C6H5C(O)CD3) (kH/kD = 0.7 ± 0.1) and for 2-pentanone proton-bound to deuterated 2-pentanone (CH3CH2CH2C(O)CH3) (kH/kD = 2.1 ± 0.2). These results, as well as those for the carboxylic acids and benzoic acids given above, are accounted for in terms of stabilizing electronic effects in the protonated molecules.

  12. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 4 theory and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the use of ion trapping in different areas of mass spectrometry and different areas of application indicates the value of a single source of information drawing together diverse inputs. This book provides an account of the theory and instrumentation of mass spectrometric applications and an introduction to ion trapping devices.

  13. SQUEEZING PROPERTIES OF A TRAPPED ION IN THE STANDING-WAVE LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG MAO-FA; LIU XIANG

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the squeezing properties of a trapped ion in a standing-wave laser. Our results show that the squeezing of a trapped ion in the standing-wave laser is dependent on its position in the latter, the detuning parameter and the initial average phonon number.

  14. Ion traps for precision experiments at rare-isotope-beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Ion traps first entered experimental nuclear physics when the ISOLTRAP team demonstrated Penning trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides. From then on, the demand for ion traps has grown at radioactive-ion-beam (RIB) facilities since beams can be tailored for the desired experiment. Ion traps have been deployed for beam preparation, from bunching (thereby allowing time coincidences) to beam purification. Isomerically pure beams needed for nuclear-structure investigations can be prepared for trap-assisted or in-trap decay spectroscopy. The latter permits studies of highly charged ions for stellar evolution, which would be impossible with traditional experimental nuclear-physics methods. Moreover, the textbook-like conditions and advanced ion manipulation - even of a single ion - permit high-precision experiments. Consequently, the most accurate and precise mass measurements are now performed in Penning traps. After a brief introduction to ion trapping, I will focus on examples which showcase the versatility and utility of the technique at RIB facilities. I will demonstrate how this atomic-physics technique has been integrated into nuclear science, accelerator physics, and chemistry. DOE.

  15. Trapped ions in the strong-excitation regime: Ion interferometry and nonclassical states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, J.F.; Cirac, J.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Blatt, R. [Institut fuer Experimental Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-08-01

    The interaction of a trapped ion with a laser beam in the strong-excitation regime is analyzed. In this regime, a variety of nonclassical states of motion can be prepared either by using laser pulses of well defined area, or by an adiabatic passage scheme based on the variation of the laser frequency. We show how these states can be used to investigate fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. We also study possible applications of this system to build an ion interferometer. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Quantum Simulation of Frustrated Magnetism with Many Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Crystal

    2013-05-01

    A collection of trapped atomic ions is an excellent system for simulating quantum many-body physics, like magnetism, which may be difficult to access via classical computation or traditional condensed-matter experiments. Our large crystals of 10-20 ions comprise a platform to study a long-range quantum Ising model with tunable couplings in a 1D spin chain. State-dependent optical dipole forces exploit the Coulomb interaction to generate the spin-spin couplings, and fluorescence measurements on a camera are used to read out individual spin states. We investigated the spin order resulting from changing the range of antiferromagnetic interactions or the strength of an axial magnetic field, demonstrating our control over the amount of frustration present. We are turning to the study of dynamics in this system, with the aim of exploring topics including adiabaticity, spectroscopy of the Hamiltonian, the emergence of Kibble-Zurek-like behavior in a finite system, thermalization in an isolated quantum system, and nonequilibrium phase transitions. There is great promise in extending the system to 30+ spins, where computations become classically intractable. Co-authors are R. Islam, P. Richerme, W. C. Campbell, S. Korenblit, J. Smith, A. Lee, E. E. Edwards, C.-C. J. Wang, J. K. Freericks, and C. Monroe. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  17. Formation of molecular ions by radiative association of cold trapped atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Humberto Da; Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiative emission during cold collisions between trapped laser-cooled Rb atoms and alkaline-earth ions (Ca + , Sr + , Ba +) and Yb + are studied theoretically, using accurate effective-core-potential based quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments of the related molecular ions. Radiative association of molecular ions is predicted to occur for all systems with a cross section two to ten times larger than the radiative charge transfer one. Partial and total rate constants are also calculated and compared to available experiments. Narrow shape resonances are expected, which could be detectable at low temperature with an experimental resolution at the limit of the present standards. Vibrational distributions are also calculated, showing that the final molecular ions are not created in their ground state level.

  18. Ion-photon entanglement and quantum frequency conversion with trapped Ba+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, J D; Li, X; Quraishi, Q

    2017-01-20

    Trapped ions are excellent candidates for quantum nodes, as they possess many desirable features of a network node including long lifetimes, on-site processing capability, and production of photonic flying qubits. However, unlike classical networks in which data may be transmitted in optical fibers and where the range of communication is readily extended with amplifiers, quantum systems often emit photons that have a limited propagation range in optical fibers and, by virtue of the nature of a quantum state, cannot be noiselessly amplified. Here, we first describe a method to extract flying qubits from a Ba+ trapped ion via shelving to a long-lived, low-lying D-state with higher entanglement probabilities compared with current strong and weak excitation methods. We show a projected fidelity of ≈89% of the ion-photon entanglement. We compare several methods of ion-photon entanglement generation, and we show how the fidelity and entanglement probability varies as a function of the photon collection optic's numerical aperture. We then outline an approach for quantum frequency conversion of the photons emitted by the Ba+ ion to the telecommunication range for long-distance networking and to 780 nm for potential entanglement with rubidium-based quantum memories. Our approach is significant for extending the range of quantum networks and for the development of hybrid quantum networks compromised of different types of quantum memories.

  19. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories by engineering Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R. F.; de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Egues, J. Carlos; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit (SO) interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba αx , αy and Dresselhaus βx , βy couplings afforded by our setup also enable us to obtain an “unusual” Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. We have also accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  20. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  1. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  2. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  3. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  4. Efficient Fluorescence Collection from Trapped Ion Qubits with an Integrated Spherical Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Dietrich, M R; Blinov, B B

    2009-01-01

    Efficient collection of fluorescence from trapped ion qubits is crucial for qubit state detection and in generating ion-photon and remote ion entanglement. In a typical setup, only a few per cent of ion fluorescence is intercepted by the aperture of the imaging optics. We employ a simple metallic spherical mirror integrated with a linear Paul ion trap to achieve photon collection efficiency of at least 10% from a single Ba$^+$ ion qubit. An aspheric corrector is used to largely reduce the aberrations caused by the mirror and achieve high image quality.

  5. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  7. Studies of highly charged iron ions using electron beam ion traps for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Clementson, J.; Eberle, S.; Epp, S. W.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kubiček, K.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mäckel, V.; Porter, F. S.; Rudolph, J. K.; Simon, M. C.; Steinbrügge, R.; Träbert, E.; Ullrich, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-09-01

    For over a decade, the x-ray astrophysics community has enjoyed a fruitful epoch of discovery largely as a result of the successful launch and operation of the high resolution, high sensitivity spectrometers on board the Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku x-ray observatories. With the launch of the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer on the Astro-H x-ray observatory in 2014, the diagnostic power of high resolution spectroscopy will be extended to some of the hottest, largest and most exotic objects in our Universe. The diagnostic utility of these spectrometers is directly coupled to, and often limited by, our understanding of the x-ray production mechanisms associated with the highly charged ions present in the astrophysical source. To provide reliable benchmarks of theoretical calculations and to address specific problems facing the x-ray astrophysics community, electron beam ion traps have been used in laboratory astrophysics experiments to study the x-ray signatures of highly charged ions. A brief overview of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik's FLASH-EBIT operated at third and fourth generation advanced light sources, including a discussion of some of the results are presented.

  8. Compensated Multi-Pole Mercury Trapped Ion Frequency Standard and Stability Evaluation of Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed a compensated multi-pole Linear Ion Trap Standard (LITS) that eliminates nearly all frequency sensitivity to residual ion number variations. When operated with 199Hg+, this trapped ion clock has recently demonstrated extremely good stability over a 9-month period. The short-term stability has been measured at 5 × 10-14/τ1/2 and an upper limit on long-term fractional frequency deviations of REFID="9789812838223_0037FN001">

  9. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  10. Ion irradiation of graphene on Ir(111): From trapping to blistering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Åhlgren, E. Harriet; Valerius, Philipp; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Arman, Mohammad A.; Kotakoski, Jani; Knudsen, Jan; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Michely, Thomas

    Graphene grown epitaxially on Ir(111) is irradiated with low energy noble gas ions and the processes induced by atomic collision and subsequent annealing are analyzed using scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Upon room temperature ion irradiation graphene amorphizes and recovers its crystalline structure during annealing. The energetic noble gas projectiles are trapped with surprisingly high efficiency under the graphene cover up to extremely high temperatures beyond 1300K. The energy, angle, and ion species dependence of trapping are quantified. At elevated temperatures the trapped gas forms well developed and highly pressurized blisters under the graphene cover. We use molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations to elucidate the trapping mechanism and its thermal robustness. Similar trapping and blistering are observed after ion irradiation of a single layer of hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111) and we speculate on the generality of the observed phenomena.

  11. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  12. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  13. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, I.; Carlberg, C.; Fritioff, T.; Douysset, G.; Schoenfelder, J.; Schuch, R. E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2002-07-21

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a time. In this paper we demonstrate that mass precision of a few parts in 10{sup 10} also can be obtained in a warm trap at a pressure of about 5x10{sup -12} mbar by stabilizing the pressure in the He-dewar, the trap temperature and the frequency synthesizer. In order to reduce the influence of changes of the magnetic field to a level below 10{sup -10}, the scanning of the frequencies close to the resonances of both the ion of interest and the reference ion is done in a total time <2 min. Trapping of ions is a statistical procedure, allowing more than one ion to be trapped in each measurement cycle. However, after completing the measurements it is possible to reject all information except for events based on 1 and 2 trapped ions. The procedures of producing, transporting, catching, exciting and measuring the cyclotron resonance frequencies of highly charged ions and the mass reference ions with the time-of-flight method are described. In routine measurements with

  14. A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Fan, Rongrong; Cheng, Ping; Ding, Li; Ma, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-07

    A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer (DLIT-MS) has been developed for VOC analysis. It has a weight of 18 kg with dimensions of 49 cm × 39 cm × 16 cm, and consumes an average power of ca. 60 W. As a result of the introduction of a digital waveform, the DLIT-MS can be driven at a lower voltage (±100 V) to cover a mass range of 30-300 Th with a unit resolution. Compact electronics has been designed to control the DLIT-MS and record mass spectra. The mass drift was reduced after the improvement in electronics to stabilize the digital waveform voltage during the mass scan. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been achieved by using digital asymmetric waveform isolation (DAWI), forward and reverse scan, and collision induced dissociation (CID). The isolation and CID efficiency for methyl salicylate were 83.9% and 81.3%, respectively. A novel buffer gas inlet system was designed to enhance the sensitivity and allow easy and safe use of the instrument. Limits of detection below 1 ppbv were obtained for several mixed gaseous samples.

  15. In-Source Laser Spectroscopy with the Laser Ion Source and Trap: First Direct Study of the Ground-State Properties of ^{217,219}Po

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fink

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST for a thick-target, isotope-separation on-line facility has been implemented at CERN ISOLDE for the production of pure, laser-ionized, radioactive ion beams. It offers two modes of operation, either as an ion guide, which performs similarly to the standard ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS, or as a more selective ion source, where surface-ionized ions from the hot ion-source cavity are repelled by an electrode, while laser ionization is done within a radio-frequency quadrupole ion guide. The first physics application of the LIST enables the suppression of francium contamination in ion beams of neutron-rich polonium isotopes at ISOLDE by more than 1000 with a reduction in laser-ionization efficiency of only 20. Resonance ionization spectroscopy is performed directly inside the LIST device, allowing the study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift of ^{217}Po for the first time. Nuclear decay spectroscopy of ^{219}Po is performed for the first time, revealing its half-life, α-to-β-decay branching ratio, and α-particle energy. This experiment demonstrates the applicability of the LIST at radioactive ion-beam facilities for the production and study of pure beams of exotic isotopes.

  16. Fabrication of a segmented micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, M; Singer, K; Werth, G; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe a versatile planar Penning trap structure, which allows to dynamically modify the trapping configuration almost arbitrarily. The trap consists of 37 hexagonal electrodes, each of 300 mikron diameter, fabricated in a gold-on-sapphire lithographic technique. Every hexagon can be addressed individually, thus shaping the electric potential. The fabrication of such a device with clean room methods is demonstrated. We illustrate the variability of the device by a detailed numerical simulation of a lateral and a vertical transport and we simulate trapping in racetrack and artificial-crystal configurations. The trap may be used for ions or electrons, as a versatile container for quantum optics and quantum information experiments.

  17. Reliable transport through a microfabricated X-junction surface-electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth; Amini, Jason M.; Faircloth, Daniel L.; Volin, Curtis; Doret, S. Charles; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C.-S.; Landgren, David W.; Denison, Douglas; Killian, Tyler; Slusher, Richart E.; Harter, Alexa W.

    2013-03-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap that supports controlled transport through the two-dimensional intersection of linear trapping zones arranged in a 90° cross. The trap is fabricated with very large scalable integration techniques which are compatible with scaling to a large quantum information processor. The shape of the radio-frequency electrodes is optimized with a genetic algorithm to reduce axial pseudopotential barriers and minimize ion heating during transport. Seventy-eight independent dc control electrodes enable fine control of the trapping potentials. We demonstrate reliable ion transport between junction legs and determine the rate of ion loss due to transport. Doppler-cooled ions survive more than 105 round-trip transits between junction legs without loss and more than 65 consecutive round trips without laser cooling.

  18. Demonstration of integrated microscale optics in surface-electrode ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Merrill, J True; Landgren, David; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Doret, S Charles; Pai, C-S; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Faircloth, Daniel; Brown, Kenneth R; Harter, Alexa W; Slusher, Richart E

    2011-01-01

    In ion trap quantum information processing, efficient fluorescence collection is critical for fast, high-fidelity qubit detection and ion-photon entanglement. The expected size of future many-ion processors require scalable light collection systems. We report on the development and testing of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with an integrated high numerical aperture (NA) micromirror for fluorescence collection. When coupled to a low NA lens, the optical system is inherently scalable to large arrays of mirrors in a single device. We demonstrate stable trapping and transport of 40Ca+ ions over a 0.63 NA micromirror and observe a factor of 1.9 enhancement in photon collection compared to the planar region of the trap.

  19. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  20. Demonstration of integrated microscale optics in surface-electrode ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True Merrill, J; Brown, Kenneth R [Schools of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Computational Science and Engineering, and Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Volin, Curtis; Landgren, David; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Charles Doret, S; Pai, C-S; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Faircloth, Daniel; Harter, Alexa W; Slusher, Richart E, E-mail: curtis.volin@gtri.gatech.edu [Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In ion trap quantum information processing, efficient fluorescence collection is critical for fast, high-fidelity qubit detection and ion-photon entanglement. The expected size of future many-ion processors requires scalable light collection systems. We report on the development and testing of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with an integrated high-numerical aperture (NA) micromirror for fluorescence collection. When coupled to a low-NA lens, the optical system is inherently scalable to large arrays of mirrors in a single device. We demonstrate the stable trapping and transport of {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions over a 0.63 NA micromirror and observe a factor of 1.9 enhancement of photon collection compared to the planar region of the trap. (paper)

  1. Evaporative cooling and coherent axial oscillations of highly charged ions in a penning trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobein, M; Solders, A; Suhonen, M; Liu, Y; Schuch, R

    2011-01-07

    Externally, in an electron beam ion trap, generated Ar16+ ions were retrapped in a Penning trap and evaporatively cooled in their axial motion. The cooling was observed by a novel extraction technique based on the excitation of a coherent axial oscillation which yields short ion bunches of well-defined energies. The initial temperature of the ion cloud was decreased by a factor of more than 140 within 1 s, while the phase-space density of the coldest extracted ion pulses was increased by a factor of up to about 9.

  2. Reduction of anomalous heating in an in-situ-cleaned ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Hite, D A; Wilson, A C; Brown, K R; Warring, U; Jördens, R; Jost, J D; Pappas, D P; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous heating of trapped atomic ions is a major obstacle to their use as quantum bits in a scalable quantum computer. The physical origin of this heating is not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that it is caused by electric-field noise emanating from the surface of the trap electrodes. In this study, we have investigated the role that adsorbates on the electrodes play by identifying contaminant overlayers, developing an in situ argon-ion beam cleaning procedure, and measuring ion heating rates before and after cleaning the trap electrodes' surfaces. We find a reduction of two orders of magnitude in heating rate after cleaning.

  3. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  4. Experimental Improvement of Signal of a Single Laser-Cooled Trapped 40Ca+ Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Hua-Lin; QUO Bin; GUAN Hua; LIU Qu; HUANG Xue-Ren; GAO Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    A single 40Ca+ ion is loaded in a miniature Paul trap and the probability of directly loading a single ion is above 50%. The signal-to-noise ratio and the storage time for a single ion have been improved by minimizing the ion micromotion and locking a 397 nm cooling laser to a Fabry-Perot interferometer and optogalvanic signal. From the fluorescence spectrum, the ion temperature is estimated to be about 5mK.

  5. Measurement of the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of motional states of a trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao

    2004-01-01

    We propose a scheme to observe the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of two coherent states in the motion of a trapped ion. In the scheme the ion is excited by two perpendicular lasers tuned to the ion transition. The decoherence is revealed by the decrease of the correlation between two successive measurements of the internal state of the ion after relevant laser-ion interaction.

  6. Experimental study on dipole motion of an ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K., E-mail: kzito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Okano, T.; Moriya, K.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Okamoto, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The compact non-neutral plasma trap systems named “S-POD” have been developed at Hiroshima University as an experimental simulator of beam dynamics. S-POD is based either on a linear Paul trap or on a Penning trap and can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a relativistic charged-particle beam observed in the center-of-mass frame. We here employ the Paul trap system to investigate the behavior of an ion plasma near a dipole resonance. A simple method is proposed to calibrate the data of secular frequency measurements by using the dipole instability condition. We also show that the transverse density profile of an ion plasma in the trap can be estimated from the time evolution of ion losses caused by the resonance.

  7. A far-off-resonance optical trap for a Ba$^+$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Thomas; Schmidt, Julian; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Optical trapping and ions combine unique advantages of independently striving fields of research. Light fields can form versatile potential landscapes, such as optical lattices, for neutral and charged atoms, avoiding detrimental implications of established radiofrequency (rf) traps while mediating interaction via long range Coulomb forces, controlling and detecting motional and electronic states on the quantum level. Here we show optical trapping of $^{138}$Ba$^{+}$ ions in the absence of rf fields in a far-detuned dipole trap, suppressing photon scattering by three and the related recoil heating by four orders of magnitude. To enhance the prospects for optical as well as hybrid traps, we demonstrate a novel method for stray electric field compensation to a level below 9 mV/m. Our results will be relevant, for example, for ion-atom ensembles, to enable four to five orders of magnitude lower common temperatures, accessing the regime of ultracold interaction and chemistry, where quantum effects are predicted t...

  8. A Novel Method for Fundamental Interaction Studies with Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Vaintraub, S; Aviv, O; Heber, O; Mardor, I

    2010-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms present exciting opportunities for the study of fundamental interactions and symmetries. For example, detecting beta decay in a trap can probe the minute experimental signal that originates from possible tensor or scalar terms in the weak interaction. Such scalar or tensor terms affect, e.g., the angular correlation between a neutrino and an electron in the beta-decay process, thus probing new physics of "beyond-the-standard-model" nature. In particular, this article focuses on a novel use of an innovative ion trapping device, the Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT). Such a trap has not been previously considered for Fundamental Interaction studies and exhibits potentially very significant advantages over other schemes. These advantages include improved injection efficiency of the radionuclide under study, an extended field-free region, ion-beam kinematics for better efficiency and ease-of-operation and the potential for a much larger solid angle for the electron and recoiling atom co...

  9. Printed circuit board ion trap mass analyzer: its structure and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Jiang, Gong-Yu; Li, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Fu-Xing; Wang, Liang; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2013-06-18

    An ion trap (IT) mass analyzer can be simply built with low cost material-the printed circuit board (PCB). A printed circuit board ion trap (PCBIT) can perform ion trapping, mass analysis, and tandem mass spectrometry as a conventional ion trap mass analyzer. In a PCBIT, each PCB electrode was fabricated to specially designed patterns with several separate electric strips. The strips' electrodes were insulated from each other and applied with different voltages during the experiment. Therefore, the electric field distribution inside the ion trap region may be adjusted and optimized by simply adjusting the voltage on each strip. The performance of the PCBIT can also be optimized since the property of an ion trap is strongly dependent on the field distribution. The fabrication, operation, and performance of the PCBIT are described and characterized in this paper. A prototype PCBIT was built with two pairs of 64 mm × 12 mm PCB rectangular plates and one pair of 10 mm × 10 mm stainless steel square plates. A mass analysis with a resolving power of over 1500 and a mass range of around 3000 Th was observed. The mass-selected isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ions were also tested using the homemade PCBIT system. The adjustable electric field distribution, simple structure, and low cost of PCBIT make it certainly suitable for the further miniaturization of the portable mass spectrometer.

  10. Note: Single ion imaging and fluorescence collection with a parabolic mirror trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Kuan; Auchter, Carolyn; Lilieholm, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin; Blinov, Boris

    2017-08-01

    Efficient fluorescence collection is the most challenging part in remote entangled ion qubit state generation. To address this issue, we developed an ion trap consisting of a reflective parabolic surface and a needle electrode. This parabolic trap design covers a solid angle of 2π steradians and allows precise ion placement at the focal point of the parabola. We measured (39 ± 3)% fluorescence collection from a single ion with this trap and analyzed the mirror optical performance. We observed single ion image spot size of 3.4 times diffraction limit, improved to 2.8 times diffraction limit with the help of an external deformable mirror. The micromotion of the ion is determined to be the limiting factor, and the result is consistent with theoretical calculation.

  11. A microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seidelin, S; Bollinger, J J; Britton, J; Chiaverini, J; Epstein, R J; Hume, D B; Jost, J D; Langer, C; Leibfried, D; Ozeri, R; Reichle, R; Shiga, N; Wesenberg, J H; Wineland, D J

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate confinement of individual atomic ions in a radio-frequency Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane. This device is realized with a relatively simple fabrication procedure and has important implications for quantum state manipulation and quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled Mg-24 ions approximately 40 micrometer above planar gold electrodes. We measure the ions' motional frequencies and compare them to simulations. From measurements of the escape time of ions from the trap, we also determine a heating rate of approximately five motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 5.3 MHz.

  12. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, C; Eberhardt, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Fritz-Strassmann Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eibach, M; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Knuth, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudingerweg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Sz, E-mail: smorrac@uni-mainz.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C{sup +}{sub 24} were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO{sup +} ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented.

  13. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma of W$^{25+}$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Jonauskas, V; Kučas, S; Masys, Š; Kynienė, A; Gaigalas, G; Kisielius, R; Radžiūtė, L; Rynkun, P; Merkelis, G

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of the W$^{25+}$ ion are studied using the collisional-radiative model (CRM) with an ensuing cascade emission. It is determined that the cascade emission boosts intensities only of a few lines in the $10 - 3$ nm range. The cascade emission is responsible for the disappearance of structure of lines at about 6 nm in the electron beam ion trap plasma. Emission band at 4.5 to 5.3 nm is also affected by the cascade emission. The strongest lines in the CRM spectrum correspond to $4d^{9} 4f^{4} \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions, while $4f^{2} 5d \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions arise after the cascade emission is taken into account.

  14. High resolution EUV spectroscopy of xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We performed high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy measurements of highly charged xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap. The spectra were recorded with a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer while varying the electron beam energy between 200 and 890 eV. We measured the wavelengths for several lines of Rh-like Xe9+ - Cd-like Xe6+ and Cu-like Xe25+- Se-like Xe20+ in the range of 150-200 Å with an uncertainty of 0.05 Å. Previously, most of these lines have been reported from EBITs with a wavelength uncertainty of 0.2 Å. Additionally, based on the electron beam energy dependence of the observed spectra we tentatively identified three new lines, which were reported as unidentified lines in the previous studies.

  15. Rotating Magnetohydrodynamic and Trapped Hot-Ion Induced Internal Kinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, V.

    1993-01-01

    As a new and significant contribution to the tokamak literature, the linear internal MHD kink modes in finite aspect-ratio axisymmetric toroidally rotating tokamak equilibria and their kinetic modifications owing to the presence of hot ions are computationally studied herein using a bilinear form derived using a Lagrangian perturbation procedure. As a practical application, the rotating MHD and kinetic internal kinks are calculated in finite aspect-ratio TFTR- and ITER -like geometries. The MHD and kinetic modes of the rotating tokamak plasmas are found to be significantly destabilized by the centrifugal effects at rotation speeds in the range of 10^4-10^5 rad/s at normal discharge densities. The kinetic instability model provides a unified description of several features of the 'fishbone'-like oscillations such as the slow mode rotating at the plasma rotation frequency, the fast mode with high rotation frequency, and variation of the slow as well as fast mode frequencies with plasma rotation. The slow kinetic modes rotate close to mean plasma rotation speeds, and the fast kinetic modes rotate at about 10 ^5 rad/s. The fast mode rotation frequencies are in the range of the magnetic-precession frequencies of the deeply trapped ions. Also, the kinetic kink modes are found to be excitable in ITER-like ignited tokamak configurations owing to hot fusion products such as alphas. Also, a feasibility study of adaptive distributed parameter control of thermokinetics is demonstrated. Fast transport simulation and control are explored using a nonlinear Galerkin procedure, and a MIMO self-tuning control algorithm. It is found that only the density control can achieve reasonable power set-point follow-up, and that more popular control schemes such as auxiliary power control are not adequate to provide real-world power swings greater than 50-100 MW around the set point. The several computational modules developed for this thesis are as follows. The equilibrium calculations are

  16. Quantum State Control of Trapped Atomic and Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Christopher M.

    Full quantum control of a molecule would have a significant impact in molecular coherent control (alignment and orientation) and ultracold and quantum chemistry, quantum computing and simulation as well as hybrid quantum devices, and precision spectroscopy of importance to fundamental physics research. Precision spectroscopy of even simple diatomic molecules offers the possibility of uncovering physics beyond the standard model, specifically time variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, which is currently constrained by astronomical molecular observations at the 10-16 1/yr level and laboratory atomic measurements at the 10-17 1/yr level. To achieve this level of measurement and to avoid the complications of diatomic structure on traditional spectroscopy methods, molecular quantum logic spectroscopy (mQLS) will be the spectroscopy technique of choice. We discuss development of in-house external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems and improvements to the Libbrecht-Hall circuit, which is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. However, as the current approaches the maximum set limit, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This behavior is documented and simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue are explored. We cool trapped AlH+ molecules to their ground rotational-vibrational quantum state using an electronically-exciting broadband laser to simultaneously drive cooling resonances from many different rotational levels. We demonstrate rotational cooling on the 140(20) ms timescale from room temperature to 3.8 K, with the ground state population increasing from 3% to 95.4%. Since QLS does not require the high gate fidelities usually associated with quantum computation and quantum simulation, it is possible to make simplifying choices in ion species and quantum protocols at the expense of some fidelity. We demonstrate sideband cooling and motional state detection protocols for 138Ba+ of sufficient fidelity

  17. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  18. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  19. Cluster States from Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions in Thermal Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Following the recent proposal by Briegel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 910], a procedure is proposed for one-step realizing quantum control phase gates with two trapped ions in thermal motion. It is shown that the scheme can also be used to create a new special type of entangled states, i.e., cluster states of many trapped ions. In the scheme the two-trapped ions are simultaneously excited by a single laser beam and the frequency of the laser beam is slightly off resonance with the first lower vibration sideband of the trapped ions. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus. Furthermore, our scheme is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating (or decay) as long as the system remains in the Lamb-Dicke regime.

  20. On the application of radio frequency voltages to ion traps via helical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Siverns, J D; Weidt, S; Hensinger, W K

    2011-01-01

    Ions confined using a Paul trap require a stable, high voltage and low noise radio frequency (RF) potential. We present a guide for the design and construction of a helical coil resonator for a desired frequency that maximises the quality factor for a set of experimental constraints. We provide an in-depth analysis of the system formed from a shielded helical coil and an ion trap by treating the system as a lumped element model. This allows us to predict the resonant frequency and quality factor in terms of the physical parameters of the resonator and the properties of the ion trap. We also compare theoretical predictions with experimental data for different resonators, and predict the voltage applied to the ion trap as a function of the Q-factor, input power and the properties of the resonant circuit.

  1. A Modified MeVVA Ion Source for a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2006-10-01

    We have designed a new type of plasma gun ion source for a Malmberg-Penning trap based on Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MeVVA) ion source designs. Our primary intent with this MeVVA-type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7Be) plasma. The radioactivity of 7Be requires us to replace the sample inside the ion source on a regular basis. Our design makes it possible to easily remove the cathode of the ion source from an ultra-high vacuum trap and exchange 7Be samples while only needing to repressurize a small chamber rather than the entire trap. This design has an added benefit of being capable of generating plasmas from a wide variety of metals by simply exchanging the source target in the removable cathode. Because of this wide compatibility, we will be able to use our trap for studying any number of different plasmas, including other radioactive types.

  2. Paired-ion electrospray ionization--triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of anionic surfactants in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Guo, Hongyue; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-10-01

    A new paired ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of anionic surfactants in water samples was developed. In this method, dicationic ion-pairing reagents were complexed with monoanionic analytes to facilitate analyte detection in positive mode electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole instrument were performed and compared. Four dicationic reagents were tested for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBS), and stearic acid (SA), among other common anions. The obtained limits of detection were compared with those from previous literature. Solid phase extraction using a C18 cartridge was performed in order to eliminate matrix interferences. A literature review was compiled for the methods published between 2010 and 2015 for determination of anionic surfactants. The optimized method was more sensitive than previously developed methods with LOD values of 2.35, 35.4, 37.0, 1.68, and 0.675 pg for SDS, SA, DBS, PFOS, and PFOA, respectively. The developed method was effectively applied for the determination of anionic surfactants in different water samples such as bottled drinking water, cooking water, tap water, and wastewater.

  3. Shotgun Lipidomics by Sequential Precursor Ion Fragmentation on a Hybrid Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Simons

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shotgun lipidomics has evolved into a myriad of multi-dimensional strategies for molecular lipid characterization, including bioinformatics tools for mass spectrum interpretation and quantitative measurements to study systems-lipidomics in complex biological extracts. Taking advantage of spectral mass accuracy, scan speed and sensitivity of improved quadrupole linked time-of-flight mass analyzers, we developed a bias-free global lipid profiling acquisition technique of sequential precursor ion fragmentation called MS/MSALL. This generic information-independent tandem mass spectrometry (MS technique consists of a Q1 stepped mass isolation window through a set mass range in small increments, fragmenting and recording all product ions and neutral losses. Through the accurate MS and MS/MS information, the molecular lipid species are resolved, including distinction of isobaric and isomeric species, and composed into more precise lipidomic outputs. The method demonstrates good reproducibility and at least 3 orders of dynamic quantification range for isomeric ceramides in human plasma. More than 400 molecular lipids in human plasma were uncovered and quantified in less than 12 min, including acquisitions in both positive and negative polarity modes. We anticipate that the performance of sequential precursor ion fragmentation both in quality and throughput will lead to the uncovering of new avenues throughout the biomedical research community, enhance biomarker discovery and provide novel information target discovery programs as it will prospectively shed new insight into affected metabolic and signaling pathways.

  4. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Induced by Light-Emitting Diodes in a Planar Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Dustin D; Makarov, Alexander; Schwartz, Jae C; Sanders, James D; Zhuk, Eugene; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2016-09-26

    The first application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry is reported. LEDs provide a compact, low cost light source and have been incorporated directly into the trapping cell of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. MS/MS efficiencies of over 50 % were obtained using an extended irradiation period, and UVPD was optimized by modulating the ion trapping parameters to maximize the overlap between the ion cloud and the irradiation volume.

  5. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift gate

    OpenAIRE

    Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in [Jonathan etal, PRA 62, 042307]. Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  6. Preparation of Motional Mesoscopic Superpositions of Squeezed Coherent States of N Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; XIE Xiao-Tao; LI Jia-Hua; CHEN Chang-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is proposed to generate arbitrary, discrete superpostions of squeezed coherent states of the squeezed center of mass of N trapped ions along a straight line in phase space. The scheme is based on a resonant bichromatic excitation of each trapped ion that generates displacement and squeezing in the vibrational motion conditioned to each internal state. In this paper, we also show that such a method can be used for the engineering of motional quantum states.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of semiconductor ion traps for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, Daniel Lynn

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated ions has led to many advances in atomic physics, from laser cooling to precision metrology and quantum control. As technical capability in this area has grown, so has interest in building miniature electromagnetic traps for the development of large-scale quantum information processors. This thesis will primarily focus on using microfabrication techniques to build arrays of miniature ion traps, similar to techniques used in fabricating high component density microprocessors. A specific focus will be on research using a gallium arsenide/aluminum gallium arsenide heterostructure as a trap architecture, as well as the recent testing of different ion traps fabricated at outside foundries. The construction and characterization of a conventional ceramic trap capable of shuttling an ion through a junction will also be detailed, and reveal the need for moving towards lithographically fabricated traps. Combined, these serve as a set of proof-of-principle experiments pointing to methods for designing and building large scale arrays of ion traps capable of constituting a quantum information processor. As traps become smaller, electrical potentials on the electrodes have greater influence on the ion. This not only pertains to intentionally applied voltages, but also to deleterious noise sources, such as thermal Johnson noise and the more significant "patch potential" noise, which both cause motional heating of the ion. These problematic noise sources dovetail with my thesis research into trap miniaturization since their effects become more pronounced and impossible to ignore for small trap sizes. Therefore characterizing them and investigating ways to suppress them have become an important component of my research. I will describe an experiment using a pair of movable needle electrodes to measure the ion heating rate corresponding to the harmonic frequency of the trap, the ion-electrode distance, and the electrode temperature. This

  8. Measurement of storage time, estimation of ion number and study of absorption line profile in a Paul trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Bhattacharyya; Anita Gupta; S G Nakhate; Pushpa M Rao

    2006-12-01

    Europium (Eu+) ions were confined in a Paul trap and detected by non-destructive method. Storage time of Eu+ ions achieved in vacuum was improved by orders of magnitude employing buffer gas cooling. The experimentally detected signal was fitted to the ion response signal and the total number of ions trapped was estimated. It is found that the peak signal amplitude as well as the product of FWHM and the peak signal amplitude is proportional to the total number of trapped ions. The trapped ion secular frequency was swept at different rates and its effect on the absorption line profile was studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  9. Characterization of TATP gas phase product ion chemistry via isotope labeling experiments using ion mobility spectrometry interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson-Phillips, Jill; Wooten, Alfred; Kozole, Joseph; Deline, James; Beresford, Pamela; Stairs, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Identification of the fragment ion species associated with the ion reaction mechanism of triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a homemade peroxide-based explosive, is presented. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has proven to be a key analytical technique in the detection of trace explosive material. Unfortunately, IMS alone does not provide chemical identification of the ions detected; therefore, it is unknown what ion species are actually formed and separated by the IMS. In IMS, ions are primarily characterized by their drift time, which is dependent on the ion׳s mass and molecular cross-section; thus, IMS as a standalone technique does not provide structural signatures, which is in sharp contrast to the chemical and molecular information that is generally obtained from other customary analytical techniques, such as NMR, Raman and IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. To help study the ion chemistry that gives rise to the peaks observed in IMS, the hardware of two different commercial IMS instruments has been directly coupled to triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometers, in order to ascertain each ion׳s corresponding mass/charge (m/z) ratios with different dopants at two temperatures. Isotope labeling was then used to help identify and confirm the molecular identity of the explosive fragment and adduct ions of TATP. The m/z values and isotope labeling experiments were used to help propose probable molecular formulas for the ion fragments. In this report, the fragment and adduct ions m/z 58 and 240 of TATP have been confirmed to be [C3H6NH·H](+) and [TATP·NH4](+), respectively; while the fragment ions m/z 73 and 89 of TATP are identified as having the molecular formulas [C4H9NH2](+) and [C4H9O2](+), respectively. It is anticipated that the work in this area will not only help to facilitate improvements in mobility-based detection (IMS and MS), but also aid in the development and optimization of MS-based detection algorithms for TATP.

  10. On-line implementation and first operation of the Laser Ion Source and Trap at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D.A., E-mail: daniel.fink@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, S.D. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Catherall, R.; Crepieux, B.; Fedosseev, V.N. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gottberg, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kron, T. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Marsh, B.A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Rossel, R.E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Faculty of Design, Computer Science and Media, Hochschule RheinMain, 65197 Wiesbaden (Germany); Rothe, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Schwellnus, F. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); and others

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • The Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST) was successfully operated on-line at ISOLDE. • LIST showed no signs of degradation after 48 h of intense proton irradiation. • Transmission, selectivity, efficiency, time structure were extensively characterized. • Suppression factor for surface-ionized isobaric contaminants is more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4}. • Loss in LIST efficiency compared to RILIS operation is only a factor of 20. - Abstract: At radioactive ion beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN, a high purity of the element of interest in the ion beam is essential for most experiments on exotic nuclei. Due to its unique combination of high ionization efficiency and ultimate elemental selectivity, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source, RILIS, has become the most frequently used ion source at ISOLDE and at the majority of similar facilities worldwide. However, isobaric contamination predominantly stemming from unspecific surface ionization may still introduce severe limitations. By applying the highly selective resonance ionization technique inside a radio-frequency quadrupole ion guide structure, the novel approach of the Laser Ion Source and Trap, LIST, suppresses surface ionized isobaric contaminants by an electrostatic repelling potential. Following extensive feasibility studies and off-line tests, the LIST device has been adapted and refined to match the stringent operational constraints and to survive the hostile environment of the ISOLDE front-end region enclosing the highly radioactive nuclear reaction target. The LIST operation was successfully demonstrated for the first time on-line at ISOLDE during two experiments, attesting its suitability for radioactive isotope production under routine conditions. Data of these on-line characterization measurements confirm a suppression of surface-ionized isobars by more than a factor of 1000 in accordance to off-line studies that were carried out for the preparation of the on-line experiments

  11. Structure Analysis and Ion Abundance in CID- MS- MS Spectra of Isomeric Oligosaccharides Using Quadrupole Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometry: Distinguishing between Isomeric Oligosaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tohru YAMAGAKI; Kazuo TACHIBANA

    2001-01-01

    @@ N - Linked oligosaccharide were analyzed by using electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time - of- fight mass spectrometry(Q - Tof MS).The isomers showed the same MS and collisioninduced desociation(CID) MS - MS spectra in the m/z values because the sequence of the sugar residues was the same.But the relative ion abundance of the specific fragment ion was greatly different between the isomers.So, the isomeric oligosacchariedes were distinguished by using the ion abundance in their CID -MS - MS spectra.Discussing the ion abundance in accurate level, quantitative analysis of the mixtures of isomers were also performed.

  12. Effects of trapped electrons on the oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-08-01

    The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.

  13. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-10-18

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source, and limited to injected ion populations of ~106 charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods (e.g. in extended pulses). In this work a new SLIM ‘flat funnel’ (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ~3.2×108 charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing e.g. efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, RF, and DC confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission and separation in the FF IM module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in signal to noise (S/N) ratios due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  14. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Hamid, Ahmed M; Norheim, Randolph V; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-10-07

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source and was limited to injected ion populations of ∼10(6) charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods, such as in extended pulses. In this work a new SLIM "flat funnel" (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ∼3.2 × 10(8) charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than that of the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, rf, and dc confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission, and IM separation in the FF module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  15. Multiple Mass Analysis Using an Ion Trap Array (ITA) Mass Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Chu, Yanqiu; Ling, Xing; Ding, Zhengzhi; Xu, Chongsheng; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2013-09-01

    A novel ion trap array (ITA) mass analyzer with six ion trapping and analyzing channels was investigated. It is capable of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously. The ITA was built with several planar electrodes made of stainless steel and 12 identical parallel zirconia ceramic substrates plated with conductive metal layers. Each two of the opposing ceramic electrode plates formed a boundary of an ion trap channel and six identical ion trapping and analyzing channels were placed in parallel without physical electrode between any two adjacent channels. The electric field distribution inside each channel was studied with simulation. The new design took the advantage of high precision machining attributable to the rigidity of ceramic, and the convenience of surface patterning technique. The ITA system was tested by using a two-channel electrospray ionization source, a multichannel simultaneous quadruple ion guide, and two detectors. The simultaneous analysis of two different samples with two adjacent ITA channels was achieved and independent mass spectra were obtained. For each channel, the mass resolution was tested. Additional ion trap functions such as mass-selected ion isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were also tested. The results show that one ITA is well suited for multiple simultaneous mass analyses.

  16. Scalable Multiplexed Ion Trap Fabrication Using Ball Grid Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    CPGA carrier. To supply DC potentials for each electrode, pads on the CPGA are wirebonded to pads on the trap chip, while on-chip surface capacitors...industry standard CPGA carrier. To supply DC potentials for each electrode, pads on the CPGA are wirebonded to pads on the trap chip, while on-chip...none) Enter List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of the project to the date of this printing . List the

  17. An electrostatic quadrupole doublet focusing system for MeV heavy ions in MeV-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, T., E-mail: seki@sakura.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, 606-8501 Kyoto (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan); Shitomoto, S.; Nakagawa, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, 606-8501 Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, T. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Nishikyo, 615-8510 Kyoto (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan); Matsuo, J. [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto Univ., Uji, 611-0011 Kyoto (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The importance of imaging mass spectrometry (MS) for visualizing the spatial distribution of molecular species in biological tissues and cells is growing. In conventional SIMS with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms in constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, MeV-energy ion beams excite electrons near the surface and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules, hence, fragment suppressed SIMS spectrum of ionized molecules can be obtained. This work is a further step on our previous report on the successful development of a MeV secondary ion mass spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) for biological samples. We have developed an electrostatic quadrupole doublet (EQ doublet) focusing system, made of two separate lenses, Q1 and Q2, to focus the MeV heavy ion beam and reduce measurement time. A primary beam of 6 MeV Cu{sup 4+} was focused with this EQ doublet. We applied 1120 V to the Q1 lens and 1430 V to the Q2 lens, and the current density increased by a factor of about 60. Using this arrangement, we obtained an MeV-SIMS image of 100 × 100 pixels of cholesterol-OH{sup +} of cerebellum (m/z = 369.3) over a 4 mm × 4 mm field of view, with a pixel size of 40 μm within 5 min, showing that our EQ doublet reduces the measurement time of current imaging by a factor of about 30.

  18. An electrostatic quadrupole doublet focusing system for MeV heavy ions in MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, T.; Shitomoto, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Aoki, T.; Matsuo, J.

    2013-11-01

    The importance of imaging mass spectrometry (MS) for visualizing the spatial distribution of molecular species in biological tissues and cells is growing. In conventional SIMS with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms in constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, MeV-energy ion beams excite electrons near the surface and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules, hence, fragment suppressed SIMS spectrum of ionized molecules can be obtained. This work is a further step on our previous report on the successful development of a MeV secondary ion mass spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) for biological samples. We have developed an electrostatic quadrupole doublet (EQ doublet) focusing system, made of two separate lenses, Q1 and Q2, to focus the MeV heavy ion beam and reduce measurement time. A primary beam of 6 MeV Cu4+ was focused with this EQ doublet. We applied 1120 V to the Q1 lens and 1430 V to the Q2 lens, and the current density increased by a factor of about 60. Using this arrangement, we obtained an MeV-SIMS image of 100 × 100 pixels of cholesterol-OH+ of cerebellum (m/z = 369.3) over a 4 mm × 4 mm field of view, with a pixel size of 40 μm within 5 min, showing that our EQ doublet reduces the measurement time of current imaging by a factor of about 30.

  19. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  20. Insensitivity of Ion Motional Heating Rate to Trap Material over a Large Temperature Range

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K up to room temperature (295 K) in a single apparatus. Using the sideband-ratio technique after resolved-sideband cooling of single ions to the motional ground state, we find low-temperature heating rates more than two orders of magnitude below the room-temperature values and approximately equal to the lowest measured heating rates in similarly-sized cryogenic traps. We find similar behavior in the two very different electrode materials, suggesting that the anomalous heating process is dominated by non-material-specific surface contaminants. Through precise control of the temperature of cryopumping surfaces, we also identify conditions under which elastic collisions with the background gas can lead to an apparent steady heating rate, despite rare collisions.

  1. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  2. Heating and ion transport in a Y-junction surface-electrode trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Volin, C; Buikema, A; Nichols, C S; Stick, D; Brown, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We measure ion heating following transport throughout a Y-junction surface-electrode ion trap. By carefully selecting the trap voltage update rate during adiabatic transport along a trap arm, we observe minimal heating relative to the anomalous heating background. Transport through the junction results in an induced heating between 37 and 150 quanta in the axial direction per traverse. To reliably measure heating in this range, we compare the experimental sideband envelope, including up to fourth-order sidebands, to a theoretical model. The sideband envelope method allows us to cover the intermediate heating range inaccessible to the first-order sideband and Doppler recooling methods. We conclude that quantum information processing in this ion trap will likely require sympathetic cooling in order to support high fidelity gates after junction transport.

  3. Superstatistical velocity distributions of cold trapped ions in molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, I

    2015-01-01

    We present a realistic molecular-dynamics treatment of laser-cooled ions in radiofrequency ion traps which avoids previously made simplifications such as modeling laser cooling as a friction force and combining individual heating mechanisms into a single effective heating force. Based on this implementation, we show that infrequent energetic collisions of single ions with background gas molecules lead to pronounced heating of the entire ion ensemble and a time-varying secular ensemble temperature which manifests itself in a superstatistical time-averaged velocity distribution of the ions. The effect of this finding on the experimental determination of ion temperatures and rate constants for cold chemical reactions is discussed.

  4. Highly charged ion research at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-01-04

    Spectroscopy performed with the three Livermore electron beam ion traps is reviewed, which is continuing and complementing the innumerable contributions to atomic physics provided over the years by heavy-ion accelerators. Numerous spectrometers were developed that cover the spectral bands from the visible to the hard x ray region. These enabled exhaustive line surveys useful for x-ray astrophysics and for systematic studies along iso-electronic sequences, such as the 4s-4p, 3s-3p, and 2s-2p transitions in ions of the Cu-I, Na-I, and Li-I sequences useful for studying QED and correlation effects as well as for precise determinations of atomic-nuclear interactions. They also enabled measurements of radiative transition probabilities of very long-lived (milli- and microseconds) and very short-live (femtosecond) levels. Because line excitation processes can be controlled by choice of the electron beam energy, the observed line intensities are used to infer cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, resonance excitation, and innershell ionization. These capabilities have recently been expanded to simulate x-ray emission from comets by charge exchange. Specific contributions to basic atomic physics, nuclear physics, and high-temperature diagnostics are illustrated.

  5. Depletion of the excited state population in negative ions using laser photodetachment in a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, A O; Hanstorp, D [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forstner, O [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria); Gibson, N D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Gottwald, T; Wendt, K [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Havener, C C; Liu, Y, E-mail: Dag.Hanstorp@physics.gu.s [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6368 (United States)

    2010-06-14

    The depopulation of excited states in beams of negatively charged carbon and silicon ions was demonstrated using collisional detachment and laser photodetachment in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion guide filled with helium. The high-lying, loosely bound {sup 2}D excited state in C{sup -} was completely depleted through collisional detachment alone, which was quantitatively determined within 6%. For Si{sup -} the combined signal from the population in the {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D excited states was only partly depleted through collisions in the cooler. The loosely bound {sup 2}P state was likely to be completely depopulated, and the more tightly bound {sup 2}D state was partly depopulated through collisions. 98(2)% of the remaining {sup 2}D population was removed by photodetachment in the cooler using less than 2 W laser power. The total reduction of the excited population in Si{sup -}, including collisional detachment and photodetachment, was estimated to be 99(1)%. Employing this novel technique to produce a pure ground state negative ion beam offers possibilities of enhancing selectivity, as well as accuracy, in high-precision experiments on atomic as well as molecular negative ions.

  6. CID of singly charged antioxidants applied in lubricants by means of a 3D ion trap and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Alexander; Pittenauer, Ernst; Doerr, Nicole; Allmaier, Guenter

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fragmentation behavior induced by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (LE-CID) of four selected antioxidants applied in lubricants, by two different types of ion trap mass spectrometers: a three-dimensional ion trap (3D-IT) and a linear IT (LIT) Orbitrap MS. Two sterically hindered phenols and two aromatic amines were selected as model compounds representing different antioxidant classes and were characterized by positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and LE-CID. Various types of molecular ions (e.g. [M](+•) , [M + H](+) , [M + NH(4) ](+) or [M + Na](+) ) were used as precursor ions generating a significant number of structurally relevant product ions. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by negative-ion ESI. For both IT types applied for fragmentation, the antioxidants exhibited the same unusual LE-CID behavior: (1) they formed stable radical product ions and (2) CC bond cleavages of aliphatic substituents were observed and their respective cleavage sites depended on the precursor ion selected. This fragmentation provided information on the type of structural isomer usually not obtainable for branched aliphatic substituents utilizing LE-CID. Comparing the two instruments, the main benefit of applying the LIT-Orbitrap was direct access to elemental composition of product ions enabling unambiguous interpretation of fragmentation trees not obtainable by the 3D-IT device (e.g. loss of isobaric neutrals). It should be emphasized that the types of product ions formed do not depend on the type of IT analyzer applied. For characterizing degradation products of antioxidants, the LIT-Orbitrap hybrid system, allowing the determination of accurate m/z values for product ions, is the method of choice.

  7. Search for new physics in $\\beta$-neutrino correlations using trapped ions and a retardation spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Coeck, S; Lienard, E; Zboril, M; Zakoucky, D; Severijns, N

    2002-01-01

    The WITCH set-up is a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer for recoil ions from $\\beta$-decay. It was installed at ISOLDE in the past four years. In this addendum the present status of the experiment is described and beam time is asked to further improve the set-up and perform first measurements.

  8. Influence of second sideband excitation on the dynamics of trapped ions in a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a trapped ion placed at an antinode of the standing wave inside a high finesse cavity with consideration of the second sideband excitation between the ionic internal levels and the light field. We investigate the entanglement of the three subsystems embodying the ionic internal levels, the vibrational mode of the ion and the cavity field.

  9. Influence of second sideband excitation on the dynamics of trapped ions in a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a trapped ion placed at an antinode of the standing wave inside a high finesse cavitywith consideration of the second sideband excitation between the ionic internal levels and the light field. We investigatethe entanglement of the three subsystems embodying the ionic internal levels, the vibrational mode of the ion and thecavity field.

  10. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of the Collective Motional Energy of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the collective motional energy of two trapped ions for the first time.It is based on the excitation of the two ions by two lasers with appropriate frequencies and amplitudes.The scheme also provides a new possibility of preparing vibrational Fock states and laser cooling.

  11. Generation of Superpositions of Two Bloch States in an Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the generation of superpositions of two Bloch states for a collection of ions. Inthe scheme the ions are trapped in a linear potential and interact with laser beams. Our scheme does not put anyrequirement on the Lamb-Dicke parameters.

  12. Quantum information experiments with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Kevin; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Bollinger, John

    2016-05-01

    We summarize recent experimental work with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped 9 Be+ ions stored in a Penning trap. Penning traps utilize static magnetic and electric fields to confine ions, and enable the trapping and laser cooling of ion crystals larger than typically possible in RF ion traps. We work with single-plane ion crystals where the ions form a triangular lattice through minimization of their Coulomb potential energy. The crystals rotate, and we present numerical studies that determine optimal operating parameters for producing low temperature, stable 2-dimensional crystals with Doppler laser cooling and a rotating wall potential. Our qubit is the electron spin-flip transition in the ground state of 9 Be+ and is sensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Through mitigation of part-per-billion, vibration-induced magnetic field fluctuations we demonstrate T2 coherence times longer than 50 ms. We engineer long-range Ising interactions with spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and summarize recent measurements that characterize the entanglement generated through single-axis twisting. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  13. Temperature Measurements of Laser-Cooled Ions in a Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Bollinger, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Between 104 and 106 9Be+ ions are trapped in a Penning trap. The ions are laser-cooled to ˜millikelvin temperatures, where they form ion crystals. This system is an example of a strongly coupled one-component plasma. By means of Doppler laser spectroscopy we have measured the temperature and heating rate of the plasma. Initially the heating rate is low, 60 ± 40 mK/s, but after about 100 ms the plasma heats up rapidly to a few kelvin. The onset of the rapid heating coincides with the solid-liquid phase transition.

  14. Dynamics and control of fast ion crystal splitting in segmented Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, H; Schmiegelow, C T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the process of splitting two-ion crystals in segmented Paul traps, i.e. the structural transition from two ions confined in a common well to ions confined in separate wells. The precise control of this process by application of suitable voltage ramps to the trap segments is non-trivial, as the harmonic confinement transiently vanishes during the process. This makes the ions strongly susceptible to background electric field noise, and to static offset fields in the direction of the trap axis. We analyze the reasons why large energy transfers can occur, which are impulsive acceleration, the presence of residual background fields and enhanced anomalous heating. For the impulsive acceleration, we identify the diabatic and adiabatic regimes, which are characterized by different scaling behavior of the energy transfer with respect to time. We propose a suitable control scheme based on experimentally accessible parameters. Simulations are used to verify both the high sensitivity of the s...

  15. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  16. Efficient Raman sideband cooling of trapped ions to their motional ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Deng, K.; Xu, Z. T.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient cooling of trapped ions is a prerequisite for various applications of the ions in precision spectroscopy, quantum information, and coherence control. Raman sideband cooling is an effective method to cool the ions to their motional ground state. We investigate both numerically and experimentally the optimization of Raman sideband cooling strategies and propose an efficient one, which can simplify the experimental setup as well as reduce the number of cooling pulses. Several cooling schemes are tested and compared through numerical simulations. The simulation result shows that the fixed-width pulses and varied-width pulses have almost the same efficiency for both the first-order and the second-order Raman sideband cooling. The optimized strategy is verified experimentally. A single 25Mg+ ion is trapped in a linear Paul trap and Raman sideband cooled, and the achieved average vibrational quantum numbers under different cooling strategies are evaluated. A good agreement between the experimental result and the simulation result is obtained.

  17. Phase-stable free-space optical lattices for trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomas; Ruster, Thomas; Schulz, Jonas; Kaushal, Vidyut; Hettrich, Max; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2\\% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over 157~$\\mu$m range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6~nm.

  18. Designing spin-spin interactions with one and two dimensional ion crystals in planar micro traps

    CERN Document Server

    Welzel, J; Abarbanel, C; Wineman-Fisher, V; Wunderlich, C; Folman, R; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the experimental feasibility of quantum simulation with trapped ion crystals, using magnetic field gradients. We describe a micro structured planar ion trap, which contains a central wire loop generating a strong magnetic gradient of about 20 T/m in an ion crystal held about 160 \\mu m above the surface. On the theoretical side, we extend a proposal about spin-spin interactions via magnetic gradient induced coupling (MAGIC) [Johanning, et al, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 (2009) 154009]. We describe aspects where planar ion traps promise novel physics: Spin-spin coupling strengths of transversal eigenmodes exhibit significant advantages over the coupling schemes in longitudinal direction that have been previously investigated. With a chip device and a magnetic field coil with small inductance, a resonant enhancement of magnetic spin forces through the application of alternating magnetic field gradients is proposed. Such resonantly enhanced spin-spin coupling may be used, for instance, to create...

  19. Characterization of fluorescence collection optics integrated with a micro-fabricated surface electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Craig R; Ellis, A R; Hunker, Jeff; Kemme, Shanalyn A; Maunz, Peter; Tabakov, Boyan; Tigges, Chris; Stick, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    One of the outstanding challenges for ion trap quantum information processing is to accurately detect the states of many ions in a scalable fashion. In the particular case of surface traps, geometric constraints make imaging perpendicular to the surface appealing for light collection at multiple locations with minimal cross-talk. In this report we describe an experiment integrating Diffractive Optic Elements (DOE's) with surface electrode traps, connected through in-vacuum multi-mode fibers. The square DOE's reported here were all designed with solid angle collection efficiencies of 3.58%; with all losses included a detection efficiency of 0.388% (1.02% excluding the PMT loss) was measured with a single Ca+ ion. The presence of the DOE had minimal effect on the stability of the ion, both in temporal variation of stray electric fields and in motional heating rates.

  20. Universal nonmonotonic structure in the saturation curves of magneto-optical-trap-loaded Na+ ions stored in an ion-neutral hybrid trap: Prediction and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, R.; Wells, J. E.; Goodman, D. S.; Kwolek, J. M.; Smith, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    We predict that the maximal, steady-state ion capacity Ns(λ ) of radio-frequency (rf) traps, loaded at a rate of λ particles per rf cycle, shows universal, nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of loading rate λ . The shape of Ns(λ ) , characterized by four dynamical regimes, is universal; i.e., it is predicted to manifest itself in all types of rf traps independent of the details of their construction and independent of particle species loaded. For λ ≪ 1 (region I), as expected, Ns(λ ) increases monotonically with λ . However, contrary to intuition, at intermediate λ ˜1 (region II), Ns(λ ) reaches a maximum, followed by a local minimum of Ns(λ ) (region III). For λ ≫1 (region IV), Ns(λ ) again rises monotonically. In region IV, numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experiments show Ns(λ ) ˜λ2 /3 . We confirm our predictions both experimentally with magneto-optical-trap-loaded Na+ ions stored in a hybrid ion-neutral trap and numerically with the help of detailed ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations.