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Sample records for quadrifasciata hymenoptera apidae

  1. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  2. Polimorfismo enzimático em populações de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Enzymatic polymorphism in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier populations (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Them aim scope of this study is to characterize the enzymatic polymorphism found in the Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1936 populations from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo and Espírito Santo, Brazil and its hybrids. Samples from each colony (about 52 were prepared for starch gel electrophoresis in order to investigate the genetic variation of the following enzimes: esterase (EST, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, malic enzyme (ME, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, superoxide desmutase (SOD, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (αPGD, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, hexokinase (HK and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI. The analysis showed that LAP and HK did not show enzymatic activity and EST showed two alleles(est-sand and est-f while all the others were shown to be monomorphic. The allele EST-S showed a frequency of 82,6%.

  3. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  4. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  5. Sensilas antenais de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): estudo comparado entre machos e fêmeas e entre diferentes castas

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    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga

    2012-01-01

    A abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides é conhecida popularmente como mandaçaia e pertence à tribo Meliponini que inclui importantes insetos eusociais polinizadores de espécies de plantas tropicais e subtropicais. Em um ninho típico de abelhas sociais há indivíduos de diferentes sexos e castas. Esses são compostos pelos zangões e pelas castas femininas que incluem as operárias e a(s) rainha(s). Entretanto, quando o hormônio juvenil (HJ) é aplicado topicamente em larvas de m...

  6. CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE PARÂMETROS BIOMÉTRICOS E PRODUTIVOS EM COLÔNIAS DE Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE

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    Patricia Faquinello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In meliponini colonies, biometric characteristics may be associated with production traits, thus the study of correlations is extremely useful as a tool for colony selection process. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations between biometric and productive parameters of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. We analyzed 128 colonies, from 60 parental and two generations, F1 and F2. The following parameters were evaluated: queen and colony weight; number, length and width of brood disks; number, width, depth and volume of honey pots; number, width and depth of pollen pots; glossa size, and estimate of the population and honey production. The queen weight was correlated with the number of brood disks (0.23 and population (0.23, as well as the characteristic number of pollen pots is related to the length and width of brood disks and population (0.88, 0.54 and 0.52, respectively. The characteristic honey production is related to the number (0.93, width (0.50 and volume (0.47 of honey pots. The results showed that honey production is directly correlated with number, volume, width and depth of honey pots. On the other side, the population size was correlated with the number of brood disks and pollen pots.

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  8. De kortsnuitbloedbij Sphecodes majalis nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Raemakers, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sphecodes majalis, a new bee species for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) A population of Sphecodes majalis was found on a limestone grassland near Maastricht (Limburg). On several occasions more than 10 female and several male specimen were observed. Sphecodes majalis is a parasite of Lasioglo

  9. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

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    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  11. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

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    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  12. The use of root plates for nesting sites by Anthophora abrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) may be common within forested habitats

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    Joshua W. Campbell; Cynthia C. Viguiera; Patrick Viguiera; John E. Hartgerink; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    This is the first reported use of root plates by Anthophora abrupta Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Previous reported nesting sites were vertical riverbanks and several man-made clay structures. Root plates in forested habitats may be the preferred nesting site for A. abrupta.

  13. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

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    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  14. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  15. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  16. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  17. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  18. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

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    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  19. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

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    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  20. Condensação cromatinica e metilação de DNA investigadas em abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata e Melipona rufiventris (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

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    Andre Roberto Mampumbu

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O gênero Melipona (abelhas sem ferrão) tem sido dividido em dois grupos, com base no seu conteúdo em heterocromatina revelada com a técnica de banda-C em cromossomos mitóticos. Melipona quadrifasciata e Melipona rufiventris apresentam, respectivamente, níveis baixos e altos de heterocromatina. Na suposição de que cromatina condensada possa ser rica em seqüências de DNA metiladas, M. quadrifasciata e M. rufiventris poderiam então apresentar diferenças em conteúdo de seqüências CpG met...

  1. Morphology and Food Plants of Cuckoo Bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera From Indian Himalayas

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    Rifat H. Raina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuckoo bees belong to the genus Bombus (Apidae: Hymenoptera under sub genus Psythrus Lepeletier and is widely distributed subgenus from the oriental region represented by 17 valid species. This subgenus is represented by eight valid species from Indian Himalayas viz. B. ferganicus B. novus, B. morawatizianus, B. cornutus, B. branickii, B. skorikovi, B. tibetanus and B. turneri. Due emphasis has been laid on their altitudional distribution, food plants, taxonomy, synonymy, and illustrations. Being their parasitic nature these species lack worker caste and has negligible role in pollination ecology although they have got preference to forage on different host plants. The species were observed feeding sluggishly on flower heads of Rosa weibbiana, Cirsium spp. and Trifoium spp. Many new food plants of these species have been recorded for the first time from the area under study. During the present studies six species of the cuckoo bees were collected and identified and one species viz. B. turneri which could not found during the present study were procured on exchanged from BMNH, London.

  2. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

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    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  3. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

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    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation.

  4. Tipos polínicos coletados por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Carvalho Carlos Alfredo Lopes de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos polínicos coletados no mesmo pasto apícola por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae foram estudados e comparados durante dois meses em Piracicaba-SP, (22o43'S; 47o25'W; altitude: 580m. As massas de pólen foram obtidas através da captura de operárias que retornavam à colônia das 5:00 às 19:00 horas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 1996. Trinta e um tipos polínicos pertencentes a 22 famílias foram identificados, dos quais 22,58% foram coletados exclusivamente por N. testaceicornis, 35,48% por T. angustula e 41,94%, por ambas as espécies. As famílias Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Mimosaceae e Myrtaceae e as espécies Bulbine frutescens, Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala e Tipuana tipu foram as mais freqüentes e constantes durante os trabalhos. O índice de similaridade entre as fontes de pólen explorada pelas abelhas foi igual a 0,78.

  5. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

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    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  6. The Similarity and Appropriate Usage of Three Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Datasets for Longitudinal Studies.

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    Highland, Steven; James, R R

    2016-04-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few such datasets exist, scientists have been hesitant to use some of these due to perceived shortcomings in the data. We compared data and trends for three datasets. Two come from the US Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board: one is the annual survey of honey-producing colonies from the Annual Bee and Honey program (ABH), and the other is colony counts from the Census of Agriculture conducted every five years. The third dataset we developed from the number of colonies registered annually by some states. We compared the long-term patterns of change in colony numbers among the datasets on a state-by-state basis. The three datasets often showed similar hive numbers and trends varied by state, with differences between datasets being greatest for those states receiving a large number of migratory colonies. Dataset comparisons provide a method to estimate the number of colonies in a state used for pollination versus honey production. Some states also had separate data for local and migratory colonies, allowing one to determine whether the migratory colonies were typically used for pollination or honey production. The Census of Agriculture should provide the most accurate long-term data on colony numbers, but only every five years. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated.

  8. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Ptilotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero neotropical de abelhas sem ferrão, Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951, é revisado. Três espécies são reconhecidas: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endêmica do NW da América do Sul - do NW do Equador até o sul de Darién -, e com uma população isolada na Península de Osa - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e P. lurida (Smith, 1854, amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Ptilotrigona lurida e P. pereneae são as únicas abelhas sem ferrão que estocam pólen em associação com leveduras (Candida sp. e produzem pouco ou nenhum mel. Ninhos são descritos e ilustrados. Holótipos de Trigona suffragata Cockerell, 1922 (sin. de P. occidentalis e Trigona manni Cockerell, 1912, e exemplares de Trigona heideri Friese, 1900 (sins. de P. lurida, identificados por Friese, e um parátipo de Trigona (Tetragona heideri pereneae Schwarz, 1943, são estudados. Novo sinônimo: Ptilotrigona lurida (Smith, 1854 = Trigona mocsaryi lutea Friese, 1903 syn. nov. Na análise cladística, espécies de Camargoia Moure, 1989, e Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, foram incluídas como grupos externos; a hipótese apresentada é a seguinte: ((((Ptilotrigona lurida, P. pereneae P. occidentalis((Camargoia nordestina, C. pilicornis C. camargoi Tetragona goettei. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies e outros aspectos bionômicos também são apresentados.Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Ptilotrigona Moure, (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae. The Neotropical stingless bees genus Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951 is revised. Three species are recognized: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endemic to NW South America - from NW Ecuador to southern Darién -, and with one isolated population in Osa Peninsula - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endemic to the western Amazon; and P. lurida (Smith, 1854, largely distributed in the Amazon region. Ptilotrigona lurida and P. pereneae are the only known stingless bees

  9. First host record for the cleptoparasitic bee Rhathymus friesei Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Hugo A. Werneck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhathymus contains only obligatory cleptoparasitic species whose hosts belong to the genus Epicharis (Apidae, Centridini. Host information is available for only four of the 20 species of Rhathymus. In this note a new host record is added, in which the parasitism by R. friesei on nests of Epicharis (Epicharoides picta is documented.

  10. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

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    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  11. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  12. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  13. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

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    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  14. The Effect of Application Rate of GF-120 (Spinosad) and Malathion on the Mortality of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foragers.

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    Cabrera-Marín, Nina Vanessa; Liedo, Pablo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial organisms like the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are heavily affected by pest control practices that incorporate insecticides. Safer alternatives as the spinosad-based formulation GF-120 have been developed to overcome this issue. Though both the low concentration of spinosad and the ultra-low-volume application rate of GF-120 are supposed to have a low acute toxicity in honey bee foragers, to our knowledge such claims have not been explicitly proven. We thus carried out a series of experiments to assess the effect of GF-120, malathion, and Spintor (spinosad) on honey bee foragers when applied at two concentrations (80 and 1,500 ppm) and two application rates (low density rate [LDR]—80 drops of 5 mm diameter per square meter; high density rate [HDR]—thousands of 200 -µm-diameter droplets per square meter). Interestingly, the three pesticides caused low mortality on foragers when applied at LDR-80, LDR-1,500, or HDR-80. However, HDR-1,500 caused a very high mortality. Based upon these results, we developed a computer program to estimate the average number of foragers that are exposed at LDR and HDR. We found that more foragers receive a lethal dose when exposed at HDR than at the other rates. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GF-120 and malathion upon honey bees is minimal when applied at LDR and that computer simulation can help greatly in understanding the effects of pesticides upon nontarget species.

  15. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

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    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics.

  16. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  17. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

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    Hudson Vaner V Tomé

    Full Text Available Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i./bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators

  18. Nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini em ninhos-armadilha no Nordeste do Maranhão, Brasil Nidification of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini in trap nests in Northeast Maranhão, Brazil

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    Fernanda N. Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados sobre a ecologia da nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith em três ecossistemas: mata ciliar (MC, mata mesofítica (MM e eucaliptal (EC, utilizandose ninhos-armadilha confeccionados em gomos de bambu, distribuídos em diferentes alturas: 1,5 m e 5-12 m do solo. Foram obtidos 41 ninhos: 31 no EC e 10 na MM, a maioria no estrato superior e com maior freqüência de nidificações ocorrendo no período de estiagem. A razão sexual foi de 1,9:1 (fêmeas/ machos no EC e de 1,08:1 na MM. Cerca de 22% dos ninhos do EC e 40% da MM foram parasitados por Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. A análise polínica revelou predominância de grãos de pólen de Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae e Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae no EC e de espécies de Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. e Banisteriopsis Robinson na MM.This work had as objective to obtain ecological data of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith's nidification in three ecosystems: riparian forest (MC, mesophitic forest (MM and eucalyptal (EC, using trap nests made by bamboo canes, distributed in differentiated heights: 1,5 m and 5-12 m high. A total of 41 nests were collected: 31 in EC and 10 in MM, the majority in the upper strata and with the largest frequency of nesting occurring in the dry season. The sex ratio was of 1.9:1 (females/ males in EC and of 1.08:1 in MM. About 22% of nests of the EC and 40% of MM were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. The pollinic analyses showed a higher quantity of pollen grains of Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae and Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae in EC area and a species of Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. and Banisteriopsis Robinson in MM area.

  19. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  20. O Efeito do Fogo sobre a Comunidade de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae em Floresta de Transição Cerrado-Amazônia (Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Nubia Giehl

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. We evaluated the effects of induced burned on Euglossini bee assemblages (Hymenoptera: Apidae in a transitional area between Cerrado and Amazonia, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. We determinate abundances, richness and composition of Euglossini in three plots: control plot (unburned, plot burned each year since 2004 (intermediate degradation, plot burned each three years since 2004 (high degradation. We tested the hypothesis that two burned plots present lower male abundances, less species richness and different species composition in comparison with the control plot. We collected male bees actively and passively by using six pure fragrances: β-ionona, benzoato de benzila, geraniol, fenil-etil-acetato, salicilato de metila e vanilina. We collected seven species with no differences in male abundances among three plots (F (2, 12= 0.150; p= 0.8. Estimated richness species in control the plot was higher than the plot burned each three years (12 ± 3.8; 4± 2, respectively, while plot burned each year showed intermediate richness (8 ± 4.35 and higher than plot burned each three years. Cluster Analysis (UPGMA revealed significant differences in species composition of the triennial fire area to the other two areas. Our results suggest that fire occurring with different frequencies in transitional forest promote decreases in richness of species and modifications in species composition. These modifications were clearer in plot more degraded (burned each three years and induce deleterious effects on orchid bee assemblage.

  1. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Costa Rica: population dynamics and its influence on the colony condition of Africanized honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Calderón, Rafael A; van Veen, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    The development of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) population dynamics in Africanized honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was monitored from February to July 2004 in Atenas, Costa Rica. A correlation between the mite infestation level and the colony condition was evaluated. For each colony, infestation of varroa in adult bees was measured twice a month. Sticky boards were placed on the bottom boards of each colony to collect fallen mites. The condition of the colonies was evaluated by measuring the amount of brood and adult bees. Our results consistently showed that mite infestation on adult bees increased significantly in the experimental colonies, rising to 10.0% by the end of the experiment. In addition, the mean mite fall increased significantly over the course of the study in the treated (R = 0.72, P varroa infestation coincided with a decrease in the amount of brood. Furthermore, adult bees with deformed wings or even without wings crawling in front of their hive occurred in highly infested colonies (mite infestation = 10.0% or more).

  2. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

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    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  3. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

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    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Interação entre abelha Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae e Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae

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    Fabrício Hiroiuki Oda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha do pedúnculo Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 é um inseto que se alimenta da seiva de várias espécies vegetais e pode viver em simbiose com formigas do gênero Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, atacando folhas e ramos de inúmeras plantas cultivadas e nativas, tais como acácia-negra, algodoeiro, aroeira, cafeeiro, eucalipto, citros, etc. Algumas relações aparentemente comensais podem ocorrer entre cigarrinhas e abelhas sem ferrão, principalmente Trigona. No presente estudo, observamos a interação entre a abelha irapuá, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 e a cigarrinha do pedúnculo, A. reticulatum em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (sombreiro. A interação entre T. hyalinata e A. reticulatum foi registrada por meio de fotografias digitais. A estimulação da cigarrinha para a liberação de exsudato iniciava-se quando as abelhas pousavam sobre as colônias de ninfas e adultos de A. reticulatum e estimulavam os indivíduos andando por cima deles, principalmente da região anterior (cabeça para a posterior (abdome do corpo da cigarrinha. Posteriormente, as abelhas tocavam as antenas na parte distal do abdome estimulando a secreção de exsudato e prontamente sugavam essa substância. Esta interação é mutuamente benéfica, sem implicar necessariamente dependência ou interdependência obrigatória, e pode promover uma proteção contra os inimigos naturais da cigarrinha. Todavia, a ocorrência de uma alta infestação de cigarrinhas, associada à intensa atividade de abelhas solicitando honeydew pode levar a depleção de nutrientes da planta, afetando o desenvolvimento e/ou reprodução de C. fairchildiana.Interaction between Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae in Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae.Abstract. The Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 is an insect that feeds of the sap of several vegetal

  5. Estudo Comparativo das Sensilas Antenais de Operárias de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Diferentes Altitudes

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    Marcília Aparecida Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensilas são estruturas sensoriais presentes nas antenas dos insetos e são responsáveis pela higro- quimio-, termo- e mecanorrecepção. No presente trabalho, as sensilas presentes nos três flagelômeros (F mais distais de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenopera: Apidae coletadas em diferentes altitudes (200 e acima de 900m foram avaliadas qualitativamente e quantitativamente. A identificação, contagem e medição das sensilas foram feitas a partir de imagens da superfície dorsal das antenas que foram obtidas com o auxílio de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram observadas as sensilas placoide, basicônica, celocônica, ampulácea, campaniforme e tricoide reta e curvada. Comparativamente, o grupo localizado a 200m de altitude possui sensilas tricoides retas em maior quantidade nos três flagelômeros, enquanto que o grupo de altitudes acima de 900m apresentou maior quantidade de sensilas tricoides curvadas no F9, sendo as mesmas maiores para o F10. Essas diferenças foram discutidas em função da localização geográfica dos diferentes grupos aqui estudados. Os resultados da investigação da estrutura antenal de M. scutellaris contribuem para um melhor entendimento da biologia dessa espécie.

  6. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

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    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia

  7. Treatment with synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) enhances honey production and improves overwintering survival of package honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lait, Cameron G; Borden, John H; Kovacs, Ervin; Moeri, Onour E; Campbell, Michael; Machial, Cristina M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated a year-long treatment regime testing synthetic, 10-component, honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), brood pheromone (SuperBoost; Contech Enterprises Inc., Delta, BC, Canada) on the productivity and vigor of package bee colonies in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-eight newlyestablished 1.3-kg (3-lb) colonies treated three times with SuperBoost at 5-wk intervals starting 30 April 2009 were compared with 52 untreated control colonies. Treated colonies produced 84.3% more honey than untreated control colonies. By 8 September 2009, SuperBoost-treated colonies had 35.4% more adults than untreated colonies. By 28 September, net survival of treated and control colonies was 72.4 and 67.3%, respectively. On 5 October, treated and control colonies were divided into two additional groups, making up four cohorts: SuperBoost-treated colonies treated again during fall and spring build-up feeding with pollen substitute diet (BeePro, Mann Lake Ltd., Hackensack, MN; TIT); controls that remained untreated throughout the year (CCC); colonies treated with SuperBoost in spring-summer 2009 but not treated thereafter (TCC); and original control colonies treated with SuperBoost during the fall and spring build-up feeding periods (CTT). There was no difference among cohorts in consumption of BeePro during fall feeding, but TTT colonies (including daughter colonies split off from parent colonies) consumed 50.8% more diet than CCC colonies during spring build-up feeding. By 21 April, the normalized percentages of the original number of colonies remaining (dead colonies partially offset by splits) were as follows: CCC, 31.4%; CTT, 43.8%; TCC, 53.59%; and TTT, 80.0%. The net benefit of placing 100 newly established package bee colonies on a year-long six-treatment regime with SuperBoost would be US$6,202 (US$62.02 per colony). We conclude that treatment with SuperBoost enhanced the productivity and survival of package bee colonies and

  8. Efecto del cambio del paisaje en la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae en Meta, Colombia

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    Guiomar Nates-Parra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón son unos de los polinizadores naturales más diversos de la fauna Apoidea en los trópicos. Nidifican en diversos sustratos y distintos ambientes, existiendo algunas especies típicas de lugares naturales o artificiales. La alteración del medio donde nidifican tiene un importante impacto sobre la composición natural de su estructura, hecho que se ve reflejado también en la densidad de nidos. Analizamos la composición de la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón en tres paisajes del piedemonte llanero colombiano, una región importante por representar la transición entre ambientes andinos y de sabana (seriamente amenazada por la ganadería intensiva. Realizamos muestreos sistemáticos en bosque secundario, agro-ecosistema y zona urbana; registramos la presencia de 204 nidos de 11 géneros representados por 24 especies. La riqueza de abejas sin aguijón fue similar, aun cuando hubo diferencias significativas en la estructura de la comunidad en los tres paisajes. La densidad de nidos por paisaje fue heterogénea y nunca mayor de 16 nidos/Ha. Observamos dos patrones de nidificación y registramos diferente número de especies en la misma zona utilizando otro criterio de muestreo.Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Meta, Colombia. Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees’ community in three environments in the Colombian llanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between

  9. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  10. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana Record of Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the southern Pampas

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    Santiago Plischuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 10(6 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivani, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A mellifera fuera del continente europeo.During surveys for the detection of protists associated to Apidae in the Pampas region, biconcave oval spores, and spore clumps were observed in the Malpighian tubules of honeybees from Dufaur, Saavedra county, southwestern Buenos Aires province. Mature spores measured 4.8 ± 0.05 x 2.4 ± 0.03 μm, and mean spore load was 5.71 ± 1.49 x 10(6 per honeybee. Detections were from July to October 2006, and prevalence in positive colonies ranged from 1 to 16.7%. Morphology of the spores, the site of development, and the identity of the host species suggest that the isolated microorganism belongs to the genus Nephridiophaga and would be N apis Ivani, the type species, knowledge on which is extremely limited. The finding constitutes the first record of a nephridiophagid in honeybees outside of Europe.

  11. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  12. Padrões espaciais na distribuição de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae da região Neotropical

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    Nicolle V. Sydney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abelhas das orquídeas (Apini, Euglossina apresentam distribuição principalmente Neotropical, com cerca de 200 espécies e cinco gêneros descritos. Muitos levantamentos locais de fauna estão disponíveis na literatura, mas estudos comparativos sobre a composição e distribuição dos Euglossina são ainda escassos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os dados disponíveis de 29 assembleias a fim de entender os padrões gerais de distribuição espacial nas áreas amostradas ao longo do Neotrópico. Métodos de ordenação (DCA e NMDS foram utilizados para descrever os agrupamentos de assembleias de acordo com as ocorrências de abelhas das orquídeas. As localidades de florestas da América Central e da Amazônia formaram grupos coesos em ambas as análises, enquanto as localidades de Mata Atlântica ficaram mais dispersas nos gráficos. Localidades na margem leste da Amazônia aparecem como áreas de transição características entre esta sub-região e a Mata Atlântica. As análises de variância entre o primeiro eixo da DCA e variáveis selecionadas apresentaram valores significantes quanto à influência dos gradientes de latitude, longitude e precipitação, bem como das sub-regiões biogeográficas nos agrupamentos das assembleias. O padrão geral encontrado é congruente com os padrões biogeográficos previamente propostos para a região Neotropical. Os resultados do DCA auxiliam ainda a identificar, de forma independente, os elementos das faunas de cada uma das formações vegetais estudadas.Spatial distribution patterns of Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in the Neotropical region. Orchid bees (Apini, Euglossina have a mainly Neotropical distribution, comprising, approximately, 200 species and five genera. Several local fauna surveys are available in the literature, but comparative studies on the Euglossina composition and distribution patterns are still scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze published data from 29

  13. Variación de la comunidad de abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae en tres ambientes perturbados del piedemonte llanero colombiano

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    Alejandro Parra-H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas subsisten en vastas áreas de bosque tropicales gracias a que mantienen estrechas relaciones con tipos de vegetación particular en diversos micro-hábitats. Con base en este tipo de relaciones con el medio y características biológicas como preferencia por ciertos tipos de néctares y de polen, y diversidad morfológica y etológica de la tribu, es posible evaluar la calidad de un hábitat según la distribución de euglosinos. Este trabajo propone el uso de esta información, además de índices de diversidad para la evaluación de la calidad del medio. Entre marzo y diciembre de 2003 muestreamos tres tipos de paisaje (Urbano, Rural y Conservado en el piedemonte llanero colombiano, usando redes entomológicas y sustancias aromáticas (Cineol y Metil Salicilato. Para las 15 localidades muestreadas se registraron 17 de las 26 especies conocidas para el área. Eulaema nigrita fue la más frecuente mientras que Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis, Eulaema bombiformis, E. speciosa y Exaerete frontalis correspondieron a ambientes considerados de aceptable a buena calidad. La composición y cercanía de fragmentos de bosque son factores favorables. La diversidad relativa (máxima variación de formas y tamaños dentro de la tribu, sería proporcional a la calidad del medio.Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont. Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity, it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in

  14. Sequenciamento gênico: prelúdio para o entendimento da diversidade do gênero "Tetragonisca" (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v3i2.12

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    Bárbara Silva Siqueira Maurício

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas do gênero Tetragonisca (Hymenoptera, Apidae, conhecidas por “Jataís”, apresentam problemas no que diz respeito ao status taxonômico de suas espécies (T. angustula e T. fiebrigi e ao caráter utilizado para tal classificação. Com o objetivo de estabelecer as relações filogenéticas das espécies envolvidas, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo padronizar o processo de amplificação de DNA (via PCR para sequenciamento. Um teste de gradiente envolvendo os genes selecionados (COI, CytB e EF1a foi realizado. Após a análise dos produtos de PCR nas 4 temperaturas testadas, foram escolhidas as temperaturas de 52°C para a amplificação de COI e 51°C para os genes CytB e EF1a. O fragmento CytB se mostrou mais variável e com mais autapomorfias quando comparado aos demais. O fragmento de EF1a mesmo sendo o maior fragmento sequenciado, apresentou-se menos variável.

  15. Estudio biosistemático de las abejas de la tribu Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: apidae) de interés agronómico en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Las abejas constituyen un grupo de insectos ampliamente distribuidos que comprende aproximadamente 20000 especies descriptas alrededor del mundo. Son considerados los polinizadores más importantes de las Angioespermas y comprenden el grupo más diverso de los visitantes florales, de allí su importancia en los ecosistemas, tanto naturales como agrícolas. De las siete familias de abejas reconocidas en el mundo, sólo cinco se encuentran representadas en nuestro país. La familia Apidae e...

  16. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

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    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  17. Estratificação vertical de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica, Paraíba, Brasil Vertical stratification of Euglossina Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of the Atlantic Rainforest, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso F. Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre distribuição vertical de insetos, principalmente de Hymenoptera Apiformes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existe estratificação vertical entre as espécies de Euglossina em áreas de Mata Atlântica, através da comparação da riqueza, abundância e diversidade em dois estratos, sub-bosque (1,5 m e copa (10-12 m. Para isso, foram realizadas coletas mensais na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, de maio a dezembro de 2002, utilizando seis armadilhas contendo fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina, distribuídas nos dois estratos. Foram coletados 1.151 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies e três gêneros de Euglossina. No estrato de sub-bosque a abundância e a diversidade foram maiores, em números absolutos, e a riqueza foi significativamente maior que no estrato de copa.There are few studies regarding vertical distribution of insects, mainly of Hymenoptera Apiformes. The goal of this study was to verify if vertical stratification exists among the species of Euglossina in Atlantic Rainforest areas, trough the comparison of the richness, abundance and diversity in two strata, sub-forest (1.5 m and canopy (10-12 m. For that, monthly collections where carried out in the Guaribas Biological Reserve from May to December of 2002. Six traps containing artificial fragrances: eugenol, eucalyptol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate and vanillin, distributed in two strata were used. A total of 1,151 individuals belonging to 11 species and three genera of Euglossina was collected. The abundance and diversity were higher in the sub-forest stratum in absolute number and richness was significantly higher compared with the canopy.

  18. (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plants). A second experimental field, without honeybee colonies, was the control (T0). Each experimental field. (with or ... parasites, disease, climate change, agricultural intensification, ... Köppen climate classification, which a monthly rainfall ...

  19. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera:Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Khoobdel; Maryam Tavassoli; Mehdi Salari; Fateme Firozi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf.Methods:hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-Results: In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region.Conclusions:Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.

  20. Interações agressivas em abelhas sem ferrão: Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier invadindo ninho de Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier

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    2015-08-01

    Abstract. This record describes the occurrence of conflicts between stingless bees of an active colony of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier and individuals of Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier, and discusses possible hypotheses that motivated the attack. Behaviors were observed in an active colony of S. bipunctata. The active nest guards detained individuals of M. quadrifasciata who invaded the colony. The chances of misidentification of the colony entrance and error in the species possible aggregation were discarded, however, the hypothesis of the real invasion recorded in this study demonstrates a behavioral strategy by M. quadrifasciata suggests that there is an energy savings if successful in looting.

  1. Optimization of conditions for assaying activity of acetylcholinesterase in Bombus hypocrita(Hymenoptera: Apidae)and its sensitivity to six common insecticides%小峰熊蜂头部乙酰胆碱酯酶测定条件的优化及其对六种常用杀虫剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秀丽; 罗术东; 伍翔; 吴杰

    2011-01-01

    小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrita是我国优势熊蜂种群之一,因其易于饲养、群势较强且授粉性能优良而成为我国设施农业常用优良授粉蜂种,但常受到以乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)为靶标酶的有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂的危害.为合理规避这两类杀虫剂对熊蜂的危害,同时也为完善熊蜂授粉配套技术和保护野生熊蜂资源提供理论基础,本研究利用正交试验对小峰熊蜂头部乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的测定条件进行了优化,并明确了 6种常用有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂对乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的影响.结果表明:各测定因素对小峰熊蜂乙酰胆碱酯酶活性测定影响的大小顺序依次为:酶浓度>pH>温度>底物浓度>反应时间;小峰熊蜂头部乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的最适反应条件为:酶浓度0.25 g蛋白质/L,底物浓度0.8 mmol/L,pH值7.5,温度40℃,反应时间5 min.毒死蜱、三唑磷、丙溴磷、异丙威、仲丁威和残杀威6种杀虫剂对小峰熊蜂头部乙酰胆碱酯酶离体抑制作用均呈现明显的剂量-效应关系,其抑制中浓度IC50分别为0.39,1.79,0.42,0.04,0.43和0.63 mmol/L.这6种杀虫剂对小峰熊蜂AChE抑制作用的强弱依次为:异丙威>毒死蜱>三唑磷>仲丁威>残杀威>丙溴磷,即小峰熊蜂对异丙威最敏感,而对丙溴磷的敏感性最弱.%Bombus hypocrita ( Hymenoptera: Apidae) is one of the dominant bumblebees in China, and is widely used as one of the most crucial pollinators in greenhouse due to easy mass-rearing, strong population and effective pollinating performance. However, it is often threatened by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides which are widely used in China, as these insecticides can inhibit the acetylcholinesterase ( AChE) activity in insects. In order to avoid harm to bumblebees by these insecticides and improve the pollination technology and conservation of bumblebees, we optimized the reaction conditions to assay

  2. Levantamento da fauna de abelhas silvestres na "zona da mata" de Minas Gerais: III. Mata secundária na região de Viçosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea Survey of the wild bees of the "zona da mata" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: III. Secondary forest in Viçosa region (Hymenoptera, Apoidea

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    José Ricardo Cure

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a wild bee fauna survey in a secondary forest is reported. Sampling was carried out mainly on herbaceous and shrubby vegetation under and at the border of the forest. Results are compared with data collected with the same methodology from a previously surveyed grassland nearby. The secondary forest was richer in Anthophoridae and Apidae species, and less diverse in Megachilidae. Similarity between the two habitats was low. Several unidentified species of Ceratinula, Trichocerapis mirabilis and the stingless bees Melipona bicolor, M. quadrifasciata, M. marginata, Paratrigona subnuda, Scaptotrigona tubiba and S. xanthotricha, are among the species dependent on the forest environment to survive. Bee population densities in the forest understory are as large as the largest values found for open vegetation in Southeastern Brazil; species richness is also comparable to those of other areas in Southeastern Brazil. Sampling strategies are discussed.

  3. Can green roofs provide habitat for urban bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae?

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    Laurence Packer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization of many regions of the world has resulted in the decline of suitable habitat for wild flora and fauna. Green roofs have been suggested as a potential avenue to provide patches of good-quality habitat in highly developed regions. In this study, we surveyed green roofs for bee diversity and abundance to determine their potential as quality habitats in an urban area for these important pollinators. By comparing various biodiversity measures between green roofs and ground-level sites, we show that green roofs provide habitat to many bee species. Implications for pollinator conservation and urban agricultural production are discussed.

  4. Impact of Aqueous Plant Extracts on Trigona spinipes (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The stingless bees are an important component of the insect biomass in many tropical areas, due to their collection of nectar and pollen. Trigona spinipes is a widely distributed species in South America, and described as a pollinator of many crops that can be used in a commercial pollinating system. The effects of plant extracts on insects are studied because of the demand for organic food and their selectivity to natural enemies. Plant insecticides are reported as a potential agent for the ...

  5. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  6. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  7. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  8. Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.

  9. Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae infected with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia

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    Santiago Plischuk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini and orchid bees (Euglossini.

  10. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

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    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  11. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Núñez, Gustavo Rafael; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Ancona-Xiu, Patricia; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Carmona, Angelica; Ruiz Sanchez, Esaú

    2009-10-01

    Stingless bees are potential pollinators of commercial tropical crops and their use may increase in the short term. However, studies comparing the toxicity of pesticides to different individuals and species are lacking, making it difficult to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on colonies and populations of these insects. In this work, we tested the lethality of compounds from the main pesticide groups on stingless bees of the species Melipona beecheii Bennett, Trigona nigra Provancher, and Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson. The LDo (in micrograms per bee) for each pesticide was calculated for callow workers and foragers of the three species as well as for gynes and drones of M. beecheii. The results showed that all species were highly susceptible to the evaluated compounds. Nicotinoid pesticides were the most toxic, followed in descending order by permethrin, diazinon, and methomyl. We found evidence of a relationship between the body weight of the species and their LD50 for permethrin and methomyl (r = 0.91 and 0.90, respectively) but not for diazinon (r = -0.089). An analysis of contingency tables showed that within each species, callow workers had higher mortalities than foragers (P agriculture of Mexico and Latin America

  12. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  13. Nesting biology of Centris (Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo. Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.

  14. Biopesticide-induced behavioral and morphological alterations in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.

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    Barbosa, Wagner F; Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Bernardes, Rodrigo C; Siqueira, Maria Augusta L; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-09-01

    Because of their natural origin, biopesticides are assumed to be less harmful to beneficial insects, including bees, and therefore their use has been widely encouraged for crop protection. There is little evidence, however, to support this ingrained notion of biopesticide safety to pollinators. Because larval exposure is still largely unexplored in ecotoxicology and risk assessment on bees, an investigation was performed on the lethal and sublethal effects of a diet treated with 2 bioinsecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, which is one of the most important pollinators in the Neotropics. Survival of stingless bee larvae was significantly compromised at doses above 210 ng a.i./bee for azadirachtin and 114 ng a.i./bee for spinosad. No sublethal effect was observed on larvae developmental time, but doses of both compounds negatively affected pupal body mass. Azadirachtin produced deformed pupae and adults as a result of its insect growth regulator properties, but spinosad was more harmful and produced greater numbers of deformed individuals. Only spinosad compromised walking activity of the adult workers at doses as low as 2.29 ng a.i./bee, which is 1/5000 of the maximum field recommended rate. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that bioinsecticides can pose significant risks to native pollinators with lethal and sublethal effects; future investigations are needed on the likelihood of such effects under field conditions. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Spinosad in the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata: regrettable non-target toxicity of a bioinsecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Barbosa, Wagner F; Martins, Gustavo F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-04-01

    The risks imposed by novel insecticides, mainly bioinsecticides, are largely unknown despite their increased use and their perceived environmental safety, which is based on their natural origin. Furthermore, unlike honeybees, native pollinator species have received little attention. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the bioinsecticide spinosad were assessed in the stingless bee species Meliponaquadrifasciata, an important native pollinator in the Neotropical region. The adult stingless bee workers exhibited high oral insecticide susceptibility, with LD50s of 23.54 and 12.07 ng a.i./bee for imidacloprid and spinosad, respectively. Imidacloprid also impaired worker respiration and overall group activity and flight, while spinosad significantly impaired only worker flight despite exhibiting higher oral toxicity to adult workers than imidacloprid. These findings indicate the hazardous nature not only of imidacloprid but also the bioinsecticide spinosad to adult workers of the native pollinator M. quadrifasciata. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment analysis due to their lethal and sublethal components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitellogenin content in fat body and ovary homogenates of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides during vitellogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagner Tadeu Paes de Oliveira; Bruno Berger; Carminda da Cruz-Landim; Zilá Luz PaulinoSim(o)es

    2012-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg yolk protein that is produced primarily in the fat body of most female insects.In the advanced social structure of eusocial honeybees,the presence of the queen inhibits egg maturation in the workers' ovaries.However in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata,the workers always develop ovaries and lay a certain amount of eggs while provisioning the brood cells with larval food during what is known as the worker nurse phase.The present work is a comparative study of the presence of Vg in homogenates of the fat bodies and ovaries of the nurse workers,and the virgin and physogastric queens ofM.quadrifasciata.The presence of Vg was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using Apis mellifera anti-egg antibody.Vg was not detected in the fat bodies or ovaries of the workers,but it was found in the ovaries of virgin and physogastric queens and in the fat body ofphysogastric queens.The results are discussed,taking into account the reproductive state of the individuals and the other possible roles of Vg,such as a storage protein for metoabolism of other organs.

  17. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Toxic Activities of Propolis from Two Native Bees in Brazil: Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamigo, Thaliny; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural mixture of compounds produced by various bee species, including stingless bees. This compound has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the chemical constituents as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of ethanol extracts of propolis obtained from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, which are found in Brazil. Phytosterols, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol were identified in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEPs) in different concentrations. The compounds stigmasterol, taraxasterol, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were found only in EEP-M. The EEPs were able to scavenge the free radicals 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and protected human erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, with the latter effect being demonstrated by their antihemolytic activity and inhibition of malondialdehyde formation. The EEPs showed cytotoxic activity against erythroleukemic cells and necrosis was the main mechanism of death observed. In addition, the concentrations at which the EEPs were cytotoxic were not toxic against Caenorhabditis elegans. In this context, it is concluded that EEP-S and EEP-M show antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and are promising bioactive mixtures for the control of diseases associated with oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation.

  18. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are predominant pigments in bumblebee (Apidae: Bombus pubescence

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    Carlo Polidori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. Methods By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration. Results Eumelanin and pheomelanin occur in bumblebee pubescence. Black pigmentation is due to prevalent eumelanin, with visible signals of additional pheomelanin, while the yellow, orange, red and brown hairs clearly include pheomelanin. On the other hand, white hairs reward very weak Raman signals, suggesting that they are depigmented. Additional non-melanic pigments in yellow hair cannot be excluded but need other techniques to be detected. Raman spectra were more similar across similarly colored hairs, with no apparent effect of phylogeny and both melanin types appeared to be already used at the beginning of bumblebee radiation. Discussion We suggest that the two main melanin forms, at variable amounts and/or vibrational states, are sufficient in giving almost the whole color range of bumblebee pubescence, allowing these insects to use a single precursor instead of synthesizing a variety of chemically different pigments. This would agree with commonly seen color interchanges between body segments across Bombus species.

  19. Biologia de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, e o comportamento de seus cleptoparasitas foram estudados em Monte Santo, Bahia, Brasil. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de solo e óleo, dentro de cavidades preexistentes na madeira de uma construção abandonada, assim como em gomos de bambu de 8 e 9 mm de diâmetro. Os ninhos completados tinham de uma a cinco células alongadas, arranjadas em uma série linear e orientadas horizontalmente. O tempo gasto para construir uma célula foi altamente variável, sendo em geral de 4,5 a 5,5 h. Após finalizar a construção da célula, as fêmeas fizeram uma ou duas viagens para coletar um líquido incolor, provavelmente óleo floral, usado para revestir as paredes internas da célula. Para aprovisionar uma célula foram realizadas de cinco a oito viagens de coleta para obtenção de pólen e néctar, e de quatro a seis viagens para coleta de óleo. Imediatamente após a oviposição, as fêmeas fecharam as células usando o solo que elas tinham coletado previamente. Três espécies cleptoparasitas pertencentes ao gênero Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 atacaram os ninhos. Entradas de cleptoparasitas dentro dos ninhos occorreram, na maioria dos casos, enquanto a fêmea hospedeira estava ausente do ninho. As fêmeas de C. (H. trigonoides apresentaram comportamentos defensivos para evitar parasitismo, tais como expulsar os parasitas e guardar os ninhos. Machos de C. (H. trigonoides usaram o local de nidificação como abrigo durante as horas mais quentes do dia, assim como para dormir. Eles deixavam as cavidades no dia seguinte entre 09:00 e 10:30 h. Isto sugere que machos e fêmeas têm padrões temporais de atividade distintos.The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, and the behavior of their cleptoparasites were studied at Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil. The females constructed their nests within preexisting holes in wood from an abandoned building as well as in bamboo canes of 8 and 9 mm in diameter, using a mixture of soil and oil. Completed nests had one to five elongated cells arranged in a linear series and oriented horizontally. The time spent to construct a cell was highly variable, but it was generally between 4.5 to 5.5 h. After finishing the construction of a cell, females made one or two trips to collect a colorless liquid, probably floral oil, used to line the inner cell walls. Five to eight pollen-nectar collecting trips and from four to six oil-collecting trips were made to provision one cell. Immediately after oviposition, the females closed the cells using soil that they had previously gathered. Three cleptoparasites species belonging to the genera Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 attacked the nests. Visits of cleptoparasites into the nests occurred mainly while the host female was absent from the nest. Centris (H. trigonoides females showed defensive behaviors to avoid parasitism, such as chasing the parasites and guarding the nests. Centris (H. trigonoides males used the nesting sites for shelter during the hottest hours of the day, as well as for sleeping. They would leave the cavities the following day between 09:00 and 10:30 a.m. That suggests that males and females have distinct temporal activity patterns.

  20. Nidificação e forrageamento de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology and foraging of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Marina Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas pertencentes à tribo Centridini possuem distribuição neotropical e são consideradas os principais polinizadores de diversas espécies vegetais em diferentes biomas. Apesar disso, dados sobre a biologia da maioria das espécies ainda são escassos. Este trabalho relata observações sobre a biologia de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, uma espécie que ocorre no Nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de cerrado no Estado do Maranhão durante o período de atividade dos adultos. Fêmeas foram observadas nidificando em termiteiros epígeos e em visita às flores de Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae para coleta de óleo. O comportamento foi registrado diretamente e através de filmagens. Os ninhos foram escavados, raspando-se o substrato até as células serem encontradas. Um ninho completo foi aberto para exame das estruturas internas e análise do conteúdo das células. A estrutura geral apresentava um túnel principal com células descendentes dispostas linearmente. Foram encontradas células (n = 5 com larvas em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento e uma massa de pólen de consistência firme e pastosa formada por uma grande quantidade de grãos de Byrsonima.The bees belonging to the tribe Centridini possess distribution neotropical and are considered the main pollinators of different plant species in different biomas. Despite of this the biology data of the majority of species remain scarce. This work is about observations of biology of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, specie that occurs in the Northeast of Brazil. The study was made in a cerrado area in the State of Maranhão during a period of adult activity. Females were seen nesting at epigeous termite nests and visiting Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae flowers for oil collection. The behavior was directly registered and shooted. The nests were excavated being scraped the substratum until the cells were found. A complete nest was opened for examination of the internal structures and analysis of cells content. The general structure presented a main tunnel with cells descending linearly. Cells (n = 5 with larvae in different periods of development were found. A firmly pollen paste was seen where a huge Byrsonima grains was verified.

  1. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

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    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  2. Notas sistemáticas sobre abejas Meliponini del Chaco (Hymenoptera, Apidae Systematic notes on Meliponini bees of the Chaco Region (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se tratan dos especies características de la Región Chaqueña: Scaptotrigona jujuyensis (Schrottky y Lestrimelitta chacoana n. sp. Se clarifica la identidad de Trigona jujuyensis Schrottky, 1911, y se le designa un neotipo. Se presentan descripciones, ilustraciones y datos de distribución para cada especie.Two species characteristic of the Chaco region are treated in this contribution: Scaptotrigona jujuyensis (Schrottky and Lestrimelitta chacoana n. sp. The identity of Trigona jujuyensis Schrottky, 1911, is clarified and a neotype is designated. Descriptions, illustrations and distributional data are presented for each species.

  3. A review of the albidohirta group of Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini Revisión del grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini

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    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The albidohirta group of Ptilothrix Smith includes three species: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov., and P. nemoralis sp. nov. The group is known from northern and western Argentina and from central Bolivia. One of its species, P. albidohirta, reaches high altitudes in the Andes mountains, up to 3600 m a.s.l., while the other two species occur in the lowlands. A characterization of the group, descriptions of the species, and illustrations are provided.El grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix Smith incluye tres especies: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov. y P. nemoralis sp. nov. Este grupo se conoce del oeste y norte de la Argentina y del centro de Bolivia. Una de sus especies, P. albidohirta, llega hasta los 3.600 m s.n.m. en la cordillera de los Andes, en tanto que las otras dos especies habitan en el llano. Se caracteriza el grupo y se describen e ilustran las especies.

  4. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  5. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae Manipulação de resinas pegajosas pelas abelhas-sem-ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.Para sua defesa, abelhas-sem-ferrão (Meliponini coletam resinas vegetais para colar nos invasores de seus ninhos como formigas ou abelhas cleptobióticas causando a imobilização deles. O objetivo desse artigo é identificar todas as partes das operárias das abelhas-sem-ferrão que tocam na resina. De interesse especial são aquelas partes do corpo que repelem as resinas. Para isso, extensas observações foram realizadas tanto durante a coleta, como no tratamento e na aplicação das resinas. Durante a manipulação da resina, todos os tarsos das operárias encostam-se à resina quando andam sobre sua superfície. Para transportar a resinas das plantas para os ninhos durante o vôo de coleta, a resina é transferida para a corbícula via tarsos e basitarsos das pernas anteriores e médias. Uma vez coladas na resina ou depois que a corbícula foi descarregada, as pernas das operárias são meticulosamente limpas. Utilizadas na manipulação, corte e aplicação da resina pegajosa, somente as pontas das mandíbulas parecem ter, pelo menos temporariamente, propriedades repelindo resina.

  6. OBSERVACIÓN DE RANGOS DE VUELO DE Bombus Atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae EN AMBIENTES URBANOS Observation of Flight Ranges of Bombus Atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Urban Environments

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    LAÍN PARDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la capacidad de regreso de Bombus atratus a su colonia midiendo la cantidad de individuos que volvieron a ésta después de ser liberadas a diferentes distancias y en cuatro direcciones (norte, sur, este, oeste. Para ello se trasladó una colonia de B. atratus, proveniente de Tenjo Cundinamarca, al Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, se marcaron y liberaron un total de 100 forrajeras de las cuales regresaron 40. Hubo una relación lineal negativa clara entre la proporción de regresos al nido y las distancias del sitio de liberación, con reducción del número de abejorros capaces de regresar a medida que aumentaba la distancia al nido. El rango máximo observado al cual las abejas pudieron regresan al nido está entre 1.300m y 1.500m y un análisis de regresión lineal predice un rango de vuelo de 1,6 km.The return capacity of Bombus atratus to its colony was studied by measuring the quantity of individuals that returned to it, after being released at different distances and in four directions (north, south, east, west. We located a colony of B. atratus coming from Tenjo, Cundinamarca, at the Department of Biology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. We marked and released a total of 100 workers of which 40 returned. There was a clear negative relationship between the proportion of bees returning to its nest and the distance from the released site, decreasing the number of bumblebees able to return as it increased the distance to the nest. The observed maximum range to which the bees found their nest was between 1,300 m and 1,500 m and a lineal regression analysis predicts a flight range of 1.6 km.

  7. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae - bionomia e biogeografia Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae - bionomy and biogeography

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work, dedicated to the study of nesting habits of the species of the Neotropical genus Partamona Schwarz, is a sequence to the taxonomic revision recently published elsewhere. A total of 214 nests and nest aggregations of 18 species [Partamona epiphytophila Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. testacea (Klug, 1807; P. mourei Camargo, 1980; P. vicina Camargo, 1980; P. auripennis Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. combinata Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. chapadicola Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. nhambiquara Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. ferreirai Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. pearsoni (Schwarz, 1938; P. gregaria Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. batesi Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. ailyae Camargo, 1980; P. cupira (Smith, 1863; P. mulata Moure in Camargo, 1980; P. seridoensis Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. criptica Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. helleri (Friese, 1900] were studied , including data about habitat, substrate, structural characteristics, construction materials and behavior. The descriptions of the nests are illustrated with 48 drawings. Partial data of the nests of P. bilineata (Say, 1837, P. xanthogastra Pedro & Camargo, 1997, P. orizabaensis (Strand, 1919, P. peckolti (Friese, 1901, P. aequatoriana Camargo, 1980, P. musarum (Cockerell, 1917 and P. rustica Pedro & Camargo, 2003 are also presented. Nests of P. grandipennis (Schwarz, 1951, P. yungarum Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. subtilis Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. vitae Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. nigrior (Cockerell, 1925, P. sooretamae Pedro & Camargo, 2003 and P. littoralis Pedro & Camargo, 2003 are unknown. The species of Partamona build notable nest entrance structures, with special surfaces for incoming / exiting bees; some of them are extremely well-elaborated and ornamented, serving as flight orientation targets. All species endemic to western Ecuador to Mexico with known nesting habits (P. orizabaensis, P. peckolti, P. xanthogastra, P. bilineata, P. aequatoriana and P. musarum build their nests in several substrates, non-associated with termitaria, such as cavities and crevices in walls, among roots of epiphytes and in bases of palm leaves, in abandoned bird nests, under bridges, and in other protected places, except P. peckolti that occasionally occupies termite nests. In South America, on the eastern side of the Andes, only P. epiphytophila and P. helleri nest among roots of epiphytes and other substrates, non-associated with termitaria. All other species studied (P. batesi, P. gregaria, P. pearsoni, P. ferreirai, P. chapadicola, P. nhambiquara, P. vicina, P. mourei, P. auripennis, P. combinata, P. cupira, P. mulata, P. ailyae, P. seridoensis, P. criptica and P. rustica nest inside active termite nests, whether epigeous or arboreous. The only species that builds obligate subterranean nests, associated or not with termite or ant nests (Atta spp. is P. testacea. Nests of Partamona have one vestibular chamber (autapomorphic for the genus closely adjacent to the entrance, filled with a labyrinth of anastomosing pillars and connectives, made of earth and resins. One principal chamber exists for food and brood, but in some species one or more additional chambers are filled with food storage pots. In nests of P. vicina, there is one atrium or "false nest", between the vestibule and the brood chamber, which contains involucral sheaths, cells and empty pots. All structures of the nest are supported by permanent pillars made of earth and resins (another autapomorphy of the genus. The characters concerning nesting habits were coded and combined with morphological and biogeographic data, in order to hypothesize the evolutive scenario of the genus using cladistic methodology. The phylogenetic hypothesis presented is the following: (((((P. bilineata (P. grandipennis, P. xanthogastra (P. orizabaensis, P. peckolti (P. aequatoriana, P. musarum P. epiphytophila, P. yungarum, P. subtilis, P. vitae (((((P. testacea (P. mourei, P. vicina (P. nigrior (P. auripennis, P. combinata (P. ferreirai (P. pearsoni (P. gregaria (P. batesi (P. chapadicola, P. nhambiquara ((((P. ailyae, P. sooretamae P. cupira, P. mulata P. seridoensis P. criptica, P. rustica, P. littoralis P. helleri. One area cladogram is presented. Dates of some vicariance / cladogenesis events are suggested. For bilineata / epiphytophila group, which inhabits the Southwestern Amazonia and the Chocó-Mexican biogeographical components, the origin of ancestral species is attributed to the Middle Miocene, when the transgressions of the Maracaibo and Paranense seas isolated the tropical northwestern South America from the eastern continental land mass. The next cladogenic event in the history of the bilineata / epiphytophila group is attributed to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the Ecuadorian Andes reached more than 3000 m, and the ancestral species was fragmented in two populations, one occupying the western Andes (ancestral species of the bilineata subgroup and other the southwestern Amazon (ancestral species of the epiphytophila subgroup. Other aspects of the history of Partamona are also discussed.

  8. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 625-633. Epub 2012 June 01.Las abejas de las orquídeas son un grupo muy importante de polinizadores distribuido en el Neotrópico, incluyendo Brasil. Aunque una gran cantidad de estudios sobre las abejas euglosinas se han hecho en esa región, pocos trabajos han sido hasta ahora llevado a cabo en el bioma del Cerrado. Este manuscrito tiene como objetivo principal mostrar la comunidad de abejas de orquídeas de un bosque de galería en el Cerrado brasileño, así como la composición de las especies, abundancia, estacionalidad y distribución horaria. Abejas euglosinas fueron capturadas mensualmente desde octubre 2007 hasta mayo 2009 en la Reserva Forestal da Itamacaoca perteneciente a la Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, en el municipio de Chapadinha, Maranhão, Brasil. Eucaliptol, eugenol y vainillina se utilizaron para atraer las abejas, entre las 07:00 y 17:00hr. Bolas de algodón fueron impregnadas con los respectivos compuestos aromáticos y suspendidas por un cordel en ramas de los árboles alrededor de 1.5m sobre el nivel del suelo, separados 8m entre sí. Los especímenes fueron capturados con redes entomológicas, fijados con acetato de etilo y transportados al laboratorio para su identificación. Un total de 158 individuos y 14 especies de abejas fueron registrados. El género Eulaema fue el grupo más representativo de las abejas euglosinas, lo que representa el 50.6% de las abejas seguido por Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% y Exaerete (7.6%. Las especies más frecuentes fueron: Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, cingulata Eulaema (19% y Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Muchas especies típicas de los ambientes forestales fueron capturadas, como Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons y Eulaema meriana. La aparición de Exaerete guaykuru representa el segundo registro de esta especie para la región Neotropical, y ambos registros procedentes de las zonas de bosque de galería. Las abejas euglosinas fueron recolectadas principalmente en la estación seca (62.5%, pero el género Eufriesea apareció sobre todo en la estación lluviosa. Las abejas mostraron una clara preferencia por el período de la mañana, donde el 87.9% visitó los cebos aromáticos entre 07:00 y las 12:00hr. La fauna de abejas euglosinas está representada principalmente por especies de distribución geográfica amplia y por algunas especies forestales. La aparición de estas especies puede deberse a las condiciones ambientales presentes en el bosque de galería.

  9. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.

  10. Systematical studies on the species of the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latreille) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, N P; Aytekin, A M

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the 12 species which belong to the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) by identifying, collating and testing the applicability of geometrics morphometrics for distinguishing the species. This was carried out on 133 females and 42 males which were collected from various localities in Turkey. After digitizing landmarks on the right fore wings, 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinates were calculated and by Procrustes analysis the coordinates were standardized and superimposed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) were performed to show the distribution of all species. Then, deformations which appeared in thin-plate splines were observed. Mean values of all the specimens were calculated and Sequential, Agglomerative, Hierarchical, and Nesting clustering method (SAHN) was performed with these data to obtain the dissimilarity trees. It can be concluded that all species were found to have consistently different wing shapes from each other. In females, the species B. armeniacus, B. mesomelas and B. pomorum which resemble each other, were also found to be similar based on their wing morphometry. Both in females and males, the subspecies B. sylvarum citrinofasciatus and B. sylvarum daghestanicus and the species B. humilis and B. laesus exposed high similarity in wing morphometry. In males, results showed that the species B. armeniacus and B. mesomelas and the species B. humilis and B. zonatus have very similar wing shape.

  11. Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus spp.) of interior Alaska: Species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites

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    Despite the ecological and agricultural significance of bumble bees in Alaska, very little is known and published about this important group at the regional level. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the ...

  12. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, A.R.; Almanza, M.T.; Cutler, G.C.; Fischer, D.L.; Hinarejos, S.; Lewis, G.; Nigro, D.; Olmstead, A.; Overmyer, J.; Potter, D.A.; Raine, N.E.; Stanley-Stahr, C.; Thompson, H.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, dise

  13. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines.

  14. Predatory behavior in a necrophagous bee Trigona hypogea (Hymenoptera; Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando B.

    Although most bees feed on nectar and pollen, several exceptions have been reported. The strangest of all is the habit found in some neotropical stingless bees, which have completely replaced pollen-eating by eating animal protein from corpses. For more than 20 years, it was believed that carrion was the only protein source for these bees. We report that these bees feed not only off dead animals, but on the living brood of social wasps and possibly other similar sources. Using well developed prey location and foraging behaviors, necrophagous bees discover recently abandoned wasps' nests and, within a few hours, prey upon all immatures found there.

  15. Agricultural Landscape and Pesticide Effects on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Biological Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Steckel, Sandra J; Williams, Matthew T; Skinner, John A; Tarpy, David R; Meikle, William G; Adamczyk, John; Stewart, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation. Palynological and chemical analyses were conducted on the trapped pollen collected from each colony and location. Our results indicate that the landscape's composition significantly affected honey bee colony performance and development. Colony weight and brood production were significantly greater in AG areas compared to the NAG area. Better colony thermoregulation in AG areas' colonies was also observed. The quantities of pesticides measured in the trapped pollen were relatively low compared to their acute toxicity. Unexplained queen and colony losses were recorded in the AG areas, while colony losses because of starvation were observed in the NAG area. Our results indicate that landscape with high urban activity enhances honey bee brood production, with no significant effects on colony weight gain. Our study indicates that agricultural crops provide a valuable resource for honey bee colonies, but there is a trade-off with an increased risk of exposure to pesticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tracking the Genetic Stability of a Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Breeding Program With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Beaman, Lorraine

    2017-08-01

    A genetic stock identification (GSI) assay was developed in 2008 to distinguish Russian honey bees from other honey bee stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. Probability of assignment (POA) values have been collected and maintained since the stock release in 2008 to the Russian Honey Bee Breeders Association. These data were used to assess stability of the breeding program and the diversity levels of the contemporary breeding stock through comparison of POA values and genetic diversity parameters from the initial release to current values. POA values fluctuated throughout 2010-2016, but have recovered to statistically similar levels in 2016 (POA(2010) = 0.82, POA(2016) = 0.74; P = 0.33). Genetic diversity parameters (i.e., allelic richness and gene diversity) in 2016 also remained at similar levels when compared to those in 2010. Estimates of genetic structure revealed stability (FST(2009/2016) = 0.0058) with a small increase in the estimate of the inbreeding coefficient (FIS(2010) = 0.078, FIS(2016) = 0.149). The relationship among breeding lines, based on genetic distance measurement, was similar in 2008 and 2016 populations, but with increased homogeneity among lines (i.e., decreased genetic distance). This was expected based on the closed breeding system used for Russian honey bees. The successful application of the GSI assay in a commercial breeding program demonstrates the utility and stability of such technology to contribute to and monitor the genetic integrity of a breeding stock of an insect species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. The Synergistic Effects of Almond Protection Fungicides on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Forager Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Coleman, Chet; Hoffmann, Clint; Fritz, Brad; Rangel, Juliana

    2017-06-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom. However, the effects of fungicides on honey bee health have been so far understudied. To assess the effects of some of the top fungicides used during the 2012 California almond bloom on honey bee forager mortality, we collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to fungicides (alone and in various combinations) at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the label dose rate. These fungicides were Iprodione 2SE Select, Pristine, and Quadris. We utilized a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s to simulate field-relevant exposure of honey bees to these agrochemicals during aerial application in almond fields. Groups of 40-50 foragers exposed to either untreated controls or fungicide-laden treatments were monitored daily over a 10-d period. Our results showed a significant decrease in forager survival resulting from exposure to simulated tank mixes of Iprodione 2SE Select, as well as synergistic detrimental effects of Iprodione 2SE Select in combination with Pristine and Quadris on forager survival. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: infection tests with adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenopsis invicta virus-3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus that has considerable potential as a self-sustaining or classical biocontrol agent against the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, because it can cause substantial mortality in colonies of this species. Based on e...

  19. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

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    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  20. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-04-01

    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  1. Comparison and examination of Bombus occidentalis and Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robin; Winston, Mark L

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (Solanaceae), greenhouses to compare the relative foraging effort of two bumble bee species, Bombus occidentalis Greene and Bombus impatiens Cresson, to examine interspecific competition between B. occidentalis and B. impatiens, and to determine whether bumble bee colonies grew to their full population potential in commercial tomato greenhouses. B. impatiens colonies had more brood and workers and made more foraging trips per hour than B. occidentalis colonies. However, B. impatiens returned to the colony without pollen loads and left their colonies without dropping off their pollen loads more frequently than B. occidentalis greenhouse colonies. Our data also suggest that the presence of B. impatiens had a detrimental effect on B. occidentalis populations. Furthermore, B. occidentalis colonies did not grow to their full population potential in tomato greenhouses, with fewer workers in greenhouse colonies than in colonies placed outside in a natural environment, or in colonies that were physically enclosed and protected from external mortality. Together, this study suggests that B. impatiens is a better pollinator than B. occidentalis. It also shows that unknown factors are limiting the size of B. occidentalis colonies in tomato greenhouses.

  2. Resistance to Acarapis woodi by honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): divergent selection and evaluation of selection progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, M E; Otis, G W; Scott-Dupree, C D

    2001-04-01

    Two generations of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., selected for resistance to tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), were produced from a foundation stock. The mite resistant lines had significantly low mite abundances and prevalences in each selected generation. The high mite-resistant lines of the first selected generation showed resistance equal to that of bees that had undergone natural selection from tracheal mite infestations for 3 yr in New York. Additionally, the high mite-resistant lines of the second selected generation and Buckfast bees had significantly lower mite abundances and prevalences than honey bees from control colonies which had never been exposed to tracheal mite infestation in Ontario. These results corroborate studies that have shown that honey bees possess genetic components for tracheal mite resistance that can be readily enhanced in a breeding program. The two methods used for evaluating relative resistance of honey bees to tracheal mites, a short-term bioassay and evaluation in field colonies, were positively correlated (rs = 0.64, P < 0.001).

  3. Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera. We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9±31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439±0.001 mm was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.

  4. Taxonomic revision of Parasarus (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.: Protandrenini, a South American genus of bees

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    Kelli dos Santos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasarus Ruz, 1993 comprises small black bees (3-5 mm long endemic to xeric regions of South America, mainly along of the Andean Cordillera. Prior to this study, the genus included only the type-species P. atacamensis Ruz, 1993 (from northern Chile which has mesoscutum strongly reticulated and inner hind tibial spur curved apically. In this paper, a taxonomic revision of Parasarus is presented and two new species are described: P. specularis sp. nov. (from central to northwest Argentina diagnosed mainly by pygidial plate of female extremely acute apically and labral plate yellow in male; and P. spiniventris sp. nov. (only recorded from central portion of Chile diagnosed by antennal socket below middle of face, subantennal area as long as broad, metapostnotum smooth, and sternum 3 of male with a tuft of stiff hairs. The morphological variation related to the type-species was studied and not considered sufficiently to recognized distinct species into P. atacamensis. Distribution maps, floral associations, key to species of the genus, and illustrations of general external morphology and genitalia are also provided.

  5. Species of Euglossa of the analis group in the Atlantic forest (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 of the analis group inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic forest are revised and identification keys for males and females are provided. Five species are recognized in the Atlantic forest: Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970, Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, Euglossa roderici Nemésio, 2009 and two new species described here, Euglossa botocuda sp. nov. and Euglossa calycina sp. nov. These two new species have been misidentified by previous authors as Atlantic forest populations of, respectively, Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899. Relevant morphological features are illustrated and distribution maps are also provided. Notes on the analis group are included and an additional available name, Euglossa aureiventris Friese, 1899, is placed in this species group.

  6. Phenology of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus say (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Juan Di Trani

    2006-01-01

    We studied the seasonal activity of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus Say in subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau. Monthly during 1998, we recorded caste of active individuals (inferred form corporal size measured as wing length), presence and activity of reproductive individuals, and mating activity. Also, we recorded the flower plants used as resources. Subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau do not seem to modify phenological features of B. pennsylvanicus sonorus since the species presents annual colonies and a clearly defined period of inactivity. The size of individuals progressively increased between the first recorded activity period in middle April and the end of the colonies in November. Reproductive bees were observed since the second half of the year. The presence of males was recorded between July and November and queens and mating pairs were observed during November and December. Then mating queens were noted seeking hibernation places. Activity resumed in February of the following year. Seasonal activity seems to be more related to availability of floral resources (which, in turn, is related to rain regime), than to changes in temperature and day length. Some of the main food resources used by B. pennsylvanicus sonorus were Tithonia tubiformis, Cosmos bipinnatus, Anoda cristata, Solanum rostratum and Jacaranda mimosaefolia.

  7. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide.

  8. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline.

  9. Programmed Cell Death in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Worker Brain Induced by Imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Xu, Shu-Fa; Jia, Hui-Ru; Wang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are at an unavoidable risk of exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are used worldwide. Compared with the well-studied roles of these pesticides in nontarget site (including midgut, ovary, or salivary glands), little has been reported in the target sites, the brain. In the current study, laboratory-reared adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL technique for DNA labeling. We observed significantly increased apoptotic markers in dose- and time-dependent manners in brains of bees exposed to imidacloprid. Neuronal activated caspase-3 and mRNA levels of caspase-1, as detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, were significantly increased, suggesting that sublethal doses of imidacloprid may induce the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the overlap of apoptosis and autophagy in neurons was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. It further suggests that a relationship exists between neurotoxicity and behavioral changes induced by sublethal doses of imidacloprid, and that there is a need to determine reasonable limits for imidacloprid application in the field to protect pollinators.

  10. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  11. Fate of dermally applied miticides fluvalinate and amitraz within honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Neil Kirk; Frost, Elisabeth H; Shutler, Dave

    2013-04-01

    Varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, are economically important pests of honey bees. Varroa mites are principally controlled within honey bee colonies using miticides. However, despite their importance in managing mite populations for apiculture, potential effects of miticides on honey bees are poorly understood. Using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, we investigated concentrations, over variable time frames and within different body regions, of two commonly used miticides, tau-fluvalinate and amitraz, after dermal exposure to honey bees. We also quantified mortality of honey bees exposed to each miticide at both a low and high dose. Significant differences were observed in distributions of miticides among body regions. Within honey bee body parts, tau-fluvalinate was more readily absorbed and decreased in concentration more rapidly than amitraz. Mortality increased with higher dosages of miticides, and at higher dosages mortality was greater from fluvalinate than from amitraz. For individual honey bees, our results for rate of breakdown suggest that fluvalinate may be the preferred miticide for apiculturists, whereas our mortality results suggest that amitraz may be preferable. Either choice must be weighed against geographic variation in varroa resistance to each pesticide and attendant costs of parasitism.

  12. Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

    2012-12-01

    Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics.

  13. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

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    Jian J Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are the most important pollinators of many agricultural crops worldwide and are a key test species used in the tiered safety assessment of genetically engineered insect-resistant crops. There is concern that widespread planting of these transgenic crops could harm honey bee populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 25 studies that independently assessed potential effects of Bt Cry proteins on honey bee survival (or mortality. Our results show that Bt Cry proteins used in genetically modified crops commercialized for control of lepidopteran and coleopteran pests do not negatively affect the survival of either honey bee larvae or adults in laboratory settings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the additional stresses that honey bees face in the field could, in principle, modify their susceptibility to Cry proteins or lead to indirect effects, our findings support safety assessments that have not detected any direct negative effects of Bt crops for this vital insect pollinator.

  14. Age polyethism in Plebeia emerina (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies related to propolis handling

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Camila G dos; BLOCHTEIN, BETINA; MEGIOLARO, Fernanda L; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.

    2010-01-01

    Stingless bees collect plant resins and make it into propolis, although they have a wider range of use for this material than do honey bees (Apis spp.). Plebeia spp. workers employ propolis mixed with wax (cerumen) for constructing and sealing nest structures, while they use viscous (sticky) propolis for defense by applying it onto their enemies. Isolated viscous propolis deposits are permanently maintained at the interior of their colonies, as also seen in other Meliponini species. Newly-eme...

  15. Mediation of pyrethroid insecticide toxicity to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Wen, Zhimou; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2006-08-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., often thought to be extremely susceptible to insecticides in general, exhibit considerable variation in tolerance to pyrethroid insecticides. Although some pyrethroids, such as cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, are highly toxic to honey bees, the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate is low enough to warrant its use to control parasitic mites inside honey bee colonies. Metabolic insecticide resistance in other insects is mediated by three major groups of detoxifying enzymes: the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), the carboxylesterases (COEs), and the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). To test the role of metabolic detoxification in mediating the relatively low toxicity of tau-fluvalinate compared with more toxic pyrethroid insecticides, we examined the effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), and diethyl maleate (DEM) on the toxicity of these pyrethroids. The toxicity of the three pyrethroids to bees was greatly synergized by the P450 inhibitor PBO and synergized at low levels by the carboxylesterase inhibitor DEF. Little synergism was observed with DEM. These results suggest that metabolic detoxification, especially that mediated by P450s, contributes significantly to honey bee tolerance of pyrethroid insecticides. The potent synergism between tau-fluvalinate and PBO suggests that P450s are especially important in the detoxification of this pyrethroid and explains the ability of honey bees to tolerate its presence.

  16. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae en Colombia

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    Hernández Martínez Édgar Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Colombia se registran 28 de los 29 taxones descritos para el subgénero Trigona s. str. T. (T. albipennis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. amalthea Olivier, 1789; T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis
    Ducke, 1916; T. (T. hyalinata var. branneri Cockerell, 1912; T. (T. chanchamayoënsis Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. cilipes Fabricius, 1804; T. (T. corvina Cockerell, 1913; T. (T. crassipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. dallatorreana Friese, 1900; T. (T. dimidiata var. venezuelana Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. dimidiata var. dimidiata F. Smith, 1854; T. (T. ferricauda Cockerell, 1917; T. (T. fulviventris var. fulviventris Guerin, 1835; T. (T. fulviventris var. guianae Cockerell, 1910; T. (T. fuscipennis Friese,
    1900; T. (T. hyalinata var. hyalinata Lepeletier, 1836; T. (T. hypogea Silvestri, 1902; T. (T. mazucatoi Almeida, 1992; T. (T. necrophaga Camargo y Roubik, 1991; T. (T. nigerrima Cresson, 1878; T. (T. pallens Latreille, 1804; T. (T. permodica Almeida, 1992; T. (T. recursa F. Smith, 1863; T. (T. setentrionalis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. silvestriana Vachal, 1908; T. (T. spinipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. truculenta Almeida, 1984 y T. (T. williana Friese, 1900. Se reportan por primera vez los machos
    de T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis y T. (T. ferricauda los cuales se describirán en un trabajo posterior. Se encontró a T. (T. permodica y T. (T. necrophaga como registros nuevos para el país. El subgénero presenta una amplia distribución geográfica y altitudinal, encontrándose desde los 0 hasta los 2.600 msnm, todas las especies se encuentran en los bosques tropicales de Colombia. Existe una alta concentración de taxones (25 taxones; 89% de los taxones del país en la región del piedemonte llanero entre los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Boyacá y Meta. Se presenta una clave taxonómica ilustrada para separar obreras de las especies neotropicales; con diagnosis, comentarios sobre distribución, taxonomía y hábitos de nidificación de cada una de ellas. También se incluye una clave de campo para separar algunas especies del subgénero,
    basada en las características de la arquitectura externa de los nidos. Se discute la presencia de una especie nueva dentro del grupo Fulviventris. Se estableció una colección de referencia y una base de datos para el subgénero en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Abejas del departamento de Biología (LABUN de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá.

  17. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA

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    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 ce- menterios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La es- pecie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios es- tudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del to- tal. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocu- pación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  18. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A

    2014-12-01

    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  19. Hazards of imidacloprid seed coating to Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when applied to sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasei, J N; Ripault, G; Rivault, E

    2001-06-01

    Seed coating treatments of sunflower by the systemic insecticide imidacloprid was suspected of affecting honey bees and bumblebees. The hypothesis raised was whether imidacloprid could migrate into nectar and pollen, then modify flower attractiveness, homing behavior, and colony development. Our greenhouse and field experiments with Bombus terrestris L. were aimed at the following: the behavior of workers foraging on treated and control plants blooming in a greenhouse, the homing rate of colonies placed for 9 d in a treated field compared with colonies in a control field, and the development of these 20 colonies under laboratory conditions when removed from the fields. In the greenhouse, workers visited blooming heads of treated and control plants at the same rate and the mean duration of their visits was similar. In field colonies, analysis of pollen in hairs and pellets of workers showed that in both fields 98% of nectar foragers visited exclusively sunflowers, whereas only 25% of pollen gatherers collected sunflower pollen. After 9 d, in the control and treated field, 23 and 33% of the marked foragers, respectively, did not return to hives. In both fields, workers significantly drifted from the center to the sides of colony rows. During the 26-d period under field and laboratory conditions, the population increase rate of the 20 colonies was 3.3 and 3.0 workers/d in hives of the control and treated field, respectively. This difference was not significant. New queens were produced in eight colonies in either field. The mean number of new queens per hive was 17 and 24 in the control and treated field, respectively. Their mating rate was the same. It was concluded that applying imidacloprid at the registered dose, as a seed coating of sunflowers cultivated in greenhouse or in field, did not significantly affect the foraging and homing behavior of B. terestris and its colony development.

  20. Notes on the nesting biology of five species of Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Fernando Carvalho-Filho

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas-da-orquídea (Euglossini possuem tamanho médio a grande, corpo parcialmente ou completamente metálico e são relativamente comuns na região Neotropical. Apesar disso, a biologia de nidificação da maioria das espécies permanece desconhecida. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo e fornecer novas informações sobre a biologia de nidificação de cinco espécies de Euglossini encontradas em área urbana e florestada da Amazônia Brasileira. Os ninhos de Eufriesea pulchra (Smithe Euglossa chalybeata Frieseforam registrados pela primeira vez, encontrados dentro de ninho de formiga Azteca sp. e em uma árvore apodrecida caída, respectivamente. O ninho de Euglossa townsendiCockerell foi registrado pela primeira vez em uma folha da planta ornamental Cordyline sp. (Asparagaceae. Euglossa intersecta Latreillefoi registrada nidificando dentro de um ninho abandonado de cupim e Euglossa cordata (Linnaeusfoi encontrada nidificando em uma maçaneta tubular de metal de uma janela.

  1. Pollination of Greenhouse Tomatoes by the Mexican bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Carlos Hernan Vergara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican native bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus Say was evaluated as a potential pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.. The experiments were performed at San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, from June to December 2004 in two 1 000 m2 greenhouses planted with tomatoes of the cultivar Mallory (Hazera ®. For the experiments, we used two colonies of Bombus ephippiatus, reared in the laboratory from queens captured in the field. Four treatments were applied to 20 study plants: pollination by bumble bees, manual pollination, pollination by mechanical vibration and no pollination (bagged flowers, no vibration. We measured percentage of flowers visited by bumble bees, number of seeds per fruit, maturing time, sugar content, fruit weight and fruit shape. All available flowers were visited by bumblebees, as measured by the degree of anther cone bruising. The number of seeds per fruit was higher for bumble bee-pollinated plants as compared with plants pollinated mechanically or not pollinated and was not significantly different between hand-pollinated and bumble bee-pollinated plants. Maturation time was significantly longer and sugar content, fresh weight and seed count were significantly higher for bumblebee pollinated flowers than for flowers pollinated manually or with no supplemental pollination, but did not differ with flowers pollinated mechanically.

  2. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species the females were larger than the males. The mortality rates were statistically similar: 33.2% for T. curvitarsis, 25.8% for T. rugulosa, 26.8% for T. diversipes and 38.2% for T. garnfaloi. The parasitoids were: Coelioxoides exulans, Leucospis cayenensis, Anthrax sp., Coelioxys sp., Coelioxoides sp. and individuals of the family Meloidae.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the large carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera: apidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, R; Cooper, S J; Schwarz, M P

    2000-12-01

    Carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa Latreille, a group of bees found on all continents, are of particular interest to behavioral ecologists because of their utility for studies of the evolution of mating strategies and sociality. This paper presents phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b for 22 subgenera of Xylocopa. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. The analyses resulted in three resolved clades of subgenera: a South American group (including the subgenera Stenoxylocopa, Megaxylocopa, and Neoxylocopa), a group including the subgenera Xylocopa s.s. and Ctenoxylocopa, and an Ethiopean group (including the subgenera Afroxylocopa, Mesotrichia, Alloxylocopa, Platynopoda, Hoploxylocopa, and Koptortosoma). The relationships between the 11 other subgenera and the resolved clades are unclear. Within the Ethiopian group we found a clear separation of the African and the Oriental taxa and apparent polyphyly of the subgenus Koptortosoma. Using an evolutionary rate for ants, we investigated whether Gondwana vicariance or more recent dispersal events could best explain the present-day distribution of subgenera. Although some taxa show divergences that approach Gondwanan breakup times, most divergences between geographic groups are too recent to support a vicariance hypothesis.

  4. Nesting habits of Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Northern Cerrado of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gracy C. A.; Carreira, Léa M. M.; Rêgo, Márcia M. C.; Patrícia M. C. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical bee Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha is a solitary bee that nests in pre-existing cavities that occur in the rain forest. This study describes the nesting biology of C. dichrootricha and its preference for nesting in Cerrado and gallery forest habitats. The study was conducted from January 2012 and December 2013, in Mirador State Park in the municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra, Maranhão State, Brazil. For this, wooden trap-nests of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm in diameter w...

  5. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  6. Phylogeography of Partamona rustica (Hymenoptera, Apidae), an Endemic Stingless Bee from the Neotropical Dry Forest Diagonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Congrains, Carlos; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework. In this sense, we sequenced four mitochondrial genes and genotyped eight microsatellite loci. Our results identified two population groups: one to the west and the other to the east of the São Francisco River Valley (SFRV). These groups split in the late Pleistocene, and the Approximate Bayesian Computation approach and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that P. rustica originated in the west of the SFRV, subsequently colonising eastern region. Our tests of migration detected reduced gene flow between these groups. Finally, our results also indicated that the inferences both from the genetic data analyses and from the spatial distribution modelling are compatible with historical demographic stability. PMID:27723778

  7. Genetic Diversity in Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Aggregations in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Oliveira, E.J.F.; Freitas, G.S.; Assis, A.F.; Souza, C.C.M.; Contel, E.P.B.; Soares, A.E.E.

    2017-01-01

    The Meliponini, also known as stingless bees, are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and plays an essential role in pollinating many wild plants and crops These bees can build nests in cavities of trees or walls, underground or in associations with ants or termites; interestingly, these nests are sometimes found in aggregations. In order to assess the genetic diversity and structure in aggregates of Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), samples of this species were collected from six aggregations and genetically analyzed for eight specific microsatellite loci. We observed in this analysis that the mean genetic diversity value among aggregations was 0.354, and the mean expected and observed heterozygosity values was 0.414 and 0.283, respectively. The statistically significant Fis value indicated an observed heterozygosity lower than the expected heterozygosity in all loci studied resulting in high homozygosis level in these populations. In addition, the low number of private alleles observed reinforces the absence of structuring that is seen in the aggregates. These results can provide relevant information about genetic diversity in aggregations of N. testaceicornis and contribute to the management and conservation of these bees’ species that are critical for the pollination process. PMID:28130454

  8. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

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    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  9. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rocha-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants.

  10. ABELHAS EUGLOSSINA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE ASSOCIADAS À MONOCULTURA DE EUCALIPTO NO CERRADO MATO-GROSSENSE

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    Silva do Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição de abelhas Euglossina em três áreas distintas, com monocultura de eucalipto de diferentes idades, utilizando a vegetação nativa como controle, com base nos aspectos de riqueza e abundância. O trabalho foi realizado em três propriedades particulares, localizadas na região Sudoeste de Mato Grosso, em monocultura de eucaliptos de diferentes idades e vegetação nativa (Cerrado. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012, utilizando-se seis essências: eugenol, eucaliptol, vanilina, benzoato de benzila, salicitato de metila e acetato de benzila, das 8 às 16 h. Foram coletados 430 espécimes, de quatro gêneros e 18 espécies. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Euglossa melanotricha Moure, 1967 e Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, 1804 foram as espécies mais abundantes e comuns a todas as áreas estudadas. A área com maior abundância de abelhas foi ApS (166 indivíduos e com maior riqueza, a Tol (14 espécies. A composição de espécies foi semelhante nas áreas analisadas, e a abundância apresentou dissimilaridade entre a Tol e as áreas SanR e ApS. A área AC (área-controle apresentou maior abundância (147 e riqueza (n = 15 em relação à monocultura de eucalipto.

  11. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  12. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, A.R.; Almanza, M.T.; Cutler, G.C.; Fischer, D.L.; Hinarejos, S.; Lewis, G.; Nigro, D.; Olmstead, A.; Overmyer, J.; Potter, D.A.; Raine, N.E.; Stanley-Stahr, C.; Thompson, H.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity,

  13. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

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    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  14. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  15. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  16. Taxonomic notes on stingless bee Trigona (Tetragonula iridipennis Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stingless Bees are a large and diverse taxon and more than 500 species are recorded worldwide.  Based on the previous reports, totally seven species are reported from India.  The present study reports male and female morphological characteristics of Tetragonula iridipennis belonging to Tetragonula subgenus in Nellithurai Village, Tamil Nadu, India.  The species of Tetragonula group are extremely similar in the external morphology of the workers. The glabrous bands on mesoscutum of female bees and structure and arrangement of gonostylus and the penis valve of male bees are used to separate T. iridipennis from other species in this group.  The identity of T. iridipennis is made based on the male and female key morphological characteristics in the previous literature.

  17. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  18. Toxicity of Imidacloprid to the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hellen Maria; Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-06-01

    The stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica is an important pollinator of native and cultivated plants in Brazil. Among the factors affecting the survival of these insects is the indiscriminate use of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. This work determined the toxicity of imidacloprid as the topical median lethal dose (LD50) and the oral median lethal concentration (LC50) as tools for assessing the effects of this insecticide. The 24 and 48 h LD50 values were 25.2 and 24.5 ng of active ingredient (a.i.)/bee, respectively. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values were 42.5 and 14.3 ng a.i./µL of diet, respectively. Ours results show the hazard of imidacloprid and the vulnerability of stingless bees to it, providing relevant toxicological data that can used in mitigation programs to ensure the conservation of this species.

  19. Alelle number and heterozigosity for microsatellite loci in different stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Flávio de O; Brito, Rute M; Arias, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we compare genetic characteristics (allele diversity and observed heterozygosity) of microsatellite loci, from three stingless bee species (Plebeia remota Holmberg, Partamona mulata Moure In Camargo and Partamona helleri Friese), amplified by using heterospecific primers originally designed for Melipona bicolor Lepeletier and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille. We analyzed 360 individuals of P. remota from 72 nests, 58 individuals of R. mulata from 58 nests, and 47 individuals of P. helleri from 47 nests. The three species studied showed low level of polymorphism for the loci amplified with primers derived from M. bicolor. However, for the loci amplified with primers derived from S. postica, only P. remota presented low level of polymorphism.

  20. Chemical basis for inter-colonial aggression in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, H; da Costa, A J S; Tentschert, J; Patricio, Eda Flávia L R A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Drijfhout, F; Morgan, E D

    2004-08-01

    Inter-colonial aggression was tested using three colonies of Scaptotrigona bipunctata in a natural setting when their nests were moved and by artificial contact between individuals. Examination of the cuticular lipids of individuals from two colonies kept under identical conditions showed clear differences in their cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. The cuticular lipids were a mixture of hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated alkanes and alkenes) within the range of C23-C29. The use of multivariate analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis) showed that seven of the identified surface compounds are enough to separate workers from colonies A and B from each other.

  1. Color and shape discrimination in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D; Vandame, R

    2012-06-01

    To increase our understanding in bee vision ecology, we investigated the color and shape discrimination performance of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Our main goal was to describe the choice behavior of experienced foragers over time, trying to understand to what extent color and shape stimuli (separately tested) aid them to choose the rewarding option, in the presence of distracting, unrewarding stimuli. Single foragers were trained to collect sucrose solution from a target plate. Afterwards, one distracting, unrewarding plate was placed besides the target plate and eight choices were recorded. Our results showed that both color and shape stimuli assisted efficiently the trained foragers in locating the target plate. However, foragers chose significantly more often the target plate in the color experiments than in the shape experiments. In conclusion, in our experimental setup, color was of better assistance to the foragers of S. mexicana than shape to choose their rewards. This is the first study in which it is demonstrated that the choice performance over time in a stingless bee depends upon the characteristics of the resource, such as shape and color.

  2. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  3. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  4. A mixed colony of Scaptotrigona depilis and Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, C; Hrncir, M; Kerr, W E

    2009-05-12

    We describe a case of a spontaneously established mixed colony of two species of stingless bees. The host colony of Scaptotrigona depilis, an aggressive bee that forms large colonies, was invaded by workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, a smaller bee that forms small colonies. The host colony and the invading species colony were maintained in next boxes about 1.5 m apart. The N. testaceicornis colony had been recently divided. Observations were made daily for 10 min, and every two weeks the colony was opened for observations within the nest. Initially the host colony bees repulsed the invading species, but as their numbers built up, they were no longer able to defend the entrance. An estimated 60-90 N. testaceicornis workers lived integrated into the colony of S. depilis for 58 days. During this period, they reconstructed and maintained the entrance tube, changing it to an entrance typical of N. testaceicornis. They also collected food and building material for the host colony. Nannotrigona testaceicornis tolerated transit of S. depilis through the entrance, but did not allow the host species to remain within the tube, though the attacks never resulted in bee mortality. Aggression was limited to biting the wings; when the bees fell to the ground they immediately separated and flew back. There have been very few reports of spontaneously occurring mixed stingless bee colonies. It is difficult to determine what caused the association that we found; probably workers of N. testaceicornis got lost when we split their colony, and then they invaded the colony of S. depilis.

  5. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  6. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  7. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    L. W. LIMA-VERDE

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  8. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.; Rightmyer, M.G.; Sheffield, C.S.; Brady, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    We provide diagnostic morphological characters to help distinguish males and females of the following species of Nomada: N. augustiana Mitchell, N. bethunei Cockerell, N. fervida Smith, N. fragariae Mitchell, N. lehighensis Cockerell, N. texana Cresson, and N. tiftonensis Cockerell. Based on morphological and DNA barcoding evidence we newly synonymize the following species: N. heligbrodtii Cresson (under N. texana), N. indusata Mitchell (under N. augustiana), N. kingstonensis Mitchell (under N. lehighensis), N. pseudops Cockerell (under N. bethunei), and N. wisconsinensis Graenicher (under N. fervida). We provide full descriptions of the female of N. fragariae and the male of N. lehighensis, both of which were not previously known, and newly designate the lectotype of N. wisconsinensis. We additionally provide comments on the distribution, flight times, and host associations for the treated species. Copyright ?? 2010.

  9. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem.

  10. An experiment on comb orientation by honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in traditional hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgaba, Nuru; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Chernet, Mebrat H; Ali, Yahya A; Ansari, Mohammad J; Radloff, Sarah E; Howard, Randall H

    2012-06-01

    The orientation of combs in traditional beehives is extremely important for obtaining a marketable honey product. However, the factors that could determine comb orientation in traditional hives and the possibilities of inducing honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.), to construct more desirable combs have not been investigated. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether guide marks in traditional hives can induce bees to build combs of a desired orientation. Thirty-two traditional hives of uniform dimensions were used in the experiment. In 24 hives, ridges were formed on the inner surfaces of the hives with fermented mud to obtain different orientations, circular, horizontal, and spiral, with eight replicates of each treatment. In the remaining eight control hives, the inner surface was left smooth. Thirty-two well-established honey bee colonies from other traditional hives were transferred to the prepared hives. The colonies were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups. The manner of comb construction in the donor and experimental hives was recorded. The results showed that 22 (91.66%) of the 24 colonies in the treated groups built combs along the ridges provided, whereas only 2 (8.33%) did not. Comb orientation was strongly associated with the type of guide marks provided. Moreover, of the 18 colonies that randomly fell to patterns different from those of their previous nests, 17 (94.4%) followed the guide marks provided, irrespective of the comb orientation type in their previous nest. Thus, comb orientation appears to be governed by the inner surface pattern of the nest cavity. The results suggest that even in fixed-comb hives, honey bees can be guided to build combs with orientations suitable to honey harvesting, without affecting the colonies.

  11. OBSERVACIÓN DE RANGOS DE VUELO DE Bombus Atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae EN AMBIENTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÍN PARDO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la capacidad de regreso de Bombus atratus a su colonia midiendo la cantidad de individuos que volvieron a ésta después de ser liberadas a diferentes distancias y en cuatro direcciones (norte, sur, este, oeste. Para ello se trasladó una colonia de B. atratus, proveniente de Tenjo Cundinamarca, al Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, se marcaron y liberaron un total de 100 forrajeras de las cuales regresaron 40. Hubo una relación lineal negativa clara entre la proporción de regresos al nido y las distancias del sitio de liberación, con reducción del número de abejorros capaces de regresar a medida que aumentaba la distancia al nido. El rango máximo observado al cual las abejas pudieron regresan al nido está entre 1.300m y 1.500m y un análisis de regresión lineal predice un rango de vuelo de 1,6 km.

  12. Detección de Malpighamoeba mellificae (Protista: Amoebozoa en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Argentina

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    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su rol como polinizador y productor de miel, la abeja Apis mellifera L. es considerado un insecto beneficioso. Si bien Argentina juega un papel de liderazgo en la producción de miel, existe un considerable vacío en el conocimiento acerca de las enfermedades de etiología protista que afectan las abejas en el país. La ameba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell es un protista entomopatógeno que invade los túbulos de Malpighi de las abejas e interfiere con el proceso de excreción, debilitando al huésped y posiblemente facilitando la acción de otros patógenos. En esta contribución se presentan los primeros hallazgos de M. mellificae en Argentina y se brindan datos iniciales acerca de su frecuencia, intensidad de las infecciones, y co-ocurrencia con Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae se halló en dos de 36 localidades prospectadas: San Cayetano, al Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires y San Carlos de Bariloche, en el Oeste de la provincia de Río Negro.

  13. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin; Regina L M Silva De Moraes; S R Taboga

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th instar and finishes at the end of the same instar. This process begins in the distal secretory portion of the gland, going towards the proximal secretory portion; and from the periphery to the center of the gland lumen. The silk proteins are released from the secretory cells as a homogeneous substance that polymerizes in the lumen to form compact birefringent tactoids. Secondly, the water absorption from the lumen secretion, carried out by secretory and duct cells, promotes aggregation of the tactoids that form a spiral-shape filament with a zigzag pattern. This pattern is also the results of the silk compression in the gland lumen and represents a high concentration of macromolecularly well-oriented silk proteins.

  14. Observations on the founding of a new colony by Trigona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Alvaro; Orozco, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    New colonies of Trigona (Partamona) eupira Smith, the most common bee in Mesoamerica, are founded in progressive stages and not in one swarming as those of the honey bee, as observed in Costa Rica. Pollen was collected in the field during the first three months, and not transported from the mother nest. Daily observations during six months showed that while the ambient temperature fluctuated between 15 and 28 C, and between 15 and 46 C on the outside of the nest proper, the temperature in the...

  15. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA; ÁNGELA RODRÍGUEZ-C.; Danny Vélez, E.

    2006-01-01

    Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 ce- menterios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia). El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La es- pecie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios es- tudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria ...

  16. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  17. Fluctuating asymmetry in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as bioindicator of anthropogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Lorena Andrade; de Araújo, Edilson Divino; Marchini, Luís Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The successful distribution of A. mellifera is due to their ability to adjust to seasonal variations, considerable control over their internal physical environment and exploration of different resources. However, their populations have experienced different forms and levels of environmental pressure. This research aimed to verify the phenotypic plasticity in both size and shape of wings in A. mellifera using fluctuating asymmetry, based on geometric morphometrics from apiaries located in sites with high and low levels of anthropization. We sampled 16 locations throughout all five geographic regions of Brazil. At each site, samples were collected from 20 beehives installed in apiaries: 10 installed near high anthropogenic environments (Cassilandia - MS, Fortaleza - CE, Maringá - PR, Aquidauana - MS, Rolim de Moura - RO, Riachuelo - SE, Ubiratã - PR and Piracicaba - SP), and 10 in sites with low levels of human disturbance (Cassilândia - MS, Itapiúna CE, União da Vitória - PR, Aquidauana - MS, Rolim de Moura - RO, Pacatuba - SE, Erval Seco - RS, Rio Claro - SP). A sample of 10 individuals was taken in each hive, totaling 200 per location, for a total of 1,600 individuals. We used fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in size and shape of the forewing through geometric morphometrics. The FA analysis was conducted in order to check bilateral differences. The indexes of size and shape were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), where the characters evaluated were used as factors to verify the size and shape differences. The results indicated an asymmetry on the shape of the wing (P mellifera demonstrated that this feature undergoes more variation during ontogeny compared to the variation in size. We concluded that bee samples collected from colonies with higher levels of human disturbance had higher wing-shape asymmetry; the variation of fluctuating asymmetry in the wing shape of honeybees can be used as an indicator of the degree of environmental anthropization.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the Levant Region honeybee, Apis mellifera syriaca (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal

    2016-11-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Levant Region honeybee, Apis mellifera syriaca, is analyzed and presented for the public for the first time. The genome of this honeybee is 15,428 bp in its length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition is A (42.88%), C (9.97%), G (5.85%), and T (41.3%), the percentage of A and T being higher than that of G and C. Percentage of non-ATGC characters is 0.007. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes and eight tRNA genes. The publication of the mitochondrial genome sequence will play a vital role in the conservation genetic projects of A. mellifera, in general, and Apis mellifera syriaca, in particular; moreover, it will be useful for further phylogenetic analysis.

  19. FLIGHT RANGE OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES, Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae IN AN APPLE GROVE

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    PARANHOS B.A.J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honeybees from five colonies were marked with P-32 and taken to an apple grove for a flight behavior study. The method used to determine the flight range was to put out an array of tagged trees in a cross pattern with the colonies arranged in the center point of a 0.8 ha test area. The tagged trees were located 10 meters apart in the 4 rows of 50 meters each, arranged according to the North, South, East, and West directions. Bees were collected while visiting the tagged tree flowers twice a day, during a ten-day period. The number of honeybees marked decreased in relation to the distance from the hives. Analysis of variance showed that a linear regression was highly significant to describe the process. Geographic directions did not affect the activity of the bees.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Haddad, Nizar; Noureddine, Adjlane; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Ren-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Guan, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xi; Niu, Hua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, is analyzed for the first time. The results show that this genome is 16,336 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (43.2%), C (9.8%), G (5.6%), and T (41.4%), so the percentage of A and T (84.6%) is considerably higher than that of G and C. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes (12S and 16S rRNA), and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in A. m. intermissa.

  1. Assessing hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera unicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the endemic honey bee from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofoarivao, H; Delatte, H; Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, L H; Reynaud, B; Clémencet, J

    2015-06-01

    Hygienic behavior (HB) is one of the natural mechanisms of honey bee for limiting the spread of brood diseases and Varroa destructor parasitic mite. Objective of our study was to measure HB of Apis mellifera unicolor colonies (N = 403) from three geographic regions (one infested and two free of V. destructor) in Madagascar. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB. Responses were measured from 3 h 30 min to 7 h after perforation of the cells. Colonies were very effective in detecting perforated cells. In the first 4 h, on average, they detected at least 50% of the pin-killed brood. Six hours after cell perforation, colonies tested (N = 91) showed a wide range of uncapped (0 to 100%) and cleaned cells (0 to 82%). Global distribution of the rate of cleaned cells at 6 h was multimodal and hygienic responses could be split in three classes. Colonies from the three regions showed a significant difference in HB responses. Three hypotheses (geographic, genetic traits, presence of V. destructor) are further discussed to explain variability of HB responses among the regions. Levels of HB efficiency of A. mellifera unicolor colonies are among the greatest levels reported for A. mellifera subspecies. Presence of highly hygienic colonies is a great opportunity for future breeding program in selection for HB.

  2. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  3. Performance of Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, and Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Nault, Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Pollination services of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L., provided by the European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., were compared with two native bee species, the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson), and Peponapis pruinosa Say, in New York from 2008 to 2010. Performance of each species was determined by comparing single-visit pollen deposition, percentage of visits that contacted the stigma, flower-handling time, fruit and seed set, and fruit weight per number of visits. Fruit yield from small fields (0.6 ha) supplemented with commercial B. impatiens colonies was compared with yield from those not supplemented. A. mellifera spent nearly 2 and 3 times longer foraging on each pistillate flower compared with B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. A. mellifera also visited pistillate flowers 10-20 times more frequently than B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. Yet, B. impatiens deposited 3 times more pollen grains per stigma and contacted stigmas significantly more often than either A. mellifera or P. pruinosa. Fruit set and weight from flowers visited four to eight times by B. impatiens were similar to those from open-pollinated flowers, whereas flowers pollinated by A. mellifera and P. pruinosa produced fewer fruit and smaller fruit compared with those from open-pollinated flowers. Fields supplemented with B. impatiens produced significantly more pumpkins per plant than nonsupplemented fields. B. impatiens was a better pollinator of pumpkin than P. pruinosa and should be considered as a promising alternative to A. mellifera for pollinating this crop.

  4. EXPANDING THE AREA OF DISTRIBUTION OF EUFRIESEA FRAGROCARA KIMSEY (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. S. Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agriculture in the Arc of Deforestation causes deforestation and habitat loss. Euglossines sampling was done near Juruena River, Cotriguaçu municipality, northern Mato Grosso State. The bees were collected on understory and canopy using different baits. A total of 41 males of Eufriesea fragrocara Kimsey were collected. This is a rare species in collections and catalogued only in Huánuco (Peru, Napo (Ecuador, Ouro Preto D’Oeste and Ariquemes, Rondônia, Brazil. This new records increase the geographic distribution of E. fragrocara in 500 km to the western Amazon Basin, reducing the filling gaps in their distribution range in the Neotropics.

  5. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C M Silva-Zacarin; G A Tomaino; M R Brocheto-Braga; S R Taboga; R L M Silva De Moraes

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine, the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin–eosin, bromophenol blue, silver, or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase, as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed. The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and, additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen. The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed. The nuclei were pyknotic, with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form intermediate between apoptosis and autophagy.

  6. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera

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    Simon van Noort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula. Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  7. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  8. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  9. The Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty species belonging to 16 genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are reported from Greenland. Seven are new species described and illustrated below: Dacnusa groenlandica spec. nov.; Aphidius tarsalis spec. nov.; Praon brevistigma spec. nov.; Blacus (B.) groenlandicus spec. nov.; Cotesia

  10. Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e biométricas em abelha Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER

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    K.N. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar componentes de variância genética aditiva, fenotípica e residual e a herdabilidade para características relacionadas com a produção de mel e com a estrutura do ninho de abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Sessenta colônias de diferentes regiões da Bahia foram transladadas para caixas padronizadas modelo INPA e divididas, originando as gerações parentais G1 e G2. Foram medidas as características: estimativa da produção de mel; número, largura, volume e altura dos potes de mel; número, altura e diâmetro dos potes de pólen; peso; número, largura e diâmetro dos discos de cria e estimativa da população da colônia. As medidas foram corrigidas para o efeito fixo de mês de mensuração. Os componentes de variância e herdabilidade foram estimados por meio do método de semelhança entre parentes, utilizando-se abordagem Bayesiana. As médias e os desvios padrão variaram de 2,01±0,70cm para diâmetro de potes de pólen a 2.333,0±384,1kg para o peso das caixas. Houve indicação de convergência para todas as cadeias obtidas. As estimativas de variância genética aditiva variaram de 0,02cm para as características largura dos potes de mel a 38.587,72kg para o peso. Para as estimativas de variâncias fenotípicas, os valores variaram de 0,05 para a altura dos potes de pólen a 95.136,43kg para o peso; e para as variâncias residuais, os valores encontrados variaram de 0,02 para a variável largura dos potes de mel a 56.548,71kg para o peso. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. Os resultados demonstraram que as características avaliadas possuem variação genética aditiva que garante boa resposta à seleção.

  11. Records of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in Northwestern Argentina Presencia de Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en el noroeste argentino

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    Marcelo J. Lizondo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is reported for the first time in Northwestern Argentina.La presencia de Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae fue detectada por primera vez en el noroeste argentino.

  12. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  13. Worldwide distribution of Syllophopsis sechellensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James K Wetterer; Mostafa R Sharaf

    2017-01-01

    Syllophopsis sechellensis (Emery) (formerly Monomorium sechellense) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a small, inconspicuous ant species, native to the Old World tropics, but has spread by human commerce to other parts of the world...

  14. A new cluster-brood building species of Plebeia (Hymenoptera, Apidae from eastern Brazil Uma nova espécie de Plebeia (Hymenoptera, Apidae do leste do Brasil, com células de cria em cacho

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Plebeia, the second largest genus of stingless bees in the Neotropical region, is described from eastern Brazil. Plebeia grapiuna sp. nov., known only from the lowland forests of southern Bahia, is most similar to P. lucii Moure, a species recently described from Minas Gerais. The lack of yellow marks and the smoother integument of the frons and mesoscutum in P. grapiuna sp. nov. distinguish them. Main features of the nesting habits of the new species are described and illustrated.Uma nova espécie de Plebeia, o segundo maior gênero de meliponíneos na região Neotropical, é descrita do leste do Brasil. Plebeia grapiuna sp. nov., conhecida apenas das florestas de terras baixas do sul da Bahia, é semelhante a P. lucii Moure, uma espécie recentemente descrita de Minas Gerais. A ausência de manchas amarelas e o integumento menos rugoso da fronte e do mesoscuto em P. grapiuna sp. nov. distinguem as duas espécies. Características principais do hábito de nidificação da nova espécie são descritas e ilustradas.

  15. Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    García García Duberney

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee's gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacteriaspueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las
    plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  16. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  17. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

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    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  18. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae Pólen estocado nos ninhos de abelhas dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.Abelhas e plantas estabeleceram ao longo do tempo evolutivo uma relação mutualística. Buscando contribuir para o entendimento dessa relação, foi analisado o pólen estocado por colônias de abelhas-sem-ferrão distribuídas ao longo do rio Negro. Foram estudados potes de pólen de 14 espécies de Meliponini dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona. O material polínico foi retirado dos potes de pólen, homogeneizado e preparado segundo técnica usual de acetólise. Foram calculados a sobreposição de nicho trófico e o agrupamento das espécies pela similaridade de nichos. Foi identificado o total de 78 tipos polínicos, pertencentes a 36 famílias, sendo 37 destes, considerados atrativos, enquanto 16 foram promotores de eventos de especialização temporária. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível indicar uma lista de plantas de importância para a meliponicultura na Amazônia.

  19. CONTENIDO MICROBIOLÓGICO CULTIVABLE DEL TRACTO INTESTINAL Y POLEN ALMACENADO DE Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUBERNEY GARCÍA GARCÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee’s gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.

  20. Abejas de Colombia. III. Clave para géneros y subgéneros de Meliponinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae Abejas de Colombia. III. Clave para géneros y subgéneros de Meliponinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Nates Parra María Guiomar

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan c1aves ilustradas para 11 géneros y 10 subgéneros de Meliponinae existentes en Colombia.

    IIustrated keys for 11 genera and 10 subgenera of Meliponinae of Colombia are presented.

  1. A revision of the bee genus Nomada in Argentina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae Revisión de las abejas del género Nomada en la Argentina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae

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    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the bee genus Nomada Scopoli in Argentina is presented. Nine species are recognized in this region, five of which are described as new: N. mesopotamica, N. longula, N. chacoana, N. missionica, and N. turrigera. Lectotypes are designated for N. pampicola Holmberg, 1886, and N. costalis Brèthes, 1909. A new name, N. holmbergiana, is proposed for Hypochrotaenia parvula Holmberg, 1886, preoccupied in Nomada, and a neotype is designated for H. parvula Holmberg. A key to the species, descriptions, distributional data, and illustrations are provided.Se presenta una revisión de las abejas del género Nomada Scopoli en la Argentina. Se reconocen nueve especies en esta región, de las cuales cinco se describen como nuevas: N. mesopotamica, N. longula, N. chacoana, N. missionica y N. turrigera. Se designan lectotipos para N. pampicola Holmberg, 1886, y N. costalis Brèthes, 1909. Se propone un nuevo nombre, N. holmbergiana, para Hypochrotaenia parvula Holmberg, 1886, preocupado en Nomada, y se designa un neotipo para H. parvula Holmberg. Se presenta una clave para las especies, descripciones, datos de distribución e ilustraciones.

  2. UNA ESPECIE NUEVA DE Geotrigona (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, MELIPONINI, CON COMENTARIOS SOBRE EL GÉNERO EN COLOMBIA A New Species of Geotrigona(Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini, with Comments on the Genus in Colombia

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    VICTOR H GONZALEZ

    Full Text Available Se describe la abeja sin aguijón Geotrigona kaba sp. nov. de la cordillera Central de Colombia. También se presentan nuevos registros geográficos y comentarios para las otras dos especies del género que se encuentran en Colombia.We describe the stingless bee Geotrigona kaba sp. nov. from the cordillera Central of Colombia. We also provide new geographical records and comments on the other two species of the genus that occur in Colombia.

  3. DEL MARACUYÁ DEL GÉNERO Xylocopa(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, XYLOCOPINI EN COLOMBIA Biological and Taxonomic Notes on Maracuyá Bees of the Genus Xylocopa(Hymenoptera: Apidae, Xylocopini in Colombia

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    VICTOR H. GONZALEZ

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre los hábitos de nidificación de la abeja carpintera Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea en la cordillera Oriental de Colombia. También presentamos comentarios sobre el estado actual del conocimiento del género Xylocopa en Colombia y guías para la identificación de los subgéneros y especies más comunes en el país.We provide information on the nesting habitats of the carpenter bee Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea from the cordillera Oriental of Colombia. We also provide an overview of the genus Xylocopa in Colombia as well as identification keys to the subgenera and most common species in the country.

  4. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  5. Ovos produzidos por rainhas e operárias de Scaptotrigona depilis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina: morfometria e aspectos relacionados Eggs produced by queens and workers of Scaptotrigona depilis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina: morphometry and related aspects

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    Lenira M. Lacerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização morfométrica de 785 ovos produzidos por rainhas e 193 (161 funcionais e 32 tróficos produzidos por operárias de Scaptotrigona depilis (Moure, 1942, mostrou que eles são similares, em tamanho e formato, aos de outras espécies de abelhas Meliponina. Numa mesma colônia, ovos de rainha sempre apresentaram menor comprimento que os de operárias (funcionais ou tróficos. Entre ovos produzidos por operárias, ovos funcionais foram, normalmente, mais curtos e estreitos que os tróficos. O estudo dos ovos produzidos por rainhas não mostrou, como esperado, a presença de dois grupos de ovos distinguíveis pelo comprimento, como observado em S. postica (Latreille, 1807.The morphometric characterization of 785 eggs laid by queens and 193 (161 functional and 32 trophic eggs laid by workers of Scaptotrigona depilis (Moure, 1942 has shown that they are similar in size and shape to the ones from other species of Meliponina. In the same colony, the queen's eggs always presented significant smaller size than the ones of the workers (functional or trophic. Among the workers' eggs, the functional eggs were, usually, shorter and narrower than the trophic eggs. The study of eggs laid by the queen has not shown, as expected, the presence of two groups of eggs with distinctive length, as observed in S. postica (Latreille, 1807.

  6. Determinação das castas em Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: diferenciação do ovário Caste determination in Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: the ovarian differentiation

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    Thaís da Cruz Alves dos Santos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Both castes of Scaptotrigolia postica (Latreille, 1804 possess four ovarioles in each ovary. Queen and workers have the same ovarian development during the larvallife, but in lhe late larval stage the queen ovary beco me larger. During pupation a higher rate of cell division is observed in queen ovarioles and a higher rale of cell death in workers. Newly emerged workers have short ovarioles with differenriatcd germarium and vitellarium while queens have very long ovarioles with only germarium. Caste deterrnination in rhis species of bee is trophic, but lhe food does not differ in quality, only in quantiry. The food differences only beco me effecri ve by the end of larval stage when the queen larvae have lhe opportunity of eat more. In this way lhe ovary differentiation, between workers and queens. In this species, only occurs frorn lhe end of larval stage, mainly during pupation. Although the ovaries of workers are smaller, they are precocious in relation to queens, since nurse workers, 5 10 20 days, old may lay eggs. The eggs laid by the workers may be trophic or functional. These eggs may be distinguished by lhe aspect ofthe yolk. Older forager workers have degenerated ovaries.

  7. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae Physico-chemical characteristics of honey samples of stingless bee Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia provenientes do município de São Gabriel, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Umidade (%; Hidroximetilfurfural (mg.kg-1; Açúcares Redutores (%; Sacarose (%; Viscosidade (mPa. s; Condutividade Elétrica (µS; pH; Acidez (meq.kg-1; Índice de Formol (mL.kg-1; e Cor. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores médios adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que requer uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter maiores cuidados com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento, evitando a sua contaminação por microrganismos que causam a depreciação do produto.Honey samples of the Melipona mandacaia stingless bee collected in the São Gabriel county, semi-arid region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed with the objective of contributing for the knowledge of the characteristics physico-chemical of that product. The parameters analyzed were: Moisture (%; Hydroxymethylfurfural (mg.kg-1; Reducing Sugars (%; Sucrose (%; Viscosity (mPa.s; Electrical Conductivity (µS; pH; Acidity (meq.kg-1; Formol Index (mL.kg-1; and Color. Most of the physico-chemical parameters showed values adequated for the human consumption, facilitating the exploration of the product by rural communities of the semi-arid area of Bahia. However, the high moisture content is an aspect that deserves a greater attention by the part of producers, who should have concern with hygiene cares when manipulating the honey during the collection and the storage processes, avoiding its contamination with microorganisms that may cause depreciation of the product.

  8. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae community in Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Villaça Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de abelhas Euglossina foi amostrada através de armadilhas com iscas aromáticas, ao longo de 12 meses (novembro de 2004 a outubro de 2005 em cinco fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica submontana com diferentes tamanhos e níveis de degradação, na bacia do Rio São João, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. Foram registrados 4094 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies de três gêneros (Euglossa, Eulaema e Exaerete nas 5 áreas. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, sendo maior a importância relativa desta última nos fragmentos menores. Dentre as espécies encontradas, Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 é sugerida como possível indicadora de florestas mais preservadas. Na comparação entre as cinco áreas foram verificadas correlações positivas e significativas da riqueza de espécies de abelhas com o tamanho da área e da diversidade de abelhas (H´ com a diversidade florística (H´. Estes dados sugerem que perdas de área e qualidade de hábitat influenciam negativamente a comunidade destas abelhas, reduzindo a riqueza e diversidade de espécies. Os maiores valores de similaridade foram observados na comparação entre os fragmentos da região do Imbaú, distantes entre si por até 2 Km, sugerindo que estes não estejam isolados para as populações de Euglossina, ou que venham sofrendo igualmente os efeitos da fragmentação.The Euglossine bee community was sampled with chemical bait traps throughout 12 months (November 2004 to October 2005 in five remnants of submontane Atlantic Forest in São João river basin, in the north of Rio de Janeiro state with different sizes and degradation levels: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. 4094 individuals belonging to 17 species of three genera (Euglossa, Eulaema and Exaerete were captured. The species with highest values of relative abundance were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, the last one being more important in the smaller remnants. Among the collected species Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 is suggested as possible indicator of preserved forests. Comparing the five areas, positive and significant correlations were observed, bee species richness with area size and bee diversity (H' with floristic diversity (H'. These results suggest that losses in forest size and habitat quality influence euglossine bee communities negatively by reducing the abundance and richness of species. The highest similarity values were observed in the Imbaú region remnants, distant from each other by up to 2 km, suggesting that these areas are not isolated for euglossine populations, or they have been suffering similar fragmentation effects.

  9. NUEVOS REGISTROS GENÉRICOS DE ABEJAS (Hymenoptera: Apoidea PARA COLOMBIA

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    VÍCTOR H. GONZÁLEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para Colombia los géneros de abejas solitarias Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini y Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini. Estos géneros solo se conocían del centro de la Amazonía brasileña, Argentina y Paraguay, respectivamente.

  10. Detección de Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidaede Argentina Detection of Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su rol como polinizador y productor de miel, la abeja Apis mellifera L. es considerado un insecto beneficioso. Si bien Argentina juega un papel de liderazgo en la producción de miel, existe un considerable vacío en el conocimiento acerca de las enfermedades de etiología protista que afectan las abejas en el país. La ameba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell es un protista entomopatógeno que invade los túbulos de Malpighi de las abejas e interfiere con el proceso de excreción, debilitando al huésped y posiblemente facilitando la acción de otros patógenos. En esta contribución se presentan los primeros hallazgos de M. mellificae en Argentina y se brindan datos iniciales acerca de su frecuencia, intensidad de las infecciones, y co-ocurrencia con Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae se halló en dos de 36 localidades prospectadas: San Cayetano, al Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires y San Carlos de Bariloche, en el Oeste de la provincia de Río Negro.Due to its role as a pollinator and honey producer, the honey bee Apis mellifera L. is considered a beneficial insect. Although Argentina plays a leading role in honey production, there is a considerable gap in knowledge regarding protistan diseases that affect honey bees in the country. The amoeba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell is an entomopathogenic protist that invades the Malpighian tubules of honey bees and interferes with the excretory process, debilitating the host and possibly facilitating the action of other pathogens. In this contribution, we present the first reports of M. mellificae in Argentina, and provide some initial data about its frecuency, infection intensity, and co-occurrence with Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae was found in two out of 36 localities surveyed: San Cayetano, in southern Buenos Aires province, and San Carlos de Bariloche, in western Río Negro province.

  11. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Maryann T; Mullin, Chris A; Frazier, Jim L; Ashcraft, Sara A; Leslie, Tim W; Mussen, Eric C; Drummond, Frank A

    2015-10-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009-2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9-10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving colonies at regular intervals during the respective crop blooming periods. The number of frames of adult bees was counted before and after bloom period. For pesticide analysis, we collected dead and dying bees near the hives, returning foragers, crop flowers, trapped pollen, and corn-flowers associated with the cotton crop. The number of departing foragers changed over time in all crops except almonds; general patterns in foraging activity included declines (cotton), noticeable peaks and declines (alfalfa, blueberries, cotton, corn, and pumpkins), and increases (apples and cantaloupes). The number of adult bee frames increased or remained stable in all crops except alfalfa and cotton. A total of 53 different pesticide residues were identified in samples collected across eight crops. Hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated for the combined residues for all crop-associated samples and separately for samples of dead and dying bees. A decrease in the number of departing foragers in cotton was one of the most substantial crop-associated impacts and presented the highest pesticide risk estimated by a summed pesticide residue HQ. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Maryann T.; Mullin, Chris A.; Frazier, Jim L.; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Leslie, Tim W.; Mussen, Eric C.; Drummond, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009–2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9–10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving...

  13. Colony-level variation in pollen collection and foraging preferences among wild-caught bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin, Mustafa; Jha, Shalene

    2014-04-01

    Given that many pollinators have exhibited dramatic declines related to habitat destruction, an improved understanding of pollinator resource collection across human-altered landscapes is essential to conservation efforts. Despite the importance of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as global pollinators, little is known regarding how pollen collection patterns vary between individuals, colonies, and landscapes. In this study, Vosnesensky bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski) were collected from a range of human-altered and natural landscapes in northern California. Extensive vegetation surveys and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based habitat classifications were conducted at each site, bees were genotyped to identify colony mates, and pollen loads were examined to identify visited plants. In contrast to predictions based on strong competitive interactions, pollen load composition was significantly more similar for bees captured in a shared study region compared with bees throughout the research area but was not significantly more similar for colony mates. Preference analyses revealed that pollen loads were not composed of the most abundant plant species per study region. The majority of ranked pollen preference lists were significantly correlated for pairwise comparisons of colony mates and individuals within a study region, whereas the majority of pairwise comparisons of ranked pollen preference lists between individuals located at separate study regions were uncorrelated. Results suggest that pollen load composition and foraging preferences are similar for bees throughout a shared landscape regardless of colony membership. The importance of native plant species in pollen collection is illustrated through preference analyses, and we suggest prioritization of specific rare native plant species for enhanced bumble bee pollen collection.

  14. Cytogenetic characterization of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier 1836 and Melipona mondury Smith 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae by C banding and fluorochromes staining

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    Denilce Meneses Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury were analyzed cytogenetically by conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes CMA3/DA/DAPI. Both species presented 2n = 18 and n = 9, except for one colony of M. rufiventris, in which some individuals had 2n = 19 due to the presence of a B chromosome. After Giemsa staining and C-banding the chromosomes appeared very condensed and presented a high heterochromatic content, making it difficult to localize the centromere and therefore to visualize the chromosomes morphology. The constitutive heterochromatin was located in interstitial chromosome regions covering most of the chromosomes extension and consisted mainly of AT, as shown by DAPI staining. The euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome extremities and was GC-rich, as evidenced by CMA3 staining. The B chromosome was CMA3-negative and DAPI-positive, a heterochromatic constitution similar to that of the A genome chromosomes.

  15. An updated understanding of Texas bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species presence and potential distributions in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007–2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species. The resulting Texas bumble bee database is comprised of 3,580 records, to include previously compiled museum records dating from 1897, recent field survey data, and vetted records from citizen science repositories. These data yielded an updated state species list that includes 11 species, as well as species distribution models (SDMs) for the most common Texas bumble bee species, including two that have shown evidence of range-wide declines: B. fraternus (Smith, 1854) and B. pensylvanicus (DeGeer, 1773). Based on analyses of these models, we have identified conservation priority areas within the Texas Cross Timbers, Texas Blackland Prairies, and East Central Texas Plains ecoregions where suitable habitat for both B. fraternus and B. pensylvanicus are highly likely to co-occur. PMID:28828241

  16. Effect of biotic factors on the spatial distribution of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) in fragmented neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, M M; Cruz-López, L; Sánchez, D; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Vandame, R

    2012-04-01

    We recorded stingless bee colony abundance and nesting habits in three sites with different anthropogenic activities in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico: (1) agroforestry (7 hacacao crop), (2) grassland (12 ha), and (3) urban area (3 ha). A total of 67 nests were found, representing five stingless bee species, Tetragonisca angustula angustula (Lepeletier), Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin), Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre), and Oxytrigona mediorufa (Cockerell). The most abundant stingless bee in each site was T. angustula angustula (>50%). The primary tree species used by the bees were Ficus spp. (Moraceae, 37.8%) and Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, 13.5%). The nest entrance height of T. angustula angustula (96 ± 19 cm) was different than the other species, and this bee was the only one that used all different nesting sites. Volatiles analyzed by gas chromatography from pollen collected by the stingless bees differed between bee species, but were highly similar in respect to the fragrances of the pollen collected by the same species at any site. Our data indicate that T. angustula angustula experienced low heterospecific and high intraspecific foraging overlap especially in the urban site. We observed cluster spatial distribution in grassland and in agroforestry sites. In the urban site, T. angustula angustula presented random distribution tended to disperse. Trigona fulviventris was the only overdispersed and solitary species.

  17. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  18. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests.

  19. Biogeografía de las abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini en Colombia

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    Parra-H. Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas, propias de la región neotropical, parecen haber aparecido recientemente entre el piedemonte de la cordillera de los Andes y la Amazonía. Además éstas abejas de lengua larga y vuelos amplios
    llaman la atención por sus características biológicas, fisiológicas, ecológicas y comportamentales que comparadas con el resto de las tribus más cercanas a ellas (las abejas corbiculadas: Meliponini, Bombini y Apini
    presentan diferencias importantes. Debido a esto y a que son importantes polinizadores, es de especial interés
    establecer sus patrones de distribución, particularmente en Colombia, debido a las características geográficas
    del país. Con base en el material de euglosinos depositados en la colección del LABUN, referencias bibliográficas, características morfológicas y comporamentales de la tribu, así como la localización geográfica y altitudinal de las especies, se desarrolló un análisis de correspondencia para determinar cómo las diferentes variables podrían estar implicadas en la distribución de los euglosinos en Colombia. Los resultados del análisis multivariado muestran que no hay una estrecha relación de las especies de euglosinos a las regiones naturales que ocupan, sino que dentro de las variables consideradas, el tamaño corporal (implicado en capacidad de vuelo y la termorregulación, la estructura social (asociada a aprovechamiento y optimización de recursos en el hábitat y la longitud de la lengua (relacionada con la preferencia y toma de néctares, generan la mayor variabilidad de la muestra. De acuerdo a las características morfológicas y comportamentales analizadas se propone un patrón biogeográfico para la distribución de las abejas euglosinas en Colombia.

  20. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and Xylocopa inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with Xylocopa inconstans. Males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa. PMID:28331398

  1. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Mawdsley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of X. inconstans include X. abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym, X. inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and X. inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with X. inconstans. Males and females of X. (X. inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of X. (X. inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa.

  2. Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Sánchez Nieves Jimena

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y
    tracto digestivo de abejas forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución
    en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  3. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silvana Beani Poiani; Carminda Da Cruz-Landim

    2010-06-01

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results show that the cephalic salivary glands are present in females of both the species, and in males of S. postica. Nevertheless, they are poorly developed in young males of A. mellifera. In both species, gland growth is progressive from the time of emergence to the oldest age but, in A. mellifera males, the gland degenerates with age. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the secretory units of newly emerged workers are collapsed while in older workers they are turgid. Some pits on the surface of the secretory units correspond to open intercellular spaces. The possible functions of these glands in females and males of both species are discussed.

  4. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

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    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  5. Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic Trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J.; de Guzman, Lilia I.; Holloway, Beth; Frake, Amanda M.; Rinderer, Thomas E.; Whelan, Pádraig M.

    2015-01-01

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB) and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an “actual brood removal assay” that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL) to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25). Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa) out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock. PMID:25909856

  6. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana

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    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 106 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivanić, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A. mellifera fuera del continente europeo.

  7. Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in first-generation crosses of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, R G; Villa, J D

    2000-12-01

    The tendency of honey bees, Apis mellifera L, to become infested with tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), was measured in six different types of F1 colonies. The colonies were produced by mating a stock (Buckfast) known to resist mite infestation to each of five commercially available stocks and to a stock known to be susceptible to mites. Young uninfested bees from progeny and parent colonies were simultaneously exposed to mites in infested colonies, then retrieved and dissected to determine resultant mite infestations. Reduced infestations similar to but numerically greater than those of the resistant parent bees occurred in each of the six crosses made with resistant bees regardless of the relative susceptibility of the other parental stock. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible queens and drones proved equally effective in improving resistance. Therefore, allowing resistant stock queens to mate naturally with unselected drones, or nonresistant queens to mate with drones produced by pure or outcrossed resistant queens, can be used for improving resistance of production queens.

  8. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance.

  9. Physical interaction between floral specialist bees Ptilothrix bombiformis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) enhances pollination of hibiscus (section Trionum: Malvaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specialist bees, those species with narrow dietary niches, rely on a few related species of floral hosts for food. Accordingly, specialists are thought of as being more efficient pollinators than are generalists. There is growing evidence, however, that this is not true in all cases. For example, we...

  10. The Effects of Feeding Pollen Cake Containing Royal Jelly on Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colony Development

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Fehmi; GÖSTERİT, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding pollen cake containing honeybee royal jelly on Bombus terrestris colony development. In total, 125 bumblebee queens, 68 of which were fed pollen cake containing 10% royal jelly and 57 of which were fed normal pollen cake, were used. We found that 84% of the queens fed pollen cake containing royal jelly and 82% of those fed normal pollen cake laid eggs; 56% of the queens fed normal pollen cake established colonies, whereas queens fed...

  11. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica (Hymenoptera: Apidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dalal Musleh Aljedani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin on the lethal time (LT50 and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin. The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50. But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT50 was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT50 = 21.026 h, deltamethrin (LT50 = 72.011 h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  12. Ultrastructural detection of lipids in the cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae workers

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    Silvana Beani Poiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Secretory cells of the cephalic salivary glands (CSGs of eusocial bees produce and accumulate lipid-like secretion in the lumens of their alveoli. Correspondingly, secretory cells present typical ultrastructural features of lipid-compound producers. Previous work on bees has revealed inter-specific differences in the chemical composition of secretion, and the production mechanisms and secretory cycle of secretory cells. In this work a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of lipid storage in the CSGs of Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 workers was carried out. The ultrastructural location of lipids was ascertained using imidazole-osmium (IO, using individuals in different stages of their life cycles. Lipid deposits were identified inside glandular cells and in the alveolar lumens in all individuals, but differences were observed between the species. The glandular cells of A. mellifera workers presented positive reactions to IO as droplets dispersed in the cytoplasm, as vesicles and in the channels formed by apical plasma membrane infolds. In S. postica , lipid compounds were detected inside the mitochondrial matrix and in smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. In both species, forager workers exhibited the largest amounts of lipids stored in the alveolar lumen. The differences between the species are discussed, taking into account specific behavioral differences.

  13. The large carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopa spp. of Nuevo León, México

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    Liliana Ramirez-Freire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a severe information gap regarding wild bees in northern Mexico. The present study is a contribution to knowledge of the distribution, habitat preferences and floral usage patterns of bees of the genus Xylocopa in the state of Nuevo León. Field sampling was done using aerial net and pan traps (yellow, blue, white and pink at 35 sites throughout the state. Xylocopa species were found at only seven of these sites. Four of the five species, previously reported for the state were collected plus two new state records (Xylocopa micans and X. strandi, bringing the total number of species in the state to seven. Individuals were collected visiting only flowers of the Fabaceae and Bignoniaceae families, and they occurred primarily in shrub lands and disturbed areas.

  14. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  15. Repertoire of Defensive Behavior in Africanized Honey Bees (HymenopteraApidae: Variations in Defensive Standard and Influence of Visual Stimuli

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    Fábio Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas africanizadas (AHB são conhecidas por sua alta produtividade e tolerância a patógenos e parasitas como o ácaro Varroa destructor. Em contraste às características vantajosas, as AHB são consideradas altamente defensivas necessitando de certos cuidados em seu manejo. Entretanto, poucos estudos relatam características específicas sobre os padrões de comportamento de AHB na apicultura brasileira. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o repertório do comportamento defensivo (DB em AHB, identificando a importância de condições climáticas e estímulos visuais nesta característica, bem como gradiente de agressividade dentre as colônias. Os aspectos relacionados ao comportamento defensivo foram avaliados pelo método de Stort com adaptações. Foram encontradas diferenças entre as colônias em relação à velocidade do primeiro ataque e intensidade de ataque (p<0.05%, por outro lado os padrões de DB não foram afetados pela variação de temperatura durante os períodos de avaliação. Todos os ataques se iniciaram pela parte preta da esfera alvo, contudo após o primeiro ataque ambos os lados (preto e branco sofreram ataques. Tal fato indica que embora as pistas visuais possuam um papel relavente na defesa das colônias, sinais químicos (feromônios de alarme atuam na manutenção e aumento do possível alvo. Pôde-se também identificar uma grande variação nos padrões defensivos dentre as colônias estudadas, fator esperado devido a grande variabilidade genética presente em AHB. Por sua vez, a avaliação do DB possui um importante papel na seleção e melhoramento de colônias visando à seleção de características benéficas como alta produtividade de mel e baixa agressividade durante o manejo.

  16. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  17. Determination of chemical elements in africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae honey samples from the State of Piauí, Brazil

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    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a food used since the most remote times, appreciated for its characteristic flavor, considerable nutritional value and medicinal properties; however, little information exists about the presence of chemical elements in it. The objectives of this work were to determine the chemical elements present in 38 honey samples, collected directly from beekeepers from the State of Piauí, Brazil and to verify whether they presented any contamination. The chemical elements were determined by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. The means of three replicates were: K (109.671 ± 17.487, Ca (14.471 ± 3.8797, Ti (0.112 ± 0.07, Cr (0.196 ± 0.11, Mn (0.493 ± 0.103, Fe (1.722 ± 0.446, Co (0.038, Ni (0.728 ± 0.706, Cu (0.179 ± 0.0471, Zn (0.967 ± 0.653, Se (not detected, Br (not detected, Rb (0.371 ± 0.097, Sr (0.145 ± 0.45, Ba (11.681, Hg (not detected, and Pb (0.863 µg g-1.

  18. Observations on an unusual behaviour in the Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans (Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the Western Ghats, India

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    S.A. Punekar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans is a known pollen and nectar feeder. However, at Anshi National Park of Karnataka (India, the bee happens to be switching over to facultative carnivorous habit as they are found to feed on Red Tree Ants Oecophylla smaragdina. Such a kind of carnivorous feeding habit must have existed which is yet to be reported.

  19. Recognition and identification of bumblebee species in the Bombus lucorum-complex (Hymenoptera, Apidae – A review and outlook

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    Silas Bossert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of cryptic species represents one of the major challenges in current taxonomy and affects our understanding of global diversity. In practice, the process from discovery to acceptance in the scientific community can take an extensive length of time. A prime example is the traditionally difficult taxonomy of the cryptic bumblebee species belonging to the Bombus lucorum-complex. The status of the three European species in the group – Bombus lucorum and the closely related Bombus cryptarum and Bombus magnus – has recently become widely accepted, primarily due to investigations of nucleotide sequences and marking pheromones. In contrast, doubts prevail concerning the validity of species identification based on morphology. As a consequence, our knowledge of the species is muddled in a mire of unreliable and confusing literature data from a large number of authors over the centuries. To clarify this issue, this paper provides a recapitulation of the historical literature and highlights the milestones in the process of species recognition. Further, the possibility of a morphologically based species identification is discussed in the context of new molecular data. Finally, this review outlines the current challenges and provides directions for future issues.

  20. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of two Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

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    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee faunas of the ‘Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil’ (8,500 ha and ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ (6,000 ha, two Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were surveyed. Seventeen chemical compounds were used as scent baits to attract orchid-bee males. Seven hundred and twelve males belonging to 20 species were actively collected with insect nets during 80 hours in February and April, 2009. Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive orchid-bee species of the Atlantic Forest, was recorded at both preserves, though in low abundance. ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ is the smallest forest patch where Euglossa marianae has ever been recorded.

  1. Dynamics of Weight Change and Temperature of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Wintering Building With Controlled Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalidzans, E; Zacepins, A; Kviesis, A; Brusbardis, V; Meitalovs, J; Paura, L; Bulipopa, N; Liepniece, M

    2017-01-04

    Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes. Experiments were carried out to determine the dynamics of temperature above the upper hive body and weight dynamics of indoors and outdoors wintered honey bee colonies and their brood-rearing performance in spring. We found significantly lower honey consumption-related weight loss of indoor wintered colonies compared with outdoor colonies, while no significant difference in the amount of open or sealed brood was found, suggesting that wintering building saves food and physiological resources without an impact on colony activity in spring. Indoor wintered colonies, with or without thermal insulation, did not have significant differences in food consumption and brood rearing in spring. The thermal behavior and weight dynamics of all experimental groups has changed in the middle of February possibly due to increased brood-rearing activity. Temperature measurement above the upper hive body is a convenient remote monitoring method of wintering process. Predictability of food consumption in a wintering building, with constant temperature, enables wintering without oversupply of wintering honey.

  2. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    2002-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or res

  3. An updated understanding of Texas bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species presence and potential distributions in Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jessica L; Atkinson, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007-2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species. The resulting Texas bumble bee database is comprised of 3,580 records, to include previously compiled museum records dating from 1897, recent field survey data, and vetted records from citizen science repositories. These data yielded an updated state species list that includes 11 species, as well as species distribution models (SDMs) for the most common Texas bumble bee species, including two that have shown evidence of range-wide declines: B. fraternus (Smith, 1854) and B. pensylvanicus (DeGeer, 1773). Based on analyses of these models, we have identified conservation priority areas within the Texas Cross Timbers, Texas Blackland Prairies, and East Central Texas Plains ecoregions where suitable habitat for both B. fraternus and B. pensylvanicus are highly likely to co-occur.

  4. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  5. First record of the behavior of latex drainage by Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae in laticiferous flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Koschnitzke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behavior of the bee Trigona spinipes, to avoid the latex, when piercing the base of the tubular corolla of the flowers of Mandevilla guanabarica in order to steal the nectar.

  6. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Erika M.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. PMID:28130453

  7. Distribution, epidemiological characteristics and control methods of the pathogen Nosema ceranae Fries in honey bees Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Araneda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Up until a few years ago, the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae was considered to be a pathogen of Apis cerana exclusively; however, only recently it has shown to be very virulent to Apis mellifera. Therefore, it has been named as apathogenic agent active in the disappearance of honey bee colonies globally, infecting all members of the colony. Honey bees are widely used for pollination and honey production, hence their importance in agriculture. They also play an important ecological role in plant pollination: a third of human food crops are pollinated by bees as well as many plants consumed by other animals. In this context, the object of this review is to summarise the information published by different authors on the geographical distribution and the morphological and genetic characteristics of this parasite, the symptomatology of the disease and the control methods used in those countries where N. ceranae is present, in order to identify better tools to confront this new bee disease.

  8. Effect of the natural pesticide spinosad (GF-120 formulation) on the foraging behavior of Plebeia moureana (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D; De J Solórzano, E; Liedo, P; Vandame, R

    2012-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of the biorational pesticide, Spinosad (GF-120 formulation), on foraging behavior in the stingless bee Plebeia moureana (Ayala). Several foragers were individually trained to collect an unscented 1.0 M sucrose solution (31% sucrose wt:wt) from a blue plate in one arm of a Y-tube maze. The other arm offered plain water on a yellow plate. After 20-30 visits to the setup, the sucrose solution was exchanged for a sucrose solution mixed with one of five concentrations of GF-120 and 30 consecutive choices of each bee were recorded. Interestingly, the foragers collected the sucrose solution with GF-120 at all concentrations. Our results show that: 1) the GF-120 formulation, when applied at the recommended concentration and mixed with food, does not discourage engaged foragers and, 2) foraging behavior over time is not significantly impaired by the continuous collection of GF-120.

  9. Behavioral response of two species of stingless bees and the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to GF-120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Escobar, Enoc; Liedo, Pablo; Montoya, Pablo; Vandame, Rémy; Sánchez, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of evaluating the response of three species of bees, Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville), and Apis mellifera (L.), to food sources baited with the toxic bait GF-120 (NF Naturalyte), a spinosad-based bait exclusively used to manage fruit flies. Groups of foragers were trained to collect honey and water from a feeder located 50 m from the colonies. Once a sufficient number of foragers were observed at the experimental location, the training feeder was changed to two or three feeders that offered either honey and water, GF-120, Captor (hydrolyzed protein), GF-120 and honey (4:6), or Captor and honey (1:19). T fulviventris and S. mexicana rarely visited GF-120, Captor, or their mixtures with honey, while approximately 28.5 and 1.5% of A. mellifera foragers visited the GF-120 and honey and Captor and honey mixtures, respectively. Our results show that GF-120 clearly repels T. fulviventris and S. mexicana, whereas for A. mellifera, repellence is not as marked when GF-120 is combined with highly nutritious substances like honey.

  10. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safira, Nabila, E-mail: safira.nabila@ymail.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: tjandra@sith.itb.ac.id [School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung – Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  11. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  12. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  13. Morphometric differences and fluctuating asymmetry in Melipona subnitida Ducke 1910 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in different types of housing

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    C. B. S. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke. For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks, indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01 between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.

  14. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  15. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério M.O. Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.A abelha Melipona scutellaris é considerada a espécie criada de meliponíneo com maior distribuição no norte e nordeste do Brasil, com ocorrência registradas desde o Estado do Grande do Norte até o Estado da Bahia. Considerando a importância desta espécie na geração de renda para agricultura familiar e na manutenção de áreas com vegetação natural, este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a distribuição de colônias naturais de M. scutellaris no Estado da Bahia. Informações de literatura, entrevistas com meliponicultores e expedições foram realizadas para confirmar a ocorrência natural da espécie. Um total de 102 municípios apresentou registro de M. scutellaris, cuja ocorrência foi observada em áreas desde o nível do mar até 1.200 metros de altitude. A ocorrência desta espécie no Estado da Bahia é considerada como restrita a municípios da área costeira e da Chapada Diamantina, onde existem matas úmidas. Dados de coordenadas geográficas, altitude, clima e vegetação foram obtidos, possibilitando elaborar o mapa da área de ocorrência, subsidiando políticas de conservação e manejo da espécie.

  16. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  17. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  18. Profile of the mosaic element BTMR1 in the genome of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteret, S; Moiré, N; Aupinel, P; Tasei, J-N; Bigot, Y

    2011-04-01

    Co-evolution involving a mariner transposon, Botmar1 and the other repeats contained in the Bombus terrestris genome was investigated. We found that the 5'-region of Botmar1 forms one of the components of a mosaic element, known as B. terrestris mosaic repeat 1 (BTMR1), which is also composed of inner segments originating from two different retrotransposons and a pseudogene corresponding to an RNA methyltransferase cDNA. The fact that BTMR1 is interspersed within chromosomes and the differences in its abundance in different species indicate that it is very probably a mobile element. Nevertheless, the absences of direct or inverted repeats at its ends and of target site duplication indicate that its mobility is not ensured by a cardinal transposable element, but putatively by a Crypton-like element.

  19. Histology and ultrastructure of pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in workers and queens of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana Beani; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica an eusocial Brazilian stingless bee. Light and electron microscopy was used in a comparative study on workers and queens of different ages, exerting different functions in the colony. The pericardial cells are found only in the pericardial sinus, mainly in groups around the dorsal vessel. Each cell is enclosed by the basal membrane and its peripheral region is characterized by folds of the plasma membrane, which form canals and loops. The points where the plasma membrane folds is frequently closed by diaphragms, that along with the basal lamina form a barrier to substances from hemolymph. Along the membrane limiting the canals and loops, an intense endocytic activity through coated vesicles takes place indicating a selective absorption of hemolymph components. In older individuals, workers or queens, the cells exhibit larger quantities of cytoplasm inclusions, heterogeneous vacuoles containing the final products of intracellular digestion, and autophagic vacuoles with concentric membranous structures. The pericardial cells general morphology is in accordance with the role in processing metabolites captured from hemolymph and storage of indigested residues.

  20. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana Beani; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2010-06-01

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results show that the cephalic salivary glands are present in females of both the species, and in males of S. postica. Nevertheless, they are poorly developed in young males of A. mellifera. In both species, gland growth is progressive from the time of emergence to the oldest age but, in A. mellifera males, the gland degenerates with age. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the secretory units of newly emerged workers are collapsed while in older workers they are turgid. Some pits on the surface of the secretory units correspond to open intercellular spaces. The possible functions of these glands in females and males of both species are discussed.

  1. Foraging of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an Urbanized Area: Seasonality in Resource Availability and Visited Plants

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    Letícia Biral de Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The floral sources used by bees can be identified by analyzing pollen grains obtained from their bodies, feces, brood cells, or storage pots in the nests. In addition to data on resource availability, this information enables the investigation on the selection of food resource by bees. We assessed the foraging patterns of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis in an urbanized area with seasonal availability of food resources. The species visited a percentage of 36.60% of the available flora, suggesting that these bees are selective at spatiotemporal scale. When many types of resources were available, the workers concentrated their collection activities on a limited group of sources. In contrast, more plant species were exploited during periods of lower number of flowering plants. A monthly analysis of the foraging patterns of the studied colonies revealed that Syzygium cumini (88.86%, Mimosa sp.1 (80.23%, Schinus terebinthifolius (63.36%, and Eucalyptus citriodora (61.75% were the most frequently used species and are therefore important for maintaining S. aff. depilis at the study area. These plants are close to the colonies and exhibit mass flowering. This study is one of few works to quantify natural resource availability and to analyze the effects of flowering seasonality on the selection of food sources by bees.

  2. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the costs and benefits of co-parasitism with Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) and Nosema (Nosema ceranae Fries and Nosema apis Zander) on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different defense levels. Newly-emerged worker bees from either high-mite-mortality-rate (high-MMR) bees or low-mite-mortality-rate (low-MMR) bees were confined in forty bioassay cages which were either inoculated with Nosema spores [Nosema (+) group] or were left un-inoculated [Nosema (-) group]. Caged-bees were then inoculated with Varroa mites [Varroa (+) group] or were left untreated [Varroa (-) group]. This established four treatment combinations within each Nosema treatment group: (1) low-MMR Varroa (-), (2) high-MMR Varroa (-), (3) low-MMR Varroa (+) and (4) high-MMR Varroa (+), each with five replicates. Overall mite mortality in high-MMR bees (0.12±0.02 mites per day) was significantly greater than in the low-MMR bees (0.06±0.02 mites per day). In the Nosema (-) groups bee mortality was greater in high-MMR bees than low-MMR bees but only when bees had a higher mite burden. Overall, high-MMR bees in the Nosema (-) group showed greater reductions in mean abundance of mites over time compared with low-MMR bees, when inoculated with additional mites. However, high-MMR bees could not reduce mite load as well as in the Nosema (-) group when fed with Nosema spores. Mean abundance of Nosema spores in live bees and dead bees of both strains of bees was significantly greater in the Nosema (+) group. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of both Nosema species in inoculated bees but N. ceranae was more abundant than N. apis and unlike N. apis increased over the course of the experiment. Collectively, this study showed differential mite mortality rates among different genotypes of bees, however, Nosema infection restrained Varroa removal success in high-MMR bees.

  3. Acaricidal and insecticidal activity of essential oils on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Gende, Liesel B; Bailac, Pedro; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2009-12-01

    Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that is a serious pest of honeybees and has caused severe losses of colonies worldwide. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control is essential oils. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of some essential oils on V. destructor and Apis mellifera in relation with their chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Lavender, lavendin and laurel essential oils showed linalool as main compound in their composition. 1,8-Cineole was also present as a predominant component in the laurel essential oil. However, thyme oil was characterized by a high concentration of thymol. Mites and bees toxicity was tested by means of complete exposure method. For mites, LC(50) values for laurel, lavender and lavendin essential oil did not show significant variation throughout all observation times. However, the LC(50) values for thyme oil at 48 and 72 h were lower than at 24 h. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with thyme oil. At 48 and 72 h, lavender essential oil presented better selectivity indexes. In this research, all essential oils caused mite mortality without severe harmful effects on adult bees. The simultaneous evaluation of the physicochemical analysis of the essential oils, the characterization of the dosage response relationships among them, and the mortality effects on mite and bees, give us the possibility to obtain comparative results for future research in Varroa control.

  4. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries.

  5. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene and more specific VarroaVarroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) provide resistance toward the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, Russian (RHB) and Italian honey bees were assessed for the VSH trait. Two...

  6. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the varroa sensitive hygienic trait in Russian honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Kirrane

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH, provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an "actual brood removal assay" that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25. Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock.

  7. [Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Meta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Palacios, Eliana; Parra-H, Alejandro

    2008-09-01

    Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees' community in three environments in the Colombian Ilanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between Andean ecosystems and a savannah that is seriously threatened by cattle practices. We made systematic samples in secondary forest, agro-ecosystems and urban areas, recording the presence of 204 nests from 11 genera (24 species). The nest density per landscape was heterogeneous and never higher than 16 nests/Ha. We observed two nesting patterns and an effect of sampling criterion on the measured biodiversity.

  8. New species and unexpected diversity of socially parasitic bees in the genus Inquilina Michener (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaclyn A.Smith; Michael P.Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Allodapine bees present particular problems for taxonomy due to a high level of morphological conservatism in adults, even between genera. However, this tribe of bees also presents a unique opportunity to explore the evolution of social parasitism because of the comparatively large number of origins of socially parasitic species. Morphological differences presented here, along with DNA sequence data and molecular phylogenetic analyses, indicate a much larger number of Australian social parasite species in the genus Inquilina than previously anticipated, and suggest that the final number of socially parasitic species may be considerable. We describe five new species and presem sequence data that will help elucidate the delineation of further new species. Inquilina provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of social parasitism in social insects, but further studies will need to encompass both population genetic and phylogenetic approaches.

  9. Abejas sin aguijón (hymenoptera: apidae: meliponini) en cementerios de la cordillera oriental de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Rodríguez-C., Ángela; Danny Vélez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia). El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% d...

  10. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A; Melo, Gabriel A R; Engel, Michael S

    2011-05-11

    A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe.

  11. Large pathogen screening reveals first report of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitizing Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menail, Ahmed Hichem; Piot, Niels; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2016-06-01

    As it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. Pathogen screenings in subspecies of Apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. Screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. In this project, we performed a pathogen screening in Apis mellifera intermissa, a native subspecies of Algeria in northern Africa. Colonies were sampled from different areas in the region of Annaba over a period of two years. Several pathogens were detected, among them Apicystis bombi, Crithidia mellificae, Nosema ceranae, Paenibacillus larvae, Lake Sinai Virus, Sacbrood Virus and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). Our screening also revealed a phoroid fly, Megaselia scalaris, parasitizing honey bee colonies, which we report here for the first time. In addition, we found DWV to be present in the adult flies and replicating virus in the larval stages of the fly, which could indicate that M. scalaris acts as a vector of DWV.

  12. Genetic characterization of commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations in the United States by using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Delaney; M.D. Meixner; N.M. Schiff; W.S. Sheppard

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity levels within and between the two commercial breeding areas in theUnited States were analyzed using the DraI restriction fragment length polymorphism of the COICOII mitochondrial region and 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The western commercial breeding population (WCBP) and the southeastern commercial...

  13. Expression and characterization of α-glucosidase Ⅲ in the dwarf honeybee, Apis florea (Hymenoptera: Apoidea:Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANPEN CHANCHAO; RUMPALAI PADOONGSUPALAI; POLKIT SANGVANICH

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase is synthesized in the hypopharyngeal glands located in the head of worker bees including Apis florea. To analyze the developmental stage-specific expression of the α-glucosidase gene in A. florea, total RNA was isolated from eggs, and the heads of nurse and forager bees. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), it was shown that the highest expression levels of the α-glucosidase Ⅲ gene, in the three examined developmental stadia, were found in forager bees, with much lower expression levels in nurse bees and no detectable expression in eggs. A complete α-glucosidase Ⅲ cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. The 1 701 bp cDNA nucleotide sequence and the predicted 567 amino acids it encodes were assayed by BLASTn,BLASTp and BLASTx programs and revealed a 95% and 94% similarity to the A. mellifera α-glucosidase Ⅲ gene at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. For purification of the active encoded enzyme, forager bee heads were homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer solution and the crude extract (0.30 U/mg) sequentially precipitated with 95% saturated ammonium sulfate (0.18 U/mg), and purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange chromatography (0.17 U/mg), and gel filtration on Superdex 200 (0.52 U/mg).After resolution through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a single enzymically active band (73 kDa) was identified from renatured substrate gels.Excision of this band, elution of the protein and tryptic peptide digestives identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed six matching masses to the A. mellifera (Q17958) and predicted A. florea α-glucosidase Ⅲ protein with 12% coverage, supporting the probable purification of the same α-glucosidase Ⅲ protein as that encoded by the cloned cDNA.

  14. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  15. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  16. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.1.ik; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.2.ik; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.3.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.4.ik. Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  17. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera : an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgenburg, Ellen van; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  18. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  19. Gender identification of five genera of stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) based on wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoy, T M; Silva, R A O; Nunes-Silva, P; Menezes, C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-02-25

    Currently, the identification of pollinators is a critical necessity of conservation programs. After it was found that features extracted from patterns of wing venation are sufficient to discriminate among insect species, various studies have focused on this structure. We examined wing venation patterns of males and workers of five stingless bee species in order to determine if there are differences between sexes and if these differences are greater within than between species. Geometric morphometric analyses were made of the forewings of males and workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, Melipona quadrifasciata, Frieseomelitta varia, and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis and Plebeia remota. The patterns of males and workers from the same species were more similar than the patterns of individuals of the same sex from different species, and the patterns of both males and workers, when analyzed alone, were sufficiently different to distinguish among these five species. This demonstrates that we can use this kind of analysis for the identification of stingless bee species and that the sex of the individual does not impede identification. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of bee wing images can be a useful tool for biodiversity studies and conservation programs.

  20. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  1. Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Wagenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lysibia nana Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned prepupae and pupae of braconid wasps in the subfamily Microgastrinae. One of its preferred hosts is Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of white but

  2. Cytology of Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera : Figitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, BA; Pijnacker, LP; Zwaan, BJ; Beukeboom, LW; Zwaan, Bas J.; Traut, W.

    2004-01-01

    Parthenogenesis induced by cytoplasmatically inherited Wolbachia bacteria has been found in a number of arthropod species, mainly Hymenoptera. Previously, two different forms of diploidy restoration have been reported to underlie parthenogenesis induction in Hymenoptera by Wolbachia. Both are a form

  3. Bibliography of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) (1964-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahari, H.; Yu, D.S.; Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    A bibliography of the family Braconidae/Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae is given for the period 1964-2003. It is an addition to Shenefelt's bibliography (1965), which covers the period 1785-1963. In total 10,436 references are listed.

  4. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  5. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  6. Inventario de Hymenoptera (Hexapoda en El Ventorrillo: un rico enclave de biodiversidad en la Sierra de Guadarrama (España Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Overall data of the inventory of Hymenoptera from the Biogeological Station of “El Ventorrillo” are presented. The studied site is located at an altitude of 1450 m, on the south face of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Spain, about 60 km NW from Madrid. Between 1988 and 1991 an insect biodiversity inventory was carried out using three sampling methods: Malaise traps, yellow pan traps and sweep nets. Out of the more than 1,000,000 insects trapped, increasing the collections of the MNCN, about 600,000 were sorted to order. We found 83,688 individuals of Hymenoptera (representing 13,8% and the second more abundant group in the samples, after Diptera (450,000 individuals and 77,5% of total. Forty nine families, 518 genera and 1310 species de Hymenoptera has been identified until now. The overall richness of Hymenoptera from El Ventorrillo is estimated in 2700 species and about 13,000 the number of insect species from the study site. An appendix is provided with the list of identified species and its overall abundance in the samples. As results of the inventory, ten new species for science have been described, and several more new species are not yet described; additionally, at least 33 genera and more than 170 species were recorded for the first time for Iberia. The abundance of Hymenoptera, as measured by Malaise trap catches, was very high, comparatively to other published data, reaching a peak of 916 individuals per trap day at the most productive trap and sampling period. The more abundant families were, in decreasing order, Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Apidae and Pteromalidae, represented by numbers of individuals between 12,000, for Braconidae, to near 6000 for Pteromalidae. Among the identified families, the more species rich at the study area were in decreasing order: Pteromalidae (290, Ichneumonidae (217, Sphecidae (107 and Eulophidae (101 species. The richness of the 29 remaining families at the area of study was

  7. Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier - Del 2: Andrenidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Part 2 of a checklist for the taxa of bees occurring in Den- mark, dealing with the family Andrenidae, and covering 61 species. The re- maining four families (Halictidae, Melittidae, Megachilidae and Apidae) will be dealt with in future papers. The following 13 species......, 1887, Andrena nycthemera Imhoff, 1868, Andrena semilaevis Pérez, 1903, Andrena similis Smith, 1849, An- drena simillima Smith, 1851 and Andrena subopaca Nylander, 1848. Andrena nana (Kirby, 1802) is excluded from the Danish checklist. Species that have the po- tential to occur in Denmark are discussed...

  8. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  9. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  10. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  11. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  12. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin.

  13. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  14. Hitting an Unintended Target: Phylogeography of Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836 and the First New Brazilian Bumblebee Species in a Century (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eustáquio Santos Júnior

    Full Text Available This work tested whether or not populations of Bombus brasiliensis isolated on mountain tops of southeastern Brazil belonged to the same species as populations widespread in lowland areas in the Atlantic coast and westward along the Paraná-river valley. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses showed that those populations were all conspecific. However, they revealed a previously unrecognized, apparently rare, and potentially endangered species in one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the World, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is described here as Bombus bahiensis sp. n., and included in a revised key for the identification of the bumblebee species known to occur in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on two mtDNA markers suggest this new species to be sister to B. brasiliensis, from which its workers and queens can be easily distinguished by the lack of a yellow hair-band on the first metasomal tergum. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that B. bahiensis sp. n. may have originated from an ancestral population isolated in an evergreen-forest refuge (the so-called Bahia refuge during cold, dry periods of the Pleistocene. This refuge is also known as an important area of endemism for several animal taxa, including other bees. Secondary contact between B. bahiensis and B. brasiliensis may be presently prevented by a strip of semi-deciduous forest in a climate zone characterized by relatively long dry seasons. Considering the relatively limited range of this new species and the current anthropic pressure on its environment, attention should be given to its conservation status.

  15. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Russian and unselected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) stock as related to numbers of foragers with mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are an external parasite of honey bees and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. RHB and other mite resistant stock limit Varroa population growth...

  16. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees.

  17. Crop-emptying rate and the design of pesticide risk assessment schemes in the honey bee and wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Alice; Rollin, Orianne; Le Féon, Violette; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Recent scientific literature and reports from official sanitary agencies have pointed out the deficiency of current pesticide risk assessment processes regarding sublethal effects on pollinators. Sublethal effects include troubles in learning performance, orientation skills, or mobility, with possible contribution to substantial dysfunction at population scale. However, the study of sublethal effects is currently limited by considerable knowledge gaps, particularly for the numerous pollinators other than the honey bee Apis mellifera L.--the traditional model for pesticide risk assessment in pollinators. Here, we propose to use the crop-emptying time as a rule of thumb to guide the design of oral exposure experiments in the honey bee and wild bees. The administration of contaminated sucrose solutions is typically followed by a fasting time lapse to allow complete assimilation before the behavioral tests. The fasting duration should at least encompass the crop-emptying time, because no absorption takes place in the crop. We assessed crop-emptying rate in fasted bees and how it relates 1) with sucrose solution concentration in the honey bee and 2) with body mass in wild bees. Fasting duration required for complete crop emptying in honey bees fed 20 microl of a 50% sucrose solution was nearly 2 h. Actual fasting durations are usually shorter in toxicological studies, suggesting incomplete crop emptying, and therefore partial assimilation of experimental solutions that could imply underestimation of sublethal effects. We also found faster crop-emptying rates in large wild bees compared with smaller wild bees, and suggest operative rules to adapt sublethal assessment schemes accordingly.

  18. Cytogenetic data of Partamona peckolti (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini by C banding and fluorochrome staining with DA/CMA3 and DA/DAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Rute Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees of the Partamona genus have been studied taxonomically, ecologically and behaviourally, but cytogenetic studies are still rare. The objective of this study was to obtain cytogenetic data to contribute to Partamona peckolti species characterization. Heterochromatin was localized in all chromosome pericentromeric regions but some blocks could be visualized on some large chromosomes arms. A large heterozygous DA-CMA3-positive band was observed on one large chromosome arm, but was completely absent when C banding was applied before fluorochrome staining, with only one small positive band being visualized. Sequential DA-CMA3-NOR staining of interphase nuclei provided coincident positive responses. This suggests that DA-CMA3-positive bands of P. peckolti correspond to nucleolar organizer regions, as previously confirmed for another Partamona species by FISH.

  19. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Depts. of Psychology and Zoology. Lab. Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Biology]. E-mail: charles.abramson@okstate.edu; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Bananeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura

    2007-11-15

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  20. Population Growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Colonies of Russian and Unselected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Stocks as Related to Numbers of Foragers With Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Danka, Robert; Chambers, Mona; DeJong, Emily Watkins; Hidalgo, Geoff

    2017-06-01

    Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations. If FWM significantly contribute to Varroa population growth, mite numbers in RHB colonies might not differ from unselected lines (USL). Foragers with mites were monitored at the entrances of RHB and USL hives from August to November, 2015, at two apiary sites. At site 1, RHB colonies had fewer FWM than USL and smaller phoretic mite populations. Russian honey bee also had fewer infested brood cells and lower percentages with Varroa offspring than USL. At site 2, FWM did not differ between RHB and USL, and phoretic mite populations were not significantly different. At both sites, there were sharp increases in phoretic mite populations from September to November that corresponded with increasing numbers of FWM. Under conditions where FWM populations are similar between RHB and USL, attributes that contribute to mite resistance in RHB may not keep Varroa population levels below that of USL. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Are dispersal mechanisms changing the host-parasite relationship and increasing the virulence of Varroa destructor [Acari:Varroidae] in managed honey bee [Hymenoptera: Apidae] colonies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are the most serious pest of honey bees worldwide, and difficult to control in managed colonies. We show in a longitudinal study that even with multiple miticide treatments in the summer and fall, mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. Furthermore, large heavily infe...

  2. An Evaluation of the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Safety Profile of a New Systemic Insecticide, Flupyradifurone, Under Field Conditions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Cabrera, Ana R; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Ellis, James D

    2016-10-01

    Flupyradifurone (Sivanto) is a novel systemic insecticide from the butenolide class developed by Bayer. Based on available data (USEPA 2014), this insecticide appears to have a favorable safety profile for honey bee colonies. As a result, the label permits the product to be applied during prebloom and bloom in various crops, including citrus, except when mixed with azole fungicides during the blooming period. We placed 24 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies adjacent to eight flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) fields that either had been sprayed with the maximum label rate of flupyradifurone or with water only (control fields), with three colonies placed adjacent to each field. We conducted colony strength assessments during which the number of adult bees, eggs, uncapped brood cells, capped brood cells, food storage cells, and weights of honey supers and brood chambers were determined prior to, during, and after the flowering period. We also analyzed bee-collected pollen and nectar for flupyradifurone residues. Overall, there were no differences in any colony strength parameter for colonies placed at control and flupyradifurone-treated buckwheat fields. Residue analyses showed that pollen (x =  565.8 ppb) and nectar (x  =  259.4 ppb) gathered by bees on fields treated with flupyradifurone contained significantly higher flupyradifurone residues than did bee bread and unprocessed nectar collected by bees from control fields (75% of samples honey bee colonies when following label directions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the brood cell percentage evolution, which can be used as an indicator of queen health and brood development breeding rates. To achieve it, the brood cell surface was photographed in every sampling, and data were analyzed using a method based on image treatment software. A total of 480 pictures were examined from two groups of four nucleus hives in two areas, one receiving aerial spraying with Btk and the other without treatment. A mixed factorial design was realized to analyse the data showing no differences in colony performance between the two groups of colonies either before the treatment, during and at the end of the assay. Furthermore, the brood surface ratio of Btk-treated/untreated increased along the experiment. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that Btk aerial applications did not affect the brood development of honeybees under natural conditions. Nevertheless further field studies are required to ascertain a safe use of Btk in forest pest management.

  4. Comparison of the efficiency of the bumble bees Bombus impatiens and Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of tomato in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, Alfonso; Jones, Robert W

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a commercial tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae) greenhouse to compare the relative foraging effort and efficiency of two bumble bee species: Bombus impatiens Cresson, a species from northeastern North America, commercially reared and used for pollination in Mexico; and B. ephippiatus Say, a native species of Mexico and central America. B. ephippiatus was as efficient in pollination of tomatoes as B. impatiens, as indicated by all variables of fruit quality: fruit weight, number of seed per fruit, and maximum fruit diameter. The two species had similar levels of hourly and daily foraging activity. They had the same response to temperature fluctuation. Pollination rates by both species were similar and close to 100% throughout the sample period. However, B. impatiens showed greater foraging activity during the first half of the 27-d sample period, whereas B. ephipiatus had greater relative activity during the last half. This study establish that B. ephippiatus is as efficient as B. impatiens as a pollinator of tomatoes in greenhouses and thus a candidate as a managed pollinator. However, standard reliable methods for mass rearing of B. ephippiatus are not yet available. Such methods are necessary to ensure healthy colonies and optimum pollination for producers and will reduce the pressure for the unregulated collection of queens in the field and the subsequent reduction of populations of this species.

  5. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of two organic acid treatments, formic acid (FA) and oxalic acid (OA) for the spring control of Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Forty-eight varroa-infested colonies were randomly distributed amongst six experimental groups (n = 8 colonies per group): one control group (G1); two groups tested applications of different dosages of a 40 g OA/l sugar solution 1:1 trickled on bees (G2 and G3); three groups tested different applications of FA: 35 ml of 65% FA in an absorbent Dri-Loc(®) pad (G4); 35 ml of 65% FA poured directly on the hive bottom board (G5) and MiteAwayII™ (G6). The efficacy of treatments (varroa drop), colony development, honey yield and hive survival were monitored from May until September. Five honey bee queens died during this research, all of which were in the FA treated colonies (G4, G5 and G6). G6 colonies had significantly lower brood build-up during the beekeeping season. Brood populations at the end of summer were significantly higher in G2 colonies. Spring honey yield per colony was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G1. Summer honey flow was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G3 and G5. During the treatment period, there was an increase of mite drop in all the treated colonies. Varroa daily drop at the end of the beekeeping season (September) was significantly higher in G1 and significantly lower in G6. The average number of dead bees found in front of hives during treatment was significantly lower in G1, G2 and G3 versus G4, G5 and G6. Results suggest that varroa control is obtained from all spring treatment options. However, all groups treated with FA showed slower summer hive population build-up resulting in reduced honey flow and weaker hives at the end of summer. FA had an immediate toxic effect on bees that resulted in queen death in five colonies. The OA treatments that were tested have minimal toxic impacts on the honey bee colonies.

  6. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hunter

    Full Text Available The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania. To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  7. Influence of seasonal changes in daily activity and annual life cycle of Geotrigona mombuca (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a Cerrado habitat, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Gobatto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of Geotrigona mombuca Smith, 1863 was studied under natural conditions aiming to verify the influence of seasonal changes on daily flight activity and annual cycle of the colony. Daily flight activity was monitored for a year based on the observation and counting of foragers leaving and entering the hive, as well as the kind of material transported and meteorological factors such as day time, temperature and relative humidity. The influence of seasonal changes was evidenced by alterations on daily rhythm of flight activity and by differences on transportation of food resources, building material and garbage. These data indicate that forager behavior is related to daily microclimate conditions and it is synchronized with the requirements of colony annual cycle, which determines an intense pollen collection in the summer. Thus, the recomposition of the intranidal population in spring and summer can be ensured, which is characterized both for a higher intensity of flight activity and increase in garbage and resin transport, as well as the swarming process in the spring. In this way, an action targeting the preservation or management of the species in a natural environment should consider that survival and reproduction of the colony depends greatly on the amount of available pollen in late winter.

  8. How Efficient Is Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Pollinating Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata? Pollination Behavior, Pollinator Effectiveness, Pollinator Requirement, and Impact of Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Subbanna, Avupati Rns; Preetha, G; Gupta, JaiPrakash

    2017-06-01

    Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers. Pollinator effectiveness as measured by seed set in flowers excluded from bee visitation, single bee visit, and unrestricted pollinator visits was 0.11. Studies on the impact of A. cerana bee pollination in cabbage seed production revealed an increase of 17.28% in siliqua per panicle, with 26.11% increase in seed yield. For assessing the requirement of A. cerana to pollinate one hectare of cabbage, flower availability and the speed with which the pollen and nectar foragers process the flowers are taken into consideration. A forager is estimated to pollinate 4,780 flowers a day, but cabbage flower requires 9.09 visits of A. cerana for optimum seed set. Thus, a maximum of 4,999 bee foragers or 8.33 colonies are needed to effectively pollinate 1 ha of cabbage. Though A. cerana is a good pollinator, our findings suggest that it is not an ideal pollinator of cabbage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evaluación del abejorro Bombus atratusFranklin(Hymenoptera: Apidae) como polinizador en fresa (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ‘Camarosa’) bajo invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Trujillo, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de la investigación fue establecer si el abejorro nativo Bombus atratus es un polinizador eficiente para el cultivo de fresa ‘Camarosa’ bajo invernadero con cubierta plástica en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia). Inicialmente se realizó una descripción morfológica de inflorescencias, flores y frutos; se determinó la oferta floral, la duración de etapas de la flor y se estimó la oferta de néctar, cantidad y viabilidad de polen y la receptividad estigmática. Posteriormente, con la int...

  11. Distribution and co-existence of the Macropis species and their cleptoparasite Epeoloides coecutiens (Fabr.) in NW Europe Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Melittidae and Apidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekkarinen, Antti; Berg, Øistein; Calabuig, Isabel;

    2003-01-01

    The Macropis species collect pollen and fatty oil secreted by flowers of loosestrifes (Lysimachia, Primulaceae) and are the only known oil-collecting bees in the Holarctic. In NW Europe, L. vulgaris is the main or (in large areas) sole pollen and oil source for M. europaea Warncke (labiata auct...

  12. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MARCANGELI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05% ± 3,39 (rango = 79,5 – 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (p< 0,05. No seobservaron efectos negativos del producto sobre la cría de abejas en desarrollo. Estos resultados demuestran que este producto es efectivo para el control de la parasitosis.

  13. Selección bidireccional de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a la nosemosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamandú MENDOZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La nosemosis es una enfermedad que afecta las funciones digestivas de las abejas melíferas causada por los microsporidios Nosema apis y Nosema ceranae. En Uruguay la única especie detectada es N. ceranae. Para determinar si la incidencia de N. ceranae en las colonias tiene un componente genético se realizó una selección bidireccional para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a este parásito sin control de la paternidad. Las colonias fueron evaluadas en una forestación de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño. La infección de las colonias se determinó como 1 el porcentaje de abejas pecoreadoras infectadas y 2 el número promedio de esporas por campo en 10 campos. El trabajo se inició con 138 colonias y se evaluaron dos generaciones de 30 y 63 colonias. La respuesta a la selección fue muy limitada, solo en la primera generación las colonias de la línea resistente presentaron menos esporas por abejas que las colonias de la línea susceptible (19,6 ± 5,8 y 26,8 ± 10,4, respectivamente, W = 41,5; P = 0.03. Esto indicaría que la resistencia a la nosemosis está fuertemente afectada por el ambiente. Futuros esfuerzos para aumentar la resistencia de las abejas a N. ceranae a través de mejora genética deberán incluir el control de la paternidad.

  14. EFECTO DEL AMBIENTE DE CRÍA EN LA LONGEVIDAD DE OBRERAS Y DESARROLLO DE COLONIAS DE Bombus atratus (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Simon Pinilla-Gallego

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENBombus atratus es una especie nativa de Sur América de la cual se han estudiado aspectos de cría y manejo para polinización, y actualmente se están desarrollando metodologías para implementarla como polinizador comercial. Por esta razón, el objetivo de éste estudio fue comparar la longevidad de las obreras y el desarrollo de las colonias en diferentes condiciones ambientales: campo abierto (pastizales, invernadero y cámara de cría. Fueron usadas dos colonias en cada ambiente, todas las obreras fueron marcadas y semanalmente se revisaron las colonias para registrar el número de obreras. Los resultados muestran que la longevidad de las obreras que se encontraban en campo abierto (12 ± 4 días e invernadero (15 ± 6 días es significativamente menores que la de las obreras ubicadas en la cámara de cría (54 ± 20 días. El desarrollo de las colonias en campo abierto e invernadero en cuanto a producción de obreras fue similar, y presentaron menor número de obreras que las colonias en cámara de cría. La disminución en la longevidad de las obreras en campo abierto e invernadero puede estar influenciada por factores ambientales relacionados con la ubicación de las colonias, parasitismo o depredación, desgaste por forrajeo y la disponibilidad de recursos en la zona. La alta mortalidad de obreras durante las primeras semanas puede ser un factor limitante para el éxito de las colonias. Se discuten posibles métodos para incrementar el éxito de adaptación de las colonias.Palabras clave: abejas nativas, cría de abejorros, manejo de colonias.ABSTRACTBombus atratus is a native species from South America which has been studied for breeding and management for pollination, and methodologies are currently being developed to use it as a commercial pollinator. For this reason, the aim of the study was to compare the worker’s longevity and colony development under different environments: open field (grassland, greenhouse, and brood chamber. Two colonies were used in each environment, all workers were labeled and colonies were checked weekly for the number of workers. Results show that worker’s longevity in open field (12 ± 4 days and greenhouse (15 ± 6 days is significantly less than the worker’s longevity in the brood chamber (54 ± 20 days. Colony development in open field and greenhouse regarding number of workers were similar, with fewer workers than the colonies in the brood chamber. The decrease in worker’s longevity in open field and greenhouse may be due to the influence of environmental factors related with the location of the colonies, parasitism or predation, foraging, and the resources availability in the area. The workers high mortality during the first weeks can be a limiting factor for the colonies success. Possible methods to increase the colonies adaptation success are discussed. Keywords:

  15. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  16. Managed bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caged with blueberry bushes at high density did not increase fruit set or fruit weight compared to open pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Campbell; J. O' Brien; J. H. Irvin; C. B. Kimmel; J. C. Daniels; J. D. Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of...

  17. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANTIMICROBIANA Y FISICOQUÍMICA DE PROPÓLEOS DE Apis mellifera L. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE DE LA REGIÓN ANDINA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTHER MARGARIDA ALVES FERREIRA BASTOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propóleos de Apis mellifera provenientes de la región Andina colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y fisicoquímico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco-difusión, frente a las especies Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans . Para la caracterización fisicoquímica se evaluaron el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenido de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y 23,5 mm para S. aureus . No se observó ninguna actividad contra C. albicans . Los parámetros fisicoquímicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al fisicoquímico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.

  19. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    ...), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV...

  20. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’, a hotspot in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee fauna of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’ (REBIO Una, one of the largest Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, was surveyed for the first time. Baits with sixteen different scents were used to attract males of orchid bees. Eight hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 26 species were actively collected with insect nets during 60 hours in January and February, 2009, and January, 2010. Euglossa avicula Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa milenae Bembé, 2007 have been recorded for the first time in the state of Bahia. It was found that REBIO Una has one of the most diverse and rich orchid-bee faunas of the entire Atlantic Forest domain and holds some rare species, such as Euglossa cyanochloraMoure, 1996.

  1. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-12-23

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  2. Foraging Allocation in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Tuned by the Presence of the Spinosad-Based Pesticide GF-120.

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    Cabrera-Marín, N V; Liedo, P; Vandame, R; Sánchez, D

    2015-04-01

    Agroecosystem management commonly involves the use of pesticides. As a result, a heterogeneous landscape is created, in which suitable and unsuitable spaces are defined by the absence/presence of pesticides. In this study, we explored how foragers of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., adapt to such context. We specifically evaluated the effect of GF-120, a spinosad-based fruit fly toxic bait, on the allocation of foragers between food sources under the hypothesis that foragers will move from food sources with GF-120 to food sources without it. We thus carried out three experiments: in experiment 1, a group of foragers was trained to collect honey solution from a feeder; next, this feeder offered a GF-120/honey solution. A minority of foragers continued collecting the GF-120/honey solution. In experiment 2, we trained two groups of foragers from a colony to two food sources equally rewarding. Next, GF-120 was added to one of the food sources. We found that the majority of foragers moved from the GF-120-treated feeder to the feeder without GF-120 and that the minority that continued visiting the GF-120-treated feeder did not collect the GF-120/honey solution. In a third experiment, we wanted to know if foragers in an experimental setup as in experiment 1 would perform waggle dances: none of the foragers that collected GF-120/honey were observed dancing. Our results emphasize the importance of "food refuges" for non-target species, since they minimize the impact of agrochemicals upon them.

  3. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used for western U.S. honey production and almond pollination.

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    Rinderer, Tihomas E; Danka, Robert G; Johnson, Stephanie; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Frake, Amanda M; Villa, José D; De Guzman, Lilia I; Harris, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees and outcrossed honey bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were compared with control colonies of Italian honey bees. All colonies were managed without miticide treatments. In total, 185 and 175 colonies were established for trials in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Survival of colonies with original queens or with supersedure queens was similar among stocks for both years. Colony sizes of the Varroa-resistant stocks were as large as or larger than the control colonies during periods critical to honey production and almond pollination. Honey production varied among stocks. In the first year, all stocks produced similar amounts of honey. In the second year, Russian honey bees colonies produced less honey than the control colonies. V. destructor infestations also varied among stocks. In the first year, control colonies had more infesting mites than either of the Varroa-resistant stocks, especially later in the year. In the second year, the control and outcrossed Varroa-sensitive hygiene colonies had high and damaging levels of infestation while the Russian honey bees colonies maintained lower levels of infestation. Infestations of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) were generally infrequent and low. All the stocks had similarly high Nosema ceranae infections in the spring and following winter of both years. Overall, the two Varroa-resistant stocks functioned adequately in this model beekeeping system.

  4. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

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    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to manipulate ventilation rate to characterize interactions between stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and ventilation setting on varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) mortality in honey bee colonies kept indoors over winter. The first experiment used colonies established from stock selected locally for wintering performance under exposure to varroa (n = 6) and unselected bees (n = 6) to assess mite and bee mortality and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the bee cluster when kept under a simulated winter condition at 5°C. The second experiment, used colonies from selected bees (n = 10) and unselected bees (n = 12) that were exposed to either standard ventilation (14.4 liter/min per hive) or restricted ventilation (0.24 liter/min per hive, in a Plexiglas ventilation chamber) during a 16-d treatment period to assess the influence of restricted air flow on winter mortality rates of varroa mites and honey bees. Experiment 2 was repeated in early, mid-, and late winter. The first experiment showed that under unrestricted ventilation with CO2 concentrations averaging level (3.82 ± 0.31%, range 0.43-8.44%) increased by 200% relative to standard ventilation (1.29 ± 0.31%; range 0.09-5.26%) within the 16-d treatment period. The overall mite mortality rates and the reduction in mean abundance of varroa mite over time was greater under restricted ventilation (37 ± 4.2%) than under standard ventilation (23 ± 4.2%) but not affected by stock of bees during the treatment period. Selected bees showed overall greater mite mortality relative to unselected bees in both experiments. Restricting ventilation increased mite mortality, but did not affect worker bee mortality relative to that for colonies under standard ventilation. Restricted ventilation did not affect the overall level of Nosema compared with the control. However, there was an interaction between stock, season, and time of the trial. Unselected stock showed an increase in Nosema over time in the late winter trial that did not occur in the selected stock. In conclusion, these findings suggested that restricted ventilation has potential to suppress varroa mite in overwintering honey bee colonies via a low-cost and environmentally friendly measure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Spatial-temporal variation in orchid bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in remnants of arboreal Caatinga in the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, Brazil.

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    Andrade-Silva, A C R; Nemésio, A; de Oliveira, F F; Nascimento, F S

    2012-08-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of organisms is a fundamental aspect of biological communities. The present study focused on three remnants of arboreal Caatinga in northeastern Brazil between May, 2009 and April, 2010. A total of 627 euglossine males were captured in traps baited with artificial aromatic compounds. The specimens belonged to 14 species and four genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, Eufriesea Cockerell, and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (41.6), Euglossa carolina Nemésio (15.3%), Eulaema marcii Nemésio (13.6%), and Euglossa melanotricha Moure (12.8%) were the most common species sampled. The distribution of collected specimens per fragment was as follows: Braúna (280 ha)--259 individuals belonging to 14 species; Cambuí (179 ha)--161 individuals from eight species; and Pindoba (100 ha)--207 individuals represented by seven species. Braúna had the highest diversity (H' = 1.91) and estimated species richness. The largest fragment was the main source of the observed variation in species richness and abundance, indicating a non-random pattern of spatial distribution. The analysis of environmental factors indicated that seasonal variation in these factors was the principal determinant of species occurrence and abundance.

  6. Expressão do gene aqp-4-like no trato digestório de operárias de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Souza, Débora Linhares Lino

    2014-01-01

    O polietismo etário das operárias de Apis mellifera está relacionado a alterações morfofisiológicas de diversos sistemas, incluindo o sistema digestório, e à mudança da dieta das abelhas, sendo que operárias mais jovens consomem principalmente pólen e as mais velhas mel. As aquaporinas são proteínas de membrana identificadas em diferentes órgãos do trato digestório de insetos e são responsáveis pelo transporte transmembrana de água. Este trabalho avaliou se há diferença na expressão de aqp-4-...

  7. Protein requirements in larvae and adults of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae [correction of Apidia], Meliponinae): midgut proteolytic activity and pollen digestion.

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    do Carmo Zerbo, A; Silva de Moraes, R L; Brochetto-Braga, M R

    2001-05-01

    The number and degree of digestion of pollen grains in the midgut and rectum, the midgut proteolytic activity and the time of pollen grain passage through the digestive tract in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille) have been analyzed. The results show similar protein requirements among larvae, nurse bees and queens, as well as between forager bees and old males, but these requirements are higher in individuals from the former groups than in those from the latter. Although protein requirements have been demonstrated to vary according to a bee's activity in the colony, they are similar among bees from different castes or sexes. These changes in feeding behavior are related to the bee's function and to less competition for nourishment among individuals of the colony. It is also noted that pollen grains took between 6 and 28 h to pass through the digestive tract. Pollen grains are irregularly accumulated in the various regions of the midgut, which may reflect functional differentiation throughout the midgut.

  8. Changes in the size of cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae queens and workers in different life phases

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    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bee species of the Apinae, in addition to the thoracic salivary glands, possess a pair of cephalic glands originating as branches of the excretory duct that crosses the head. These glands are known as cephalic salivary or labial cephalic glands. The degree of development of these glands in newly emerged, nurse and forager workers and virgin and egg-laying queens of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 were evaluated by measuring the secretory alveolar units. The area of the secretory alveoli, measured in total gland preparations, was used to evaluate differences in size. In both species, gland size was found to increase progressively from newly emerged workers to foragers and from virgin to egg-laying queens. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the area of gland alveoli of workers in different life phases in both species, and between S. postica virgin and egg-laying queens, but not between A. mellifera queens. In the case of workers, this suggests cephalic salivary gland secretion has a function in forager activity and, in queens, a possible pheromonal function.

  9. Associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Russian and Italian honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

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    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Truman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite populations and mite fall in colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees using 29 candidate measurements. Measurements included damaged and nondamaged younger mites, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements to the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions were found for trapped younger mites (Y) and trapped fresh mites (F). Measurments of Y and F across time could be used to estimate mite population growth for the purposes of selective breeding. The largest negative regressions with colony mites were observed for: trapped older mites/trapped mites (O/T), trapped older mites/trapped younger mites (O/Y), and trapped injured older mites/injured mites (IO/I). O/T and O/Y are significantly higher for Russian honey bee colonies suggesting that they are related to at least some of the mechanisms used by Russian honey bee to resist Varroa population growth. O/T and O/Y have strong negative relationships with colony mites for both Russian honey bee and Italian colonies suggesting that both strains possibly could be selected for reduced colony mites using O/T or O/Y.

  10. Autumn invasion rates of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) into honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and the resulting increase in mite populations.

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    Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The honey bee parasite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman can disperse and invade honey bee colonies by attaching to "drifting" and "robbing" honey bees that move into nonnatal colonies. We quantified the weekly invasion rates and the subsequent mite population growth from the end of July to November 2011 in 28 honey bee colonies kept in two apiaries that had high (HBD) and low (LBD) densities of neighboring colonies. At each apiary, half (seven) of the colonies were continuously treated with acaricides to kill all Varroa mites and thereby determine the invasion rates. The other group of colonies was only treated before the beginning of the experiment and then left untreated to record Varroa population growth until a final treatment in November. The numbers of bees and brood cells of all colonies were estimated according to the Liebefeld evaluation method. The invasion rates varied among individual colonies but revealed highly significant differences between the study sites. The average invasion rate per colony over the entire 3.5-mo period ranged from 266 to 1,171 mites at the HBD site compared with only 72 to 248 mites at the LBD apiary. In the untreated colonies, the Varroa population reached an average final infestation in November of 2,082 mites per colony (HBD) and 340 mites per colony (LBD). All colonies survived the winter; however, the higher infested colonies lost about three times more bees compared with the lower infested colonies. Therefore, mite invasion and late-year population growth must be considered more carefully for future treatment concepts in temperate regions.

  11. Laboratory study on the effects of temperature and three ventilation rates on infestations of Varroa destructor in clusters of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Kozak, Paul R; Currie, Robert W

    2011-12-01

    In this study, reduced levels of ventilation were applied to small clusters of bees under controlled conditions to determine whether lowered ventilation rates and the resulting increased levels of CO2 could increase the mortality rates of varroa. Two experiments were performed at two different temperatures (10 degrees C and 25 degrees C). Both experiments compared varroa mortality among high (360 liters/h), medium (42.5 liters/h), and low (14 liters/h) rates of ventilation. The clusters of bees (approximately 300 worker bees) in bioassay cages with 40 introduced varroa mites were placed into self-contained glass chambers and were randomly assigned to one of the three ventilation treatments within incubators set at either of the two temperatures. Bee and varroa mortality and the levels of CO2 concentration were measured in each of the experimental chambers. In both experiments, CO2 levels within the chamber increased, with a decrease in ventilation with CO2 reaching a maximum of 1.2 +/- 0.45% at 10 degrees C and 2.13 +/- 0.2% at 25 degrees C under low ventilation. At high ventilation rates, CO2 concentration in chamber air was similar at 10 degrees C (1.1 +/- 1.5%) and 25 degrees C (1.9 +/- 1.1%). Both humidity and CO2 concentration were higher at 25 degrees C than at 10 degrees C. Bee mortality was similar within all ventilation rate treatments at either 10 degrees C (11.5 +/- 2.7-19.3 +/- 3.8%) or 25 degrees C (15.2 +/- 1.9-20.7 +/- 3.5%). At 10 degrees C, varroa mortality (percentage dead) was greatest in the high ventilation treatment (12.2 +/- 2.1%), but only slightly higher than under low (3.7 +/- 1.7%) and medium ventilation (4.9 +/- 1.6%). At 25 degrees C, varroa mortality was greatest under low ventilation at 46.12 +/- 7.7% and significantly greater than at either medium (29.7 +/- 7.4%) or low ventilation (9.5 +/- 1.6.1%). This study demonstrates that at 25 degrees C, restricted ventilation, resulting in high levels of CO2 in the surrounding environment of small clusters of honey bees, has the potential to substantially increase varroa mortality.

  12. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Anguiano-Baez, Ricardo; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results.

  13. Controlling Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae colonies by using Thymovar® and BeeVital®

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    Halil Yeninar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of Thymovar® and BeeVital® on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor damage in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in spring season. Average percentage of Varroa infestation level was determined as 24.27 on adult workers before the treatments. The drugs were applied two times on 25 September and 16 October 2006. Average percentage of Varroa infestation levels were determined as 5.18%, 10.78% and 35.45% after the first application, 1.90%, 7.05% and 61.15% after the second application in Thymovar®, BeeVital® and control groups, respectively. Average efficacies of Thymovar® and BeeVital® were found to be 96.91% and 88.66%, respectively. Difference between drug efficacies on Varroa mite was found significant (P<0.01. There was no queen, brood and adult honeybee mortality in all group colonies during the research.

  14. Genetic characterization of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) collected from honey bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

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    Strapazzon, R; Carneiro, F E; Guerra, J C V; Moretto, G

    2009-08-18

    The mite Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that is considered a major pest for beekeeping with European honey bees. However, Africanized bee colonies are less threatened by this ectoparasite, because infestation levels remain low in these bees. The low reproductive ability of female mites of the Japanese biotype (J), introduced to Brazil early in the 1970s was initially considered the main factor for the lack of virulence of this parasite on Africanized bees. In other regions of the world where the Korean (K) biotype of this mite was introduced, there have been serious problems with Varroa due to the high reproductive potential of the mite. However, a significant increase in the reproductive rate of females of Varroa in Brazil has been recently demonstrated; the cause could be a change in the type of Varroa in the bee colonies. We evaluated the prevalence of haplotypes J and K in mite samples collected from the State of Santa Catarina and from the island of Fernando de Noronha in the State of Pernambuco. The analysis of the mitochondrial genome (PCR + RFLP) revealed haplotype K in all samples from Santa Catarina and haplotype J in all samples from Fernando de Noronha. The analysis of microsatellites (nuclear genome) in bees from Fernando de Noronha showed only the specific alleles of haplotype J, while in bees from Santa Catarina, these alleles were found in only 2.8% of the samples. The high frequency of individuals with Korean genetic material is probably to the reason for the current high reproductive capacity of the mite V. destructor recorded in Santa Catarina.

  15. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

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    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  16. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA.

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    Calderone, Nicholas W

    2010-02-01

    Mite-Away II, a recently-registered product with a proprietary formulation of formic acid, was evaluated under field conditions in commercial apiaries in upstate New York (USA) for the fall control of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Ambient temperatures during the treatment period were in the lower half of the range recommended on the label, but were typical for early fall in upstate New York. Average mite mortality was 60.2 +/- 2.2% in the Mite-Away II group and 23.3 +/- 2.6% in the untreated control group. These means were significantly different from each other, but the level of control was only moderate. These results demonstrate that Mite-Away II may not always provide an adequate level of control even when the temperature at the time of application falls within the recommended range stated on the product's label. To make the best use of temperature-sensitive products, I suggest that the current, single-value, economic treatment threshold be replaced with an economic treatment range. The limits for this range are specified by two pest density values. The lower limit is the usual pest density that triggers a treatment. The upper limit is the maximum pest density that one can expect to reduce to a level below the lower limit given the temperatures expected during the treatment period. When the actual pest density exceeds the upper limit, the product should not be recommended; or, a warning should be included indicating that acceptable control may not be achieved.

  17. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

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    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses.

  18. Limitations to the use of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae for driven pollination of cultivars: a case study with European pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha

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    André Amarildo Sezerino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pollinators able to promote xenogamy is a decisive factor in the yield of orchards. As it is allogamous, due to gametophytic self-incompatibility, most European pear cultivars do not produce fruits with seeds in the absence of pollinating insects. Therefore, the correct management and quality of Apis mellifera hives installed in the orchards are indispensable to ensure economically viable yields. In this context, we aimed to evaluate some aspects of the driven pollination system with A. mellifera that can decisively interfere with pollination effectiveness in a commercial orchard of European pear under the ecological conditions of Santa Catarina’s Mountain Plateau, in Brazil’s South region. We observed low visitation of bees on the pear flowers, possibly due to two factors: floral competition and insufficient density of hives installed in the orchard. No pollen deposition was observed on the stigmas, something which confirms pollination failure in the area. The quality of rented hives showed differences between years, with presence of the mite Varroa destructor and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, which may have contributed to the depopulation of hives within the flowering period and, consequently, the decreased pollen deposition on the stigmas of flowers of the main fruit-producing cultivar.

  19. Resistance to Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) when mite-resistant queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were free-mated with unselected drones.

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    Harbo, J R; Harris, J W

    2001-12-01

    This study demonstrated (1) that honey bees, Apis mellifera L, can express a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman when bees were selected for only one resistant trait (suppression of mite reproduction); and (2) that a significant level of mite-resistance was retained when these queens were free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: (1) resistant--queens selected for suppression of mite reproduction and artificially inseminated in Baton Rouge with drones from similarly selected stocks; (2) resistant x control--resistant queens, as above, produced and free-mated to unselected drones by one of four commercial queen producers; and (3) control--commercial queens chosen by the same four queen producers and free-mated as above. All colonies started the test with approximately 0.9 kg of bees that were naturally infested with approximately 650 mites. Colonies with resistant x control queens ended the 115-d test period with significantly fewer mites than did colonies with control queens. This suggests that beekeepers can derive immediate benefit from mite-resistant queens that have been free-mated to unselected drones. Moreover, the production and distribution of these free-mated queens from many commercial sources may be an effective way to insert beneficial genes into our commercial population of honey bees without losing the genetic diversity and the useful beekeeping characteristics of this population.

  20. Temporal and morphological differences in post-embryonic differentiation of the mushroom bodies in the brain of workers, queens, and drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

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    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; da Cruz Landim, Carminda

    2008-12-01

    The mushroom bodies are structures present in the insect brain described as centers for the neural basis of learning, memory, and other higher functions. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects with a sophisticated system of spatial orientation and possess well-developed learning and memory capabilities, which are associated with neural and brain structures. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the mushroom bodies during post-embryonic development and in newly emerged males, workers, and queens using light and transmission electron microscopy to examine how differential morphological characteristics are established during development. Measurements of structures were also taken in several post-embryonic developmental phases in order to evaluate size differences during the process and in the adult organs. The results show that workers, queens, and males exhibit temporal and size differences during the post-embryonic development of mushroom bodies, probably as adaptations to differences in behavior complexity. The mushroom bodies of workers are precociously formed and are larger than those of queens and drones. Thus, workers have the largest mushroom bodies resulting from differential development during metamorphosis.

  1. Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control. PMID:21203478

  2. No effect of Bt Cry1Ie toxin on bacterial diversity in the midgut of the Chinese honey bees, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui-Ru; Dai, Ping-Li; Geng, Li-Li; Jack, Cameron J.; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Yan-Yan; Diao, Qing-Yun; Ellis, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Cry1Ie protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been proposed as a promising candidate for the development of a new Bt-maize variety to control maize pests in China. We studied the response of the midgut bacterial community of Apis cerana cerana to Cry1Ie toxin under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged bees were fed one of the following treatments for 15 and 30 days: three concentrations of Cry1Ie toxin (20 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 20 μg/mL) in sugar syrup, pure sugar syrup as a negative control and 48 ng/mL imidacloprid as a positive control. The relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes was measured by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and no apparent differences were found among treatments for any of these counts at any time point. Furthermore, the midgut bacterial structure and compositions were determined using high-throughput sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA. All core honey bee intestinal bacterial genera such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Snodgrassella, and Gilliamella were detected, and no significant changes were found in the species diversity and richness for any bacterial taxa among treatments at different time points. These results suggest that Cry1Ie toxin may not affect gut bacterial communities of Chinese honey bees. PMID:28139751

  3. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata foram trazidas para o Brasil na década de 1950 e, por acidente, cruzaram-se com outras subespécies de abelhas melíferas européias introduzidas no século XIX. Isso proporcionou o surgimento de híbridos com características predominantes das abelhas africanas, tais como rusticidade e maior capacidade de enxamear, o que lhes permitiu uma rápida adaptação e expansão por quase todo continente americano. Até hoje existem controvérsias se essas abelhas, denominadas africanizadas, causam algum impacto sobre a fauna de abelhas nativas. Nas Américas, as africanizadas estão restritas a regiões de baixas altitudes e de invernos amenos; no Brasil, ocorrem principalmente em áreas urbanas e formações vegetacionais abertas ou adulteradas, sendo dificilmente vistas ou coletadas no interior de florestas densas como a amazônica. Diante dessa observação, diversas iscas foram disponibilizadas no interior de fragmentos de florestas e de florestas contínuas na Amazônia central, para testar se operárias de abelhas africanizadas seriam capazes de penetrar nos mesmos. Nenhuma operária foi vista visitando as iscas na floresta contínua ou mesmo nos fragmentos de floresta, ocorrendo visitas somente nas áreas desmatadas e capoeiras próximas. Esse resultado, além de indicar a inexistência de competição por recursos com as abelhas nativas no interior da floresta amazônica, também indica que uma apicultura em grande escala na região seria inviável, uma vez que a floresta não é sequer visitada por essas abelhas.The African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata were introduced accidentally to Brazil in 1956 where it subsequently interbred with other subspecies of European honeybee here introduced in the 19th century. This resulted in hybrids with predominantly African honeybee characteristics, such as higher capacity of swarming and survival in inhospitable conditions, allowing them to adapt quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  4. [Composition and seasonality of Euglossina Species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in forest and dune in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, PB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Rodrigo C A P; Madeira-da-Silva, Maria C; Pereira-Peixoto, Maria H; Martins, Celso F

    2008-01-01

    By using artificial fragrances as baits, we studied richness, composition, abundance and seasonality of Euglossina species in two areas (forest and dune) in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, State of Paraiba, Brazil, between August 2002 and July 2004. Bees were attracted with wads of absorbent paper containing each of the fragrances: benzyl acetate, ionone beta, skatole, eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin, and captured with insect net. We collected a total of 3,132 males of nine species of Euglossina. On both areas, Euglossa cordata (L.) and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier were present throughout the year and were the most abundant species in the forest and the first one was the most abundant specie at the dune. Concerning to the composition, the Atlantic Rainforest areas in Paraíba State were more similar among themselves, the same occurring to the dune areas in Paraíba and Bahia States. In the forest, Euglossina species showed higher seasonality, being more abundant during the drier period, specially E. cordata. At the dune, species were homogeneously distributed in the dry and rainy periods.

  5. Resistencia a la enfermedad de cría yesificada por colonias de Apis mellifera con eficiente comportamiento higiénico (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Invernizzi Ciro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In an apiary composed of 14 hygienic and 7 non-hygienic colonies of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the presence of visible and capped mummies was recorded, one hygienic and 4 non-hygienic colonies showed symptoms of chalkbrood. Twenty-eight days after a massive contamination of the colonies with pollen patties containing Ascosphaera apis Olive & Spiltoir, 1955, the situation was almost identical to that at the beginning: the same 4 non-hygienic colonies still were infected and one hygienic colony that was healthy became infected. The high proportion of hygienic colonies that eliminated the disease symptoms suggests that they could maintain themselves healthy in spite of the presence of colonies with chalkbrood in the apiary.

  6. Efecto del cambio del paisaje en la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae) en Meta, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Palacios, Eliana; Parra H., Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Las abejas sin aguijón son unos de los polinizadores naturales más diversos de la fauna Apoidea en los trópicos. Nidifican en diversos sustratos y distintos ambientes, existiendo algunas especies típicas de lugares naturales o artificiales. La alteración del medio donde nidifican tiene un importante impacto sobre la composición natural de su estructura, hecho que se ve reflejado también en la densidad de nidos. Analizamos la composición de la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón e...

  7. Nosema ceranae Winter Control: Study of the Effectiveness of Different Fumagillin Treatments and Consequences on the Strength of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Y; Diaz-Cetti, S; Ramallo, G; Santos, E; Porrini, M; Invernizzi, C

    2017-02-01

    In Uruguay, colonies of honey bees moving to Eucalyptus grandis plantation in autumn habitually become infected with the microsporidian Nosema ceranae , a parasite that attacks the digestive system of bees. Beekeepers attributed to N. ceranae depopulation of the colonies that often occurs at the end of the blooming period, and many use the antibiotic fumagillin to reduce the level of infection. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of four different fumagillin treatments and determine how this antibiotic affects the strength of the colonies during the winter season. The colonies treated with fumagillin in July showed less spore load at the end of applications, being the most effective the following treatments: the four applications sprayed over bees of 30 mg of fumagillin in 100 ml of sugar syrup 1:1, and four applications of 90 mg of fumagillin in 250 ml of sugar syrup 1:1 using a feeder. However, 2 month after the treatment applications, the colonies treated with fumagillin were the same size as the untreated colonies. In September, the colonies treated and not treated with fumagillin did not differ in colony strength (adult bee population and brood area) or spores abundance. Our study demonstrates that fumagillin treatment temporarily decreased the spore load of N. ceranae , but this was not reflected in either the size of the colonies or the probability of surviving the winter regardless of the dose or the administration strategy applied. Given the results obtained, we suggest to not perform the pharmacological treatment under the conditions described in the experiment. En Uruguay las colonias de abejas melíferas que se trasladan a las forestaciones de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño indefectiblemente se infectan con el microsporido Nosema ceranae , parásito que ataca el sistema digestivo de las abejas. Los apicultores atribuyen a N. ceranae el despoblamiento de las colonias que ocurre con frecuencia al terminar el periodo de floración y muchos emplean el antibiótico fumagilina para reducir el nivel de infección. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de cuatro tratamientos diferentes con fumagilina y determinar cómo incide en la fortaleza de las colonias durante la invernada. Las colonias tratadas con fumagilina en julio presentaron una menor carga de esporas al terminar las aplicaciones, siendo los tratamientos más eficaces el de 4 aplicaciones mediante asperjado sobre las abejas de 30 mg de fumagilina en 100 ml de jarabe de azúcar 1:1, y el de 4 aplicaciones de 90 mg de fumagilina en 250 ml de jarabe de azúcar 1:1 utilizando un alimentador. Sin embargo, durante el período de experimentación, las colonias tratadas con antibiótico presentaron igual tamaño que las colonias no tratadas. En setiembre, las colonias tratadas y no tratadas con fumagilina no se diferenciaron en la intensidad de infección ni en su tamaño. En las condiciones en que se realizó el estudio, la aplicación de fumagilina disminuyó temporalmente la carga de esporas de N. ceranae pero esto no se reflejó en el tamaño de las colonias ni en la probabilidad de sobrevivir el invierno.

  8. Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
    humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
    De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
    diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
    síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

  9. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Conner, J.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Influence of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the Use of the Most Abundant and Attractive Floral Resources in a Plant Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatto, L P; Chaud-Netto, J

    2013-12-01

    Some factors influence the distribution of abundance of floral visitors, especially the amount and quality of the floral resources available, the size of the area occupied by the visitor, habitat heterogeneity, and the impact caused by natural enemies and introduced species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the distribution of abundance of the foraging activity of native floral visitors and Apis mellifera L. in the most abundant and attractive food sources in a secondary forest fragment with features of Cerrado-Atlantic Forest. Some plant species were selected and the frequency of foraging made by floral visitors was recorded. A high abundance of visits in flowers was performed by A. mellifera. Two factors may have influenced this result: (1) the occupation of the forest fragment predominantly by vines and shrubs at the expenses of vegetation with arboreal characteristics that favored the encounter of the flowering plants by A. mellifera; (2) rational beekeeping of A. mellifera, causing the number of natural swarms which originate annually from colonies of commercial apiaries and colonies previously established in the environment to be very high, thus leading to an increase in the population size of this bee species in the study site. The frequent occurrence of human-induced fire and deforestation within the forest fragment may have reduced the population size of the bee species, including A. mellifera. As the populations of A. mellifera have the capacity to quickly occupy the environment, this species possibly became dominant after successive disturbances made in the forest fragment.

  11. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  12. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  13. Double infection with Wolbachia strains in three species of bumblebees ( Hymenoptera: Apidae)%Wolbachia在熊蜂中的双重感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 冯夏; 宋月; 沈佐锐; 耿金虎

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia is a group of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that may manipulate the reproduction of their arthropod hosts through distinct mechanisms, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), thelytoky (T), feminization (F)or male killing (MK). Using 16S rDNA as a molecular marker, different body parts (heads, thorax, legs and genitalia)of three bumblebee species, including two native species (Bombus hypocrite and Bombus lucorum ) and one lab-reared species ( Bombus terrestris) were screened for Wolbachia. Infection with two Wolbachia strains ( strain A and strain B ) was found in all body parts except the head in all three species. This is the first evidence of infection with both Wolbachia strains A and B in social Hymenopteran insects and of Wolbachia infection in bumblebees. The effects of Wolbachia on the reproduction and sex ratio of bumblebees is briefly discussed, including the possibility that Wolbachia could bo involved in bumblebees. It's possible that Wolbachia could be a potential factor inducing reproductive conflict and a feminized sexratio in bumblebee colonies.%Wolbachia是一类广泛存在于节肢动物体内细胞质遗传的细菌,它可以通过诱导产雌孤雌生殖、引起细胞质不亲和、遗传雄性的雌性化、雄性致死和增强生殖力等作用方式引起其寄主生殖行为的改变.本文以16S rDNA为标记检测了3种熊蜂不同组织(头,胸,足,卵巢或雄外生殖器)的Wolbachia感染.其中明亮熊蜂Bombus lucorum和小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrite是自然种,短舌熊蜂Bombus terrestris及其后代是实验室种.所检测的所有个体的不同组织中,除头部外,其余均发现不同组Wolbachia双重感染,感染率为100%.本研究首次报道熊蜂感染Wolbachia,同时也证明熊蜂的所有个体中存在不同组的Wolbachia双重感染现象.初步讨论了感染Wolbachia对熊蜂生殖行为和孤雌生殖的影响,推断Wolbachia可能是熊蜂种群生殖冲突和偏雌性性比的潜在原因.

  14. The position of the Hymenoptera within the Holometabola as inferred from the mitochondrial genome of Perga condei (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda Raquel; Dowton, Mark

    2005-03-01

    We sequenced most of the mitochondrial genome of the sawfly Perga condei (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pergidae) and tested different models of phylogenetic reconstruction in order to resolve the position of the Hymenoptera within the Holometabola, using mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial genome sequenced for P. condei had less compositional bias and slower rates of molecular evolution than the honeybee, as well as a less rearranged genome organization. Phylogenetic analyses showed that, when using mitochondrial genomes, both adequate taxon sampling and more realistic models of analysis are necessary to resolve relationships among insect orders. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses performed better when nucleotide instead of amino acid sequences were used. In particular, this study supports the placement of the Hymenoptera as sister group to the Mecopterida.

  15. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  16. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Sobczak

    Full Text Available Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  17. Het inventariseren en monitoren van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant populati

  18. Het inventariseren en monitoren van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant populati

  19. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  20. De kalme steekmier myrmica lobicornis nieuw voor Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ant Myrmica lobicornis new for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) In 2002 seven workers of Myrmica lobicornis were collected in the Balloërveld (province of Drenthe). It is the first record of this species in the Netherlands. During the finishing of this paper a female of Myrmica lobicorn

  1. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio

  2. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio

  3. Karyotypes of parasitic Hymenoptera: Diversity, evolution and taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VLADIMIR E. GOKHMAN

    2006-01-01

    Haploid chromosome numbers (n) of parasitic Hymenoptera (= traditional Parasitica + Chrysidoidea) vary from 2 to 23. However, this range can be subdivided into three intervals with n = 14-23 (less derived parasitic wasps, e.g., some Ichneumonidae and Braconidae as well as Gasteruptiidae), 8-13 (many other parasitic Hymenoptera) and 2-7(Dryinidae, the majority of Chalcidoidea and some advanced Braconidae, e.g. Aphidiinae).The symmetric karyotype with a relatively high chromosome number (n = 14-17) and the prevalence of biarmed chromosomes must be considered as a groundplan feature of parasitic Hymenoptera. Independent reductions of chromosome numbers (n ≤ 10-11) occurred in some groups of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea as well as in the common ancestor of the Proctotrupoidea sensu lato, Ceraphronoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea. Further multiple decreases in chromosome numbers (n ≤ 4-6) took place in some Braconidae, various lineages of the superfamily Chalcidoidea as well as in the family Dryinidae. Two main trends prevailed in the karyotype evolution of parasitic wasps: the reduction of chromosome numbers (mainly due to tandem fusions and less frequently due to centric ones) and karyotypic dissymmetrization (through an increase in size differentiation of chromosomes and/or in the share of acrocentrics in a chromosome set). Although karyotypic features of parasitic Hymenoptera can be used for solving taxonomic problems at various levels, this method is the most effective at the species level.

  4. De kalme steekmier myrmica lobicornis nieuw voor Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ant Myrmica lobicornis new for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) In 2002 seven workers of Myrmica lobicornis were collected in the Balloërveld (province of Drenthe). It is the first record of this species in the Netherlands. During the finishing of this paper a female of Myrmica

  5. De ruige gaststeekmier Myrmica hirsuta nieuw voor Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.; Noordijk, J.

    2004-01-01

    Myrmica hirsuta new for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Myrmica hirsuta is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands. A dealate female was collected in a pitfall trap between 14.v and 16.x.2003 near Nunspeet (Veluwe) in the province of Gelderland. The pitfall was situated in a

  6. Het inventariseren en monitoren van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant

  7. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places provi

  8. Skeletomusculature of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miko, I.; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Johnson, N.F.;

    2007-01-01

      The skeletomusculature of the head and mesosoma of the parasitoid wasp family Scelionidae is reviewed. Representatives of 27 scelionid genera are examined together with 13 non-scelionid taxa for comparison. Terms employed for other groups of Hymenoptera are reviewed, and a consensus terminology...

  9. A New Method for Quick and Easy Hemolymph Collection from Apidae Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Grzegorz; Ptaszyńska, Aneta A.; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Domaciuk, Marcin; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Bio-analysis of insects is increasingly dependent on highly sensitive methods that require high quality biological material, such as hemolymph. However, it is difficult to collect fresh and uncontaminated hemolymph from adult bees since they are very active and have the potential to sting, and because hemolymph is rapidly melanized. Here we aimed to develop and test a quick and easy method for sterile and contamination-free hemolymph sampling from adult Apidae. Our novel antennae method for hemolymph sampling (AMHS), entailed the detachment of an antenna, followed by application of delicate pressure to the bee's abdomen. This resulted in the appearance of a drop of hemolymph at the base of the detached antenna, which was then aspirated using an automatic pipetter. Larger insect size corresponded to easier and faster hemolymph sampling, and to a greater sample volume. We obtained 80–100 μL of sterile non-melanized hemolymph in 1 minute from one Bombus terrestris worker, in 6 minutes from 10 Apis mellifera workers, and in 15 minutes from 18 Apis cerana workers (+/−0.5 minutes). Compared to the most popular method of hemolymph collection, in which hemolymph is sampled by puncturing the dorsal sinus of the thorax with a capillary (TCHS), significantly fewer bees were required to collect 80–100 μL hemolymph using our novel AMHS method. Moreover, the time required for hemolymph collection was significantly shorter using the AMHS compared to the TCHS, which protects the acquired hemolymph against melanization, thus providing the highest quality material for biological analysis. PMID:28125668

  10. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  11. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

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    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  12. Comunidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea em ecossistema de dunas na Praia de Panaquatira, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brasil Community of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in the coastal sand dunes at Panaquatira beach, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Comunidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea em ecossistema de dunas na Praia de Panaquatira, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brasil. Foi analisada a estrutura da comunidade de Apoidea de uma área restrita de dunas primárias em São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brasil. Amostragens foram realizadas quinzenalmente durante um ano com metodologia padronizada totalizando 24 coletas. As coletas ocorreram no período das 12:00 às 18:00 h no primeiro dia e das 6:00 às 12:00 h no segundo, realizadas por dois coletores. Um total de 3305 indivíduos de 31 espécies pertencentes a quatro famílias (Apidae>Halictidae>Megachilidae>Andrenidae em número de indivíduos foram coletadas nas flores. Centris com 14 espécies e 890 indivíduos foi o gênero mais rico e abundante. O padrão de abundância e riqueza foi bastante semelhante ao de outros habitats de dunas no nordeste brasileiro. Das espécies amostradas, 61% foram representadas por menos de 36 indivíduos e apenas 5 espécies foram muito abundantes com mais de 177 indivíduos: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, Centris (Centris leprieuri Spinola, Eulaema (Apeulema nigrita Lepeletier, Eufriesea surinamensis Linnaeus e Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa cearensis Ducke. As abelhas estiveram presentes durante todo o ano, apresentando picos de abundância no período de maior precipitação. A atividade diária foi maior entre 06:00 e 11:00 h, quando a temperatura aumentava e a umidade relativa decrescia.The community structure of Apoidea of a restricted area of primary dunes in São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brazil was analyzed. Standardized samples were taken for one year, 2 times a month, from 12:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. on the first day and from 6:00 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. on the second by two collectors. A total of 3305 individuals of 31 species, belonging to four families (Apidae > Halictidae > Megachilidae > Andrenidae were collected. Centris with 14 species and 890 individuals was the richest and most abundant genus. The

  13. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Research on Amivar® efficacy against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honey bee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05%±3,39 (rango=79,5 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Amivar® (amitraz, Apilab, Argentina to control Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, in Apis mellifera colonies during the autumn 2003. Work was done at "Centro de Extensión Apícola" experimental apiary located in Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Twenty Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received one strip of Amivar® (amitraz, 1 gr in the center of brood area. The second one represented the control group. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors designed to avoid mite removal by adult honeybees. Then, a total of three doses of 5 ml of Oxavar® at seven days period (64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water were placed in each colony to kill remanent mites and the acaricide efficacy was calculated. Amivar® showed an average acaricide efficacy of 85.05%±3.39 (range=79.5 91.6, showing significant differences with control group (p<0.05. No negative effect on honeybee brood was recorded. These results suggest that Amivar® is effective to control the parasite.

  14. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in new and old honeybee brood combs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Jorge, A. Marcangeli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar los niveles de infestación de Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en panales de cría nuevos y viejos, en colonias de la abeja criolla (híbrido de Apis mellifera mellifera (Linnaeus y Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en un apiario ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante la primavera del año 2005. Se trabajó sobre 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth, de un híbrido de Apis mellifera (Linnaeus infestadas naturalmente por el ácaro Varroa destructor, y seleccionadas al azar. En cada una de ellas se escogió un panal de 2 años (viejo que se colocó en el centro del nido de cría, junto con un panal recientemente labrado por las abejas (nuevo. Luego de que ambos cuadros fueran operculados, se los extrajo y se llevaron al laboratorio para su posterior análisis. Cada una de las celdas de cría se desoperculó e inspeccionó en busca de ácaros, registrándose el número de hembras de ácaros que habían ingresado para su reproducción, se calculó el nivel de infestación como el cociente entre el número de celdas infestadas por ácaros y el número total de celdas inspeccionadas. Los resultados mostraron que los panales viejos presentaron niveles de infestación significativamente superiores a los registrados en panales nuevos (13,52% ± 3,35 y 6,18% ± 2,12 respectivamente; t = 10,62; p = 1,9 E-9; g. l.= 19. El mismo patrón fue observado en el número promedio de ácaros por panal (443,3 ± 70,54 y 217,85 ± 51,76 para panales viejos y nuevos respectivamente; t = 23,87; p = 1,24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Los ácaros presentan una marcada preferencia por los panales viejos. Esta selección estaría guiada por olores propios de las celdas, que actuarían como atrayentes. Además, posiblemente enmascaran su presencia de esta manera y evitan así ser detectados y eliminados por las abejas nodrizas mediante los comportamientos higiénicos.The aim of this work was to evaluate infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in new and old honeybee brood combs of creole honeybee (hybrid of Apis mellifera mellifera Linnaeus and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Work was done at Coronel Vidal city on 20 Langstroth hives during spring months 2005. In each colony an old frame (2 years and a new one were selected and placed in the middle of brood chamber. When both frames were operculated, they were carried to the laboratory for inspection. Each cell was desoperculated and total number of mite adult female was registered. Infestation level was calculated as number of infested cells divided by total number of desoperculated cells. Results showed significant differences between old and new comb infestation levels (13.52% ± 3.35 and 6.18% ± 2.12 respectively; t = 10.62; p = 1.9 E-9; g. l.= 19. Same results were observed in the average number of mites in combs (443.3 ± 70.54 and 217.85 ± 51.76 for old and new combs respectively; t = 23.87; p = 1.24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Mites show a strong preference for old combs directed by attractant alien scents of brood cells. Also, these scents masked the mites and prevent to honeybees to eliminate them by hygienic behaviour.

  15. Atividades relacionadas à construção e aprovisionamento de ninhos de Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de restinga na Bahia, Brasil Activities related to construction and provioning of nests of Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of sandbank in Bahia, Brazil

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    Miriam Gimenes

    Full Text Available As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 são comuns em ecossistemas de restingas em acelerada fase de degradação e são importantes polinizadores deste ecossistema. Elas nidificam especialmente em madeira morta ou apodrecida. As atividades relacionadas à construção e estrutura dos ninhos de Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 na restinga do litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil, foram observadas em 43 ninhos ativos de X. subcyanea, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, em dois troncos apodrecidos. A fase de fundação ou reuso no primeiro tronco foi em agosto e a fase de provisionamento das células nos ninhos, em ambos troncos, em janeiro. As principais atividades foram escavações no tronco, entrada e saída dos ninhos, permanência na entrada do ninho, entrada com pólen e desidratação de néctar. Foi observado horário preferencial ao longo do dia para as atividades de entrada e saída dos ninhos, sendo estas influenciadas pelos horários do nascer e pôr do sol. Ninhos abandonados foram reusados por X. subcyanea e Centris tarsata SMITH, 1874. Os ninhos ativos eram ocupados por quatro diferentes abelhas adultas. Geralmente, uma abelha ficava na entrada do ninho. A estrutura do ninho foi descrita.Bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 are frequent in sandbank ecosystems under accelerated degradation. They nest especially in dead or rotted wood. The nest construction and nest structure of Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 were studied in a sandbank from Bahia's north littoral, Brazil. We observed 43 active nests, under different stages of development, in two dead logs. The main activities were excavation of the logs, entering and leaving nest, permanence in the nest entrance, entering with pollen, and nectar dehydration. Preferential times along the day were observed for entering and leaving nest, showing influence of sunrise and sunset times. Abandoned nests were reused by X. subcyanea and Centris tarsata Smith, 1874. Active nests were occupied by four different adult bees. An individual frequently stayed at nest entrance, adopting a defensive behavior. The nest structure was described.

  16. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191 Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191

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    Igor Inforzato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant. A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant. A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.

  17. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae =Efeito da pilhagem de néctar por abelhas nativas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae na abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae

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    Rodrigo Arand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and nonrobber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant.A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade de pilhagemde abelhas nativas influenciando a abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis. As coletas foram realizadas em dez indivíduos de B. spectabilis. Foram coletadas 2.874 flores no solo e 2.895 na planta no período de 4/5/2009 a 1/6/2009 com intervalo de três dias entre cada coleta, totalizando 10 repetições em cada indivíduo. Foram mensuradas as flores fechadas, flores abertas, flores fechadas pilhadas, flores fechadas não pilhadas, flores abertas pilhadas e flores abertas não pilhadas tanto no solo como na planta. Para as análises estatísticas foi utilizado o Teste-T para verificar se houve diferença entre as médias obtidas das características avaliadas entre as flores do solo e as flores da planta, além de regressão linear simples para verificar se houve relação entre as flores fechadas e flores fechadas pilhadas; flores abertas e flores abertas pilhadas, encontradas no solo e flores fechadas e flores fechadas pilhadas; flores abertas e flores abertas pilhadas na planta. Houve diferença significativa em relação a todas as variáveis entre o solo e a planta. Foi verificada correlação tanto nas flores fechadas e florespilhadas fechadas encontradas no solo quanto nas flores abertas e flores abertas não pilhadas na planta.

  18. Ritmo circadiano da taxa respiratória de Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, T. a. angustula (Latreille e Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Circadian rhythm of the respiratory rate of Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, T. a. angustula (Latreille and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Edson Aparecido Proni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado em operárias isoladas de Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, 1938, T. a. angustula (Latreille, 1807 e Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 o ritmo circadiano das taxas respiratórias médias (VO2 em condições de ciclo normal (dia/claro e noite/escuro, durante a primavera. O consumo de oxigênio foi determinado a 30ºC usando um respirômetro de Warburg. A análise estatística dos resultados revelou interações significativas entre intervalos de tempo e entre as espécies. Foram comparadas as taxas respiratórias usando o teste do Tukey. Um padrão definido de ritmo circadiano metabólico foi observado para ambas as espécies, apresentando um maior consumo de oxigênio durante o dia, com um pico entre 10:00 e 15:00. À noite o consumo diminuiu, alcançando os níveis mínimos entre 2:00 e 3:00. Tetragonisca angustula angustula e T. a. fiebrigi não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si, mas diferiram de T. spinipes, que apresentou taxas respiratórias maiores.The circadian rhythm of the mean respiratory rates (VO2 was determined on isolated workers of Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, 1938, T. a. angustula (Latreille, 1807 and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 in normal cycle (day/light and night/dark conditions, during springtime. Oxygen consumption was determined at 30ºC by using a Warburg respirometer. The statistical analysis of the results revealed significant interactions among time intervals and between the species. Breathing rates were compared using the Tukey's test. A clear circadian pattern of the metabolic rhythm was observed for both species. It showed a larger consumption of oxygen during the day, with a peak between 10:00 and 15:00. At night the consumption decreased, reaching the minimum levels between 2:00 and 3:00. Tetragonisca angustula angustula and T. a. fiebrigi did not show significant differences between them but they did differed from T. spinipes, which showed larger respiratory rates.

  19. Atividades de coleta e origem floral do pólen armazenado em colônias de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae no sul do Brasil Collection activities and floral origin of the stored pollcn in colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae in south Brazil

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    Raquel A. Pick

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903, of São Francisco de Paula, were studied during the period from October/1998 to October/1999. The counting of the bees was proceeded monthly, differentiated workers that came back with and without pollen in the corbicula. Grains of pollen of pots previously marked were collected monthly and identified. The percentage of the pollen types of the samples was estimated: 20% of Asteraceae, 17% Myrtaceae, 15% type Meliaceae and 10% Euphorbiaceae. The remaining corresponds to other pollen types of small representation, besides those the were no identified. The climatic influence on the pollen collection was analyzed being used simple and multiple regressions. It was verified that in the spring and in the summer the temperature, the solar irradiation and relative humidity were significant for the pollen foraging. During autumn and winter the relative humidity had smaller influence in the pollen collection.

  20. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado Control of the parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae applying brood trap combs

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    Natalia Damiani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis causada por el ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman es, actualmente considerada el mayor escollo para el desarrollo de la apicultura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la técnica del entrampamiento de ácaros en panales de cría, como posible método de control de la parasitosis. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre colmenas tipo Langstroth del híbrido regional de Apis mellifera (Linneaus. En cada colmena experimental se procedió a confinar a la reina en panales trampa específicos, con el fin de poder controlar la oviposición. Estos panales, luego de ser operculados por las obreras, fueron llevados al laboratorio donde se desoperculó cada una de las celdas de cría, y se contabilizó el número de ácaros presentes. Esta técnica se aplicó variando el número de panales trampa (1-3 colocados, tanto para los constituidos por celdas de cría de obreras como de zánganos. También, se evaluó el impacto de la aplicación de esta técnica sobre el desarrollo de las colonias, mediante la medición de su productividad. Los resultados indican, que la técnica empleada sólo es efectiva, cuando se aplican tres panales de cría de zánganos de manera consecutiva, alcanzando una efectividad máxima de 84%. Cuando se aplican tres panales de obreras, la técnica mostró niveles de efectividad muy inferiores (14%. En las colonias sobre las que se aplicó esta técnica, la productividad de miel se redujo significativamente, comparada con las colonias control. Esta técnica resulta ideal para ser combinada con otros mecanismos de control, disminuyendo la aplicación de sustancias químicas que puedan contaminar la miel, y la generación de resistencia por parte del ácaro frente a los principios activos utilizados para su control.At present, Varroosis is considered the major problem to beekeeping development. The aim of this work was to evaluate brood tramp combs technique as possible control method of mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires using Langstroth hives of the local hybrid of Apis mellifera (Linneaus. In each colony, the queen was confined in one brood comb to control queen oviposition. After capped, these combs were taken to the laboratory to uncapp each cell and to examinate the total number of trapped parasites. This technique was applied varying the number of brood tramp combs (1-3 for worker and drone brood cells. Also, the impact of this technique on normal development of the colonies were evaluated by means of its honey production. Results showed that this technique is only effective when three drone brood tramp combs were applied, reaching a total efficacy of 84%. When worker brood combs were used, total efficacy was significant lower (14%. Honey production was significant lower in test colonies compared to control ones. Brood tramp combs technique represent a good alternative method to be combined with other control methods, decreasing the presence of chemical sustances and residues in honey and the possible resistant mite populations.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANTIMICROBIANA Y FISICOQUÍMICA DE PROPÓLEOS DE Apis mellifera L. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE DE LA REGIÓN ANDINA COLOMBIANA Antimicrobial and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Propolis of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae from the Colombian Andes

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    ESTHER MARGARIDA ALVES FERREIRA BASTOS

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propóleos de Apis mellifera provenientes de la región Andina colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y fisicoquímico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco-difusión, frente a las especies Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. Para la caracterización fisicoquímica se evaluaron el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenido de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y 23,5 mm para S. aureus. No se observó ninguna actividad contra C. albicans. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al fisicoquímico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.Propolis is a resinous material produced by bees from various plant sources. The objective of this study was to characterize propolis samples of Apis mellifera from the Colombian Andean region, regarding the antimicrobial and physicochemical profiles. We used the technique of disk diffusion with ethanol extracts of propolis against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The physicochemical characterization included percentage of solids content, wax, oxidation index and quantitative determination of phenolic and flavonoids compounds. All samples showed antibacterial activity, with inhibition zones between 8,0 and 12,0 mm for E. coli and between 8,3 and 23,5 mm for S. aureus. We did not observe any activity against C. albicans. The physical and chemical parameters cited above showed a variation from 2.72 to 9.17%, 0 to 2%, 3 to 51 s, 0.1 to 0.5 (w/w and 0.02 to 0.95 (p/p, respectively. The antimicrobial profile observed, related to the physicochemical profile, suggests the need for further studies to determine the geographical and botanical origin of the samples studied.

  2. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini Dos especies nuevas de abejas del género Peponapis, con una clave para las especies de América del Norte y Central (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini

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    Ricardo Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry forest along the Pacific Coast, between Sonora and Chiapas and in the Balsas River basin; and P. parkeri is known only from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A key for the North and Central American species of Peponapis is provided.Se describen e ilustran 2 especies nuevas de abejas, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. y P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n. De éstas, P. pacifica es oligoléctica sobre flores de Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae, endémica de México, con distribución asociada al bosque tropical caducifolio a lo largo de la vertiente del Pacífico entre Sonora y Chiapas y en la Cuenca del río Balsas; P. parkeri es conocida sólo para la vertiente del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Se incluye una clave para las especies de América del norte y central.

  3. Riqueza, abundância e diversidade de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em três áreas da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil Richness, abundance, and diversity of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae at three areas of the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Alysson K. P. de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo realizou-se em três áreas da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, uma área com vegetação característica de Mata Atlântica, outra com vegetação característica de Tabuleiro Nordestino e a terceira, chamada de Transição, formada por um mosaico dos dois tipos vegetacionais. Foram coletados 2314 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies de Euglossina. Utilizou-se como iscas seis fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina. Na área de Mata, foram coletados 850 indivíduos de 11 espécies, na área de Tabuleiro 737 indivíduos de cinco espécies e na área de Transição 727 indivíduos de seis espécies. A área de Mata apresentou a maior diversidade (H' = 0,94 e a maior riqueza. O coeficiente de similaridade binário de Sørensen indicou que as áreas mais semelhantes, com relação à composição das espécies, foram às de Tabuleiro e Transição (Ss = 0,92. O coeficiente de similaridade de Morisita apontou que as áreas de Mata e Transição são idênticas (Cmh = 1, com relação às abundâncias relativas das espécies. A área de Transição assemelha-se mais à área de Tabuleiro (quanto à composição e diversidade e mais à área de Mata (quanto à abundância relativa, o que sugere que algumas espécies de Mata também forrageiam na área de Transição.The study was carried out at three areas of the Guaribas Biological Reserve, one area with typical Atlantic rain forest vegetation, one with a Savanna-like vegetation typical of coastal ecosystems, locally known as 'Tabuleiro', and another called Transition area, containing a mosaic of the two former types of vegetation. A total of 2314 individuals belonging to 11 species of Euglossina were sampled, using traps. Six artificial fragrances were used as baits: eugenol, cineol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate, and vanillin. From the Forest area 850 males belonging to 11 species were sampled, from the Savanna-like vegetation 737 males belonging to five species were sampled, and from the Transition area 727 males belonging to six species were sampled. The highest diversity (H' = 0.94 and richness were obtained from the Forest area. The Sørensen binary similarity coefficient showed that regarding species composition Savanna-like vegetation and Transition were the most similar areas (Ss = 0.92. The Morisita similarity coefficient showed that Forest and Transition areas were identical (Cmh = 1 regarding relative abundance of species. Transition area is more similar to an open area of Savanna-like vegetation, in terms of composition and diversity, and more similar to the Forest area, regarding relative abundance, suggesting that some Forest species also forage in the Transition area.

  4. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae = Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products

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    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59%e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid- Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%.

  5. Análise faunística de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae em ambientes de floresta nativa e plantios de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. = Faunal analysis of the Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae within the native Forest and plantations of Acacia mangium in the Brazilian State of Roraima.

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    Sheila Fernandes Tavares Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a Fauna de abelhas Euglossina de mata nativa com plantios de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae atraídas por iscas odoríferas. Foram utilizadas armadilhas de garrafas de politereftalato de etila (PET, contendo fragrâncias de salicilato de metila e eugenol. As abelhas foram retiradas das armadilhas em intervalos de 30 em 30 minutos a contar das 6 horas até as 12 horas de cada dia de coleta. Foram selecionados três locais em mata nativa (Ilha de Maracá, Serra Grande e Itã e três em plantios de Acacia mangium (Haras Cunhã-Pucá, Fazenda Jacitara e Fazenda Umirizal. Em cada local de coleta as abelhas foram capturadas em um único dia, perfazendo um total de 6 dias de coletas para todos os locais. Foram coletados 123indivíduos de 21 espécies. Nos pontos de coleta nos plantios de Acacia mangium foram coletados 35 indivíduos pertencentes a 12 espécies e em mata nativa foram coletados 88 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 espécimes, Eul. meriana (12 espécimes, Eul. cingulata (11 espécimes, Euglossa augaspis (10 espécimes e Eug. amazonica (8 espécimes. Os pontos de coleta nos plantiosde Acacia mangium apresentaram baixa diversidade e abundância quando comparados com os pontos de coleta em mata nativa. = The objective of this study was to compare the Fauna of the Euglossina bees of native forest and plantings of Acacia mangium collected with odoriferous baits. Traps made from PET bottles were used, and contained fragrances of methyl salicilate and eugenol. The bees were removed from the traps in intervals of 30 in 30 minutes from 6 am to 12 pm every day during the period of collection. Three places were selected within the native forest (Island of Maracá, Serra Grande, and Itã, and from three plantations of Acacia mangium (Cunhã-Pucá farm, Jacitara farm and Umirizal farm. In each area of collection,the bees were captured on a single day, resulting in a total of 6 days of collection between all collection sites. One hundredand twenty three bees 21 species were collected. At the collection points of the plantations of Acacia mangium 35 bees from 12 species were collected, while in the native forest 88 bees from 17 species were obtained. The most abundant species were Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 specimens, Eul. meriana (12 specimens, Eul. cingulata (11 specimens, Euglossa augaspis (10 specimens and Eug. Amazonica (8 specimens. The collection points of Acacia mangium plantations presented low diversity and abundance when compared with the collection areas from the native forest.

  6. Horário de atividade de machos de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua no Norte do Estado do Paraná Male Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae daily activity in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in Northern Paraná, Brazil

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    Aline Mackert dos Santos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A atividade diária de machos de Euglossinae foi estudada em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua no norte do Estado do Paraná. Machos atraídos às iscas-odores foram amostrados quinzenalmente, durante 12 meses, das 8:00 às 15:00 horas. No total, 434 machos de 9 espécies foram coletados. Eufriesea violacea foi a espécie que visitou mais cedo as iscas, com maior pico de atividade das 9:00 às 11:00 horas. As demais espécies visitaram as iscas, preferencialmente, das 9:00 às 14:00 horas. Uma nítida diferença nos horários de visita das abelhas foi observada entre as estações quente-chuvosa e fria-seca. Na estação quente-chuvosa a maior freqüência de visitas deu-se das 9:00 às 14:00 horas e machos foram coletados em todos os horários. Na estação fria-seca a maior atividade ocorreu entre 11:00 e 14:00 horas e não houve visitas entre 8:00 e 10:00 horas. Durante esta estação a temperatura foi um fator que influenciou diretamente a atividade das abelhas.Euglossinae bee fauna daily activity was studied in a semideciduous forest in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Male euglossine bees, attracted by chemical baits, were sampled twice a month for one year, from 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Over this period, 434 males from 9 Euglossinae species were collected. Eufriesea violacea visited the baits earlier than the other species, showing an activity peak between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. The other species visited the baits more often between 9:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. A significant difference in daily activity was observed comparing the warm-wet months with the cold-dry months. During warm-wet season, males were collected during all sampling periods, but the higher bait visitation frequency occurred from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. During cold-dry season, the higher frequency was from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and no visitation was done between 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Temperature during cold-dry season directly influenced the bee's activity.

  7. Diferenciação e envelhecimento do músculo do vôo em operárias de Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae Differentiation and aging of the flight muscle in Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae workers

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    Camila Marques Adade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata diferenças verificadas no desenvolvimento da musculatura do voo de S.postica Latreille, 1807, uma abelha sem ferrão nativa no Brasil. Tratando-se de uma espécie eussocial avançada, as operárias desta abelha apresentam complexas adaptações comportmentais que as habilitam a realizar as tarefas necessárias à manutenção da colônia, entre elas o forrageamento. Esta última tarefa requer uma musculatura do vôo funcional. Mensurações dos diâmetros e estudos ultra-estruturais das fibras musculares, mostraram diferenças morfológicas e de tamanho relacionadas à idade e função das operárias na colônia. A ultra-estrutura mostrou modificação na apresentação das mitocondrias, miofilamentos, núcleos e quantidade de glicogênio armazenado das fibras musculares, conforme a operárias envelhece ou muda de função.The present paper deals with the differences verified in the flight muscle development of S. postica Latreille, 1807, a Brazilian stingless bee. As an advanced eusocial species, the workers of this bee have complex behavioral adaptations that turn them able to performe all tasks necessary to colony maintenance, among them the foragement. This last work requires a well functioning flight musculature. Measurements of the fiber diameters in histological slides and ultrastructural studies, showed differences in the fiber size and morphology related to the worker age and function in the colony. The ultrastructural features, also showed modifications in the fibers mitochondria, miofilaments, nuclei and amount of glycogen stored, as the worker ages or change functions.

  8. Nest distribution and nesting habits of Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a restinga area in the northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Distribuição de ninhos e hábitos de nidificação de Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae em área de restinga no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    André Sarlo Bernardino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the distribution of natural nests of Xylocopa ordinaria and characterize its nesting habits in the restinga of Grussai/Iquipari (RJ, supporting future studies on the pollinators management in the northern Rio de Janeiro state. The data obtained from Aug/2003 to Dec/2004, in an area of 11.6ha, were related to the nest distribution, substrate identification and dimensions, emergence, sex ratio, nest structure (n= 23 nests and pollen content analysis of provisioning masses and feces. X. ordinaria nests were abundant and presented a clustered distribution. These bees do not present taxonomical affinity for nesting substrates, but preferences for wood availability and characteristics, being Pera glabrata the main substrate. X. ordinaria is a multivoltine species that tolerates co-specifics in their nests. These bees were generalist on their nectar and pollen consumption, but presented floral constancy while provisioning brood cells. These behaviors, activity along the year, flights throughout the day, and legitimate visits to flowers indicate the importance of X. ordinaria on the pollination of plants in the restinga.Este artigo objetiva estudar a distribuição de ninhos naturais de Xylocopa ordinaria e caracterizar seus hábitos de nidificação na restinga de Grussai/Iquipari, fornecendo bases para estudos de manejo de polinizadores no Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram obtidos entre Ago/2003 e Dez/2004, em uma área de 11,6ha, e correlacionados à distribuição dos ninhos, ao tipo de substrato e suas dimensões, à emergência, razão sexual, arquitetura do ninho (n=23 e ao conteúdo polínico presente em massas de aprovisionamento e fezes. Os ninhos de X. ordinaria foram abundantes e apresentaram distribuição agregada. Não foi verificada afinidade taxonômica por substratos de nidificação, mas quanto à disponibilidade e características da madeira, sendo Pera glabrata o substrato mais utilizado. X. ordinaria é uma espécie multivoltina que tolera a presença de co-específicos no ninho. Essas abelhas foram generalistas quanto às fontes de néctar e pólen, mas apresentaram constância floral no aprovisionamento de células de cria. Esses comportamentos, a atividade ao longo do ano, vôos ao longo do dia e visitas legítimas às flores indicam a importância de X. ordinaria na polinização de plantas da restinga.

  9. Histologia e ultra-estrutura do vaso dorsal de Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae em operárias e rainhas de diferentes idades Histology and ultrastructure of the dorsal vessel of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae in workers and queens of various ages

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    Silvana B. Poiani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O vaso dorsal é um órgão tubular localizado na região mediano-dorsal do corpo dos insetos, abaixo do tegumento. Fez-se um estudo de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão da porção abdominal do vaso dorsal, o coração, em uma espécie de abelha indígena. Foram estudadas operárias e rainhas em diferentes idades. O coração está localizado no sinus pericárdico. A parede cardíaca é formada por fibras musculares estriadas e apresenta aberturas ou ostíolos providos de válvulas. A fibra cardíaca contém miofibrilas arranjadas irregularmente, núcleos alongados ou redondos, mitocôndrias grandes e numerosas, e depósitos de glicogênio. Em operárias e rainhas longevas, as fibras encontram-se em degeneração, evidenciada por vacúolos autofágicos, alterações mitocondriais e acúmulo de corpos mielínicos. Em conclusão, o coração de Scaptotrigona postica é semelhante ao de outros insetos estudados. As alterações encontradas estão relacionadas ao processo de envelhecimento e mantêm relação temporal com a expectativa de vida da casta.The dorsal vessel is a tubular organ located in the mid-dorsal region of the insects body, just below the tegument. This work is a light and electron microscopy study of the abdominal part of the vessel, the heart, in a stingless bee species. Workers and queens of several ages were studied. The heart is located inside the pericardial sinus. Its wall presents openings or ostia provided with valves and is composed by special striated muscular fibers. The cardiac fiber presents myofibrils irregularly arranged, round or elongated nuclei, numerous and large mitochondria, and glycogen deposits. Old workers and queens present fibers degeneration, represented by autophagic vacuoles, mitochondria alterations and accumulation of myelinic bodies. In conclusion, the heart of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 is similar to other insects. The changes found are related to aging progress and maintain temporal relationship with the caste life expectancy.

  10. Capacidade de resistência a altas e baixas temperaturas em operárias de Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae durante os períodos de verão e inverno Capacity of resistance to high and low temperatures in workers of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae during periods of summer and winter

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    Oilton José Dias Macieira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas sem ferrão são consideradas por muitos autores de grande importância para o ecossistema devido a sua eficiência como polinizadoras. O presente trabalho estudou a tolerância de operárias de Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 à mudanças de temperatura, com o objetivo de determinar os limites térmicos letais (TL - temperatura letal para altas e baixas temperaturas durante o verão e inverno. Os resultados mostraram um intervalo de tolerância entre -3,5ºC e 40ºC no verão e de -4,0 até 39,5ºC no inverno a 50% de sobrevivência de uma população (LT50. Os limites a 100% de mortalidade (LT100 foram entre -5ºC e 41ºC no verão e -5ºC e 40,5ºC no inverno.Stingless bees are considered of great importance for the ecosystem by many authors because of their efficiency as pollinators. The present work studied the tolerance of workers of Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 to temperature changes in order to determine the lethal thermal limits for high and low temperatures (LT - lethal temperature during summer and winter. The results showed a tolerance interval between -3,5ºC and 40ºC in summer and of 4ºC up to 39,5ºC in winter for 50% of mortality (LT50. The thermal limits at 100% of mortality (LT100 was between 5ºC and 41ºC in summer and between 5ºC and 40,5ºC in winter.

  11. Pollen harvest by Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Dourados region, Mato Grosso do Sul state (Brazil Pólen coletado por Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae na região de Dourados, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil

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    D'Apolito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the pollen harvest by Apismellifera L. at a central-western Brazil site not yet studied. Corbiculae pollen loads were collected during one year in front of the hive, acetolysed and slides mounted for optical microscopy. Identification followed comparisons with a local pollen collection. Forty-two pollen types were utilized by the bee; the most important families were Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae and Poaceae. The genus/species level ranking of relative importance showed Eucalyptus (19%, Raphanus raphanistrum (13%, Poaceae type 2 (7.5%, Jatropha cf. gossypiifolia (7% and Sapium glandulatum (6.5%. Overall, the majority of pollen types (80% were not abundantly harvested, and a minority (4% reached values of 10%. Given that the study area has cultivated plants and not natural vegetation, we indicate most of the identified species as manageable and point out that weedy vegetation can be an important food source for bees since it frequently occurred in the pollen spectra even within a totally cultivated area.Apresentamos dados sobre a coleta de pólen por Apis mellifera L. em uma localidade no centro-oeste do Brasil, ainda não estudada. Cargas corbiculares de pólen foram coletadas durante um ano em frente ao ninho, acetolisadas e montadas em lâminas para microscopia óptica. A identificação foi feita por comparação com uma coleção de referência local. Quarenta e dois tipos polínicos foram utilizados pelas abelhas; as famílias mais importantes foram Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae e Poaceae. O ranqueamento de importância relativa para gênero/espécie mostrou Eucalyptus (19%, Raphanus raphanistrum (13%, Poaceae tipo 2 (7,5%, Jatropha cf. gossypiifolia (7% e Sapium glandulatum (6,5%. No geral, a maioria dos recursos (80% não foi utilizada com abundância, e uma minoria (4% alcançou valores de 10%. Dado que a área de estudo não possui uma vegetação natural, mas cultivares, nós indicamos a maioria das espécies identificadas como manejáveis e apontamos que a vegetação ruderal pode ser importante como recurso alimentar para abelhas uma vez que ela ocorreu com frequência no espectro polínico mesmo dentro de uma área completamente cultivada.

  12. Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la Aplicación de distintos Principios Activos Control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Apidae by means of different active agents

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    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida de cuatro productos utilizados para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de Apis mellifera (L.. Se seleccionaron 25 colmenas dividivas en cinco lotes iguales a las que se les suministró Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® y Folbex®. El último lote representó el control. Los ácaros muertos se recolectaron en pisos especiales que se controlaron semanalmente. Finalizada la experiencia cada lote fue sometido a un cruzamiento con otros productos con el fin de eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder calcular las eficacias. El producto Apistan® fue el más efectivo con un valor promedio de 85,38% seguido por el Bayvarol® (83,83%, Apitol® (71,77% y Folbex® (62,78%. En todos los casos, los valores obtenidos resultaron inferiores a los estipulados por los laboratorios productores. Estos resultados alertan sobre la posible generación de resistencias por parte de las poblaciones del ácaro y la necesidad de buscar nuevos agentes de control eficaces para esta enfermedad.The aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of four commercial products against the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (L.. Twenty five honeybee colonies divided in five equal groups were selected. Groups received Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® and Folbex®. Final group was the control. Dead mites were collected weekly in special floors. After treatment, each colony received a shock treatment with the other three products to kill remnant mites and to obtain acaricide efficacy. Average values of efficacy were Apistan® 85,38%, Bayvarol® 83,83%, Apitol® 71,77% and Folbex® 62,78%. In all cases these values were lower than those reported by the laboratories that produce them. These results alert about the possible generation of resistant mite populations and justify research directed to search for alternative products for the control this parasite.

  13. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  14. A comunidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae s. l. em uma área restrita de campo natural no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Paraná: diversidade, fenologia e fontes florais de alimento The bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae s. l. in a restricted area of native grassland in the Vila Velha State Park, Paraná: diversity, phenology and food plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Coletas sistemáticas de abelhas em uma área restrita no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Paraná, no período de outubro de 2002 a outubro de 2003, resultaram em 1552 espécimes pertencentes a 181 espécies. Estas espécies estão distribuídas em 58 gêneros, 24 tribos e 5 subfamílias. As plantas visitadas correspondem a 113 espécies, em 72 gêneros e 38 famílias. Megachile com 20 espécies foi o gênero mais rico e Ceratina o gênero mais abundante dentre os gêneros nativos. Apis mellifera foi a espécie mais coletada, correspondendo a 28% do total de indivíduos, e Bombus atratus foi a espécie mais abundante dentre as abelhas nativas. A riqueza e a equitabilidade nos meses foram variáveis, sendo março o mais rico e novembro o de maior equitabilidade. Apesar de tradicionalmente considerados parte das estepes sulinas, os campos de Vila Velha apresentam uma fauna de abelhas contendo várias espécies típicas de cerrado. O igual número de espécies entre as subfamílias Apinae e Halictinae também apontam para uma peculiaridade de sua fauna. Listas de abelhas e plantas coletadas são apresentadas em anexo.A standardized survey of bees visiting blooming plants in an area covered by natural grasslands in the Vila Velha State Park was conducted from October, 2002, to October, 2003. A total of 1552 specimens belonging to 181 species were collected. These species are distributed in 58 genera, 24 tribes and 5 subfamilies. The visited plants belong to 113 species, in 72 genera and 38 families. Megachile, with 20 species, was the richest genus, while Ceratina was the most abundant native genus. Apis mellifera was the most abundant species, with 28% of all bees collected. Among the native species, Bombus atratus was the most abundant. Monthly richness and equitability varied along the year, March being the richest, and November, the most equitable. Despite being traditionally placed within the southern steppes, the open grasslands of Vila Velha contain numerous species previously only known from the cerrados of central Brazil. Also, when compared to other areas with open vegetation in Brazil, the bee fauna of Vila Velha stands out for having the subfamilies Apinae and Halictinae with equal number of species. Lists of bee species and of their host plants are appended.

  15. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age of the larvae to which it was applied, and this effect was greatest in 3-day-old larvae.

  16. Caracterização físico-química de amostras de méis de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae do Estado do Ceará Physical-chemical characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Ceará State

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    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar as características físico-químicas de amostras de méis coletadas em cidades do Estado do Ceará (Araripe, Santana do Cariri, Assaré, Iguatu, Crato, Missão Velha e Pacajús, foram determinados no Laboratório de Apicultura do Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP: açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, proteína, cinzas, pH, acidez, índice de formol, condutividade elétrica, viscosidade e cor de 20 amostras de méis Apis mellifera L., 1758, coletadas entre março de 2002 e agosto de 2002. A maioria das amostras de méis analisadas (65% encontra-se dentro das especificações brasileiras para as características físico-químicas, com exceção das características sacarose aparente (10% das amostras, umidade (10% das amostras, atividade diastásica (35% das amostras e HMF (20% das amostras. Os resultados indicaram condutividade elétrica e a sacarose aparente como as características que mais influenciaram no agrupamento das amostras.This research was aimed at to determining physico-chemical characteristics honey samples collected in cities of Ceara States (Araripe; Santana do Cariri 1 sample; Assaré 1 sample; Iguatu 8 samples; Crato 4 samples; Missão Velha 2 samples and Pacajús 3 samples, they were determined at the laboratory of Apiculture in the "Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State: total sugar, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, humidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, protein, ash, pH, acidity, formol index, electrical conductivity, viscosity and color of 20 samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 honey collected between March of 2002 and August of 2002. Most of the samples of honey analyzed (65% are inside of the Brazilian specifications for the characteristics physical-chemistries except for the characteristics apparent sucrose (10% of the samples, humidity (10% of the samples, diastase activity (35% of the samples and HMF (20% of the samples. The results showed electrical conductivity and apparent sucrose as characteristics that most influenced grouping samples.

  17. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Luan D.; Antonialli-Junior, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, t...

  18. Diversity of bees (Hymenoptera, Apiformes in extensive orchards in the highlands of Jordan

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    Al-Ghzawi, A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees visiting the blossoms of fruit trees were surveyed for the first time in Jordan. A transect was determined in Ebbin village in Ajlun (32° 22″ N, 35° 49″ E where the bees were collected from blossoms of stone fruit trees. Most of the specimens were identified up to the species level and few specimens were identified up to the genus level only. A total of 1,461 specimens were collected during the study period and 53 bee species were identified and recorded for the first time in Jordan. The collected species represented five families: Apidae, Megachilidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae and Colletidae. The results showed that Apidae and Megachilidae were the largest in terms of diversity, while Halictidae showed the highest abundance.

  19. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  20. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Perez-Riverol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA and specific immunotherapy (SIT have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  1. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) en la Comunidad de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain) is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 ...

  2. Contrasting rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L R; Austin, A D; Dowton, M

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the putative association between the parasitic lifestyle and an accelerated rate of mt genetic divergence, compositional bias, and gene rearrangement, employing a range of parasitic and nonparasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera. Sequences were obtained for the cox1, cox2, 16S, 28S genes, the regions between the cox2 and atp8 genes, and between the nad3 and nad5 genes. Relative rate tests indicated generally that the parasitic lifestyle was not associated with an increased rate of genetic divergence in the Diptera but reaffirmed that it was in the Hymenoptera. Similarly, a departure from compositional stationarity was not associated with parasitic Diptera but was in parasitic Hymenoptera. Finally, mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements were not observed in any of the dipteran species examined. The results indicate that these genetic phenomena are not accelerated in parasitic Diptera compared with nonparasitic Diptera. A possible explanation for the differences in the rate of mt molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera is the extraordinary level of radiation that has occurred within the parasitic Hymenoptera but not in any of the dipteran parasitic lineages. If speciation events in the parasitic Hymenoptera are associated with founder events, a faster rate of molecular evolution is expected. Alternatively, biological differences between endoparasitic Hymenoptera and endoparasitic Diptera may also account for the differences observed in molecular evolution.

  3. Las avispas bandera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Zambrano González Giselle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas. Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones  entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y taxonomía de  Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución geográfica de los géneros de la f amilia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  4. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 870 ... Vol 1, No 1 (2001), ENHANCING PEOPLE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS ... colonization by honey bees (Apis mellifera adansonii) (Hymenoptera: apidae) ... affected and non-affected households in Kisumu district, Kenya.

  6. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera; Pyr

  7. A faunistic study on some subfamilies of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) from Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samin, N.; Achterberg, van C.; Erdoğan, Ö. Ç.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) recently collected in 13 provinces of Iran. In total, 33 species belonging to 16 subfamilies: Charmontinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Euphorinae, Exothecinae, Histeromerinae, Homolobinae, Ichneutinae, Macrocentrinae, Microty

  8. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  9. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  10. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  11. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  12. Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...AND SUBTITLE Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control 6. AUTHOR(S) David F. Williams...TARGETING: REDUCED PESTICIDE USE STRATEGY FOR PHARAOH’S ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) CONTROL DAVID F. WILLIAMS, RICHARD J. BRENNER AND DAVID MILNE

  13. Pengaruh Beberapa Ukuran Pupa Penggerek Batang Tebu Terhadap Jumlah Populasi Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Julian Simatupang, “The effect of Pupae Size of Sugarcane Stem Borer on The Tetrastichus sp. Population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS. and Ir. Fatimah Zahara. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of some pupae size of sugarcane stem borer on the Tetrastichus sp. population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory. The research was held at Laboratory of Sugarcane Research and Development Sei Semayang, Binjai...

  14. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  15. Revision of the neotropical genus Sendaphne Nixon (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus of parasitoid wasps Sendaphne (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae is revised and the following six new species are described, all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: anitae, bennetti, broadi, dianariaspennae, penteadodiasae, and rogerblancoi. The greatest species richness is found in northern South America, but the genus extends north to 23° N in Mexico. Most species have been collected in rainforest below altitudes of 900 m, with only a few species found in cloud forests up to 1900 m. Nothing is known of the host caterpillars for these parasitoid wasps.

  16. Revision of Zelodia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of Thai Zelodia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are revised. Twenty-one species are treated, 19 new species are described, i.e. Zelodia charoeni, Zelodia chongkraii, Zelodia cholathorni, Zelodia idrisi, Zelodia nikomi, Zelodia nopadoli, Zelodia pahangensis, Zelodia panyaii, Zelodia poonsathii, Zelodia ratanae, Zelodia saksiti, Zelodia surachaii, Zelodia suyaneeae, Zelodia toyae, Zelodia uthaii, Zelodia wangi, Zelodia wichaii, Zelodia wirati, Zelodia wirotei. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ.

  18. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

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    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  19. Estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera (insecta

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    Jorge F. Genise

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión sobre los estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera plP.- tende destacar la forma tan particular en que la etología es encarada en este grupo de insectos, resaltando ciertas modalidades y conceptos, algunos de ellos de posible aplicación en otros grupos, cspecialmente de invertebrados. Los puntos sobresalientes pueden resumirse así; 1 El estudio de los grupos de Hymenoptera solitarios cercanamente emparentados con los sociales, para rastrear evolutivamente los patrones de comportamiento que ya presentes en las especies no sociales se habrían combinado para dar una conducta social. 2 La división en fases de esta evolución como esquema básico para encarar las investigaciones y la búsqueda de modelos de transición entre fases que permitan ejemplificar sin discontinuidades importantes el proceso evolutivo. 3 El estudio de la filogenia de otros patrones de comportamiento no directamente relacionados con la conducta social, que alcanzan su máxima expresión en grupos no sociales. 4 El estudio del comportamiento de los organismos que posiblemente hayan actuado como agentes selectivos en la evolución. 5 La contribución que los estudios etológicos hacen a la ecología, al esclarecer ciertos aspectos relacionados con la inserción de las especies en los ecosistemas

  20. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

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    Driessen Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD. Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens and polyandry (multiple mating. Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order.

  1. L'activité de butinage des Apoides sauvages (Hymenoptera Apoidea sur les fleurs de maïs à Yaounde (Cameroon et réflexions sur la pollinisation des graminées tropicales

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    Tchuenguem-Fohouo F.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The gatering activity of wild bees (Hymenoptera Apoidea on flowers of maize at Yaound (Cameroon and further considerations on pollination of the tropical Gramineae. At Nkolbisson (Yaounde, Cameroon, in May 1991, flowers of maize (Zea mays L; Poaceae were observed for the study of pollen gathering by five different species of wild bees: one Apidae Meliponinae (Dactylurina staudingeri and four Halictidae Nomiinae (Lipotriches andrei, Lipotriches langi, Lipotriches notabilis and Leuconomia granulata. Each of these Apoidea is well attracted by pollen of maize. The larger number of bees foraging at the same time on a panicle varies from one with Dactylurina staudingeri to four with Lipotriches andrei and Lipotriches notabilis. Generally, bees forage maize during the whole day and during the full flowering period but visits are more numerous in the morning and during the period of intense flowering. Median duration of a visit on a male spikelet varies from 1 sec with Dactylurina staudingeri to 7 sec with Lipotriches andrei. These Apoidea have an elaborated behaviour when gathering pollen of maize. Dactylurina staudingeri however seems less adapted to the floral morphology of Poaceae comparing with Lipotriches. When foraging maize, all these bees are regular visitors to flowers of this plant, even in the presence of other flower species in the vicinity of the crop. Bees studied have a positive impact on the yield of grains due to a complementary action with the well known one of the wind. The influence is indirect as the bees are seldom visiting the stigmates. The explanation is that when the bees are very common on the panicles they shake the anthers, inducing the release of pollen grains in the atmosphere even in the days without wind. The part of wild bees in the increase of yields is estimated to 3/ while the one of the domestic bees (Apis mellifera is estimated to 21/ in that locality. The authors are reviewing existing literature on grass crop

  2. Higher mast cell load decreases the risk of Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anrooij, Bjorn; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; van der Heide, Sicco; Kluin-Nelemans, Johanna C.; van Voorst Vader, Pieter C.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased basal serum tryptase (bsT) levels are a well-described risk factor for Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis (HVAn) in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. Increased bsT levels might also indicate the presence of mastocytosis. In this study we evaluated whether the risk of H

  3. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  4. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  5. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

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    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  6. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  7. Técnicas de captura de Hymenoptera (Insecta

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    Frederico Machado Teixeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma revisão de métodos de amostragem comumente usado para o censo Hymenoptera. Considerações sobre qual método é aplicável em determinadas situações são feitas. Indicação de análise e programas computacionais são sugeridos. Aborda o problema da dificuldade de identificação de espécies coletadas, e formas de reduzir essa dificuldade, como a utilização de sistemas computacionais on-line para a identificação das espécies tanto por meio de fotos de alta qualidade digital como por meio de análises moleculares com comparação de sequência genética em banco de dados de referência.

  8. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory.

  9. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

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    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  10. Vertical stratification of selected Hymenoptera in a remnant forest of the Po Plain (Italy, Lombardy (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae

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    Filippo Di Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities of the canopy of temperate forests are still relatively unexplored. Furthermore, very little is known on how vertical stratification for some insect groups is related to biological strategies. In this study, we investigated the community composition of both canopy and understory of the families Ampulicidae, Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera of the Natural Reserve of “Bosco della Fontana”, a remnant lowland forest in northeastern Italy. Observed patterns in vertical stratification have been related to species foraging habits. Our study reveals that the bulk of the community of Spheciformes of the understory consists of species predating dipterans and spiders, while species associated with the canopy are mainly predators of sap-sucking honeydew producers and epiphyte grazers, like aphids, thrips, and barkflies. Comparing the communities of canopy and understory may lead to a better understanding of species ecology and provides useful information to forest managers.

  11. Oligonucleotide primers for targeted amplification of single-copy nuclear genes in apocritan Hymenoptera.

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    Gerrit Hartig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published nucleotide sequence data from the mega-diverse insect order Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants are taxonomically scattered and still inadequate for reconstructing a well-supported phylogenetic tree for the order. The analysis of comprehensive multiple gene data sets obtained via targeted PCR could provide a cost-effective solution to this problem. However, oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of nuclear genes across a wide range of hymenopteran species are still scarce. FINDINGS: Here we present a suite of degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs for PCR amplification of 154 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from Hymenoptera. These primers were inferred from genome sequence data from nine Hymenoptera (seven species of ants, the honeybee, and the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We empirically tested a randomly chosen subset of these primer pairs for amplifying target genes from six Hymenoptera, representing the families Chrysididae, Crabronidae, Gasteruptiidae, Leucospidae, Pompilidae, and Stephanidae. Based on our results, we estimate that these primers are suitable for studying a large number of nuclear genes across a wide range of apocritan Hymenoptera (i.e., all hymenopterans with a wasp-waist and of aculeate Hymenoptera in particular (i.e., apocritan wasps with stingers. CONCLUSIONS: The amplified nucleotide sequences are (a with high probability from single-copy genes, (b easily generated at low financial costs, especially when compared to phylogenomic approaches, (c easily sequenced by means of an additionally provided set of sequencing primers, and (d suitable to address a wide range of phylogenetic questions and to aid rapid species identification via barcoding, as many amplicons contain both exonic and fast-evolving intronic nucleotides.

  12. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  13. Sampling and Diversity of Hymenoptera (Insecta) in an Orange Orchard/Brazilian Savannah Fragment Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rogeria Lara; Daniell Fernandes; Danielle versuti; Maria Tango; Nelson Perioto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the diversity of Hymenoptera in an orange orchard / Brazilian savannah fragment interface in Descalvado, State of São Paulo, Brazil, using Moericke, Malaise and pitfall traps. The sampling was carried out from February to June 2006, when 5,148 specimens of Hymenoptera, from 12 superfamilies and 36 families, were caught: Chalcidoidea (1,885 specimens; 36.6% out of the total; 14 families), Ichneumonoidea (715; 13.9%; 2), Vespoidea (554; 10.8%; 5), Apoid...

  14. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  15. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  16. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  17. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  18. First occurrence of Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes (Nixon, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae in Brazil and new biological data

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    AM. Penteado-Dias

    Full Text Available Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes (Nixon, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae was reared from the host Fountainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae, collected on Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae in São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The hyperperparasitoids Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae and a Pteromalidae species are registered on this microgastrine species. Male and female specimens and cocoon of Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes are illustrated for the first time.

  19. First occurrence of Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) in Brazil and new biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado-Dias, A M; Fernandes, L B R; Iemma, L G R; Dias, M M

    2011-08-01

    Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) was reared from the host Fountainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae), collected on Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) in São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The hyperperparasitoids Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) and a Pteromalidae species are registered on this microgastrine species. Male and female specimens and cocoon of Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes are illustrated for the first time.

  20. Wolbachia infection in Cotesia sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) causes cytoplasmic incompatibility : implications for biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochiah, M.B.; Ngi-Song, A.J.; Overholt, W.A.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Cotesia sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an indigenous, gregarious, larval endoparasitoid that attacks mid- to late-instar of the stem borer larvae. Although the parasitoid is distributed widely throughout Africa, not all local populations appear to be equally effective in controlling stem bore

  1. Insect Pupil Mechanisms. I. On the Pigment Migration in the Retinula Cells of Hymenoptera (Suborder Apocrita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Kuiper, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The pupil mechanism of Hymenoptera (suborder Apocrita) has been studied by simultaneous recordings of transmission and reflection from the compound eye of virtually intact animals. It is confirmed that the light flux in the photoreceptors is controlled by pigment granules in the retinula cells; the

  2. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  3. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja C Seltmann

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology, historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  4. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  5. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  6. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  7. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  8. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e.

  9. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  10. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  11. An annotated catalogue of Primary types of symphyta (Hymenoptera) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary types of 48 species of Symphyta (Hymenoptera), described by Van Achterberg & Van Aartsen (2), Benson (7), Cameron (1), Forsius (13), Koornneef (1) and Snellen van Vollenhoven (24), housed in the collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (Leiden), the Instituut voor

  12. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  13. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  14. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  15. Nesten van de reuzenmier Camponotus ligniperda in het noordwesten van haar verspreidingsgebied (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierbergen, G.; Loon, van A.J.; Versluys, G.; Willems, N.H.W.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nests of the carpenter ant Camponotus ligniperda in the northwestern part of its range (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Camponotus ligniperda (Latreille, 1802) is a rare ant species restricted to the eastern part of the Netherlands. Most records relate to a low number of workers. In this paper the species

  16. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  17. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  18. New taxa of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from French Guiana and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Three genera of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are treated and keyed: Ptesimogaster Marsh, 1965, Caingangia Marsh, 1993, and Leptodoryctes Barbalho & Penteado- Dias, 1999. The latter genus is characterised by the presence of an apical setal comb on the hind tibia.

  19. Campsomerinae (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae) collected in Malawi (Central Africa) between 1968 and 1973

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulten, G.G.M.

    1975-01-01

    A collection of 301 Campsomerinae (Hymenoptera; Scoliidae) was made in Malawi (Central Africa) between 1968 – 1973. The specimens belong to 14 species, 10 subspecies and 4 formae, of which 5 species, 2 subspecies and 3 formae are new to the fauna of Malawi. A description is given of two new species

  20. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  1. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  2. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e. Centiste

  3. De graafwesp Passaloecus brevilabris nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rond, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The diggerwasp Passaloecus brevilabris new to the Dutch fauna (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) In the summer of 2002 a new diggerwasp for the Netherlands was found by the author, north of Herkenbosch (province of Limburg) at the edge of a forest consisting mainly of pine Pinus sylvestris and oak Quercus r

  4. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  5. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  6. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; Miranda, J.M.; V.A Costa

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptor...

  7. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  8. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, A. MARCANGELI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar los niveles de infestación de Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en panales de cría nuevos y viejos, en colonias de la abeja criolla (híbrido de Apis mellifera mellifera (Linnaeus y Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en un apiario ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante la primavera del año 2005. Se trabajó sobre 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth, de un híbrido de Apis mellifera (Linnaeus infestadas naturalmente por el ácaro Varroa destructor, y seleccionadas al azar. En cada una de ellas se escogió un panal de 2 años (viejo que se colocó en el centro del nido de cría, junto con un panal recientemente labrado por las abejas (nuevo. Luego de que ambos cuadros fueran operculados, se los extrajo y se llevaron al laboratorio para su posterior análisis. Cada una de las celdas de cría se desoperculó e inspeccionó en busca de ácaros, registrándose el número de hembras de ácaros que habían ingresado para su reproducción, se calculó el nivel de infestación como el cociente entre el número de celdas infestadas por ácaros y el número total de celdas inspeccionadas. Los resultados mostraron que los panales viejos presentaron niveles de infestación significativamente superiores a los registrados en panales nuevos (13,52% ± 3,35 y 6,18% ± 2,12 respectivamente; t = 10,62; p = 1,9 E-9; g. l.= 19. El mismo patrón fue observado en el número promedio de ácaros por panal (443,3 ± 70,54 y 217,85 ± 51,76 para panales viejos y nuevos respectivamente; t = 23,87; p = 1,24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Los ácaros presentan una marcada preferencia por los panales viejos. Esta selección estaría guiada por olores propios de las celdas, que actuarían como atrayentes. Además, posiblemente enmascaran su presencia de esta manera y evitan así ser detectados y eliminados por las abejas nodrizas mediante los comportamientos higiénicos.

  9. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia DAMIANI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis causada por el ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman es, actualmente considerada el mayor escollo para el desarrollo de la apicultura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la técnica del entrampamiento de ácaros en panales de cría, como posible método de control de la parasitosis. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre colmenas tipo Langstroth del híbrido regional de Apis mellifera (Linneaus. En cada colmena experimental se procedió a confinar a la reina en panales trampa específicos, con el fin de poder controlar la oviposición. Estos panales, luego de ser operculados por las obreras, fueron llevados al laboratorio donde se desoperculó cada una de las celdas de cría, y se contabilizó el número de ácaros presentes. Esta técnica se aplicó variando el número de panales trampa (1-3 colocados, tanto para los constituidos por celdas de cría de obreras como de zánganos. También, se evaluó el impacto de la aplicación de esta técnica sobre el desarrollo de las colonias, mediante la medición de su productividad. Los resultados indican, que la técnica empleada sólo es efectiva, cuando se aplican tres panales de cría de zánganos de manera consecutiva alcanzando una efectividad máxima de 84%. Cuando se aplican tres panales de obreras, la técnica mostró niveles de efectividad muy inferiores (14%. En las colonias sobre las que se aplicó esta técnica, la productividad de miel se redujo significativamente, comparada con las colonias control. Esta técnica resulta ideal para ser combinada con otros mecanismos de control, disminuyendo la aplicación de sustancias químicas que puedan contaminar la miel, y la generación de resistencia por parte del ácaro frente a los principios activos utilizados para su control.

  10. Riqueza e Abundância de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae em Parques Urbanos de Goiânia, Goiáse em parques urbanos de Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Grandolfo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Urban environments have become a refuge for many species, including some bees of the tribe Euglossini. The group includes species with large capacity flight, so they are considered important neotropical pollinators. Euglossini is scarce information about the Cerrado, incomplete information like geographic distribution, which are endemic and which are cosmopolitan. This study aimed to identify and analyze the composition of bee species of the tribe Euglossini occurring in urban parks as to abundance, richness and attractiveness through the use of scent baits. The specimens of Euglossini were collected monthly from April to August 2008 in four urban parks in Goiânia, Goiás. The bees were sampled with the aid of scent traps, exposed from 8 am to 12 noon, containing one of the essences: salicylate methyl, benzyl acetate, cineole, vanillin. We collected 147 male orchid bees belonging to three genera and five species. There was a strong dominance of individuals Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (95.23%, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus (2.72%. The Cineol was the essence that attracted the greatest abundance of males and methyl salicylate had the highest species richness attracted. This study is the first record of species occurrence of Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin and Euglossa imperialis Cockerell for the Midwest and Euglossa variabilis Friese for the Cerrado. The preservation of all these areas will keep bee populations of wild these regions ecological importance of maintaining the service pollination of plant species.

  11. 婚飞行为影响中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王的基因表达%Mating flight behaviour affects gene expression in matured virgin queens of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小波; 王子龙; 张飞; 石元元; 曾志将

    2013-01-01

    Queen mating flight is an important prelude of sexual matured virgin queens mating with drones,which is usually accompanied by a series of important physiological changes in queens' bodies.In order to explore the differences of gene expression following queen mating flight behaviour,we analyzed the gene expression differences between the flying matured virgin queens and non-flying matured virgin queens of Apis cerana cerana using a high-throughput sequencing method.Through digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing,we obtained 5.98 and 6.01 million clean tags from the flying matured virgin queen and non-flying matured virgin queen samples,respectively.A total of 250 genes were differentially expressed between both,with 133 up-regulated and 117 down-regulated in the flying matured virgin queens.These differentially expressed genes can be classified into 348 functional categories and involved in 142 biochemical pathways,indicating that there are a large number of genes whose expression levels change during mating flight process of matured virgin queens.The results provide important gene expression information for further researching the molecular mechanisms of the physiological changes during queen mating flight in A.cerana cerana.%婚飞是性成熟处女蜂王与雄蜂交配过程中的一个重要前奏,在该过程中蜂王体内伴随着一系列重要的生理变化.为了探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana处女蜂王婚飞过程中基因表达变化,本研究利用数字基因表达谱(digital gene expression,DGE)技术分析了中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王飞行与未飞行之间的基因表达差异.经DGE测序,分别从两个样品中获得5.98和6.01百万条Clean标签.通过分析检测到250个基因有差异表达,其中133个基因在飞行蜂王中上调表达,117个基因在飞行蜂王中下调表达.这些差异基因可以归类到348个功能性类别和142个生化途径.结果表明中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王在婚飞过程中大量基因的表达发生了变化.这些结果为进一步研究中华蜜蜂蜂王婚飞过程中生理变化的分子机制提供了重要的基因表达信息.

  12. Assessing the Role of Environmental Conditions on Efficacy Rates of Heterorhabditis indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) for Controlling Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: a Citizen Science Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth S; Smythe, Ashleigh B; Delaney, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    Certain species of entomopathogenic nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David, have the potential to be effective controls for Aethina tumida (Murray), or small hive beetles, when applied to the soil surrounding honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Despite the efficacy of H. indica, beekeepers have struggled to use them successfully as a biocontrol. It is believed that the sensitivity of H. indica to certain environmental conditions is the primary reason for this lack of success. Although research has been conducted to explore the impact of specific environmental conditions--such as soil moisture or soil temperature-on entomopathogenic nematode infectivity, no study to date has taken a comprehensive approach that considers the impact of multiple environmental conditions simultaneously. In exploring this, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine what environmental conditions resulted in reductions of A. tumida populations in honey bee colonies. To obtain the sample sizes necessary to run a multivariate logistic regression, this study utilized citizen scientist beekeepers and their hives from across the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results suggest that soil moisture, soil temperatures, sunlight exposure, and groundcover contribute to the efficacy of H. indica in reducing A. tumida populations in A. mellifera colonies. The results of this study offer direction for future research on the environmental preferences of H. indica and can be used to educate beekeepers about methods for better utilizing H. indica as a biological control.

  13. Efecto de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae sobre la productividad de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cure José Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En varios países se utilizan con éxito especies de abejorros del género Bombus para la polinización de tomate, reportándose incrementos de productividad hasta del 40%. En la Sabana de Bogotá existen varias especies nativas del género, por lo que se planteó examinar su potencial, desde el punto de vista de su cría en cautiverio y de su utilización como polinizadores de tomate y otras solanáceas. En este trabajo se evaluó el potencial de la especie nativa Bombus atratus como polinizador de tomate, mediante la introducción al cultivo de colonias criadas en cautiverio. Se comparó la autopolinización espontánea de la planta, frente a la obtenida con ayuda de las obreras de B. atratus. Los frutos visitados por ellas presentaron incrementos significativos para las variables ‘peso fresco del fruto’ (40,9%, ‘número de semillas’ (103,3%, ‘diámetro ecuatorial’ (14,3% y ‘proporción de lóculos bien desarrollados’ (42,2%. La relativa facilidad para la cría de esta especie en cautiverio, y el potencial demostrado en el aumento de productividad del tomate bajo invernadero, muestran la necesidad de profundizar en estos estudios en Colombia.

  14. Composição físico-química de amostras de pólen coletado por abelhas Africanizadas Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera:Apidae em Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Luís Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a composição físico-química de amostras do pólen coletado por abelhas Africanizadas, foram realizadas coletas em 5 colméias de abelhas Apis mellifera Africanizadas utilizando coletores de pólen de alvado (frontais com orifícios de 4,00mm de diâmetro, em Piracicaba, São Paulo, durante um ano (março de 1999 a março de 2000. A composição química das amostras foi determinada no Laboratório de Apicultura do Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, ESALQ/USP. Foram obtidas as seguintes médias: 21,5% de proteínas; 2,8% de cinzas; 23,6% de umidade; 76,3% de resíduo seco; 3,5% de lipídios; 28,4% de açúcares totais; 20,7mEq kg-1 de pólen de acidez titulável e pH igual a 5,1. Para análise estatística, foram considerados todos os dados referentes aos diferentes dias de coleta, sendo as médias mensais comparadas pelo teste de Tukey em nível de 5%. Foram verificadas diferenças significativas nas médias ao longo do ano para os diferentes parâmetros estudados, com exceção da porcentagem de cinzas que não apresentou variação significativa.

  15. 密林熊蜂雄性成蜂生殖系统发育动态%Development of the reproductive system in the male adult of bumblebee Bombus patagiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭媛; 刘耀明; 邵有全

    2012-01-01

    To study the developmental process of the reproductive system in the male adult of bumblebee Bombus patagiatus Nylander following emergence, semen volume, sperm count, gonad and spermatheca size of the reproductive system in virgin male adults at different day-old (1-15 day-old) were measured. The results showed that the volume of seminal fluid of drones at 1 day-old (5. 95±0. 39 (μL) was maximal, while the sperm count of drones at 2 day-old reaches the peak under microscope. The number of motile sperms in the semen presented repeated wave trends. The motile sperm count (25. 93±1. 06) and the total number of sperm in the semen (160. 67±17. 11 ten thousand) reached the maximum at 9 day-old. The highest percentages of motile sperms were 86. 38%±2. 02% and 86. 45%±2. 50% , respectively, at 8 and 9 day-old. The length of gonad (1 522.01±37.93 μm) was minimum at 1 day-old. The middle width of spermatheca (86. 38±2.96μm) reached the maximum at 7 day-old, but had no significant difference with that at 9 day-old. The results indicate that the indexes of the reproductive system are relatively stable in drones at 8 - 9 day-old, and drones reach sexual maturity and could mate during this stage. The study provides a theoretical basis for artificial breeding of B. patagiatus.%为了研究密林熊蜂Bombus patagiatus Nylander雄蜂出房后生殖系统发育变化过程,本研究首次对密林熊蜂雄性成蜂(1-15日龄)生殖系统的精液量、精子数、性腺大小、储精囊大小等进行了测定.结果显示:雄性成蜂在1日龄时精液量最大,达到5.95±0.39 μL;镜检精子数在2日龄最多;而精液中活动精子数出现波浪式的循环趋势,9日龄达到最大值,为25.93 ± 1.06个;精液中精子总数在9日龄达到最大值,为160.67±17.11万个;活动精子百分比以8、9日龄最高,分别达到86.38%±2.02%及86.45%±2.50%;性腺长度在1日龄时最小,为1 522.01 ±37.93 μm;储精囊的中部宽度在7日龄最宽,达86.38±2.96 μrm,但与9日龄相比无显著差异.由此可见,8-9日龄雄性成蜂个体各指标较为稳定,该日龄即为雄性成蜂性成熟且可以交配的时期.本研究结果为密林熊蜂人工繁育提供了理论依据.

  16. Producción del manzano (Malus sp. cv Anna en el oriente Antioqueño con la abeja melífera, Apis mellifera L. (hymenoptera: apidae.

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    Botero Garcés Natalia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de diversificar cultivos ha marcado el comienzo de otras alternativas agronómicas en nuestro país tales como la producción de manzano. Hace unos 6 años se inició en Colombia la plantación de cultivares comerciales mejorados de cuya biología y necesidades poco se sabe. Se planteó un estudio sobre la influencia de la polinización entomófila en la producción de manzana Anna. El trabajo se desarrolló en un cultivo de manzano en el Municipio del Carmen de Viboral (Oriente Antioqueño, correspondiente a la zona de vida bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-MB, con temperatura promedio anual de 14-24°C, altura de 2200 msnm y precipitación promedio anual de 1800 mm. Se propuso estimar el efecto de los insectos polinizadores en la producción, comparando ésta en ramas enjauladas excluidas de todos los visitantes florales, con la de ramas expuestas a éstos durante la floración, en árboles escogidos al azar. Se encontró que las ramas que habían sido visitadas por insectos producían significativamente más manzanas (t = 2,95, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., con mayor pesos (t=2,21, para t0.05 con 18 g.l. y mayor número de semillas (t=3.75, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., que ramas sin acceso de visitantes florales. Una medición de índices de diversidad mostró que la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. constituyó el 76% de los visitantes florales y que la diversidad fue muy baja (λ=0.7439. Se concluyó que el manzano Anna requiere polinización entomófila, que la abeja melífera fue el polinizador más importante y que se incrementó significativamente la producción de frutos bajo la influencia de esta especie de abeja. Se recomienda la introducción al cultivo de Apis mellifera al momento de la floración, para garantizar una producción adecuada.

  17. Effects of different diets on worker colony development of the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita Pérez(Hymenoptera:Apidae)%不同饲料对小峰熊蜂工蜂群发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 黄家兴; 安建东; 胡福良

    2009-01-01

    糖和花粉对熊蜂的生长发育和繁殖起重要作用.本研究测定和分析了2种糖源(白砂糖、蜂蜜)和5种花粉(杏花粉、油菜花粉、向日葵花粉、玉米花粉、茶花粉)的饲料组合对小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrita的无王工蜂群寿命、产卵前期时间、产卵量、幼虫拖出数、卵杯数、雄蜂出房时间和子代雄蜂数量的影响.结果表明:只饲喂糖类食物时,工蜂寿命显著短于有花粉的饲料组,而且工蜂不产卵.含有花粉的各饲料组之间工蜂寿命存在显著差异,饲喂玉米花粉的工蜂寿命小于其他4种花粉组.在工蜂产卵前期时间和卵杯数量方面,10种含有花粉的饲料组之间差异不显著;但在产卵量、幼虫拖出数、雄蜂出房时间和子代雄蜂数量等方面,各饲料组之间差异较大.白砂糖和杏花粉组的产卵量最高;杏花粉组和茶花粉组的幼虫拖出数量显著低于其他花粉组;油菜花粉组和杏花粉组的雄蜂出房时间显著短于其他花粉组;杏花粉组的子代雄蜂数量显著高于其他饲料组.结果显示不同饲料组合对小峰熊蜂工蜂群的发育影响很大.因此建议在熊蜂的人工繁育过程中,在不同的发育阶段应给予不同的饲料配方.%Sugar and pollen play an important role in the development and reproduction of bumble bees. The effect of feed combinations with different sugar and pollen on the reproduction of the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita Pérez was investigated by feeding micro-colonies of queenless workers. Two kinds of sugars [sucrose (S) and honey (H)] and five kinds of pollen [rape(RP), apricot (AP),sunflower (SP) , corn (CP) and tea (TP) ] were used in twenty-four treatments. The results showed that the workers just fed with sugar did not lay eggs with longevity significantly shorter than other treatments fed with sugar and pollen. Pollen also caused significant difference in the longevity of workers. The longevity of workers fed on corn pollen was significantly shorter than those of workers fed on other pollen. Pollen did not cause significant difference in worker' s pre-oviposition time and number of egg cups. However, feeds affected significantly the numbers of laid eggs, larval ejection, duration of male development and the number of progeny. Among all the treatments, S + AP treatment delivered the highest number of eggs, AP and TP treatments caused a lower number of larval ejection, RP and AP treatments led to shorter male development time, and AP treatment contributed to a higher number of progeny. The results suggest that the worker colony development is significantly affected by different feeds. We so suggest that different food for bumblebee colony should be provided at different developmental phases in artificial rearing of bumblebees.

  18. Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E L; Viana, B F

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions.

  19. Sequence analysis and mRNA expression of mab-21 gene in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂mab-21基因序列分析及表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菲; 吴鹏杰; 李雨时; 王秀红; 国占宝; 徐书法; 吴杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Male abnomal 21(mab-21)基因在不同发育阶段的表达特性及染螨条件下mab-21基因表达变化规律.[方法]本研究利用RT-PCR方法,克隆了中华蜜蜂mab-21的基因编码区;采用荧光定量PCR方法检测了中华蜜蜂mab-21在不同发育时期(新出房蜂、哺育蜂、守卫蜂及采集蜂)工蜂头部中mRNA的表达量以及接种大蜂螨Varroa destructor前后mab-21基因的表达变化.[结果]克隆获得中华蜜蜂mab-21cDNA,命名为Accmab21(GenBank登录号KR000001).序列分析显示,该编码区开放阅读框长为1 098 bp,编码365个氨基酸,推测的编码蛋白的相对分子量和等电点分别为41.63 kD和8.53.系统发育分析表明中华蜜蜂mab-21与西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera mab-21、小蜜蜂Apis florea mab-21和熊蜂Bombus impatiens mab-21聚成一支.该基因在中华蜜蜂工蜂的不同发育时期均有表达,其中哺育蜂阶段显著高于新出房蜂、守卫蜂和采集蜂(P<0.05).接种大蜂螨后,哺育蜂和守卫蜂中mab-21基因的表达下降显著(P<0.05);而在新出房蜂和采集蜂中表达量变化不显著.[结论]该基因可能与中华蜜蜂抗螨行为相关.

  20. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions.

  1. Comparative Analyses of Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) and Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) at the mRNA Level between Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Soon-Gyu; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared stress-induced expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) genes in the European honeybee Apis mellifera L. and Asian honeybee Apis cerana F. Expression of both SOD1 and TrxR rapidly increased up to 5 h after exposure to cold (4 °C) or heat (37 °C) treatment and then gradually decreased, with a stronger effect induced by cold stress in A. mellifera compared with A. cerana. Injection of stress-inducing substances (methyl viologen, [MV] and H2O2) also increased SOD1 and TrxR expression in both A. mellifera and A. cerana, and this effect was more pronounced with MV than H2O2. Additionally, we heterologously expressed the A. mellifera and A. cerana SOD1 and TrxR proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system, and detection by SDS-PAGE, confirmed by Western blotting using anti-His tag antibodies, revealed bands at 16 and 60 kDa, respectively. Our results show that the expression patterns of SOD1 and TrxR differ between A. mellifera and A. cerana under conditions of low or high temperature as well as oxidative stress.

  2. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  3. Estudo das glândulas mandibulares e ovários de operárias de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae mantidas em condiçoes artificiais

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    Claudia Regina de Salvo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os ovários e as glândulas mandibulares de Apis mellifera mantidas em condições artificiais e foi observado que em pequenos grupos (menos de 20 abelhas os órgãos analisados não se desenvolveram.The ovaries and mandibular glands in workers of Apis mellifera under artificial conditions were studied and was observed that in small groups (less than 20 bees the analyzed organs did not develop.

  4. Reproductive Biology of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X-L; Huang, Z-Y; Li, J; Yang, Z-D; Yang, X-H; Lu, W

    2017-03-14

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations around the world. The successful colonization of L. invasa is possibly related to its reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to examine the reproductive biology of L. invasa. In Guangxi Province, the sex ratio (proportion of female, 0.99) of L. invasa was female-dominant throughout the year based on natural and artificial infestation. This result was similar to the ratios observed for other geographic populations in China, including those in Fujian (0.99), Guangdong (0.98), Hainan (0.95), Jiangxi (0.96), and Sichuan (0.99). The offspring sex ratio favored females. A large number of females emerged from the galls produced by females, with few males found. Galls on the petioles and midribs of Eucalyptus plants could be caused by newly emerged females with mature eggs. The lengths of the ovariole, spermatheca, common oviduct, and reproductive glands did not differ among L. invasa females, but their lateral oviducts showed differences from 0 to 42 h after emergence, indicating that this insect is proovigenic. These results could explain why L. invasa populations can rapidly increase in invaded areas.

  5. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  6. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  7. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Clarke, Jessica; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2010-10-07

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  8. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  9. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

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    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  10. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charuwat Taekul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee, syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd, syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia; Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa; and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia.

  11. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  12. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

    2010-06-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America.

  13. Improvement in the cold storage of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae

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    Isabelle Frère

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is beginning to be more commonly used, especially in greenhouses. The inundatory release of insects, especially parasitoids, requires a thorough knowledge of their biology and of mass-rearing techniques. Moreover, to synchronize releases with host presence, the parasitoids have to be kept in cold storage. However, cold storage may lead to a decrease in the viability of the parasitoids, in particular their survival, mobility and sex ratio. The aim of this study was to determine the best temperature at which to keep parasitoid mummies in cold storage. The parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and two of its host aphids, Sitobion avenae and Acyrthosiphon pisum, were used. It is concluded that the mummies can be kept for a maximum of two weeks at 7 °C without emergence of adults and for seven weeks at 2 °C without emergence or mortality. Moreover, storage of the mummies at 7 or 2 °C does not affect fertility. However, parasitoid pupae in A. pisum mummies suffered a higher mortality and took longer to complete their development. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. CONSERVATION PROBLEMS OF BEE FAUNA (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA, APIFORMES IN RESERVE „GÓRA GIPSOWA”

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    Lucyna Twerd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of research conducted in July of 2008 and 2010 in xerothermic plants reserve “Góra Gipsowa” in NW Poland were presented. During field surveys 75 species of Apiformes were found: Colletidae (9 species, Andrenidae (11 species, Halictidae (17 species, Melittidae (3 species, Megachilidae (19 species, Anthophoridae (5 species, Apidae (11 species. It is a significant number, especially when taking into account insular character of the reserve, small area, impact of surroundings and that investigations were limited to summer period. Number of species obtained in 2010, which is several times lower than obtained in 2008, indicates strong anthropopressure on the environment and corroborates the necessity of the appropriate ecosystem protection, wich would ensure the existence of precious plant species as well as much more vulnerable xerothermic fauna.

  15. Comparación de la eficacia del ácido fórmico y del fluvalinato, como métodos de control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae, en Ñuble, centro sur de Chile Comparison of formic acid and fluvalinate effectiveness, as control methods of Varroa destructor (Acari:Varroidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae, in Ñuble, southcentral Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Durante la primavera de 2000, se comparó la eficacia del ácido fórmico al 85 % y del fluvalinato como acaricidas contra Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman en colmenas de Apis mellifera L., ubicadas en el Campus Chillán de la Universidad de Concepción (36º36`S 72º0,6´W. Se formaron tres grupos de diez colmenas. El grupo 1 fue tratado con ácido fórmico al 85% aplicado en Vaporizadores Universales MHT ®; el grupo 2 se utilizó como control, sin recibir ningún tipo de tratamiento; el grupo 3, se trató con tablillas de pino (Pinus radiata impregnadas en fluvalinato al 3 %. Al finalizar la aplicación de los acaricidas en estudio, las colmenas de los tres grupos fueron sometidas a un tratamiento testigo con Bayvarol® (flumetrín. La mayor eficacia se reportó en el grupo tratado con fluvalinato arrojando un promedio de 98,05 ± 2,13 %. De la misma manera con ácido fórmico se obtuvo una eficacia promedio de 88,26 ± 9,12 %, mientras que en el grupo control la mortalidad natural en promedio fue de 41,11 ± 11,52 %.ABSTRACT. During spring of 2000, formic acid (85 % and fluvalinate (3% effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman, was compared in Apis mellifera L. colonies located at Chillán Campus of University of Concepción (36º36' S - 72º0,6´O. Three groups of 10 beehives were formed. Group 1 was treated with formic acid to 85 %, applied in Universal Evaporator MHT®. Group 2 was used as control, without receiving any treatment. Group 3 was treated with fluvalinate 3% (rever concentración impregnated splints. At the end of treatment, all colonies received a test treatment with Bayvarol® (Flumetrina. The biggest effectiveness was in fluvalinate treated group, with an average of 98.05 ± 2.13 %. In formic acid treated group an average effectiveness of 88.26 ± 9.12% was obtained, while in the control group the natural mortality was 41.11 ± 11.52 %.

  16. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518 Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59% e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid-Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%

  17. Notes on the genera Exasticolus van Achterberg (Homolobinae) and Orgilus Haliday (Orgilinae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with the description of three new species from French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the collected material from the Kaw Montains, French Guiana, a new species of the genus Exasticolus van Achterberg, 1979 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae: E. thirionae spec. nov.) and two new species of the genus Orgilus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae: O. podus spec. no

  18. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  19. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  1. No Evidence of Habitat Loss Affecting the Orchid Bees Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Eufriesea auriceps Friese (Apidae: Euglossini) in the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D P; De Marco, P

    2014-12-01

    Habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, and agriculture intensification constitute the main threats to bees. As the organisms responsible for almost one third of the food produced worldwide, there are growing concerns on bees' response to human-related disturbances. Among all bee groups, orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) compose an interesting group to test landscape-related hypotheses. In here, we tested the effect of landscape features (amount of anthropic areas and isolation) on the probability of occurrence and the abundances of both Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Eufriesea auriceps Friese in the Cerrado savanna. In general, we did not observe any effect of landscape features on the probability of occurrence and abundances of both species in our sampling sites. Given their potential high dispersal abilities, these bee species may be less sensitive to fragmented landscapes or even positively affected by the increase of anthropic habitats. Since we sampled many E. nigrita specimens in highly preserved Cerrado savanna areas, we believe that at least for this biome, this species may not be a good indicator of landscape disturbance.

  2. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy - also a matter of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Blank, Simon

    2017-06-12

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses on state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as on novel directions trying to improve therapy.

  3. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy - also a matter of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy......, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses...

  5. A Gynandromorph and Teratological Case in Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Comério

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Este estudo relata a ocorrência de antenas com características femininas e masculinas em um exemplar fêmea de Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae coletado no Parque Estadual Intervales, Ribeirão Grande, São Paulo, Brasil, assim como malformações em uma das antenas, que são aqui descritas e ilustradas.

  6. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  7. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  8. The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Dávid; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja; Pénzes, Zsolt; Melika, George

    2013-01-01

    A new figitid species, Alloxysta chinensis Fülöp & Mikó sp nova, based on females, is described from China and South Korea. The functional morphology and the phylogenetic implication of some anatomical structures frequently used in Charipinae and the validity of the genus Carvercharips is discussed. This manuscript is the first of its kind linking descriptive terminology to Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology classes, which provides persistent links to definitions for terms used within this manuscript.

  9. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  10. Brachygastra mellifica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Predation preference and feeding behavior on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Rosas, M. A.; Loera-Gallardo, J.; López-Arroyo, J. I.; Buck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous field studies in Northern Mexico, we found the wasp Brachygastra mellifica (Say 1837) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying voraciously the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the vector of the bacteria Ca. Liberibacter spp., the putative agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating citrus disease in the world.   As in Mexico, the ACP management considers the use of pest biological control, the availability of potential agents for the con...

  11. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  12. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  13. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-01-01

    Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise), Coccidae (sagtedopluise) en Kerriidae (lakdopluise) is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhoudi...

  14. Description and biological features of a new species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae

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    F. Nugnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus lindberginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, an egg par- asitoid of the leafhopper Lindbergina aurovittata (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, is described from Italy. It is included in the atomus group of Anagrus Haliday and compared with the allied known taxa. The parasitoid’s life cycle is characterized by a long larval diapause from spring to fall, which allows for synchronization with its leafhop- per host; other biological traits of A. lindberginae on the evergreen plant Quercus ilex are discussed.

  15. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brian; Hash, John; Hartop, Emily; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema h...

  16. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

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    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  17. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  18. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  19. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptorellus . The percentage of parasitism was 5.0%.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model