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Sample records for quadriceps strengthening exercises

  1. EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISE AT MULTIPLE ANGLES IN KNEE JOINT AMONG NORMAL ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JibiPaul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of

  2. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. ME...

  3. Outcomes following Hip and Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises for Patellofemoral Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Adebisi Bisi-Balogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support change in the rehabilitation strategy of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS from traditional quadriceps strengthening exercises to inclusion of hip musculature strengthening in individuals with PFPS. Several studies have evaluated effects of quadriceps and hip musculature strengthening on PFPS with varying outcomes on pain and function. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to synthesize outcomes of pain and function post-intervention and at follow-up to determine whether outcomes vary depending on the exercise strategy in both the short and long term. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Pedro database, Proquest, Science direct, and EBscoHost databases were searched for randomized control trials published between 1st of January 2005 and 31st of June 2015, comparing the outcomes of pain and function following quadriceps strengthening and hip musculature strengthening exercises in patients with PFPS. Two independent reviewers assessed each paper for inclusion and quality. Means and SDs were extracted from each included study to allow effect size calculations and comparison of results. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria. Limited to moderate evidence indicates that hip abductor strengthening was associated with significantly lower pain post-intervention (SMD −0.88, −1.28 to −0.47 95% CI, and at 12 months (SMD −3.10, −3.71 to −2.50 95% CI with large effect sizes (greater than 0.80 compared to quadriceps strengthening. Our findings suggest that incorporating hip musculature strengthening in management of PFPS tailored to individual ability will improve short-term and long-term outcomes of rehabilitation. Further research evaluating the effects of quadriceps and hip abductors strengthening focusing on reduction in anterior knee pain and improvement in function in management of PFPS is needed.

  4. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  5. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

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    Bennell Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis, pain, and self

  6. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Harshitha; K. Senthil kumar; K. Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined ...

  7. Knee flexion with quadriceps cocontraction: A new therapeutic exercise for the early stage of ACL rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2016-12-08

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinesiotape and quadriceps strengthening with elastic band in women with knee osteoarthritis and overweight or obesity. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ballesteros, Saúl; Espinosa-Morales, Rolando; Clark-Peralta, Patricia; Gómez-Pineda, Ascención Guadalupe; Guadarrama-Becerril, Jaime Horacio

    2018-04-07

    The beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have been verified in several studies. Kinesiotaping (KT) has been popularized due to its reducing local pressure and increasing circulation, resulting in decreased pain. Determine the clinical effectiveness of strengthening therapy with KT in women with knee OA for pain reduction. Thirty two women with knee OA, aged 50-70 years, with overweight or obesity grade I, who were randomized into two groups: one with exercise and KT, and the other, with exercise and placebo technique. Both groups performed stretching and quadriceps strengthening exercise with the elastic band 3 days weekly for 6 weeks. Measurement of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale was taken as primary outcome. Stiffness and functionality of the same index and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity were measured. At the end of the study, there were no significant differences between the groups. Both groups had a difference of 2.7 points with respect to the baseline measurement, change percentage of 32.2% and 31.1% for placebo and experimental respectively (p=0.2). KT plus quadriceps strengthening exercise does not offer advantages for improvement of pain compared with quadriceps strengthening exercise alone in knee OA. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Espaola de Reumatologa y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatologa. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps strengthening pre and post total knee replacement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However quadriceps weakness and reductions in function are commonly reported following surgery. Recently Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) has been used as an adjunct to traditional strengthening programmes. This review considers the effectiveness of NMES as a means of increasing quadriceps strength in patients before and after total knee replacement.

  10. Contribution of Hamstring Fatigue to Quadriceps Inhibition Following Lumbar Extension Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Fritz, Julie M.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Gansneder, Bruce; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjec...

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF HAMSTRING FATIGUE TO QUADRICEPS INHIBITION FOLLOWING LUMBAR EXTENSION EXERCISE

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    Joseph M. Hart

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed two sets of fatiguing isometric lumbar extension exercise until mild (set 1 and moderate (set 2 fatigue of the lumbar paraspinals. Quadriceps and hamstring EMG median frequency were measured while subjects performed fatiguing exercise. A burst of electrical stimuli was superimposed while subjects performed an isometric maximal quadriceps contraction to estimate quadriceps inhibition after each exercise set. Results indicate the change in hamstring median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the exercise sets in the history of low back pain group only. Change in quadriceps median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the first exercise set in the control group only. In conclusion, persons with a history of low back pain whose quadriceps become inhibited following lumbar paraspinal exercise may be adapting to the fatigue by using their hamstring muscles more than controls

  12. Contribution of hamstring fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Kerrigan, D Casey; Fritz, Julie M; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed two sets of fatiguing isometric lumbar extension exercise until mild (set 1) and moderate (set 2) fatigue of the lumbar paraspinals. Quadriceps and hamstring EMG median frequency were measured while subjects performed fatiguing exercise. A burst of electrical stimuli was superimposed while subjects performed an isometric maximal quadriceps contraction to estimate quadriceps inhibition after each exercise set. Results indicate the change in hamstring median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the exercise sets in the history of low back pain group only. Change in quadriceps median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the first exercise set in the control group only. In conclusion, persons with a history of low back pain whose quadriceps become inhibited following lumbar paraspinal exercise may be adapting to the fatigue by using their hamstring muscles more than controls. Key PointsA neuromuscular relationship between the lumbar paraspinals and quadriceps while performing lumbar extension exercise may be influenced by hamstring muscle fatigue.QI following lumbar extension exercise in persons with a history of LBP group may involve significant contribution from the hamstring muscle group.More hamstring muscle contribution may be a necessary adaptation in the history of LBP group due to weaker and more fatigable lumbar extensors.

  13. Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , oxidation of plasma free fatty acids increases and accordingly oxidation of other fat sources decreases. These findings are in contrast to whole body measurements performed during graded exercise involving a large muscle mass during which fat oxidation peaks at around 60% of .......The aim of the study was to examine local muscle metabolism in response to graded exercise when the involved muscle mass is too small to elicit marked hormonal changes and local blood flow restriction. Nine healthy overnight fasted male subjects performed knee extension exercise with both thighs...... intensity. In conclusion, in the presence of a high blood flow and oxygen supply and only small hormonal changes, total fat oxidation in muscle increases from rest to light exercise, but then remains constant with exercise intensity up to heavy exercise. However, with increasing exercise intensity...

  14. Exercise-induced quadriceps muscle fatigue in men and women: effects of arterial oxygen content and respiratory muscle work.

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    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Griesdale, Donald E G; Peters, Carli M; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Sekhon, Mypinder; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2017-08-01

    High work of breathing and exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) can decrease O 2 delivery and exacerbate exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue in healthy men. Women have a higher work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles and develop EIAH. Despite a greater reduction in men's work of breathing, the attenuation of quadriceps fatigue was similar between the sexes. The degree of EIAH was similar between sexes, and regardless of sex, those who developed the greatest hypoxaemia during exercise demonstrated the most attenuation of quadriceps fatigue. Based on our previous finding that women have a greater relative oxygen cost of breathing, women appear to be especially susceptible to work of breathing-related changes in quadriceps muscle fatigue. Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) completed three constant load exercise tests over 4 days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed. Subsequent constant load exercise tests were iso-time and iso-work rate, but with EIAH prevented by inspiring hyperoxic gas or work of breathing reduced via a proportional assist ventilator (PAV). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed by measuring force in response to femoral nerve stimulation. For both sexes, quadriceps force was equally reduced after the control trial (-27 ± 2% baseline) and was attenuated with hyperoxia and PAV (-18 ± 1 and -17 ± 2% baseline, P Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (pisometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  16. Quadriceps exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine if qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, associated with decreased mitochondrial efficiency, contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using permeabilized muscle fibers from.......05). Overall, this study indicates that COPD is associated with qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondria that affect the contribution of CI and CII-driven respiration, which potentially contributes to the exercise intolerance associated with this disease....... the vastus lateralis of 13 patients with COPD and 12 healthy controls, complex I (CI) and complex II (CII)-driven State 3 mitochondrial respiration were measured separately (State 3:CI and State 3:CII) and in combination (State 3:CI+CII). State 2 respiration was also measured. Exercise tolerance was assessed...

  17. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest...

  18. THE EFFECT OF ADDING SPECIFIC HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES TO CONVENTIONAL KNEE EXERCISES IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

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    Raghav Monika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators to conventional exercises in patients with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS while minimizing the effect of minimizing the activation of tensor fascia lata (TFL. Methods: 30 subjects were randomly allocated using convenience random sampling into 2 Groups Group A and Group B with 15 subjects in each group. Readings were taken for Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, Manual Muscle Testing (MMT for hip abductors, extensors and external rotators muscles quadriceps and hamstrings, and Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS on baseline and at the end of 4th week. Results: Analysis of the data collected for NPRS, AKPS and MMT of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors and Hip External Rotators of 30 subjects was done by statistical analysis tests using STATA and software version 11.2. Although improvement was seen in both the groups but group B improved better compared to group A. Conclusion: Group B treatment protocol i.e. Hip specific strengthening (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus in addition to conventional treatment in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome, was found to be effective in reducing pain, improving functional status and increasing muscle strength than Group A treatment protocol i.e. Knee strengthening and stretching.

  19. The influence of isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle on young female patients with anterior knee pain

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior knee pain is a disease associated with abnormalities in the patellofemoral joint. It is a common reason for seeking advice from an orthopaedist. This problem is characterised by chronic pain in the anterior part of one or both knees. This issue often affects women, especially at a young age. The effect of this ailment is deterioration of the quality of life. This dysfunction significantly reduces abilities, and often prevents the performance of daily activities. Pain usually occurs during physical activity, but may also be accompanied by prolonged immobilisation of the knee joint. In defining the type of patellofemoral instability, orthopaedists use magnetic resonance imaging, arthroscopy, ultrasonography, and X-ray examination. A relatively effective method of treatment of pain in the patellofemoral joint is through isometric exercises of the quadriceps. They increase the strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and reduce instability in the patellofemoral joint. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle on young female patients with anterior knee pain. Material and methods : The study involved 30 women aged 13–44 years (mean age: 26.8 years, who had been diagnosed with pain in the front of the knee. Results and conclusions: Isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle are an effective method of reducing anterior knee pain. Isometric exercises have a beneficial influence on improving physical activity, including performing basic activities of daily living. Student’s t distribution showed, that isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle reduce pain at the front of the knee. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed a significant reduction of anterior knee pain.

  20. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  1. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  2. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

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    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  3. The effect of dynamic knee-extension exercise on patellar tendon and quadriceps femoris muscle glucose uptake in humans studied by positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Langberg, Henning; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine

    2005-01-01

    Both tendon and peritendinous tissue show evidence of metabolic activity, but the effect of acute exercise on substrate turnover is unknown. We therefore examined the influence of acute exercise on glucose uptake in the patellar and quadriceps tendons during dynamic exercise in humans. Glucose...... that tendon glucose uptake is increased during exercise. However, the increase in tendon glucose uptake is less pronounced than in muscle and the increases are uncorrelated. Thus tendon glucose uptake is likely to be regulated by mechanisms independently of those regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake....... uptake was measured in five healthy men in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and the quadriceps femoris muscle at rest and during dynamic knee-extension exercise (25 W) using positron emission tomography and [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). Glucose uptake index was calculated by dividing...

  4. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Dynamic 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle: Metabolic changes resulting from two different forms of exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Kersjes, W.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the metabolism of the quadriceps muscles of normal young individuals using dynamic 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: 22 normal individuals were examined in a 1.5 T-MRT using a 6 cm surface coil. The metabolic changes in the quadriceps muscle as shown by the phosphorus spectrum were evaluated during rest, exercise (isometric and isotonic exercise) and during a 36-second period of recovery. Results: The P i /PCr quotient rose from its resting value of 0.11±0.02 following exercise to a maximum of 0.83±0.47 (isometric) or 1.40±0.59 (isotonic) (difference p=0.0001). Half-time recovery of P i /PCr was 35±11 s or 31±10 s, respectively (p=0.13). During the recovery phase P i /PCr fell briefly but significantly below its rest value. Following an initial rise in pH, there was a continual fall. Minimum pH (6.68±0.21 and 6.53±0.27 respectively; p=0.01) occurred in the early recovery phase. The recovery process of pH values lasted longer following isotonic than after isometric exercise (half-value recovery time 229±72 s and 146±55 s, respectively; p=0.001). Conlcusion: Compared with isometric exercise, isotonic stress is more expensive in terms of metabolism. Dynamic 31 phosphorus MRT spectroscopy can differentiate changes in muscle metabolism during different forms of exercise. (orig.) [de

  6. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings.

  7. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  8. The 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: Correlations With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Quadriceps Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Mely, Laurent; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Exercise testing is part of the regular assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate (1) the convergent validity of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in CF by investigating its relationships with peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇ O 2 ), quadriceps strength, and quality of life and (2) to compare these associations with those of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Twenty-five adults with CF (FEV 1 = 59 ± 24%) performed the STS test, the 6MWT, quadriceps strength assessment, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Physical activity level, quality of life, and self-esteem were assessed by questionnaires. STS repetitions, 6-min walk distance, quadriceps strength, and peak V̇ O 2 were, respectively, 71 ± 12, 90 ± 10, 93 ± 29, and 62 ± 16% of predicted. The STS test had moderate associations with peak V̇ O 2 (r = 0.56, P = .004), quadriceps strength (r = 0.52, P = .008), and some questionnaire items (eg, perceived physical strength, r = 0.67, P test was strongly associated with oxygen desaturation during CPET (r = 0.80, P test as compared with CPET (P test cannot be used as a replacement for CPET to accurately assess peak exercise capacity in CF. The STS test may have utility in detecting patients with CF who may exhibit a high level of oxygen desaturation during heavy exercise. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to STS performance to confirm the potential interest of STS repetitions × body weight outcome as a useful submaximal exercise parameter in CF. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.

  10. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied...... collagen (0.077% h(-1)), muscle collagen (0.054% h(-1)), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h(-1)), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h(-1))). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage...... of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise...

  11. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bergamaschine Mata Diz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Design: Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Participants: People with myofascial pain of any duration. Intervention: Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability. Results: Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was –1.2 points (95% CI –2.3 to –0.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI –0.3 to 1.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (–0.4, 95% CI –1.3 to 0.5 and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI –0.8 to 0.8 at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (–2.3, 95% CI –4.1 to –0.5. Conclusion: Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016 Exercise

  12. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C

    2010-11-01

    While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.

  13. Exercise and quality of life: strengthening the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-02-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.

  14. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores th...

  15. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise: Part I--dynamic test station and human quadriceps dynamic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator (HQDS) was developed so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. The experimental set-up and HQDS are discussed in Part I of this work. The development of a PMA haptic controller and its interaction with the HQDS are discussed in Part II.

  16. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...

  17. Effects of contraction duration on low-frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically induced exercise of quadriceps muscle in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkevicius, A; Skurvydas, A; Povilonis, E; Quistorff, B; Lexell, J

    1998-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if low-frequency fatigue (LFF) dependent on the duration of repeated muscle contractions and to compare LFF in voluntary and electrically induced exercise. Male subjects performed three 9-min periods of repeated isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction with contraction plus relaxation periods of 30 plus 60 s, 15 plus 30 s and 5 plus 10 s in protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same exercise protocols were repeated using feedback-controlled electrical stimulation at 40% maximal tetanic torque. Before and 15 min after each exercise period, knee extension torque at 1, 7, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 Hz was assessed. During voluntary exercise, electromyogram root mean square (EMGrms) of the vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. The 20-Hz torque:100-Hz torque (20:100 Hz torque) ratio was reduced more after electrically induced than after voluntary exercise (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio was gradually (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio and the increase in EMGrms were greater in protocol 1 (P exercise and that the electrically induced exercise produced a more pronounced LFF compared to voluntary exercise of submaximal intensity. It is suggested that compensatory recruitment of faster-contracting motor units is an additional factor affecting the severity of LFF during voluntary exercise.

  18. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (ptubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.

  19. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  20. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  1. Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Krustrup, Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    During exercise involving a small muscle mass, peak oxygen uptake is thought to be limited by peripheral factors, such as the degree of oxygen extraction from the blood and/or mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Previously, the maximal activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has...

  2. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program mea...

  3. Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.

  4. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part two: strengthening exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective strengthening exercise programs and provide rehabilitation teams and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+ or D-) was based on statistical significance ( p osteoarthritis management within a six-month period. Strengthening exercise programs demonstrated a significant improvement for pain relief (four Grade A, ten Grade B, two Grade C+), physical function (four Grade A, eight Grade B) and quality of life (three Grade B). Strengthening in combination with other types of exercises (coordination, balance, functional) showed a significant improvement in pain relief (three Grade A, 11 Grade B, eight Grade C+), physical function (two Grade A, four Grade B, three Grade C+) and quality of life (one Grade A, one Grade C+). There are a variety of choices for strengthening exercise programs with positive recommendations for healthcare professionals and knee osteoarthritis patients. There is a need to develop combined behavioral and muscle-strengthening strategies to improve long-term maintenance of regular strengthening exercise programs.

  5. EFFICACY OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERAPY VERSUS ECCENTRIC STRENGTHENING AND STRETCHING EXERCISES IN CHRONIC LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Koch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral Epicondylitis is the most common lesion of the elbow, affecting the tendinous origin of the wrist extensors. Although conservative treatment of this condition has been the subject of numerous studies, there is no agreement as to the most effective management strategy. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cyriax physiotherapy Versus Eccentric Strengthening and Stretching exercises in reducing the pain and improving the grip strength and functional status of the affected extremity in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Method: An experimental study design, 60 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for the study and were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A (N=30 received Cyriax Physiotherapy and Group B(N=30 received Eccentric strengthening and static stretching of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis. Low Level Laser Therapy was a common treatment for both the groups. After 4 weeks of treatment, assessment was performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Hand Held Dynamometer (HHD and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEE at 0 week and at the end of 4 weeks. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between the groups in VAS, HHD and PRTEE scores i.e. average improvement post treatment in both the groups are equal, but within group comparisons showed significant improvements in both the groups. Conclusion: The efficacy of Cyriax Physiotherapy is equal to Eccentric Strengthening and Stretching Exercises in chronic lateral epicondylitis.

  6. An Evidence-Based Framework for Strengthening Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A; Pizzari, Tania; Ruddy, Joshua D; Sims, Casey; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk of hamstring strain injury when compliance is adequate. The benefits of this type of training are likely to be at least partly mediated by increases in biceps femoris long head fascicle length and improvements in eccentric knee flexor strength. Therefore, selecting exercises with a proven benefit on these variables should form the basis of effective injury prevention protocols. In addition, a growing body of work suggests that the patterns of hamstring muscle activation diverge significantly between different exercises. Typically, relatively higher levels of biceps femoris long head and semimembranosus activity have been observed during hip extension-oriented movements, whereas preferential semitendinosus and biceps femoris short head activation have been reported during knee flexion-oriented movements. These findings may have implications for targeting specific muscles in injury prevention programmes. An evidence-based approach to strength training for the prevention of hamstring strain injury should consider the impact of exercise selection on muscle activation, and the effect of training interventions on hamstring muscle architecture, morphology and function. Most importantly, practitioners should consider the effect of a strength training programme on

  7. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  8. Shoulder strengthening exercises adapted to specific shoulder pathologies can be selected using new simulation techniques: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Lädermann, Alexandre; Kevelham, Bart; Chagué, Sylvain; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Holzer, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Shoulder strength training exercises represent a major component of rehabilitation protocols designed for conservative or postsurgical management of shoulder pathologies. Numerous methods are described for exercising each shoulder muscle or muscle group. Limited information is available to assess potential deleterious effects of individual methods with respect to specific shoulder pathologies. Thus, the goal of this pilot study was to use a patient-specific 3D measurement technique coupling medical imaging and optical motion capture for evaluation of a set of shoulder strength training exercises regarding glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as elongation of the rotator cuff muscles. One volunteer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and motion capture of the shoulder. Motion data from the volunteer were recorded during three passive rehabilitation exercises and twenty-nine strengthening exercises targeting eleven of the most frequently trained shoulder muscles or muscle groups and using four different techniques when available. For each exercise, glenohumeral and labral compression, subacromial space height and rotator cuff muscles elongation were measured on the entire range of motion. Significant differences in glenohumeral, subacromial and labral compressions were observed between sets of exercises targeting individual shoulder muscles. Muscle lengths computed by simulation compared to MRI measurements showed differences of 0-5%. This study represents the first screening of shoulder strengthening exercises to identify potential deleterious effects on the shoulder joint. Motion capture combined with medical imaging allows for reliable assessment of glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as muscle-tendon elongation during shoulder strength training exercises.

  9. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as “low back pain”, “older people”, and “strengthening exercise”. Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p<0.05. Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances.

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira Gavi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM. Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL of FM patients. METHODS: Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990 were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench, maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE, a short-form health survey (SF-36. RESULTS: The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05. The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05. Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical

  12. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constância Felício; Gava, Pablo Lúcio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (pquality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405.

  13. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions...

  14. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric...

  15. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-02-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowBallistic contractions always produced greater EMG activity than slow controlled contractions, and for most muscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiary, A H; Fatemi, E

    2008-02-01

    Conservative treatment of patellar chondromalacia has been the subject of several studies. One recommended treatment is a strengthening exercise of the quadriceps muscle, which may be performed in closed or open kinetic chains. This study was designed to compare the effect of straight leg raise (SLR) and semi-squat exercises on the treatment of patellar chondromalacia, which has not been done to date. 32 female university students with a diagnosis of patellar chondromalacia were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: SLR and semi-squat exercise. Before starting exercise protocols, Q angle, maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MIVCF) of quadriceps, crepitation, circumference of thigh 5 and 10 cm above the patella and patellofemoral pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed. Both groups then followed a 3-week programme of quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises (SLR or semi-squat) starting with 20 exercises twice a day and increasing each session by 5 exercises every 2 days. All measurements were repeated at the end of each week and then again 2 weeks after the 3-week exercise programme. Reduced Q angle (mean differences (SD) 0.8 (0.3), p = 0.016) and crepitation (19.9 (8.5), p = 0.04), and an increase in the MIVCF of the quadriceps (15.8 (5.6), p = 0.01) and thigh circumference (1.5 (0.3), p = 0.001) were found in semi-squat group compared with SLR group. However, patellofemoral pain was decreased significantly in both groups. The results of this study indicate that semi-squat exercises (closed kinetic chain) are more effective than SLR exercise (open kinetic chain) in the treatment of patellar chondromalacia. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect of these types of exercise.

  17. The Comparative Study of the Effect of Stabilization Exercise and Stretching-Strengthening Exercise on Balance Parameters in Forward Head Posture Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Salehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Balance disturbance is one of the observed impairments in patient with forward head posture (FHP. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of stabilization and stretching-strengthening exercises on the improvement of balance in these patients. Materials & Methods: Thirty three females with FHP were randomized into three groups of stabilization training, stretching-strengthening and control. The degree of FHP was measured using plumb line and the crania-vertebral angle. Balance tests performed in three different standing conditions on a force platform. The subjects were evaluated after 6 weeks training and 1 month follow-up by repeated measure ANOVA and T-test through SPSS software. Results: Balance parameters in both stretching-strengthening and control groups showed no significant changes (P>0.05 while in the stabilization group, significant decrease in displacement and velocity of center of pressure were seen under conditions of double-leg, eyes-open, foam-surface and single-leg, eyes-closed, rigid-surface (P0.05. Conclusion: In the conditions of standing that visual and proprioception information from plantar region of foot is challenged, stabilization exercises lead to more balance improvement than stretching-strengthening exercises.

  18. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

  19. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C. Branco

    2016-10-01

    Method: A randomised study design with thirty female participants between the ages of twenty and  thirty nine was selected. Group 1 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine. Group 2 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine as well as stretch and strengthening exercises i.e. stretching the pectoralis major muscles and strengthening the rhomboid, middle and inferior trapezius muscles. Group 3 (n = 10 received stretch and strengthening exercises. The stretch and strengthening exercises were performed in the consultation rooms to ensure that the participants were complying with the treatment and doing the exercises properly. The study consisted of seven consultations for Group 1 (they received treatment once a week for six weeks and for Groups 2 and 3 there were nineteen consultations (they received three treatments a week for six weeks. Objective data was recorded at the beginning of the first, fourth and seventh consultations for Group 1, and the first, tenth and nineteenth consultations for Groups 2 and 3. On the seventh consultation (for Group 1 and nineteenth consultation for Groups 2 and 3, only data collection was done. Objective data were obtained by using the Flexicurve® Ruler measurements for the angle of kyphosis. Visual analysis was done by taking lateral (sagittal view photographs at the beginning of the initial and final consultations. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant statistical changes for the intragroup results for all three groups. No significant statistical difference was found between the groups for the inter-group analysis. Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  1. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  2. The Effect of a Stretching- Strengthening Exercise Program on Decreasing Pain Index on Workers with Musculoskeletal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ashraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability among people during working years which impose high expenses on the society in different aspects. this study was conducted to assess the effect of a stretching- strengthening exercise program on decreasing pain index on workers with musculoskeletal complaints. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on cleaning unit workers in one of the factories producing hygiene instruments in Shiraz in 2006. All the fifty four employees were considered in our study. First, all workers were evaluated by the physiatrist under complete musculoskeletal examination and pain intensity was assessed by VAS and BPI indices. After 3 months, to confirm the chronicity of symptoms, the second examination was done and then exercise program was recommended for 3 months. The collected results were analyzed by SPSS software and non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Results: The primary mean of the VAS index was 5.00±2.27cm while after 3 months it was raised to 5.32±2.76 cm and reduced to 1.98±2.07 after doing exercise program, which is a significant decline (p< 0.001. Mean of different indices of BPI showed significant decrease after completing exercise program (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Doing an exercise program based on type of work, and availability of facilities in work environment is effective in decreasing musculoskeletal complaints as a primary cause of disability among workers.

  3. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Castello Branco

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the participants' posture. Therefore, in conclusion, Groups 2 and 3 treatment protocols can be used effectively to treat postural kyphosis but Group 2's treatment protocol, consisting of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, will yield the best results.

  4. The role of muscle strengthening in exercise therapy for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze if exercise interventions for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) definition of muscle strength training differs from other types of exercise, and to analyze associations between changes in muscle strength, pain, a...

  5. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  6. Quadriceps muscle function after rehabilitation with cryotherapy in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Kuenze, Christopher M; Diduch, David R; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone.

  7. The Strengthening Exercises in Shoulder Impingement trial (The SExSI-trial) investigating the effectiveness of a simple add-on shoulder strengthening exercise programme in patients with long-lasting subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2018-01-01

    with pronounced and long-lasting SIS. However, the current rehabilitation of such strength impairments may be inadequate, with novel rehabilitation programmes including exercise therapy only improving external rotation strength by 4-13%. As these previous studies are the basis of current practice, this suggests...... that the strengthening component could be inadequate in the rehabilitation of these patients, and it seems likely that more emphasis should be placed on intensifying this part of the rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a programme consisting of progressive home...... with pronounced and long-lasting SIS, diagnosed using predefined criteria. Participants will be randomised to receive either an add-on intervention of progressive home-based resistance training using an elastic band in addition to usual care or usual care alone in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The randomisation...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  9. Comparison of the effects of knee and hip and single knee muscles strengthening/ stretching exercises on pain intensity and function in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mazloum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common musculoskeletal condition among athletes. The evidence emphasizes on the importance of hip musculature strengthening exercises for such patients. Objective: To investigate the effects of strengthening-stretching knee muscles exercises and hip posterolateral musculature exercises in athletes with PFPS. Methods: In this clinical trial, 28 athletes with age average of 22.7±2.4 years with PFPS were allocated into conventional knee muscles exercises (CKME (n=14 and posterolateral hip muscles exercises (PHME (n=14. The subjects of both groups performed the supervised exercise protocols in 12 sessions. The Visual Analogue Scale and 6-minute walking tests were administrated respectively to evaluate pain intensity and function. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-wilk test, Independent-sample t test, and Repeated Measure ANOVA test. Findings: Demographic, pain intensity, and physical function data were similar between groups at baseline. Both groups significantly improved in pain intensity and function following a 4-week exercise program. Additionally, the athletes in PHME group had higher level of decreased pain intensity and improved function in follow-up assessment than the subjects in CKME group. Conclusion: Using hip posterolateral musculature exercises in addition to the knee conventional exercises is more effective for athletes with PFPS.

  10. Low back pain : a comparative study on the value of core training versus traditional strengthening exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Laura; Fenech, Pauline; Sacco, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This randomised controlled trial (RCT) employed a pre-test/post-test design to compare the effects of core training (Pilates method) and traditional back exercises on a population with low back pain (LBP). Therapeutic intervention related to the Pilates method has recently become popular, but there is little evidence to prove it works. In this study, 120 individuals with LBP were allocated to three different groups. Group A was the control group, Group B was given modifie...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  12. Effect of Upper-Extremity Strengthening Exercises on the Lumbar Strength, Disability and Pain of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Erdem; Akova, Bedrettin; Gür, Hakan; Sekir, Ufuk

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE) and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises). The Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) was used to evaluate the disability status and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to identify the pain states of the patients. In addition, neck, lumbar and shoulder isokinetic and isometric strengths of the patients were evaluated. The CE group performed lumbar stretching, mobilization and stabilization exercises in addition to low-back and abdominal isometric and concentric strengthening exercises. The SE group performed static stretching and isotonic exercises for the neck, upper-back, and shoulder muscles, in addition to the exercises performed in CE group. The exercises were implemented 3 days a week for 6 weeks in both groups. Following the 6-week exercise periods in both groups, statistically significant (p disability. With respect to the levels of pain and disability, the improvements observed in the SE group was significantly (p disability in patients with chronic low back pain more prominently than conventional low back exercises.

  13. The use of electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate a core strengthening exercise programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Szpala, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    The question that was asked in the study was whether a training routine based on curl-up exercises with a load provided by body mass of the person increases local muscle strength or local muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks training based on a small load and low movement velocity on electrical activity (EMG), cross-sectional area (CSA) of core stabilisers. The EMG activity was measured in the rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus abdominis externus and erector spinae (ES) muscles. CSA of the muscles: RA, anterolateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, ES, and multifidus at the level of L3-L4 were measured too. The training increased the CSA and thickness in most of the muscles studied. Statistically significant correlation was found only for the ES circumference (left side) and EMG activity for the right side (r= 0.627, p= 0.022) and left side (r= 0.624, p= 0.023). The training programme resulted in a increase in the number of curl-up repetitions revealing an endurance increase in abdominal muscles. Furthermore, there was a increase in the EMG activity of the RA. An increase of the CSA of all tested muscles showed an increase of muscle active force.

  14. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6-71±11%), and ST (60±1-69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8-16±5%) and ST (15±7-17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4-7±5%), ST (8±3-11±2%), SM (6±4-10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6-8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5-7±5%) and ST (7±3-12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies.

  15. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  16. Effect of Upper-Extremity Strengthening Exercises on the Lumbar Strength, Disability and Pain of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Atalay, Bedrettin Akova, Hakan Gür, Ufuk Sekir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises. The Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ was used to evaluate the disability status and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS was used to identify the pain states of the patients. In addition, neck, lumbar and shoulder isokinetic and isometric strengths of the patients were evaluated. The CE group performed lumbar stretching, mobilization and stabilization exercises in addition to low-back and abdominal isometric and concentric strengthening exercises. The SE group performed static stretching and isotonic exercises for the neck, upper-back, and shoulder muscles, in addition to the exercises performed in CE group. The exercises were implemented 3 days a week for 6 weeks in both groups. Following the 6-week exercise periods in both groups, statistically significant (p < 0.01 improvements were observed in the patients’ levels of pain and the scores of MODQ reflecting an easing of disability. With respect to the levels of pain and disability, the improvements observed in the SE group was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the improvement observed in the CE group. Based on the findings of this study, we can conclude that a low back exercise program used in combination with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises reduces the level of pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain more prominently than conventional low back exercises.

  17. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  18. Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Bronas, Ulf; McCarthy, Teresa; Rudser, Kyle; Mathiason, Michelle A

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is often recommended for managing osteoarthritis (OA), limited evidence-based exercise options are available for older adults with OA. This study compared the effects of Hatha yoga (HY) and aerobic/strengthening exercises (ASE) on knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with three arms design was used: HY, ASE, and education control. Both HY and ASE groups involved 8 weekly 45-min group classes with 2-4 days/week home practice sessions. Control group received OA education brochures and weekly phone calls from study staff. Standardized instruments were used to measure OA symptoms, physical function, mood, spiritual health, fear of falling, and quality of life at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. HY/ASE adherences were assessed weekly using class attendance records and home practice video recordings. Primary analysis of the difference in the change from baseline was based on intent-to-treat and adjusted for baseline values. Eight-three adults with symptomatic knee OA completed the study (84% female; mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m 2 ). Retention rate was 82%. Compared to the ASE group at 8 weeks, participants in the HY group had a significant improvement from baseline in perception of OA symptoms (-9.6 [95% CI -15.3, -4]; p = .001), anxiety (-1.4 [95% CI -2.7, -0]; p = .04), and fear of falling (-4.6 [-7.5, -1.7]; p = .002). There were no differences in class/home practice adherence between HY and ASE. Three non-serious adverse events were reported from the ASE group. Both HY and ASE improved symptoms and function but HY may have superior benefits for older adults with knee OA. Trial registration The full trial protocol is available at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02525341).

  19. Effects of Patellar Taping on the Patella Position in Presence of Quadriceps Contraction in 20-40 Year-Old Women With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Banejad

    2016-06-01

    Discussion: Kinesio taping plus quadriceps contraction reduced the PFCA and LPFA. Patellar taping is effective in the correction of the patellar position in contracted quadriceps. Therefore, both neuromuscular and mechanical effects of patellar taping affect the patellar position over a long period. The combination of patellar taping and exercise reduced pain and improved activity faster than either of the treatment alone.

  20. Influence of biomechanical characteristics on pain and function outcomes from exercise in medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennell, Kim L.; Dobson, Fiona; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). Candidate biomechanical characteristics measured at baseline included: i) visually-observed varus thrust during walking; ii) obesity determined by body mass index; iii) static varus alignment; and iv) isometric quadriceps strength. Data were analysed...... between type of exercise and both varus thrust (p=0.001) and obesity (p=0.023). Neuromuscular exercise was more effective for non-obese participants (mean(95%CI) change=29.5(20.5-38.5)mm) and for those with a varus thrust (mean change=28.7(19.4-38.1)mm), whereas quadriceps strengthening was more effective...... for obese people (mean change=24.7(14.9-34.4)mm) and for those without a varus thrust (mean change=29.4(21.2-37.7)mm). Biomechanical characteristics did not influence the effect of exercise on physical function (p>0.05). Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest varus thrust and obesity influence...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  2. Strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH: design of a randomised controlled trial of a hand and upper limb exercise intervention - ISRCTN89936343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343

  3. Concentric and eccentric time-under-tension during strengthening exercises: Validity and reliability of stretch-sensor recordings from an elastic exercise-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade

    2013-01-01

    Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation....

  4. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  5. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  6. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    and neuromuscular activation, but also with an impaired position and torque control at submaximal torque levels, an altered EMG-torque relationship and a higher performance fatigability of the quadriceps muscle. It is recommended that the rehabilitation includes strengthening and fatiguing exercises at maximal and submaximal force levels.

  7. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.

  8. Effect of the Individual Strengthening Exercises for Posterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROM of a LBP Patient with Excessive Lordosis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to document the effect of individual strengthening exercises for posterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with excessive lordosis. [Subjects] The subject was a 28 year-old male with excessive lordosis who complained of severe LBP at the L3 level. [Methods] He performed individual strengthening exercises for the posterior pelvic tilt muscles (rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, hamstring). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles on the right and left sides recovered to his normal ranges. Limited lumbar ROM increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that an approach of individual resistance exercises is necessary for the effective and fast strengthening of the pelvic posterior tilt muscles in case of LBP with excessive lordosis.

  9. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  10. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  11. Recruitment order of quadriceps motor units: femoral nerve vs. direct quadriceps stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in the recruitment order of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps femoris when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using femoral nerve stimulation and direct quadriceps stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 20 young, healthy subjects. Recruitment order was investigated by analysing the time-to-peak twitch and the time interval from the stimulus artefact to the M-wave positive peak (M-wave latency) for the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. During femoral nerve stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and M-wave latency decreased consistently (P  0.05). For the VM muscle, M-wave latency decreased with increasing stimulation level for both femoral nerve and direct quadriceps stimulation, whereas, for the VL muscle, the variation of M-wave latency with stimulus intensity was different for the two stimulation geometries (P recruitment order during direct quadriceps stimulation was more complex, depending ultimately on the architecture of the peripheral nerve and its terminal branches below the stimulating electrodes for each muscle. For the VM, MUs were orderly recruited for both stimulation geometries, whereas, for the VL muscle, MUs were orderly recruited for femoral nerve stimulation, but followed no particular order for direct quadriceps stimulation.

  12. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  13. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-13

    from July 2012 to September 2013 who responded to an electronic solicitation for volunteers for a study investigating the effect of exercises in...about the type (i.e., cigarettes, cigars , chewing tobacco, other tobacco products) and quantity of tobacco use. Six items characterized participants...principal investigator. Upon receipt of the signed ICD, each participant was e-mailed the URL for the electronic study questionnaire. Participants who

  20. Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael C; Song, Jaejoon; Taylor, Wendell C; Durand, Casey P; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-02-16

    Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031). Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p women.

  2. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  3. DYNAMIC HIP ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION AND ABDOMINAL EXERCISES FROM THE HOLMICH GROIN-INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAM ARE INTENSE ENOUGH TO BE CONSIDERED STRENGTHENING EXERCISES - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, Kasper; Bandholm, Thomas; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2017-01-01

    and external obliques during isometric adduction against a football placed between the ankles (IBA), isometric adduction against a football placed between the knees (IBK), folding knife (FK), cross-country skiing on one leg (CCS), adduction partner (ADP) and abduction partner (ABP). The EMG-signals were...... normalized (nEMG) to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction for each tested muscle. RESULTS: Adductor longus activity during IBA was 84% nEMG (95% CI: 70-98) and during IBK it was 118% nEMG (95% CI 106-130). For the dynamic exercises, ADP evoked 87% nEMG (95% CI 69-105) in adductor longus, ABP evoked 88...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  6. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  7. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  8. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  9. Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Devrim; Şayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

  10. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  11. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  12. Quadriceps Strength and Executive Functions in Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J. A.; Eggermont, L. H. P.; Geuze, R. H.; Vis, J.; Verkerke, G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to answer the question whether the strength of the knee extensor musculus quadriceps (m. quadriceps), in particular, is related to specific executive functions and whether this relationship is independent of aerobic fitness. The clinical relevance of this question

  13. The importance of dynamic radiography with quadriceps contraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and concluded that the Xray of the knee with and without quadriceps contraction is a reliable and reproducible technique to objectify and quantify the degree of the anterior translation in ACL tears. Keywords: Knee, ACL (Anterior cruciate ligament), Magnetic resonance imaging, Quadriceps muscle, dynamicradiography.

  14. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  15. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    cocontraction effort. The enhanced coactivation levels obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. This laboratory study suggests that leg extension exercise with intentional hamstring cocontraction may have the potential to be a safe and effective quadriceps-strengthening intervention in the early stages of rehabilitation programs for anterior cruciate ligament injury or reconstruction recovery. Further studies, including clinical trials, are needed to investigate the relevance of this therapeutic exercise in clinical practice. © 2014 The Author(s).

  16. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  17. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Alizadeh Ebadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A 5 min jogging; (B 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s. Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  18. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  19. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  20. Partial tear of the quadriceps tendon in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, George

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of partial rupture of the quadriceps tendon in an 8-year-old girl. This is one of the youngest patients reported with a quadriceps tendon rupture, an entity seen predominantly in middle-aged people. The strength of the muscle tendon unit in a child makes tendon injuries extremely unusual as compared to apophyseal avulsions. The MR imaging findings of this unusual pediatric injury are illustrated. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors.The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(4:306-309.

  2. Dynamic 31P-MR-spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle. Influence of sex and age on spectroscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Romaneehsen, B.; Kessler, S.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: 31 P-MRS is used to assess the influence of sex and age on quadriceps muscle metabolism before and after exercise. Materials and Methods: 32 healthy volunteers (15 women, 17 men; mean age: 38±17 yrs.) were examined by dynamic phosphorus-31 ( 31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the magnet, the quadriceps muscle was stressed by an isometric and an isotonic form of exercise until exhaustion, respectively. Results: Resting conditions: With increasing subjects' age, the ratio β-adenosine triphosphate/total phosphate decreased (r=-0.37; p=0.02). With increasing subjects' age, the ratios inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine (r=0.79; p=5x10 -8 ), phosphomonoester/β-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.74; p=10 -6 ) and phosphodiester/β-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.62; p=10 -4 ) increased. The pH was the only one of the evaluated spectroscopic parameters which showed a sex-dependence: Female subjects had a significantly lower pH (7.03±0.02) than male subjects (7.05±0.03; p=0,01). Exercise: With increasing age, the maxima of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine were less extreme during both of the exercises (r=-0.42; p=0.0005). Likewise, the exercise-induced acidosis was less severe with increasing age (r=0.53; p=6x10 -6 ). After the end of the exercise, the times of half recovery of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine and the pH correlated neither with the subjects' age nor with sex or cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: Sex and age of volunteers affect spectroscopic results. This influence has to be considered in the interpretation of spectroscopic studies. (orig.) [de

  3. Quadriceps Function and Knee Joint Ultrasonography after ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Montgomery, Melissa M; Moffit, Tyler J; Vakula, Michael N

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between quadriceps function and ultrasonographic measures of femoral cartilage. Bilateral femoral cartilage thickness and quadriceps function were assessed in 44 individuals with unilateral ACLR. Quadriceps function was assessed using peak isometric strength, and early (RTD100) and late (RTD200) rate of torque development. Cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (P accounting for time since ACLR, quadriceps peak isometric strength was associated with cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (r = 0.35, P = 0.02) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). RTD100 and RTD200 were not associated with femoral cartilage thickness or cross-sectional area. Individuals with ACLR have thinner cartilage in their injured limb compared with uninjured limb, and cartilage thickness is associated with quadriceps function. These results indicate that ultrasonography may be useful for monitoring cartilage health and osteoarthritis progression after ACLR.

  4. Efficacy of live feedback to improve objectively monitored compliance to prescribed, home-based, exercise therapy-dosage in 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riel, Henrik; Matthews, Mark; Vicenzino, Bill

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does...... not follow their exercise prescription, performing too few repetitions or too fast below the prescribed time under tension. Live feedback, such as a metronome or exercise games, has previously shown promising results in improving the quality of exercises. The aim of this study is to investigate if live...... feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed. METHODS: This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  8. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  9. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-regulatory skills usage strengthens the relations of self-efficacy for improved eating, exercise, and weight in the severely obese: toward an explanatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2011-07-01

    Lack of success with behavioral weight-management treatments indicates a need for a better understanding of modifiable psychological correlates. Adults with class 2 and 3 obesity (N = 183; Mean(BMI) = 42.0 kg/m(2)) volunteered for a 26-week nutrition and exercise treatment, based on social cognitive theory, that focused on self-efficacy and self-regulation applied to increasing cardiovascular exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption. Improved self-efficacy for controlled eating significantly predicted increased fruit and vegetable consumption (R(2) = .15). Improved self-efficacy for exercise significantly predicted increased exercise (R(2) = .46). When changes in self-regulatory skill usage were stepped into the 2 previous equations, the variances accounted for significantly increased. Increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and exercise significantly predicted weight loss (R(2) = .38). Findings suggest that behavioral theory should guide research on weight-loss treatment, and a focus on self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills applied to specific nutrition and exercise behaviors is warranted.

  11. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hui Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment.

  12. Sports Mass Age Therapy on the Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness of the Quadriceps Femoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Massage therapy is one of most commonly applied treatments during athletic training. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sports massage therapy on reducing post-exercise quadriceps muscle soreness. Methods. A sample of 29 women aged 24-26 years was divided into an experimental group (n = 15 receiving classic sports massage therapy and a control group (n = 14 given no treatment. An exercise session consisting of five sets of deep squat jumps was administered after which lower limb power as assessed via the vertical jump test. Muscle soreness was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and exercise intensity with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale. Subsequent measurements of lower limb power and muscle soreness were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the exercise session. Differences between the measurements were assessed by the Friedman and least significant difference tests while between-group comparisons involved the Mann-Whitney U test. Results. The largest decrease in lower limb power was observed between the first measurement after the exercise session and 24 h later (p < 0.01. The smallest decrease in power was observed in the massage group. The highest levels of muscle soreness were noted 24 h post-exercise in the massage group and 48 h post-exercise in the control group. The experimental group showed a decrease in muscle soreness in each subsequent measurement, with the results close to zero on the VAS 96 h postexercise. Conclusions. Massage therapy quickened recovery and improved muscle efficiency post-exercise and may serve as an effective treatment of muscle soreness. The analgesic effect of massage suggests it should be widely applied in sport, physical therapy and rehabilitation.

  13. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  14. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  15. Isometric exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  16. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  17. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also

  18. Isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength profiles of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football players are at risk of lower limb injuries, specifically hamstring muscle strains and ACL injuries due to muscle imbalances. This was a descriptive study assessing the isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and endurance in 28 elite, male, South African football players. Muscle strength was tested at 60 ...

  19. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  20. Comparison of quadriceps-sparing minimally invasive and medial parapatellar total knee arthroplasty: A 2-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsen Chiang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Patients undergoing quadriceps-sparing and standard medial parapatellar TKA had comparable outcomes for quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring–quadriceps balance, and knee function; however, the quadriceps-sparing TKA was more time consuming surgically and resulted in a less accurate prosthesis position.

  1. Dynamic {sup 31}P-MR-spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle. Influence of sex and age on spectroscopic results; Die dynamische 31-Phosphor-Magnetresonanz-Spektroskopie des M. quadriceps. Einfluss von Geschlecht und Alter auf spektroskopische Parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, K.; Romaneehsen, B.; Kessler, S.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie

    1999-05-01

    Purpose: {sup 31}P-MRS is used to assess the influence of sex and age on quadriceps muscle metabolism before and after exercise. Materials and Methods: 32 healthy volunteers (15 women, 17 men; mean age: 38{+-}17 yrs.) were examined by dynamic phosphorus-31 ({sup 31}P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the magnet, the quadriceps muscle was stressed by an isometric and an isotonic form of exercise until exhaustion, respectively. Results: Resting conditions: With increasing subjects` age, the ratio {beta}-adenosine triphosphate/total phosphate decreased (r=-0.37; p=0.02). With increasing subjects` age, the ratios inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine (r=0.79; p=5x10{sup -8}), phosphomonoester/{beta}-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.74; p=10{sup -6}) and phosphodiester/{beta}-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.62; p=10{sup -4}) increased. The pH was the only one of the evaluated spectroscopic parameters which showed a sex-dependence: Female subjects had a significantly lower pH (7.03{+-}0.02) than male subjects (7.05{+-}0.03; p=0,01). Exercise: With increasing age, the maxima of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine were less extreme during both of the exercises (r=-0.42; p=0.0005). Likewise, the exercise-induced acidosis was less severe with increasing age (r=0.53; p=6x10{sup -6}). After the end of the exercise, the times of half recovery of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine and the pH correlated neither with the subjects` age nor with sex or cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: Sex and age of volunteers affect spectroscopic results. This influence has to be considered in the interpretation of spectroscopic studies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Ueberpruefung des Einflusses von Geschlecht und Alter gesunder Probanden auf phosphorspektroskopische Ergebnisse. Material und Methodik: 32 gesunde Probanden (15 Frauen, 17 Maenner) mit einem Durchschnittsalter von 38{+-}17 Jahren wurden mit der dynamischen 31-Phosphor-Magnetresonanz-Spektroskopie (MRS

  2. Efficacy of live feedback to improve objectively monitored compliance to prescribed, home-based, exercise therapy-dosage in 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain- a study protocol of a randomized controlled superiority trial (The XRCISE-AS-INSTRUcted-1 trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riel, Henrik; Matthews, Mark; Vicenzino, Bill

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does...... with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an i...... problem among adolescents with patellofemoral pain. Providing the adolescents with real time feedback on time under tension from a sensor and an iPad could potentially help the adolescents perform the exercises as prescribed. This may increase the total exercise dosage they receive during treatment which...

  3. Quadriceps Activation Failure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Is Not Mediated by Knee Joint Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNCH, ANDREW D.; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID S.; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Descriptive prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between knee joint effusion, quadriceps activation, and quadriceps strength. These relationships may help clinicians better identify impaired quadriceps activation. BACKGROUND After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, the involved quadriceps may demonstrate weakness. Experimental data have shown that quadriceps activation and strength may be directly mediated by intracapsular joint pressure created by saline injection. An inverse relationship between quadriceps activation and the amount of saline injected has been reported. This association has not been demonstrated for traumatic effusion. We hypothesized that traumatic joint effusion due to ACL rupture and postinjury quadriceps strength would correlate well with quadriceps activation, allowing clinicians to use effusion and strength measurement as a surrogate for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps activation. METHODS Prospective data were collected on 188 patients within 100 days of ACL injury (average, 27 days) referred from a single surgeon. A complete clinical evaluation of the knee was performed, including ligamentous assessment and assessment of range of motion and effusion. Quadriceps function was electrophysiologically assessed using maximal volitional isometric contraction and burst superimposition techniques to quantify both strength and activation. RESULTS Effusion grade did not correlate with quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) (zero effusion: mean ± SD CAR, 93.5% ± 5.8%; trace effusion: CAR, 93.8% ± 9.5%; 1+ effusion: CAR, 94.0% ± 7.5%; 2+/3+ effusion: CAR, 90.6% ± 11.1%). These values are lower than normative data from healthy subjects (CAR, 98% ± 3%). CONCLUSION Joint effusion after ACL injury does not directly mediate quadriceps activation failure seen after injury. Therefore, it should not be used as a clinical substitute for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps

  4. Partial rupture of the quadriceps muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir Gokhan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quadriceps femoris muscle ruptures usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial rupture of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle rupture. Case Presentation A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father reported that she felt pain while jumping on sofa. There was no direct trauma to thigh or knee. We located a palpable soft tissue swelling at distal anterolateral side of thigh. The history revealed that 10 days ago the patient was treated for upper tract respiratory infection with intramuscular Clindamycin for 7 days. When we consulted the patient with her previous doctor and nurse, we learnt that multiple daily injections might be injected to same side of left thigh. MRI showed a partial tear of vastus lateralis muscle matching with the injection sites. The patient treated with long leg half-casting for three weeks. Clinical examination and knee flexion had good results with conservative treatment. Conclusions Multiple intramuscular injections may contribute to damage muscles and make prone to tears with muscle contractions. Doctors and nurses must be cautious to inject from different parts of both thighs.

  5. Comparing the Effect of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in Patients Suffering From Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Firoozkoohi Moghadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most prevalent problems in physically active people. The syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with different therapeutic approaches. Conservative treatment of the syndrome has been a crucial matter in different studies. Quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise is a recommended approach which is performed in forms of open and closed kinetic chain exercises. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of these exercises on this syndrome. Methods: Totally 30 women suffering from the syndrome aged 30-40 were randomly allocated into three groups: open, and closed kinetic chain exercises, and control group, as groups A, B, and C, respectively. Groups A and B participated in 28 sessions of exercises in a period of four weeks and group C did not do any exercise in this period. Before and after the period, pain and function of the participants were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS and Kujala patellofemoral scale, respectively. Data were analyzed using independent t test, dependent t test, and univariate variance analysis, while significance of data was determined at P < 0.05. Results: The study indicated that open kinetic chain exercises (group A for 4 weeks brought significant changes in relieving the pain along with improving the function (P = 0.001. Likewise, it was revealed a significant pain relief as well as function improvement in group B (P = 0.001. Comparing two groups illustrated that benefits of open kinetic chain exercises outweigh closed ones (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, both exercises were efficient in relieving pain as well as improving function, however open kinetic chain exercises were more contributory.

  6. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  7. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (pendurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; pendurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  8. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (psquat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training PMID:11157465

  9. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy: a randomized phase II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Maddocks

    Full Text Available A reduced exercise capacity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Therapeutic exercise can be beneficial and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES of the quadriceps muscles may represent a practical approach. The primary aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of NMES of the quadriceps to patients with NSCLC used alongside palliative chemotherapy. Secondary aims explored aspects of safety and efficacy of NMES in this setting.Patients with advanced NSCLC due to receive first-line palliative chemotherapy were randomized to usual care with or without NMES. They were asked to undertake 30 minute sessions of NMES, ideally daily, but as a minimum, three times weekly. For NMES to be considered acceptable, it was predetermined that ≥80% of patients should achieve this minimum level of adherence. Qualitative interviews were held with a subset of patients to explore factors influencing adherence. Safety was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass, and physical activity level were assessed at baseline and after three cycles of chemotherapy.49 patients (28 male, median (IQR age 69 (64-75 years participated. Of 30 randomized to NMES, 18 were eligible for the primary endpoint, of whom 9 (50% [90% CI, 29 to 71] met the minimum level of adherence. Adherence was enhanced by incorporating sessions into a daily routine and hindered by undesirable effects of chemotherapy. There were no serious adverse events related to NMES, nor significant differences in quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass or physical activity level between groups.NMES is not acceptable in this setting, nor was there a suggestion of benefit. The need remains to explore NMES in patients with cancer in other settings.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 42944026 www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN42944026.

  10. KOMBINASI LATIHAN EKSENTRIK M.GASTROCNEMIUS DAN LATIHAN PLYOMETRIC LEBIH BAIK DARI PADA LATIHAN EKSENTRIK M.QUADRICEPS DAN LATIHAN PLYOMETRIC TERHADAP PENINGKATAN AGILITY PADA MAHASISWA DI UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Yolanda Anggita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase agility for students is determined by muscular strength, speed, and flexibility. The ability of muscles to contract quickly will increase the speed of muscle in motion. Increase in speed, strength and flexibility of muscles due to stretch muscle-tendinous unit. The mechanism become the basis for moving in the shortest possible time. Agility on student issues has not received much attention, the attention of the agility found better in many athletes. This research is an experimental study to analysis at the difference between the intervention of with gastrocmineus muscle eccentric exercises and plyometric exercises with eccentric exercise quadriceps muscle and plyometric to increase agility on students at the University of Esa Unggul. A total of 40 students aged 18-21 years old who meet the criteria inclusion were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups. The old treatment group I was given quadriceps muscle eccentric and plyometric treatment group II eccentric exercise gastrocmineus muscle and plyometric exercises. Both exercise was done 3 times was given per week for 6 weeks. Agility is measured by Right-Boomerang Run Test. The results of the hypothesis testing using t-test related and different mean values obtained agility treatment group I (16,43±0.89secon and a second treatment group (16,01± 1,04seconwith p?0.05. Conclusion of the study is a combination of eccentric exercise m.gastrocnemius with plyometric exercise no better than the m.quadriceps eceentric exercises with plyometric exercises to increase agility on student at Esa Unggul University.

  11. Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish J Patwa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.

  12. Influence of step rate and quadriceps load distribution on patellofemoral cartilage contact pressures during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L; Smith, Colin R; Vignos, Michael F; Kaiser, Jarred; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-08-20

    Interventions used to treat patellofemoral pain in runners are often designed to alter patellofemoral mechanics. This study used a computational model to investigate the influence of two interventions, step rate manipulation and quadriceps strengthening, on patellofemoral contact pressures during running. Running mechanics were analyzed using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model that included a knee with six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. An elastic foundation model was used to compute articular contact pressures. The lower extremity model was scaled to anthropometric dimensions of 22 healthy adults, who ran on an instrumented treadmill at 90%, 100% and 110% of their preferred step rate. Numerical optimization was then used to predict the muscle forces, secondary tibiofemoral kinematics and all patellofemoral kinematics that would generate the measured primary hip, knee and ankle joint accelerations. Mean and peak patella contact pressures reached 5.0 and 9.7MPa during the midstance phase of running. Increasing step rate by 10% significantly reduced mean contact pressures by 10.4% and contact area by 7.4%, but had small effects on lateral patellar translation and tilt. Enhancing vastus medialis strength did not substantially affect pressure magnitudes or lateral patellar translation, but did shift contact pressure medially toward the patellar median ridge. Thus, the model suggests that step rate tends to primarily modulate the magnitude of contact pressure and contact area, while vastus medialis strengthening has the potential to alter mediolateral pressure locations. These results are relevant to consider in the design of interventions used to prevent or treat patellofemoral pain in runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The comparison of quadriceps muscle strength between sprint runner and normal un-trained individuals (Determined by Kin-Com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebian Moghaddam S "

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is suggested that quadriceps muscle has an important role in stability & mobility of Knee joint in athletics and normal individuals; therefore, the purpose of this study was evaluation of the strength in Power Athletics (PA and Normal Un-trained Individuals (NUI groups. Methods and Materials: 31 Females (20 NUI & 11 PA participated in this study. For measuring the strength, each individual performed 5 continuous concentric-eccentric maximal contraction at angular velocities of 90°/s, 135°/s. Twenty five percent of each individual (Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction MVIC was determined and used as Pre-load force. Results: Averages concentric & eccentric torques were greater in PA group in comparison with NUI group. The significant difference (P<0.02 existed between PA and NUI groups. Average concentric torques of quadriceps muscle decreased (with increasing of speed from 90°/s to 135°/s and average eccentric torques increased. Average eccentric torques were greater (P<0.01 in PA & NUI groups in comparison with average concentric torques. Conclusion: PA group strength was greater in comparison with NUI group. This is possibly due to the type of muscle fibers in this group have (greater type II fibers. Accordingly, it is critical to consider the role of eccentric exercise in PA group for preventing sport injury.

  14. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to

  15. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Rob; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, Wim; Slager, Geranda; van der Schans, Cees; Zijlstra, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to

  16. Bilateral simultaneous quadriceps tendon rupture in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Son, Sang Beom; Han, Chang Whan; Kang, Si Won

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon without a significant history of trauma may occur in association with chronic metabolic disorders such as chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism, though has rarely been reported. We describe a case of spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in a 36-year-old female patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism

  17. Fatigue diminishes motoneuronal excitability during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavil, Joshua C; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Mangum, Tyler S; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue influences the excitability of the motor pathway during single-joint isometric contractions. This study sought to investigate the influence of fatigue on corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise. Eight men performed fatiguing constant-load (80% W peak ; 241 ± 13 W) cycling to exhaustion during which the percent increase in quadriceps electromyography (ΔEMG; vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was quantified. During a separate trial, subjects performed two brief (∼45 s) nonfatiguing cycling bouts (244 ± 15 and 331 ± 23W) individually chosen to match the ΔEMG across bouts to that observed during fatiguing cycling. Corticospinal excitability during exercise was quantified by transcranial magnetic, electric transmastoid, and femoral nerve stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEP), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP), and M waves in the quadriceps. Peripheral and central fatigue were expressed as pre- to postexercise reductions in quadriceps twitch force (ΔQ tw ) and voluntary quadriceps activation (ΔVA). Whereas nonfatiguing cycling caused no measureable fatigue, fatiguing cycling resulted in significant peripheral (ΔQ tw : 42 ± 6%) and central (ΔVA: 4 ± 1%) fatigue. During nonfatiguing cycling, the area of MEPs and CMEPs, normalized to M waves, similarly increased in the quadriceps (∼40%; P fatiguing cycling. As a consequence, the ratio of MEP to CMEP was unchanged during both trials (P > 0.5). Therefore, although increases in muscle activation promote corticospinal excitability via motoneuronal facilitation during nonfatiguing cycling, this effect is abolished during fatigue. We conclude that the unaltered excitability of the corticospinal pathway from start of intense cycling exercise to exhaustion is, in part, determined by inhibitory influences on spinal motoneurons obscuring the facilitating effects of muscle activation.

  18. Strengthening exercises for old cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, Y; Lysholm, J; Lysholm, M; Gillquist, J

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-three consecutive patients with troublesome old cruciate ligament lesions underwent a 3-month thigh and calf muscle training program. Before training, the diagnosis was established by arthroscopy and clinical examination under anesthesia. Significant improvement in strength, performance, knee score, and activity level took place; the majority were improved and declined surgery. A period of strength training is recommended before the decision to undertake surgery for cruciate ligament injury.

  19. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  20. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  1. Different Muscle Action Training Protocols on Quadriceps-Hamstrings Neuromuscular Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Cassio V; Brown, Lee E; Lima, Camila D; Gregory Haff, G; Pinto, Ronei S

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three specific concentric and eccentric muscle action training protocols on quadriceps-hamstrings neuromuscular adaptations. Forty male volunteers performed 6 weeks of training (two sessions/week) of their dominant and non-dominant legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n=10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n=10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n=10), or no training (CTRL, n=10). Intensity of training was increased every week by decreasing the angular velocity for concentric and increasing it for eccentric groups in 30°/s increments. Volume of training was increased by adding one set every week. Dominant leg quadriceps and hamstrings muscle thickness, muscle quality, muscle activation, muscle coactivation, and electromechanical delay were tested before and after training. Results revealed that all training groups similarly increased MT of quadriceps and hamstrings compared to control (p0.05). These findings suggest that different short-term muscle action isokinetic training protocols elicit similar muscle size increases in hamstrings and quadriceps, but not for other neuromuscular variables. Nevertheless, effect sizes indicate that CON/ECC and ECC/ECC may elicit the greatest magnitude of change in muscle hypertrophy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Phamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Phamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  3. The twitch interpolation technique for study of fatigue of human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Mehlsen, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine if the twitch interpolation technique could be used to objectively measure fatigue in the quadriceps muscle in subjects performing submaximally. The 'true' maximum isometric quadriceps torque was determined in 21 healthy subject using the twitch interpolation...... technique. Then an endurance test was performed in which the subjects made repeated isometric contractions at 50% of the 'true' maximum torque for 4 s, separated by 6 s rest periods. During the test, the force response to single electrical stimulation (twitch amplitude) was measured at 50% and 25......). In conclusion, the twitch technique can be used for objectively measuring fatigue of the quadriceps muscle....

  4. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Harvie, Timothy O'Leary, Saravana Kumar International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE, City East Campus, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Purpose: There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results: A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address

  5. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  6. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  7. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF THE HAMSTRING/QUADRICEPS RATIO FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Garbutt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion.

  8. Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure ... in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and ... disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years.

  9. Fibrocartilage in the attachment zones of the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament of man.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, E J; Benjamin, M; Pemberton, D J

    1990-01-01

    Differences are reported in the quantities and distribution of uncalcified fibrocartilage at the attachment sites of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar ligament. The largest quantity of fibrocartilage was characteristic of the quadriceps tendon. A prominent wedge of fibrocartilage was seen in the proximal part of the tibial attachment of the patellar ligament, though there was no fibrocartilage in the most superficial fibres. Little fibrocartilage was seen at the patellar attachment of th...

  10. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, C.P.; Zijlstra, W.; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, W.P.; Douma, K.W.; Slager, G.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various d...

  11. Quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L

    2013-05-01

    To examine the independent association between diabetes mellitus (and its duration and severity) and quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. United States. Two thousand five hundred seventy-three adults aged 50 and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Diabetes mellitus was ascertained according to questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensor (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60º/s. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes mellitus status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus had significantly slower gait speed (0.96 ± 0.02 m/s) than those without (1.08 ± 0.01 m/s; P diabetes mellitus was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (-4.6 ± 1.9 Nm; P = .02) and power (-4.9 ± 2.0 W; P = .02) and slower gait speed (-0.05 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes mellitus was independently associated only with gait speed (-0.04 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .02). Diabetes mellitus duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (-5.7 and -3.5 Nm/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) and power (-6.1 and -3.8 W/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) (all P ≤ .001, no significant interactions according to sex). Glycosylated hemoglobin was not associated with outcomes after accounting for body weight. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus have lower quadriceps strength and quadriceps power that is related

  12. Effect of time-dependent cryotherapy on redox balance of quadriceps injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marco Aurélio dos Santos; Carvalho, Taiara Ramos de; Cruz, Amanda Cristina Marques Barros da; Jesus, Lennon Rafael Guedine de; Silva Neto, Larissa Alexsandra da; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2016-02-01

    Muscle trauma represents a high number of injuries in professional sport and recreation and may occur through several mechanisms. This study aims at analyzing time-dependent effects of cryotherapy on the redox balance in lesioned quadriceps muscles in F1 mice. Twenty male F1 mice were divided into five groups: (a) animals were not subjected to muscle lesioning or treatment (CTR); (b) quadriceps muscle was lesioned without treatment (L); (c) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 5 min (LC5); (d) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 20 min (LC20); and quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 40 min (LC40). The mice were euthanized; the quadriceps muscles were collected and subjected to analyses for levels of protein, hydroperoxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Protein levels were reduced in L (-39%; p cryotherapy does not improve the oxidative stress in lesioned muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, Phamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  14. Femoral quadriceps muscle injury: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Manjon, P.; Revilla, Y.; Ciudad, E.; Buj, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Femoral quadriceps muscle (FQM) injury is a common lesion amongathletes, especially soccer players. It is important to determine the extension of the lesion and whether or not here is accompanying hematoma. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) are excellent methods for studying these lesions. To assess the ultrasonographic and MR findings associated with FQM injury to aid in its diagnosis and the determination of its extension. We review the ultrasonographic studies in 9 patients with FQM injury and the corresponding MR studies in five of these patients. Ultrasound and MR reveal the rupture of the muscle fibers, the mass effect produced by the hematoma between the ruptured fiber and the changes in echogenicity and typical signal changes in the hematoma. Chronic cases presented fibrous scar tissue and intermittent mass effects mimicking those of tumors. Ultrasound and MR demonstrate that these masses correspond to normal contractions of the muscle fibers among the fibrous scar tissue, ruling our their tumor-related etiology. Although both ultrasound and MR are excellent methods and of similar value in the study of muscle injury, we consider the former to be more readily available and inexpensive. Moreover, the ultrasonographic study is more suitable for the study of the intermittent mass effect produced by abnormal contraction of chronically injured muscles. (Author) 5 refs

  15. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  16. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001 and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001 lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001. Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  17. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Methods: Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force w...

  18. Impacto dos exercícios na capacidade funcional e dor em pacientes com osteoartrite de joelhos: ensaio clínico randomizado Impact of exercise on the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mizusaki Imoto de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fraqueza muscular, especialmente do quadríceps, é uma das principais repercussões osteomusculares da osteoartrite de joelho, e os exercícios são considerados uma das principais intervenções no tratamento conservador da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do fortalecimento do quadríceps femural na capacidade funcional e nos sintomas relacionados à osteoartrite de joelho utilizando o teste Timed Up and Go (TUG, o questionário Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC e o Índice de Lequesne. MÉTODOS: Foram randomizados 100 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos: 1 Grupo Exercício (n = 50, o qual incluiu bicicleta estacionária, alongamento dos músculos isquiotibiais e fortalecimento do músculo quadríceps, e 2 Grupo Orientação (n = 50, que recebeu um manual de orientações a fim de descrever a osteoartrite de joelho e instruir os pacientes a como ajustar o dia a dia de acordo com os sintomas. Os pacientes foram informados sobre os sinais e sintomas da doença e os cuidados durante as atividades de vida diária. O manual não incluiu orientação de exercícios. RESULTADOS: O Grupo Exercício apresentou melhora estatisticamente significante no teste TUG, nos aspectos dor, função e rigidez do questionário WOMAC e no índice Lequesne, quando comparado ao Grupo Orientação. CONCLUSÃO: Exercícios para fortalecimento do quadríceps com duração de oito semanas são efetivos na melhora de dor, função e rigidez em pacientes com osteoartrite de joelho.BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness, especially of the quadriceps muscle, is one of the major musculoskeletal effects of knee osteoarthritis. Exercises are considered one of the main interventions in the conservative treatment of those patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of quadriceps strengthening exercises on functional capacity and symptoms related of knee osteoarthritis by use of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG, the Western Ontario and

  19. Pharmacokinetics of a new subcutaneous diclofenac formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Piazza, Cateno; Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Cardì, Francesco; Gugliotta, Barbara; Drago, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous (SC) diclofenac hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (HPbCD) formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. This was a pilot, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover relative bioavailability study. A total of 12 healthy subjects received a single SC injection of diclofenac HPbCD 50 mg/1 mL in the quadriceps, gluteus, or abdomen. The AUC was comparable after SC diclofenac HPbCD in the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The Cmax was comparable after SC administration in the quadriceps or abdomen, and ~ 17% higher in the gluteus. The absorption was rapid (30 minutes) after administration of the treatment at any site. The treatment was well tolerated. The relative bioavailability of SC diclofenac HPbCD was comparable when administered to the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The new diclofenac formulation can therefore be administered subcutaneously to any of these sites without clinically significant differences. A further adequately powered study would be necessary to reveal any differences among injection sites in terms of peak plasma concentration.

  20. Quadriceps tendon autograft for arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction: use it now, use it often.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Andrew J; Musahl, Volker; Slone, Harris S; Xerogeanes, John W; Milinkovic, Danko; Fink, Christian; Hoser, Christian

    2018-04-28

    Traditional bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon ACL grafts are not without limitations. A growing body of anatomic, biomechanical and clinical data has demonstrated the utility of quadriceps tendon autograft in arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction. The quadriceps tendon autograft provides a robust volume of tissue that can be reliably harvested, mitigating the likelihood of variably sized grafts and obviating the necessity of allograft augmentation. Modern, minimally invasive harvest techniques offer the advantages of low rates of donor site morbidity and residual extensor mechanism strength deficits. New data suggest that quadriceps tendon autograft may possess superior biomechanical characteristics when compared with bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. However, there have been very few direct, prospective comparisons between the clinical outcomes associated with quadriceps tendon autograft and other autograft options (eg, hamstring tendon and bone-patellar tendon-bone). Nevertheless, quadriceps tendon autograft should be one of the primary options in any knee surgeon's armamentarium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Joint awareness after total knee arthroplasty is affected by pain and quadriceps strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Y; Wada, O; Nakakita, S; Mizuno, K

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes to provide a more patient-centered view on treatment. Forgetting the artificial joint can be regarded as the goal in joint arthroplasty. The goals of the study were to describe changes in joint awareness in the artificial joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine which factors among pain, knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and functional ability affect joint awareness after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA demonstrate changes in joint awareness and joint awareness is associated with pain, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. This prospective cohort study comprised 63 individuals undergoing TKA, evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Outcomes included joint awareness assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), pain score, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. Fifty-eight individuals completed all postoperative assessments. All measures except for knee extension ROM improved from 1 to 6 months. However, there were no differences in any measures from 6 to 12 months. FJS was affected most greatly by pain at 1 month and by quadriceps strength at 6 and 12 months. Patients following TKA demonstrate improvements in joint awareness and function within 6 months after surgery, but reach a plateau from 6 to 12 months. Quadriceps strength could contribute to this plateau of joint awareness. Prospective cohort study, IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Gear Shifting of Quadriceps during Isometric Knee Extension Disclosed Using Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Huang, Weijian; Zeng, Yu; Shi, Wenxiu; Diao, Xianfen; Wei, Xiguang; Ling, Shan

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely employed to estimate the morphological changes of muscle during contraction. To further investigate the motion pattern of quadriceps during isometric knee extensions, we studied the relative motion pattern between femur and quadriceps under ultrasonography. An interesting observation is that although the force of isometric knee extension can be controlled to change almost linearly, femur in the simultaneously captured ultrasound video sequences has several different piecewise moving patterns. This phenomenon is like quadriceps having several forward gear ratios like a car starting from rest towards maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and then returning to rest. Therefore, to verify this assumption, we captured several ultrasound video sequences of isometric knee extension and collected the torque/force signal simultaneously. Then we extract the shapes of femur from these ultrasound video sequences using video processing techniques and study the motion pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. The phenomenon can be seen easier via a comparison between the torque signal and relative spatial distance between femur and quadriceps. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis techniques to study the process and the clustering results also provided preliminary support to the conclusion that, during both ramp increasing and decreasing phases, quadriceps contraction may have several forward gear ratios relative to femur.

  3. Position of the quadriceps actuator influences knee loads during simulated squat testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael W; Piazza, Stephen J

    2018-05-17

    The "Oxford Rig" cadaveric simulator permits researchers and clinicians to study knee mechanics during a simulated squatting motion. The motion of the lower limb in the Oxford Rig is typically controlled by a single actuator that applies tension to the quadriceps tendon. The location of the quadriceps actuator, however, has differed across published descriptions of the Oxford Rig. Actuators have been placed on the femur and pelvis, and on "grounded" locations external to the specimen, but the consequences of this placement for knee kinematics and kinetics are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine these effects using a validated computational musculoskeletal model. When the actuator was placed on the femur or pelvis, forces realistically increased with knee flexion, with quadriceps and patellofemoral contact forces exceeding 2000 N and 3000 N, respectively, at 100° flexion. When the actuator was grounded, however, forces were substantially reduced and did not monotonically increase with flexion. Articular joint contact forces were not strongly influenced by changing the location of the actuator from the femur to the pelvis, with small RMS differences in quadriceps forces (48.2 N), patellofemoral forces (83.6 N), and tibiofemoral forces (58.9 N) between these conditions. The location of the actuator did not substantially affect knee kinematics. The results of this study suggest that the quadriceps actuator of the Oxford Rig should be attached to either the femur or the pelvis when the goal is to make realistic estimates of quadriceps forces and articular contact forces within the knee joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Static stretching vs. dynamic warm-ups: a comparison of their effects on torque and electromyography output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N; Coburn, J; Gillum, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if two different warm-up protocols differently affect torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and electromyography (EMG) output of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) when completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls. Twenty-one healthy male (N.=8) and female (N.=13) subjects volunteered to participate in a familiarization session and three testing sessions. The three testing sessions control, dynamic, and static were completed in a counterbalanced order on non-consecutive days. First, subjects warmed-up on a treadmill for five minutes before completing six dynamic movements, six static-stretches, or no stretches. They then rested for five minutes before completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls at a speed of 60 s-1. A significant decrease in quadriceps torque output over time was determined for the dynamic protocol when compared to the control (Phamstring torque or EMG output of the RF and VL. Short duration static-stretching has the ability to increase peak and average torque of the leg extensors, while some types of anaerobic exercise involving maximal contractions to fatigue may be hindered by performing dynamic movements as part of the warm-up.

  5. The effect of local skin cooling before a sustained, submaximal isometric contraction on fatigue and isometric quadriceps femoris performance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Cescon, Corrado; Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-04-01

    prior to submaximal exercises of the quadriceps muscle compared to pre-thermoneutral applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Pratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Pratio in ACL deficient knees.

  7. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  8. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  9. The associations between quadriceps muscle strength, power, and knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Amanda M; Thomas, Abbey C; Armstrong, Charles W; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal knee joint mechanics have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Deficits in muscle function (i.e., strength and power) may contribute to abnormal knee joint loading. The associations between quadriceps strength, power and knee joint mechanics remain unclear in knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to collect peak knee joint angles and moments during the first 50% of stance phase of gait in 33 participants with knee osteoarthritis. Quadriceps strength and power were assessed using a knee extension machine. Strength was quantified as the one repetition maximum. Power was quantified as the peak power produced at 40-90% of the one repetition maximum. Quadriceps strength accounted for 15% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (P=0.016). Quadriceps power accounted for 20-29% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (Pknee adduction moment (P=0.05). These data suggest that quadriceps power explains more variance in knee flexion angle and knee adduction moment during gait in knee osteoarthritis than quadriceps strength. Additionally, quadriceps power at multiple loads is associated with knee joint mechanics and therefore should be assessed at a variety of loads. Taken together, these results indicate that quadriceps power may be a potential target for interventions aimed at changing knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  11. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  12. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial

  13. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  14. Artificial-reflex stimulation for FES-induced standing with minimum quadriceps force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.J.; Mulder, A.J.; Boom, H.B.K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, G.

    1990-01-01

    A control strategy is proposed to decrease quadriceps activity during standing. Modified on/off (or artificial reflex) control is used: a non-numerical or finite-state control scheme based on feedback of knee angle and angular velocity. The control strategy is evaluated in paraplegic patients in an

  15. Quadriceps fat pad edema: significance on magnetic resonance images of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.

    2006-01-01

    While clinically reading magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knees we have occasionally noted edema within the suprapatellar fat pad, with mass effect both on the suprapatellar joint recess posteriorly, and on the quadriceps tendon anteriorly. This MR appearance is analogous to Hoffa's disease described in the infrapatellar fat pad. We sought to evaluate the frequency and pattern of this finding and to provide clinical and histological correlation. The suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad was evaluated in 770 consecutive MR examinations (on 1.5 T and 0.3 T) in 736 patients (353 females and 383 males, age range 5-86 years, mean 44.3 years). The MR images were retrospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus for the presence of quadriceps fat pad edema with mass effect. In 46 patients who had intravenous administration of gadolinium, the presence of enhancement was also evaluated. Clinical correlation was performed in abnormal cases; in one patient, 1-year follow-up MRI was evaluated and in one patient a percutaneous biopsy as well as 2-year clinical follow-up was performed. Thirty-two (4.2%) knees in 29 patients showed quadriceps fat pad edema and mass effect. In five of these patients imaging of the contralateral knee was also performed and four of these showed symmetric edema. Another five cases had gadolinium-enhanced images with prominent enhancement. Most patients had clinical symptoms of meniscal tears (n=16, 55%) or anterior knee pain (n=8, 27.6%). (orig.)

  16. Comparison of hamstring/quadriceps ratio between isoinertial and isokinetic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, Bruna G C; Bottaro, Martim; Weber, Fernanda S.; Radaelli, Regis; Gaya, Anelise R.; Cardoso, Marcelo S.; Brown, Lee E.; Carregaro, Rodrigo; Pinto, Ronei S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the applicability and predictive accuracy of an isoinertial resistance machine for the assessment of hamstring/quadriceps conventional (concentric) ratio (CR). METHOD: Thirty-two resistance trained young men (23.53 ± 3.2 yrs) were tested using dedicated instruments to obtain

  17. Fatigue-related changes in motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles within and across legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; van Ditshuizen, J.C.; van den Heuvel, M.R.C.; Hofman, C.; Willigenburg, N.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of muscle fatigue on motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) within and between legs. We expected muscle fatigue to result in an increased common drive to different motor units of

  18. Epidemiology of Quadriceps Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Timothy G.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Padua, Darin A.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    Context:  Few researchers have examined the rates and patterns of quadriceps strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Objective:  To describe the epidemiology of quadriceps strains in 25 NCAA sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design:  Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting:  Convenience sample of NCAA programs from 25 sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Patients or Other Particpants:  Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's NCAA athletics during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Aggregate quadriceps strain injury and exposure data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years were analyzed. Quadriceps strain injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:  Overall, 517 quadriceps strains were reported, resulting in an injury rate of 1.07/10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs). The sports with the highest overall quadriceps strain rates were women's soccer (5.61/10 000 AEs), men's soccer (2.52/10 000 AEs), women's indoor track (2.24/10 000 AEs), and women's softball (2.15/10 000 AEs). Across sex-comparable sports, women had a higher rate of quadriceps strains than men overall (1.97 versus 0.65/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.03; 95% CI = 2.45, 3.76). The majority of quadriceps strains were sustained during practice (77.8%). However, the quadriceps strain rate was higher during competition than during practice (1.29 versus 1.02/10 000 AEs; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.56). Most quadriceps strains occurred in the preseason (57.8%), and rates were higher during the preseason compared with the regular season (2.29 versus 0.63/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.60; 95% CI = 3.02, 4.30). Common injury mechanisms were noncontact (63.2%) and overuse (21.9%). Most quadriceps strains restricted

  19. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  20. Bedside Ultrasound of Quadriceps to Predict Rehospitalization and Functional Decline in Hospitalized Elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Guerreiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the capacity of total anterior thigh thickness, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quadriceps contractile index, all measured by bedside ultrasound, to predict rehospitalization, functional decline, and death in elderly patients 3 months after hospital discharge. To evaluate intra and interobserver reproducibility of the dominant thigh evaluation method by point of care ultrasound.MethodsCohort study of patients aged 65 years or more admitted to a medium complexity unit in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and ultrasound evaluation of the dominant thigh of each participant were performed. After 3 months of hospital discharge, telephone contact was made to evaluate the outcomes of rehospitalization or death and functional decline—assessed by the 100 points Barthel scale and defined as a decrease of five or more points.Results100 participants were included. There was no statistically significant difference between intraobserver measurements in the GEE method analysis (p > 0.05, and the mean bias obtained in Bland–Altman plots was close to zero in all four analyses performed, suggesting good intra and interobserver agreement. There was a significant correlation between the echographic measurements (quadriceps thickness and contractile index and gait speed, timed up and go, and handgrip tests. There was a significant association between contractile index (quadriceps thickness over total anterior thigh thickness multiplied by 100 lower than 60% and functional decline (relative risk 1.35; CI 95% 1.10–1.65; p = 0.003 as well as between the thickness of the quadriceps and rehospitalization or death, in both individuals with preserved walking capacity and in bedridden elders (relative risk 1.34; CI 95% 1.02–1.75; p = 0.04.ConclusionThe ultrasonographic method to evaluate thigh thickness was easily applicable and reproducible. The thickness of the quadriceps could

  1. Impact of exercise type and dose on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard; Roos, Ewa M.

    2011-01-01

    that it will not always imply benefit in comparison with a matched control group. Stratified analyses provide evidence that exercise programs aiming at improving strength, aerobic capacity or functional performance are more efficacious than combined exercise programs. While the number of supervised sessions may enhance...... the benefits of the aerobic exercise, focusing on the quadriceps only, may increase benefits of resistance training.......TITLE: Impact of exercise type and dose on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of published exercise therapy programs aimed at reducing pain in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee, in order to identify...

  2. Pain level after ACL reconstruction: A comparative study between free quadriceps tendon and hamstring tendons autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute...... isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Design: Experimental, randomized crossover study. Setting: Laboratory at Marquette University. Subjects: Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Methods: Subjects underwent CPM....... Results: PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0...

  4. Spatial distribution of motor units recruited during electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle versus the femoral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Place, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the spatial recruitment of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using over-the-quadriceps and femoral nerve stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 22 young, healthy subjects. Spatial recruitment was investigated using recruitment curves of M-waves recorded from the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) and of twitches recorded from the quadriceps. At maximal stimulation intensity (Imax), no differences were found between nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation. At submaximal intensities, VL M-wave amplitude was higher for over-the-quadriceps stimulation at 40% Imax, and peak twitch force was greater for nerve stimulation at 60% and 80% Imax. For the VM, MU spatial recruitment during nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation of increasing intensity occurred in a similar manner, whereas significant differences were observed for the VL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-04-03

    Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Experimental, randomized crossover study. Laboratory at Marquette University. Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Subjects underwent CPM testing before and after isometric exercise (knee extension, 30% maximum voluntary contraction for three minutes) and quiet rest in two separate experimental sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the quadriceps and upper trapezius muscles were assessed before, during, and after ice water immersions. PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-0.70), and the between-session reliability was poor (ICC = 0.20-0.35). Due to the variability in the systemic exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) response, participants were divided into systemic EIH responders (N = 9) and nonresponders (N = 21). EIH responders experienced attenuated CPM following exercise (P = 0.03), whereas the nonresponders showed no significant change (P > 0.05). Isometric exercise decreased CPM in individuals who reported systemic EIH, suggesting activation of shared mechanisms between CPM and systemic EIH responses. These results may improve the understanding of increased pain after exercise in patients with chronic pain and potentially attenuated CPM.

  6. Peripheral fatigue limits endurance exercise via a sensory feedback-mediated reduction in spinal motoneuronal output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Venturelli, Massimo; Ives, Stephen J; McDaniel, John; Layec, Gwenael; Rossman, Matthew J; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether afferent feedback associated with peripheral muscle fatigue inhibits central motor drive (CMD) and thereby limits endurance exercise performance. On two separate days, eight men performed constant-load, single-leg knee extensor exercise to exhaustion (85% of peak power) with each leg (Leg1 and Leg2). On another day, the performance test was repeated with one leg (Leg1) and consecutively (within 10 s) with the other/contralateral leg (Leg2-post). Exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue was assessed by reductions in potentiated quadriceps twitch-force from pre- to postexercise (ΔQtw,pot) in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation. The output from spinal motoneurons, estimated from quadriceps electromyography (iEMG), was used to reflect changes in CMD. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded during exercise. Time to exhaustion (∼9.3 min) and exercise-induced ΔQtw,pot (∼51%) were similar in Leg1 and Leg2 (P > 0.5). In the consecutive leg trial, endurance performance of the first leg was similar to that observed during the initial trial (∼9.3 min; P = 0.8); however, time to exhaustion of the consecutively exercising contralateral leg (Leg2-post) was shorter than the initial Leg2 trial (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4 min; P fatigue and associated afferent feedback limits the development of peripheral fatigue and compromises endurance exercise performance by inhibiting CMD.

  7. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with peers. Children and adults with OI will benefit from a regular program of physical activity to promote optimal function through muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and recreational pursuits. Specifics of the exercise program vary depending ...

  8. Performance on a Clinical Quadriceps Activation Battery Is Related to a Laboratory Measure of Activation and Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Michael; Struessel, Tamara; Paxton, Roger; Winters, Joshua; Baym, Carol; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relation between performance on a clinical quadriceps activation battery with (1) activation measured by doublet interpolation and (2) recovery of quadriceps strength and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Patients (N=162; mean age, 63±7y; 89 women) undergoing TKA. Patients were classified as high (quadriceps activation battery ≥4/6) or low (quadriceps activation battery ≤3/6) based on performance on the quadriceps activation battery measured 4 days after TKA. Differences between groups in activation and recovery at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA were compared using a repeated-measures maximum likelihood model. The low quadriceps activation battery group demonstrated poorer quadriceps activation via doublet interpolation (P=.01), greater quadriceps strength loss (P=.01), and greater functional performance decline (all Pbattery group. Differences between low and high quadriceps activation battery groups on all measures did not persist at 3 and 12 months (all P>.05). Poor performance on the quadriceps activation battery early after TKA is related to poor quadriceps activation and poor recovery in the early postoperative period. Patients in the low quadriceps activation battery group took 3 months to recover to the same level as the high quadriceps activation battery group. The quadriceps activation battery may be useful in identifying individuals who need specific interventions to target activation deficits or different care pathways in the early postoperative period to speed recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quadriceps bulk and strength and effect of its training in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Affara

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: We have collected evidence indicating that both bulk and strength of quadriceps muscles in particular were reduced in patients with COPD compared with normal controls and these changes can be improved with progressive training without change in pulmonary functions.

  10. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line...... of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  12. Free Bone Plug Quadriceps Tendon Harvest and Suspensory Button Attachment for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Khallouki, Youssef

    2016-06-01

    The most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons. Each has its advantages and limitations. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft can lead to more donor-site morbidity, and the hamstring autograft can be unpredictable in size. The quadriceps tendon, with or without a bone block, has been described as an alternative graft source and has been used especially in revision cases, but in recent years, it has attracted attention even for primary cases. We report a technique for harvesting a free bone quadriceps tendon graft and attaching an extracortical button for femoral fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  13. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  14. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  15. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  16. Multi-parametric MR imaging of quadriceps musculature in the setting of clinical frailty syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, David M.; Sharma, Puneet; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Mohler, Jane; Fain, Mindy; Muchna, Amy E.; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) conferring an increased risk of rapid decline in health and function with increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between diffusion tensor, T2 and intramuscular fat content values of the quadriceps muscle group and clinical frailty status using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Subjects were recruited from the Arizona Frailty cohort composed of all females with frailty status based on the Fried criteria, including 6 non-frail and 10 pre-frail/frail adults, as well as a community sample of 11 young, healthy controls. Axial images of both thighs were obtained on a 3-T magnet with T1, T2 and diffusion tensor imaging as well as intramuscular fat analysis. Diffusion tensor and T2 values were determined by region-of-interest measurements at the proximal, mid and distal thirds of both thighs. Data were evaluated to determine differences between measured values and frailty status. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the bilateral quadriceps muscles demonstrated significant differences (F = 7.558, p = 0.0030) between the control and pre-frail/frail and non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups. There was a significant difference in mean T2 (F = 21.675, p < 0.0001) and lipid content (F = 19.266, p < 0.0001) among all three groups in the total quadriceps muscle group. The quadriceps musculature of pre-frail/frail adults demonstrated increased FA compared to young controls and non-frail adults with increasing T2 and intramuscular fat among the control, non-frail and pre-frail/frail categories. (orig.)

  17. A Modified Method for Reconstruction of Chronic Rupture of the Quadriceps Tendon after Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Singh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein a modified technique for reconstruction of chronic rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with bilateral total knee replacement and distal realignment of the patella. The surgery involved the application of a Dacron graft and the ‘double eights’ technique. The patient achieved satisfactory results after surgery and we believe that this technique of reconstruction offers advantages over other methods.

  18. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  19. Measuring voluntary quadriceps activation: Effect of visual feedback and stimulus delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew H; Arguelles, Gabrielle D; Blackburn, J Troy; Ryan, Eric D; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Quadriceps voluntary activation, assessed via the superimposed burst technique, has been extensively studied in a variety of populations as a measure of quadriceps function. However, a variety of stimulus delivery techniques have been employed, which may influence the level of voluntary activation as calculated via the central activation ratio (CAR). The purpose was to determine the effect of visual feedback, stimulus delivery, and perceived discomfort on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) peak torque and the CAR. Quadriceps CAR was assessed in 14 individuals on two days using three stimulus delivery methods; (1) manual without visual feedback, (2) manual with visual feedback, and (3) automated with visual feedback. MVIC peak torque and the CAR were not different between the automated with visual feedback (MVIC=3.25, SE=0.14Nm/kg; CAR=88.63, SE=1.75%) and manual with visual feedback (MVIC=3.26, SE=0.13Nm/kg, P=0.859; CAR=89.06, SE=1.70%, P=0.39) stimulus delivery methods. MVIC (2.99, SE=0.12Nm/kg) and CAR (85.32, SE=2.10%) were significantly lower using manual without visual feedback compared to manual with visual feedback and automated with visual feedback (CAR P<0.001; MVIC P<0.001). Perceived discomfort was lower in the second session (P<0.05). Utilizing visual feedback ensures participant MVIC, and may provide a more accurate assessment of quadriceps voluntary activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-parametric MR imaging of quadriceps musculature in the setting of clinical frailty syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, David M.; Sharma, Puneet; Taljanovic, Mihra S. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mohler, Jane; Fain, Mindy; Muchna, Amy E. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Center on Aging, Tucson, AZ (United States); Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Services, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) conferring an increased risk of rapid decline in health and function with increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between diffusion tensor, T2 and intramuscular fat content values of the quadriceps muscle group and clinical frailty status using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Subjects were recruited from the Arizona Frailty cohort composed of all females with frailty status based on the Fried criteria, including 6 non-frail and 10 pre-frail/frail adults, as well as a community sample of 11 young, healthy controls. Axial images of both thighs were obtained on a 3-T magnet with T1, T2 and diffusion tensor imaging as well as intramuscular fat analysis. Diffusion tensor and T2 values were determined by region-of-interest measurements at the proximal, mid and distal thirds of both thighs. Data were evaluated to determine differences between measured values and frailty status. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the bilateral quadriceps muscles demonstrated significant differences (F = 7.558, p = 0.0030) between the control and pre-frail/frail and non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups. There was a significant difference in mean T2 (F = 21.675, p < 0.0001) and lipid content (F = 19.266, p < 0.0001) among all three groups in the total quadriceps muscle group. The quadriceps musculature of pre-frail/frail adults demonstrated increased FA compared to young controls and non-frail adults with increasing T2 and intramuscular fat among the control, non-frail and pre-frail/frail categories. (orig.)

  1. Efficacy of kinesio taping on isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis: a double blinded randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Sudarshan, Shobhalakshmi; Nagpal, Pratima

    2014-08-01

    Double blind pre-test post-test control group design. To compare the isokinetic quadriceps torque, standardized stair-climbing task (SSCT) and pain during SSCT between subjects diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis pre and post kinesio tape (KT) application with and without tension. Strength of the quadriceps and torque producing capability is frequently found to be compromised in knee osteoarthritis. The efficacy of KT in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis is unknown, forming the basis for this study. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental (therapeutic KT with tension) or control group (sham KT without tension) with the allocation being concealed. Pre and post test measurements of isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and pain during SSCT were carried out by a blinded assessor. A large effect size with significant improvements in the peak quadriceps torque (concentric and eccentric at angular velocities of 90° per second and 120° per second), SSCT and pain were obtained in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Application of therapeutic KT is effective in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.

  2. Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Al-Eisa, E S

    2017-09-01

    The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men. Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack. No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p⟩0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p⟩0.05). Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  3. Quadriceps rate of torque development and disability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Simultaneous Traumatic Rupture of Patellar Ligament and Contralateral Rupture of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladký, V; Havlas, V

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.

  5. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training.

  6. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  7. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  8. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  9. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Nagy, Szilvia A.; Koszegi, Tamas; Ambrus, Mira; Bogner, Peter; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Toth, Katalin; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC

  10. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  11. Relationship between quadriceps strength and patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Ao, Ying-Fang; Jiang, Dong; Gong, Xi; Wang, Yong-Jian; Wang, Jian; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of the patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is disturbingly high. Few studies have assessed the factors affecting patellofemoral joint chondral lesions postoperatively. The recovery of quadriceps strength after ACLR could be associated with patellofemoral joint cartilage damage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic anatomic double-bundle ACLR with hamstring autografts received second-look arthroscopy at the time of metal staple removal at an average of 24.1 months (range, 12-51 months) postoperatively. All patients underwent standardized isokinetic strength testing for bilateral quadriceps and hamstrings 1 to 2 days before second-look arthroscopy. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Patients in group 1 had a ≥20% deficit on the peak torque measures for quadriceps compared with that of the contralateral knee, whereas those in group 2 had a patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint were evaluated by second-look arthroscopy and the Outerbridge classification. Other assessments included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner and Lysholm scores, side-to-side difference on KT-2000 arthrometer, and range of motion. There were 42 patients included in group 1 and 46 patients in group 2. The mean postoperative quadriceps peak torque of the involved knee compared with the contralateral knee was 70% (range, 57%-80%) in group 1 and 95% (range, 81%-116%) in group 2. For all patients, a significant worsening was seen in the patellar and trochlear cartilage (P = .030 and <.001, respectively) but not at the medial or lateral tibiofemoral joint after ACLR. A significant worsening in the status of both patellar and trochlear cartilage was seen after ACLR in group 1 (P = .013 and =.011, respectively) and of trochlear cartilage in group 2 (P = .006). Significantly fewer severe chondral lesions of the patella were found in group 2

  12. Strengthening quitter self-identity: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Laar, Colette; van den Putte, Bas; Evers, Andrea W M

    2018-06-10

    Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quitting. Participants (N = 339 daily smokers) were randomly assigned to a 2 (identity: strengthened quitter self-identity vs. control) × 3 (social support: present vs. absent vs. neutral control) between-participants design. The main outcome was post-test quitter self-identity. Post-test quitter self-identity was not strengthened successfully. Only a small and marginally significant intervention effect was found on quitter self-identity, which did not generalise to positively influence quit-intention or behaviour. The social support manipulation did not facilitate quitter self-identity. Secondary content analyses showed that quitter self-identity was strengthened among participants who linked quitting smoking to their lifestyle, wanted to become quitters for health reasons, and whose reasons for becoming quitters included approach of positive aspects of quitting, but not among participants who linked quitter self-identity to their self-perceptions. Results provide insight into the content of smokers' self-conceptualizations as quitters. Writing exercises should be improved and tested to eventually successfully strengthen quitter identities.

  13. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  14. STRENGTHENING THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS IN SUBJECTS WITH SACROILIAC DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, Marco Aurélio N; de Freitas, Diego G; Kasawara, Karina T; Martin, Robroy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2018-02-01

    Case series. The literature has emphasized the use of exercise as an intervention for individuals with lumbopelvic pain. However, there is limited information to guide clinicians in exercise selection for those with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Altered function of the gluteus maximus has been found in those with SI joint dysfunction. The objective of this case series was to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program directed at increasing gluteus maximus strength in those with clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction. The eight subjects in this series presented with lumbopelvic pain and clinical evidence of SI joint dysfunction. Each subject underwent 10 treatments over five weeks consisting of five exercises directed at strengthening the gluteus maximus. Radiological assessment and clinical examination were performed to rule out potential concurrent pathologies. Visual analog pain scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, and strength assessed via hand held dynamometry were measured pre- and post-intervention. A significant (pjoint dysfunction.

  15. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  16. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis--a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-12-01

    To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group.

  17. Quadriceps Contusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lacrosse. And they can happen in sports like skateboarding, skiing, and snowboarding, where there is a chance ... to an opposing player. With skiing, snowboarding, and skateboarding, know your limits. Stay within your capabilities to ...

  18. A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J.P. Pratt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies.  Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production.  This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function.  The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force.  To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle.  Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time.  We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. 

  19. Workers' Extra-Nest Behavioral Changes During Colony Fission in Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, J; Araújo, A

    2014-04-01

    Ant colonies can reproduce by two strategies: independent foundation, wherein the queen starts a new colony alone, and dependent foundation, in which workers assist the queen. In the queenless species Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi), the colony reproduces obligatorily by fission, a type of dependent foundation, but this process is not well understood. This study describes a colony fission event of D. quadriceps in the field and analyzes the influence of the fission process on workers' extra-nest behavior. Based on observations of workers outside the nest, five distinct stages were identified: monodomic stage, polydomic stage, split stage, conflict stage, and post-conflict stage. The colony was initially monodomic and then occupied a second nest before it split into two independent colonies, indicating a gradual and opportunistic dependent foundation. After the fission event, the daughter colony had aggressive conflicts with the parental colony, resulting in the latter's disappearance. Colony fission affected workers' extra-nest behavior by increasing the frequency of rubbing the gaster against the substrate (which probably has a chemical marking function) and by decreasing the frequency of foraging during the split stage. After the fission event, the number of foragers was halved and foragers remained nearer to the nest during extra-nest activity. The spatial closeness of the parental and daughter colonies led to competition that caused the extinction or migration of the parental colony. Intraspecific competition was indicated by foraging directionality at the colony level, whereby areas of neighbor colonies were avoided; this directionality was stronger while both colonies coexisted.

  20. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  1. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P exercise in humans. These findings demonstrate an important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....... was quantified by near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green in six healthy humans during dynamic knee extension exercise with and without combined pharmacological inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) and PG by L-NAME and indomethacin, respectively. Microdialysis was applied to determine interstitial release...

  2. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  3. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  4. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; Ptorque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings suggested that MMG was well associated with torque production, reliably tracking the motor unit recruitment pattern during NMES-evoked muscle contractions. The strong positive relationship between MMG signal and NMES-evoked torque production suggested that the MMG might be deployed as a direct proxy for muscle torque or fatigue measurement during

  5. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STATIC STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON PEAK TORQUE, CONVENTIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL HAMSTRINGS-TO-QUADRICEPS RATIOS IN ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. ALQaslah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study might have been directed to some degree because of clashing results in the past studies regarding the impacts for different SS protocols on muscle strength and possibility for injury. The objective of the study was to investigate the acute effects of different static stretching (SS durations (20, 30, and 60s on isokinetic concentric quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H peak torque (PT, eccentric H PT and conventional and functional H:Q ratios under different stretching conditions and angular velocities (60°and180°/s in active women. Methods: Isokinetic tests were performed on 108 active women. A HUMAC system was used to measure unilateral concentric Q and H PT, and eccentric H PT at 60 and 180º/s at baseline and after a bout of H-only, Q-only, and combined H and Q muscles SS. The data were statistically treated using five separate three-way (time x conditions x velocity ANOVA. Results: There were no significant differences among groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Significant reductions of all outcome measures have been shown to occur after 30 and 60s of SS (P 0.05. Conclusion: Short-lasting stretching can be done before exercises that require strength. However, since 30s or 60s stretching protocols adversely affect the muscle strength, performance and lower H:Q ratios they are not recommended prior to activities demanding the production of high forces.

  6. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  7. The quadriceps angle and the incidence of knee injury in indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a stronger vastus medialis pulls the patella medially resulting in a smaller ... T Puckree (Bsc Physio, Ms (exercise science), Med, PhD (exercise Physiology))1 a govender (B Physio) ... runners into 2 groups with and without knee injuries. Knee.

  8. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  9. Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure (case report and review of the literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Boufettal, Moncef; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Elyaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the quadriceps tendon are infrequent injuries, it is seen primarily in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic renal failure. A 32-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years. He was admitted in our service for total functional impotence of the right lower limb with knee pain after a common fall two months ago. The radiogram showed a ''patella baja" with suprapatellar calcifications. The ultrasound and MRI showed an aspect of rupture of the quadriceps tendon in its proximal end with retraction of 3 cm. Quadriceps tendon repair was performed with a lengthening plasty, and the result was satisfactory after a serial rehabilitation program. The diagnosis of quadriceps tendon ruptures needs more attention in patients with predisposing diseases. They should not be unknown because the treatment of neglected lesions is more difficult. We insist on the early surgical repair associated with early rehabilitation that can guarantee recovery of good active extension.

  10. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Contralateral Patella Tendon Avulsion Post Primary Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensor mechanism failure secondary to knee replacement could be due to tibial tubercle avulsion, Patellar tendon rupture, patellar fracture or quadriceps tendon rupture. An incidence of Patella tendon rupture of 0.17% and Quadriceps tendon rupture of around 0.1% has been reported after Total knee arthroplasty. These are considered a devastating complication that substantially affects the clinical results and are challenging situations to treat with surgery being the mainstay of the treatment. Case Description: We report here an interesting case of a patellar tendon rupture of one knee and Quadriceps tendon rupture of the contralateral knee following simultaneous bilateral knee replacement in a case of inflammatory arthritis patient. End to end repair for Quadriceps tear and augmentation with Autologous Hamstring tendon graft was done for Patella tendon rupture. OUTCOME: Patient was followed up for a period of 1 year and there was no Extension lag with a flexion of 100 degrees in both the knees. DISCUSSION: The key learning points and important aspects of diagnosing these injuries early and the management techniques are described in this unique case of bilateral extensor mechanism disruption following knee replacements.

  11. The association between submaximal quadriceps force steadiness and the knee adduction moment during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina Juul; Langberg, Henning; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    in this population. METHODS: Forty-one patients with knee OA (34 females and 7 males) were included in the study. Submaximal isometric quadriceps force steadiness was measured during a force target-tracking task. Peak knee adduction moments during ambulation were measured using a 3-dimensional gait analysis system...

  12. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  13. The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free ...

  14. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  15. Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With a Free Quadriceps Tendon Autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction aims to restore the 2 functional bundles of the ACL in an attempt to better reproduce the native biomechanics of the injured knee and promote long-term knee health. However, this concept is not fully accepted and is not performed on a standard basis. In addition, the superiority of this technique over the conventional single-bundle technique has been questioned, especially the long-term clinical results. One of the down sides of the double-bundle reconstruction is the complexity of the procedure, with increased risks, operative time, and costs compared with the single-bundle procedure. Also, the revision procedure, if necessary, is more challenging. We propose a technique that has some advantages over the traditional double-bundle procedure, using a single femoral tunnel, 2 tibial tunnels, and a free quadriceps tendon autograft.

  16. Impact of pain reported during isometric quadriceps muscle strength testing in people with knee pain: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Daniel L; Stratford, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. A cross-sectional design was used. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from -.36 (95% confidence interval=-.41, -.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle

  17. Quadriceps Strength and Endurance After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Versus Matched Group With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Joo; Suh, Dong-Won; Jeong, Hye-Jin

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the preoperative strengths and endurances of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) versus posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and endurance were compared between 20 prospectively enrolled patients with isolated PCL tears and a retrospective, matched control group of 20 patients with isolated ACL tears. The maximal torque (60°/s) and total work (180°/s) of the quadriceps and hamstring were evaluated with an isokinetic testing device. Total work (1,094.4 ± 505.8 J v 797.5 ± 332.7 J, P = .035) and peak torque (129.9 ± 56.2 N ∙ m v 98.2 ± 37.4 N ∙ m, P = .046) of the quadriceps muscle on the involved side were higher in the PCL tear group than in the ACL tear group. However, there were no significant differences between the PCL tear group and ACL tear group in hamstring muscle strength (45.8 ± 42.3 N ∙ m and 46.0 ± 24.4 N ∙ m, respectively; P = .940) and endurance (429.3 ± 238.9 J and 382.4 ± 256.1 J, respectively; P = .574) on the involved side. The strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle of the injured limb were greater after PCL tears than after ACL tears. However, there were no significant between-group differences in hamstring muscle strength and endurance on the involved side. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of Isometric Quadriceps Strength in Soccer Players With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Valentine Z; Baptista, Abrahão F; Pereira, Guilherme O C; Pochini, Alberto C; Ejnisman, Benno; Santos, Marcelo B; João, Silvia M A; Hazime, Fuad A

    2018-05-01

    Vargas, VZ, Baptista, AF, Pereira, GOC, Pochini, AC, Ejnisman, B, Santos, MB, João, SMA, and Hazime, FA. Modulation of isometric quadriceps strength in soccer players with transcranial direct current stimulation: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1336-1341, 2018-The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the maximum isometric muscle contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors in soccer players at the preprofessional level. Twenty female soccer players aged 15-17 years (mean = 16.1; SD = 0.9) with 5.2 ± 2.6 years of training were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either active or sham tDCS in a single session (2 mA; 0.057 mA·cm). The MVIC of the knee extensors was evaluated in both lower limbs by manual dynamometry in 5 sets of contractions divided into 4 blocks: (a) prestimulation, (b) during tDCS, (c) 30 minutes after tDCS, and (d) 60 minutes after tDCS. After an interval of 7 days, the groups were evaluated again, and the type of initial stimulation was inverted between participants. The MVIC of the knee extensors increased significantly during active tDCS (dominant limb (DL) = 0.4; IC = 0.1-0.8 N·Kg), 30 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 0.9; IC 0.4-1.4 N·Kg), and 60 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 1.0; IC 0.3-1.6 N·Kg) but not for sham tDCS. Our conclusion was that tDCS temporarily increases isometric quadriceps strength in adolescent female soccer players, which may be useful for both strength training and rehabilitation.

  19. Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography during passive stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1 to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO, rectus femoris (RF, and vastus lateralis (VL muscles; (2 to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods: Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–knee angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results: The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p  0.05. The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626. Conclusion: This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols. Keywords: Muscle tension, Optimal length, Shear modulus, Slack angle, Stretch, Ultrasonography, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis

  20. Community-Based Progressive Aquatic Exercise for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayle Maryanna Masslon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based progressive aquatic exercise program for community dwelling older adults, with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA. Objectives The purposes of this study were to 1, assess the effects of a progressive aquatic exercise program on the walking ability, stair climbing ability, quadriceps muscle strength, as well as self-reported symptoms, function, and quality of life in community dwelling adults with moderate to severe knee OA and; 2, assess the feasibility of a community-based aquatic program for community dwelling adults with knee OA. Methods Seventeen volunteers (12 women (x = 61.1 years and 5 men (x = 69.0 years participated in a progressive 8 - 10 week aquatic exercise program, consisting of 20 - 24, 1-hour sessions. Outcome measures, acquired twice before beginning the exercise protocol as well as after 4 and 8 weeks of exercise, included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS instrument, a 2 minute walk test (2MWT, a 10 step stair climb for time, and an isometric knee extension strength assessment. Results Significant improvements were detected in 2 MWT, 10 step stair climb, right quadriceps isometric force development, and the KOOS symptoms and stiffness subscale. Significant improvement was found on KOOS function subscales between baseline testing sessions and maintained at follow-up. Non-significant improvements were identified in left quadriceps isometric force development, KOOS pain, and KOOS quality of life. Conclusions These data suggest that a community-based, progressive aquatic exercise program is feasible and results in measurable improvements in function without worsening symptoms. Further study is warranted to investigate the impact of a longer program and the role of aquatic exercise in the long-term management of patients with knee OA.

  1. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  3. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  4. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  6. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    the effect of contraction mode specific resistance training and protein supplementation on whole muscle and tendon hypertrophy. Quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging pre and post 12 weeks of eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc...... concentric resistance training and ingestion of protein influence myocellular adaptations, with special emphasis on muscle stem cell adaptations, during both acute and prolonged resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. Paper I. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during...... recovery from eccentric exercise In paper I, we evaluated the effect of a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on fiber type specific SC content by immunohistochemistry. Subjects received either hydrolysed whey protein (Whey) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (Placebo) in the days post eccentric...

  7. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  8. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  9. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  10. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  11. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  12. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  14. Anticonvulsant Effects of Fractions Isolated from Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempt Ant Venom (Formicidae: Ponerinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aline Morais Ferreira Nôga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, sources of new pharmacological substances, have large chemical diversity and architectural complexity. In this context, some toxins obtained from invertebrate venoms have anticonvulsant effects. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about 65 million people worldwide, and approximately 30% of cases are resistant to pharmacological treatment. Previous studies from our group show that the denatured venom of the ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempt protects mice against bicuculline (BIC-induced seizures and death. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of compounds isolated from D. quadriceps venom against seizures induced by BIC in mice. Crude venom was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC resulting in six fractions referred to as DqTx1–DqTx6. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis revealed a major 431 Da compound in fractions DqTx1 and DqTx2. Fractions DqTx3 and DqTx4 showed a compound of 2451 Da and DqTx5 revealed a 2436 Da compound. Furthermore, the DqTx6 fraction exhibited a major component with a molecular weight of 13,196 Da. Each fraction (1 mg/mL was microinjected into the lateral ventricle of mice, and the animals were observed in an open field. We did not observe behavioral alterations when the fractions were given alone. Conversely, when the fractions were microinjected 20 min prior to the administration of BIC (21.6 nM, DqTx1, DqTx4, and DqTx6 fractions increased the latency for onset of tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, all fractions, except DqTx5, increased latency to death. The more relevant result was obtained with the DqTx6 fraction, which protected 62.5% of the animals against tonic-clonic seizures. Furthermore, this fraction protected 100% of the animals from seizure episodes followed by death. Taken together, these findings indicate that compounds from ant venom might be a potential source of new anticonvulsants molecules.

  15. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...

  16. Quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical comparison of transosseous equivalent double-row suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.

  17. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  18. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  19. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  20. Comparison of isokinetic and isometric strength training effects on hamstring and quadriceps torques and physical function in knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, T.; Khan, H.M.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic and isometric strength trainings on hamstring and quadriceps average-peak-torques, physical performance, and pain. Methodology: Twenty athletes with knee pain were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Isokinetic training and isometric training. Both groups were trained on Biodex System 3 Pro for 10 sessions. Isokinetic-group received isokinetic training on 5 different velocities while isometric-group performed isometric contractions at 3 knee joint angles. Results: Hamstring isokinetic average-peak-torque was significantly higher at all velocities without significant improvement in quadriceps average-peak-torque except for at the slowest velocity. Isometric training did not cause significant change in isometric average-peak-torque at any knee angle for either hamstring or quadriceps. Agility, elastic leg strength, and pain improved significantly in both groups with no significant between-group differences. No significant statistical correlation was observed between pain and any other parameter after either type of training. Conclusions: Athletes participating in sports requiring dynamic hamstring strength should prefer isokinetic strength training for physical rehabilitation of knee pain. However, physical performance and pain can be improved with both isometric and isokinetic strength training. (author)

  1. Quadriceps strength, inter-extremity difference (IED) and joint status in adult persons with severe haemophilia in different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, A; Stäuber, F; Göhler, S; Czepa, D; Krüger, S; Wendel, M; Seuser, A; Hilberg, T

    2013-03-01

    Quadriceps weakness seems to be a hallmark in adult persons with severe haemophilia (PWH). The purpose of this study was to compare PWH and non-haemophilic controls in different age stages with reference to joint status and quadriceps strength. Further aims were to examine the extent of strength-specific inter-extremity-difference (IED) and the prevalence of abnormal IED (AIED). A total of 106 adults with severe haemophilia (H) and 80 controls (C) had undergone an orthopaedic examination for classification of knee and ankle status using the WFH score. Quadriceps strength was evaluated unilaterally as well as bilaterally with a knee extensor device. Each group was divided into four age-related subgroups (HA/CA: 18-29, HB/CB: 30-39, HC/CC: 40-49, HD/CD: 50-70; in years). H presented a worse knee and ankle status than C indicated by higher WFH scores (P age-matched subgroups only HB showed higher knee scores than CB (P age-matched controls (P age in H. We discovered an AIED in 35% of H. These findings highlight the importance for the early implementation of preventive and rehabilitative muscle training programmes in the comprehensive treatment of PWH. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Segmental stabilization and muscular strengthening in chronic low back pain: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Renovato França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To contrast the efficacy of two exercise programs, segmental stabilization and strengthening of abdominal and trunk muscles, on pain, functional disability, and activation of the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA, in individuals with chronic low back pain. DESIGN: Our sample consisted of 30 individuals, randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: segmental stabilization, where exercises focused on the TrA and lumbar multifidus muscles, and superficial strengthening, where exercises focused on the rectus abdominis, abdominus obliquus internus, abdominus obliquus externus, and erector spinae. Groups were examined to discovere whether the exercises created contrasts regarding pain (visual analogical scale and McGill pain questionnaire, functional disability (Oswestry disability questionnaire, and TrA muscle activation capacity (Pressure Biofeedback Unit = PBU. The program lasted 6 weeks, and 30-minute sessions occurred twice a week. Analysis of variance was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. The significance level was established at 5%. RESULTS: As compared to baseline, both treatments were effective in relieving pain and improving disability (p<0.001. Those in the segmental stabilization group had significant gains for all variables when compared to the ST group (p<0.001, including TrA activation, where relative gains were 48.3% and -5.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both techniques lessened pain and reduced disability. Segmental stabilization is superior to superficial strengthening for all variables. Superficial strengthening does not improve TrA activation capacity.

  3. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (phamstrings medialis activity) during the preparatory and initial contact phase and an increased lateral neuromuscular activation (dominant vastus lateralis activity) during the peak loading phase.

  4. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...... (ACL-R). METHODS: Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC...... and RTD (per kg body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes, and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. H/Q MVC and RTD strength ratios were also compared RESULTS: The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD...

  5. Asymmetry of quadriceps muscle oxygenation during elite short-track speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesford, Catherine Mary; Laing, Stewart J; Cardinale, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that, because of the low sitting position in short-track speed skating, muscle blood flow is restricted, leading to decreases in tissue oxygenation. Therefore, wearable wireless-enabled near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology was used to monitor changes in quadriceps muscle blood volume and oxygenation during a 500-m race simulation in short-track speed skaters. Six elite skaters, all of Olympic standard (age = 23 ± 1.8 yr, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 80.1 ± 5.7 kg, midthigh skinfold thickness = 7 ± 2 mm), were studied. Subjects completed a 500-m race simulation time trial (TT). Whole-body oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured with muscle oxygenation in right and left vastus lateralis as measured by NIRS. Mean time for race completion was 44.8 ± 0.4 s. VO2 peaked 20 s into the race. In contrast, muscle tissue oxygen saturation (TSI%) decreased and plateaued after 8 s. Linear regression analysis showed that right leg TSI% remained constant throughout the rest of the TT (slope value = 0.01), whereas left leg TSI% increased steadily (slope value = 0.16), leading to a significant asymmetry (P skating has implications for training and performance.

  6. Aerobic metabolism of human quadriceps muscle: in vivo data parallel measurements on isolated mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.F.; Rasmussen, H.N.; Krustrup, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether parameters of isolated mitochondria could account for the in vivo maximum oxygen uptake ( O2 max) of human skeletal muscle. O2 max and work performance of the quadriceps muscle of six volunteers were measured in the knee extensor model (range 10......-18 mmol O2 · min 1 · kg 1 at work rates of 22-32 W/kg). Mitochondria were isolated from the same muscle at rest. Strong correlations were obtained between O2 max and a number of mitochondrial parameters (mitochondrial protein, cytochrome aa3, citrate synthase, and respiratory activities). The activities...... of citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase, measured in isolated mitochondria, corresponded to, respectively, 15, 3, and 1.1 times the rates calculated from O2 max. The respiratory chain activity also appeared sufficient. Fully coupled in vitro respiration, which is limited...

  7. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Eoghan T; Calvo-Gurry, Manuel; Withers, Dan; Farrington, Shane K; Moran, Ray; Moran, Cathal J

    2018-05-01

    To systematically review the current evidence to ascertain whether quadriceps tendon autograft (QT) is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A literature review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cohort studies comparing QT with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft (BPTB) or hamstring tendon autograft (HT) were included. Clinical outcomes were compared, with all statistical analyses performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0, with P < .05 being considered statistically significant. We identified 15 clinical trials with 1,910 patients. In all included studies, QT resulted in lower rates of anterior knee pain than BPTB. There was no difference in the rate of graft rupture between QT and BPTB or HT in any of the studies reporting this. One study found that QT resulted in greater knee stability than BPTB, and another study found increased stability compared with HT. One study found that QT resulted in improved functional outcomes compared with BPTB, and another found improved outcomes compared with HT, but one study found worse outcomes compared with BPTB. Current literature suggests QT is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, with published literature showing comparable knee stability, functional outcomes, donor-site morbidity, and rerupture rates compared with BPTB and HT. Level III, systematic review of Level I, II, and III studies. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Andrew P; Amati, Francesca; Smiley, Mark A; Goodpaster, Bret; Wright, Vonda

    2011-09-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. Exercise modulates the morbidities of muscle aging. Most studies, however, have examined muscle-loss changes in sedentary aging adults. This leaves the question of whether the changes that are commonly associated with muscle aging reflect the true physiology of muscle aging or whether they reflect disuse atrophy. This study evaluated whether high levels of chronic exercise prevents the loss of lean muscle mass and strength experienced in sedentary aging adults. A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps. Mid-thigh muscle area, quadriceps area (QA), subcutaneous adipose tissue, and intramuscular adipose tissue were quantified in magnetic resonance imaging using medical image processing, analysis, and visualization software. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine age group differences. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman correlations. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.31) and lean mass (P = 0.15) did not increase with age and were significantly related to retention of mid-thigh muscle area (P lean mass (P = 0.4) and PT. This study contradicts the common observation that muscle mass and strength decline as a function of aging alone. Instead, these declines may signal the effect of chronic disuse rather than muscle aging. Evaluation of masters athletes removes disuse as a confounding variable in the study of lower-extremity function and loss of lean muscle mass. This maintenance of muscle mass and strength may decrease or eliminate the falls, functional decline, and loss of independence that are commonly seen in aging adults.

  9. Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D...... at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D...... include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that engagement in muscle...

  10. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  11. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  12. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  13. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score...... an important role in modulating the effects that a single bout of cardiovascular exercise has on the consolidation phase following motor skill learning. There appears to be a dose-response relationship in favour of higher intensity exercise in order to augment off-line effects and strengthen procedural memory.......A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting...

  14. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospit......, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals....

  15. Análise eletromiográfica do quadríceps durante a extensão do joelho em diferentes velocidades Electromyographical analysis of the quadriceps during knee extension at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de dor fêmuro-patelar (SDFP é uma disfunção comum, geralmente causada por trações laterais excessivas da patela. Indivíduos com SDFP, usualmente apresentam inibição do vasto medial oblíquo (VMO, o qual é responsável pela tração medial patelar. O tratamento conservador envolve o reforço do quadríceps para promover melhor estabilidade e tração patelar. Muitos pesquisadores buscam o recrutamento seletivo do VMO, com o intuito de otimizar o tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar, através da eletromiografia, a interferência da velocidade angular e diferentes formas de fixação do tubo elástico na atividade quadricipital. Dez indivíduos do sexo masculino com ausência de lesão muscular ou articular participaram deste estudo. Indivíduos com ângulo Q fora do intervalo de 10-15° foram excluídos da pesquisa. O tubo elástico foi fixado paralelo e oblíquo em relação ao corpo do indivíduo. As extensões de joelho foram realizadas com velocidades angulares de 60 e 120°/seg. Nenhuma atividade seletiva do VMO foi encontrada. Comparando os níveis de atividade muscular, durante as duas velocidades angulares houve aumento no nível de atividade eletromiográfica em todas porções do quadríceps, apenas para a fixação do tubo elástico paralela. Os resultados sugerem uma atividade sinérgica entre o VMO e as outras porções do quadríceps.The patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common disorder of the knee; it's often caused by an excessive lateral traction of the patella. Subjects with this syndrome usually present a disruption in the activation of Vastus Mediallis Obliquus (VMO, which provides the patellar medial pull. Non-operative treatment includes quadriceps strengthening in order to promote better patellar stability and traction. Many researchers have been trying to selectively recruit the VMO, in order to improve treatments. The main purpose of this study is to investigate, using

  16. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...

  17. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cross from your ribs across your waist and helps support you in an upright position. Stand with ... stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that help you stand and lift. Stand with feet shoulder ...

  19. The influence of stimulus phase duration on discomfort and electrically induced torque of quadriceps femoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Liebano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have compared the influence of different electrical pulse parameters on maximum electrically induced torque (MEIT and discomfort, the role of phase duration has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the variation in muscle torque and discomfort produced when electrically stimulating quadriceps femoris using pulsed current with three different phase durations in order to establish whether there are any advantages or disadvantages in varying the phase duration over the range examined. METHOD: This is a two repeated-measures, within-subject study conducted in a research laboratory. The study was divided into 2 parts with 19 healthy young adults in each part.In part 1, MEIT was determined for each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs, using a biphasic pulsed current at a frequency of 50 Hz. In part 2, stimulus amplitude was increased until the contractions reached 40% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and the associated discomfort produced by each phase duration was measured. RESULTS: In part 1 of the study, we found that the average MEITs generated with each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs were 55.0, 56.3, and 58.0% of MVIC respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant (p=.45. In part 2, we found a statistically significant increase in discomfort over the same range of phase durations. The results indicate that, for a given level of torque production, discomfort increases with increasing phase duration (p=.008. CONCLUSIONS: Greater muscle torque cannot be produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration over the range examined. Greater discomfort is produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration.

  20. Index of fatigue quadriceps in soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luzete Costa Cavalcante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the muscle fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in high-performance soccer players undergoing (anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. METHODS: We evaluated 17 high-performance soccer players from three professional soccer teams of a state in Brazil from August 2011 to July 2012. All subjects were evaluated between 5.5 and 7 months after ACL reconstruction with a Biodex(r isokinetic dynamometer (System 4 Pro with test protocol CON/CON at 60°/s and 300°/s with 5 and 15 repetitions, respectively. In the calculation of local muscle fatigue, the fatigue index was used, which is calculated by dividing the labor done in the first one-third of the repetitions by that done at the final one-third of the repetitions, and multiplying by 100 to express a unit in percentage (i.e., as a discrete quantitative variable. RESULTS: All subjects were male, with a mean age of 21.3 ± 4.4 years and mean BMI 23.4 ± 1.53 cm; left dominance was observed in 47% (n = 8 of athletes, and right dominance, in 53% (n = 9 of athletes; and the limb involved in the lesion was the dominant in 29% (n = 5 and the non-dominant in 71% (n = 12. Fatigue rates were 19.6% in the involved limb and 29.0% in the non-involved limb. CONCLUSION: The results allow us to conclude that there was no significant difference between the limbs involved and not in ACL injuries regarding local muscle fatigue. No association was observed between the dominant side and the limb involved in the ACL injury.

  1. The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.

  2. Hamstring Activity in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Patient: Injury Implications and Comparison With Quadriceps Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Rachel M; Lundberg, Hannah; Wimmer, Markus A; Forsythe, Brian; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the potential causes of diminished knee extension after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury using both surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and gait analysis to assess muscle action and tone. Consecutive patients with an acute ACL tear underwent sEMG and gait analysis within 2 weeks of injury, before ACL reconstruction. Standard motion analysis techniques were used and sEMG data were collected simultaneously with gait data. T-tests were used to determine differences between the ACL-deficient and control subjects in knee flexion angles, peak external knee joint moments, and total time that a muscle was activated ("on") during gait. External knee moments were expressed as a percentage of body weight times height. Ten patients (mean age 24 ± 4 years) were included at a mean 10.2 days between injury and analysis; 10 uninjured, matched control subjects were included for comparison. There were significant increases in minimum flexion angle at heel strike (5.92 ± 3.39 v -3.49 ± 4.55, P hamstring activity "on" time during gait (P > .05). In patients with acute ACL injury, the ACL-deficient limb does not reach as much extension as controls. Although the rectus femoris is "on" for shorter periods during the gait cycle, there is no difference in hamstring time on during gait. This information may help clinicians better understand muscle function and gait patterns in the acute time period after ACL injury. Level III, case control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  4. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  5. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wen Hou

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05. Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05.Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  6. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  7. VITEX 2016 : Evaluation of learning objectives and exercise set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, R. van; Stubbé-Alberts, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    To strengthen awareness of the need for cooperation, between public and private partners, and between countries, a new exercise set-up was developed. The VITEX exercise set-up is a table top exercise that aims to bring relevant networks together, and supports cooperation and collaboration between

  8. The effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps strength and pain in individuals with knee synovitis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David Andrew; McNair, Peter John; Lewis, Gwyn Nancy; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2015-07-28

    Substantial weakness of the quadriceps muscles is typically observed in patients with arthritis. This is partly due to ongoing neural inhibition that prevents the quadriceps from being fully activated. Evidence from animal studies suggests enhanced flexion reflex excitability may contribute to this weakness. This prospective observational study examined the effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain in individuals with knee synovitis. Sixteen patients with chronic arthritis and clinically active synovitis of the knee participated in this study. Knee pain flexion reflex threshold, and quadriceps peak torque were measured at baseline, immediately after knee joint aspiration alone and 5 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 days after knee joint aspiration and the injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. Compared to baseline, knee pain was significantly reduced 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p = 0.009) post intervention. Flexion reflex threshold increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.009) and 5 (p = 0.01) and 15 days (p = 0.002) post intervention. Quadriceps peak torque increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.004) and 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p knee synovitis.

  9. Validity and reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for the assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, K; Lauermann, S P; Schneider, D; Item-Glatthorn, J F; Casartelli, N C; Maffiuletti, N A

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for quadriceps strength evaluation, and the relation between quadriceps strength and physical function was investigated in 29 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, with an average age of 63 years. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque, isokinetic peak torque, and isoinertial one-repetition maximum load of the involved and uninvolved quadriceps were evaluated as well as objective (walking parameters) and subjective physical function (WOMAC). Reliability was good and comparable for the isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength outcomes on both sides (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.947-0.966; standard error of measurement range: 5.1-9.3%). Involved quadriceps strength was significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.641-0.710), step length (r range: 0.685-0.820) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.575-0.663), independent from the modality (P strength was also significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.413-0.539), step length (r range: 0.514-0.608) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.374-0.554) (P 0.05). In conclusion, isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modalities ensure valid and reliable assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in TKA patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Focal vibration of quadriceps muscle enhances leg power and decreases knee joint laxity in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Roscini, M; Brunetti, A; Panichi, R; Filippi, G M; Biscarini, A; Pettorossi, V E

    2012-12-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled study aims at determining the effect of repeated muscle vibration (rMV) on explosive and reactive leg power and on knee laxity of female volleyball players. Eighteen voluntary volleyball athletes, belonging to the same senior regional level team (age=22.7 ± 3 years, height=180.3 ± 5 cm, mass= 64 ± 4 kg) were assigned to three groups (N.=6) for vibration on contracted quadriceps (VC), vibration on relaxed muscle (VR), and sham vibration (NV), respectively. Intervention consisted in 3 rMV sessions performed in 3 consecutive days. In each session, 100 Hz, 300-500 μm amplitude vibratory stimuli were bilaterally delivered to the quadriceps in three consecutive 10-minutes applications. Explosive and reactive leg power and knee joint laxity were evaluated 1 day before, and 1, 30, and 240 days after intervention. In VC group, explosive and reactive leg power increased respectively by ~16% and ~9% at 1 day, by ~19% and ~11% at 30 days and by ~26% and ~13% at 240 days, concomitantly knee laxity decreased by ~6%, ~15% and ~18% at the same times. These changes were significantly larger than in the other groups, in which leg power increment and knee joint laxity reduction remained close to ~3%, ~5% and ~10% at 1, 30 and 240 days, respectively. Combined bilateral voluntary contraction and rMV of the quadriceps muscles is a short-lasting, non-invasive technique that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and knee laxity in volleyball women players.

  11. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  12. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  13. Forward lunge: a training study of eccentric exercises of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönhagen, Sven; Ackermann, Paul; Saartok, Tönu

    2009-05-01

    A few studies have shown that eccentric exercise is effective for prevention and treatment of muscle injuries. Most earlier studies on eccentric exercises have used training with advanced equipment. Forward lunges are considered eccentric exercises, and they may be performed without any equipment. These exercises are commonly used by sprint runners. We performed a prospective, randomized, 6-week training study comparing the effects of walking or jumping forward lunges on hamstring and quadriceps strength and function. Thirty-two soccer players were included in the study. The forward lunge training was done as an addition to ordinary soccer training twice a week for 6 weeks. The outcome was measured by the maximal hamstring and quadriceps strength tests and by functional tests with 1-leg hop tests and 30-m sprint runs. Overall muscle pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale score, and local pain was estimated with an algometer. Whereas the walking lunge improved hamstring strength, the jumping lunge resulted in sprint running improvements. Algometer testing showed a general increase in the pain detection thresholds of all subjects, including the controls. Thus, precautions should be taken when algometers are used for temporal studies of pain. Walking and jumping forward lunges can be used for improving hamstring strength and running speed in young soccer player. The findings may have relevance when designing protocols for prevention and rehabilitation of muscle injuries.

  14. PHYSIOTHERAPY EXERCISES DURING ANTENATAL AND POSTNATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rajsekhar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It’s a well-known fact that exercise is good for the mind and body making it beneficial for expectant and new mothers. The challenge of pregnancy, labor and looking after a new born is not an easy task. So the fitter you are the better you will cope with this life changing event. Method: Aerobic and strengthening exercises help in adjusting to the increasing weight and posture changes to cope effectively with the labor and the postnatal period. Although exercises in pregnancy are extremely beneficial, they can cause more harm than good if not done correctly. Medical screening for exercise should be done by the Doctor as well as the Physiotherapist to ensure that the patient underwent a basic screening, assessment or continued monitoring for the right exercise protocol for avoidance of any complications and to ensure the benefits of staying healthy and fit. Results: Evidence shows that exercise training programs designed and delivered by the Physiotherapists can relieve the prenatal post natal problems. Conclusion: Number of studies has shown the positive effects of aerobic and strengthening exercises on pregnant women. The physical changes to a pregnant woman’s body are multiple. There are center of mass changes, pressure on the organs and increased weight gain. In fact, over two thirds of pregnant women experience back pain, one fifth experience pelvic pain and over 40% experience urinary incontinence in their first pregnancy.

  15. Genetic impairment of AMPK{alpha}2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2009-01-01

    and female mice over-expressing kinase-dead alpha2-AMPK (AMPK-KD) in skeletal and heart muscles. Wildtype and AMPK-KD mice were exercised at the same absolute intensity and the same relative intensity (30% and 70% of individual maximal running speed) to correct for reduced exercise capacity of the AMPK......-KD mouse. Muscle glucose clearance was measured using [3H]-2-deoxy-glucose as tracer. In wildtype mice glucose clearance was increased at 30% and 70% of maximal running speed by 40% and 350% in the quadriceps muscle, and by 120% and 380% in gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Glucose clearance...

  16. Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2006-03-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home.

  17. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part three: aerobic exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective aerobic exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, or D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P osteoarthritis within a 12-week period. An aerobic exercise program demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B), physical function (Grade B) and quality of life (Grade C+). Aerobic exercise in combination with strengthening exercises showed significant improvement for pain relief (3 Grade A) and physical function (2 Grade A, 2 Grade B). A short-term aerobic exercise program with/without muscle strengthening exercises is promising for reducing pain, improving physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  18. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Malfait

    Full Text Available The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ.Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM,vastus lateralis(VL}, {vastus medialis(VM,hamstring medialis(HM}, {hamstring medialis(HM,hamstring lateralis(HL} and the {vastus lateralis(VL,hamstring lateralis(HL}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping.The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001. The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001. Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001.This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an increased medial and posterior

  19. Femoral nerve compression syndrome with paresis of the quadriceps muscle caused by radiotherapy of malignant tumours. A report of four cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, L E [Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, Finland

    1975-01-01

    Four patients showed signs of femoral nerve compression with subsequent paresis of the quadriceps muscle, after radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The compression was caused by scar tissue due to radiation treatment of the inguinal region. The first symptom was radiating pain in the front of the thigh and lower leg which appeared 12-16 months after X-ray treatment. A decrease in the strength of quadriceps muscle occurred some months later. In one case the femoral nerve was decompressed, another patient was treated by an intradural phenolglycerin injection and one patient was treated with cortisone and oxiphenbutanzone. In these cases the pain decreased considerably, but in one case only the paresis of the quadriceps muscle improved after treatment.

  20. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  1. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  2. Exercise KATRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clahane, Darren; Burgoyne, William

    1995-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical incident at the Scottish Nuclear Ltd Torness AGR nuclear power station, Exercise KATRINE was the 1994 national civil nuclear exercise and the biggest simulation of a nuclear accident to take place in Britain last year. The exercise, held on 17 and 18 November, was based on a series of postulated faults which resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. It commenced at 07.00 on Thursday and continued for about 33 hours, until around 15.30 on Friday. Activity focused on the Torness Off-site Centre (TOSC), in Cockenzie near Edinburgh, and the brand new Torness Media Briefing Centre (TMBC) located nearby. (author)

  3. THE MID - TERM EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING ON PEAK POWER OF QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING MUSCLES AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Khabazan Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess mid- term effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles after ACL reconstruction 24 hours after taping. Material: Thirty six men who had undergone ACL reconstruction and completed physiotherapy periods (6 months were assigned to no taping, placebo and taping groups. Peak power was tested before and 24 hours after taping by Isokinetic dynamometry. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 19. ANOVA and post hoc test (LSD were used for interpretive analysis. Results: The results showed that the effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps muscles at velocities of 180°/s and 300°/s was significant. In the hamstring muscles, significant effects were obtained at velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s & 300°/s. Conclusion: Positive impacts of Kinesio tape on muscular peak power among athletes who had ACL reconstruction were observed. Regardless of psychological effect and reducing re - injury fear, Kinesio - tape causes to stabilize and increase effective range of motion of the knee, so it is recommended that in the explosive training, athletes who have ACL reconstruction should use tape to reduce the probability of re-injury and increase muscle power.

  4. Gender differences in tibio-femoral kinematics and quadriceps muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto

    2013-11-01

    Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.

  5. Do interindividual differences in cardiac output during submaximal exercise explain differences in exercising muscle oxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; Zelt, Joel T; Giles, Matthew D; Raleigh, James P; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J; Neder, J Alberto; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy. Cardiac output (Q˙ L/min; inert gas rebreathe), oxygen uptake (V˙O2 L/min; breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange), quadriceps saturation (near infrared spectroscopy) and exercise tolerance (6-20; Borg Scale RPE) were measured. The Q˙-V˙O2 relationship from 40 to 160 W was used to partition individuals post hoc into higher (n = 10; 6.3 ± 0.4) versus lower (n = 10; 3.7 ± 0.4, P exercise (all P > 0.4). Lower cardiac responders had greater leg (P = 0.027) and whole body (P = 0.03) RPE only at 185 W, but this represented a higher %peak V˙O2 in lower cardiac responders (87 ± 15% vs. 66 ± 12%, P = 0.005). Substantially lower Q˙-V˙O2 in the lower responder group did not result in altered RPE or exercising muscle deoxygenation. This suggests substantial recruitment of blood flow redistribution in the lower responder group as part of protecting matching of exercising muscle oxygen delivery to demand. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Intercomparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  7. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  13. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  14. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture...... in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions...... in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. RESULTS: In total, 358 and 325...

  15. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  16. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  17. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot.

  18. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Mounier, Remi; Plomgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects in cell culture systems. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15 is predominantly expressed by type 2 skeletal muscle fibres, and that resistance exercise regulates IL-15 expression in muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus...... lateralis quadriceps and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers (n = 14), because these muscles are characterized by having different fibre-type compositions. In addition, healthy, normally physically active male subjects (n = 8) not involved...

  19. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Bremer Hinckel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. METHOD: The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM, apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10 and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. RESULTS: Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07. Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the

  20. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  1. Supervised dance intervention based on video game choreography increases quadriceps cross sectional area and peak of torque in community dwelling older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Valevein Rodrigues

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a supervised dance intervention based on video game choreography on isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee peak of torque (PT, quadriceps and hamstrings cross sectional area (CSA and functionality in community-dwelling older women. METHODS Forty-seven older women were allocated in Control Group (CG, n=25 and Intervention Group (IG, n=22. The IG performed dance based on video game choreography (Dance Central, XBOX 360®, Kinect, during 12 weeks, ~40 minutes, 3x/week, without foam (1-6week and with foam and visual disturbances (7-12 week. The pretest-training-posttest assessments included: isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee PT and CSA (Magnetic resonance imaging of quadriceps and hamstrings and functional tests. RESULTS The light-to-moderate-intensity 12-weeks training increased 8.5% the eccentric PT of quadriceps at 60°/s (p=0.04 and 1.3% quadriceps CSA (p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that dance training based on video game choreography can enhance PT and induce hypertrophy in community-dwelling older women.

  2. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  3. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  4. Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.

  5. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  6. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  7. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  8. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m 2 ) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm 2 ). Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3.13 cm 2 ) were of no importance regarding the

  9. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  10. Numerical Investigation of Masonry Strengthened with Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Ramaglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two main fiber strengthening systems typically applied in masonry structures have been investigated: composites made of basalt and hemp fibers, coupled with inorganic matrix. Starting from the experimental results on composites, the out-of-plane behavior of the strengthened masonry was assessed according to several numerical analyses. In a first step, the ultimate behavior was assessed in terms of P (axial load-M (bending moment domain (i.e., failure surface, changing several mechanical parameters. In order to assess the ductility capacity of the strengthened masonry elements, the P-M domain was estimated starting from the bending moment-curvature diagrams. Key information about the impact of several mechanical parameters on both the capacity and the ductility was considered. Furthermore, the numerical analyses allow the assessment of the efficiency of the strengthening system, changing the main mechanical properties. Basalt fibers had lower efficiency when applied to weak masonry. In this case, the elastic properties of the masonry did not influence the structural behavior under a no tension assumption for the masonry. Conversely, their impact became non-negligible, especially for higher values of the compressive strength of the masonry. The stress-strain curve used to model the composite impacted the flexural strength. Natural fibers provided similar outcomes, but a first difference regards the higher mechanical compatibility of the strengthening system with the substrate. In this case, the ultimate condition is due to the failure mode of the composite. The stress-strain curves used to model the strengthening system are crucial in the ductility estimation of the strengthened masonry. However, the behavior of the composite strongly influences the curvature ductility in the case of higher compressive strength for masonry. The numerical results discussed in this paper provide the base to develop normalized capacity models able to

  11. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun

    2015-01-01

    strength. METHODS: We included 50 TKA patients with severe movement-related pain; defined as having visual analog scale pain score of greater than 60 mm during active flexion of the knee. The ACB group received an ACB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL and a femoral nerve block (FNB) with 30 mL saline. The FNB...... group received an ACB with 30 mL saline and an FNB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL. We compared the effect of the ACB versus FNB on maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps muscle relative to a postoperative baseline value. Secondary end points were differences between groups in ability...

  12. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa

    2015-01-01

    weakness. METHODS: We performed a paired, blinded, randomized trial including healthy men. All subjects received bilateral ACBs with ropivacaine 0.1%; 10 mL in 1 leg and 30 mL in the other leg. The primary outcome was the difference in number of subjects with quadriceps strength reduced by more than 25...... of the predefined time points or in sensory block. The only statistically significant difference between volumes was found in the 30-Second Chair Stand Test at 2 hours (P = 0.02), but this difference had disappeared at 4 hours (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Varying the volume of ropivacaine 0.1% used for ACB between 10...

  13. The Effect of Local Anesthetic Volume Within the Adductor Canal on Quadriceps Femoris Function Evaluated by Electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Ulrik; Jæger, Pia; Kløvgaard, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle......, they received a femoral nerve block and a placebo ACB. The effect on the vastus medialis (primary endpoint) and the vastus lateralis was evaluated using noninvasive electromyography (EMG). Quadriceps femoris muscle strength was evaluated using a dynamometer. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant......L was used (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between volume and effect on the vastus lateralis (P = 0.81) or in muscle strength (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: For ACB, there is a positive correlation between local anesthetic volume and effect on the vastus medialis muscle. Despite...

  14. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  17. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  18. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  20. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  1. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  2. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  3. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.; Piotukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    transportation of nuclear materials is carried out by Promatomnadzor. Promatomnadzor also issues permits on movement of nuclear materials across the borders of Belarus. State Customs Committee is responsible for detection of unauthorised imports and exports of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. They report each case to other responsible authorities. Belarus is a transport corridor between the East and West, and the issues relating to regulation of export and import, exercising control over export, import of nuclear materials, prevention of smuggling of nuclear materials and maintaining of international co-operation are very important for us. Further development of the safeguards system - It should be noted that control over use of nuclear materials and facilities, which is still of crucial importance can not ensure the absence of undeclared nuclear activities as required. The IAEA has developed the strengthened safeguards system (INFIRC/590) the essence of which is to expand control over relevant technologies, dual use commodities and services. Of course, the implementation of the system provides for more effective and efficient safeguards. Co-operation with the IAEA and other international organisations is regarded as one of the conditions of further improvement of reliability and efficiency of the safeguards. In conclusion I would like to express my profound gratitude to the IAEA and donor countries, in particular Japan, USA and Sweden, for their assistance aimed at strengthening safeguards in Belarus. (author)

  4. The effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non–Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nenkova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non – Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. Patients were assigned to an experimental group and amatched control group. The experimental group received isometric exer-cises and stretching three times weekly for 12 weeks in addition to routine medication and dietary advice. A t the end of this period, this group wascompared with the control group, which received routine medication anddietary advice only. Measurements of muscle strength of quadriceps, ham-strings, ankle plantar and dorsiflexors, and Romberg’s test for postural sta-bility were carried out before and after the 12 weeks intervention. The study showed that isometric exercises and stretching for the lower extremities improved postural stability (p = 0.00and strength of the quadriceps (p = 0.001 hamstrings (p = 0.001 dorsiflexors (p = 0.001 plantarflexors (p = 0.001in NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. This exercise regimen also had a loweringeffect on blood glucose level (p = 0.00.  In conclusion it seems that the simple exercise intervention described in thisstudy may be of benefit to these patients if incorporated into their management programmes.

  5. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  7. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  8. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  9. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  10. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  11. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Esha A; Gurudut, Peeyoosha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare three different forms of exercises namely lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain (LBP) in terms of pain, range of motion, core strength and function. In this study, 44 subjects suffering from non-specific LBP for more than 3 months were randomly allocated into the lumbar stabilization group, the dynamic strengthening group, and the Pilates group. Ten sessions of exercises for 3 weeks were prescribed along with interferential current and hot moist pack. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale, functional affection by modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, range of motion by assessing lumbar flexion and extension by modified Schober test and core strength was assessed by pressure biofeedback on day 1 and day 10 of the treatment. There was reduction of pain, improvement in range of motion, functional ability and core strength in all the 3 exercise groups. The improvement was significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization group for all the outcome measures, when compared the posttreatment after 10th session. Pairwise comparison showed that there was greater reduction of disability in the Pilates group than the dynamic strengthening group. It was concluded that the lumbar stabilization is more superior compared to the dynamic strengthening and Pilates in chronic nonspecific LBP. However, long-term benefits need to be assessed and compared with prospective follow-up studies.

  13. Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; van der Windt, Danielle A; Jordan, Joanne L; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Healey, Emma L; Peat, George M; Foster, Nadine E

    2014-11-01

    Which types of exercise intervention are most effective in relieving pain and improving function in people with lower limb osteoarthritis? As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is most likely to be effective for relieving pain and improving function. Current international guidelines recommend therapeutic exercise (land or water based) as "core" and effective management of osteoarthritis. Evidence from this first network meta-analysis, largely based on studies in knee osteoarthritis, indicates that an intervention combining strengthening exercises with flexibility and aerobic exercise is most likely to improve outcomes of pain and function. Further trials of exercise versus no exercise are unlikely to overturn this positive result. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. COMPARISON OF PATHWAY AND CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE CALCANEUS ON NON-INVOLVED AND INVOLVED SIDES ACCORDING TO ECCENTRIC AND CONCENTRIC STRENGTHENING IN PATIENTS WITH ACHILLES TENDINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaeHo Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the changes in pathway and center of gravity (COG on the calcaneus of non-involved and involved sides according to eccentric and concentric strengthening in patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. The goal was to define the biomechanical changes according to eccentric strengthening for the development of clinical guidelines. Eighteen patients with Achilles tendinopathy were recruited at the K Rehabilitation Hospital in Seoul. The subjects were instructed to perform 5 sessions of concentric strengthening. The calcaneal pathway was measured using a three-dimensional (3D motion analyzer, and COG was measured by a force plate. Subsequently, eccentric strengthening was implemented, and identical variables were measured. Concentric and eccentric strengthening was carried out on both the involved and non-involved sides. There was no significant difference in the calcaneal pathway in patients with Achilles tendinopathy during concentric and eccentric strengthening. However, during eccentric strengthening, the calcaneal pathway significantly increased on the involved side compared to the non-involved side for all variables excluding the z-axis. COG significantly decreased on the involved side when compared to the non-involved side in patients with Achilles tendinopathy during eccentric and concentric strengthening. During concentric strengthening, all variables of the COG significantly increased on the involved side compared to the non-involved side. Compared with eccentric strengthening, concentric strengthening decreased the stability of ankle joints and increased the movement distance of the calcaneus in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Furthermore, eccentric strengthening was verified to be an effective exercise method for prevention of Achilles tendinopathy through the reduction of forward and backward path length of foot pressure. The regular application of eccentric strengthening was found to be effective in the

  15. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  16. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  17. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  18. Strengthening Information Society Research Capacity Alliance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-13

    The project is expected to strengthen the body of theoretically based, methodologically sound, interdisciplinary research on information society issues. Project ID. 106618. Project status. Closed. Start Date. September 13, 2011. End Date. August 12, 2014. Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding.

  19. Strengthening Social and Emotional Intelligences through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burth, Jeanne Hager; McConnell, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Using writing to allow children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to express how they are feeling or to stimulate thinking about a social situation will allow the students the opportunity to strengthen social and emotional intelligences. By giving prompts about different social and emotional situations or ideas to children, the teacher allows…

  20. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  1. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  2. Strengthening partnerships among Africa's science granting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will support regional training courses and on-site coaching to strengthen the capacity of participating councils to design and manage collaborative agreements. It will also co-fund demand-led collaborative research projects in selected areas of interest to the private sector. Sharing of evidence, lessons learned ...

  3. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main

  4. Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to Involuntary Displacement Caused by Development Projects in Zimbabwe ... The construction of hydro-electric dams and other large mining and agricultural projects, for example, have led to negative consequences due to weak land tenure rights and a more general ...

  5. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  6. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  7. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  8. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L; Kumar, Bhavesh D; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-07-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding the role of isokinetic strength and strength testing in HSIs. To examine whether differences in isokinetic strength measures of knee flexion and extension represent risk factors for hamstring injuries in a large cohort of professional soccer players in an adequately powered study design. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 614 professional soccer players from 14 teams underwent isokinetic strength testing during preseason screening. Testing consisted of concentric knee flexion and extension at 60 deg/s and 300 deg/s and eccentric knee extension at 60 deg/s. A clustered multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with the risk of HSIs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity. Of the 614 players, 190 suffered an HSI during the 4 seasons. Quadriceps concentric strength at 60 deg/s (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92; P = .03) and hamstring eccentric strength at 60 deg/s (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; P = .04) adjusted for bodyweight were independently associated with the risk of injuries. The absolute differences between the injured and uninjured players were 6.9 N·m and 9.1 N·m, with small effect sizes (d hamstring eccentric strength, respectively, indicating a failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the 2 strength variables identified in the logistic regression models. This study identified small absolute strength differences and a wide overlap of the absolute strength measurements at the group level. The small associations between lower hamstring eccentric strength and lower quadriceps concentric strength with HSIs can only be considered as weak

  9. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and impaired regeneration in murine femoral Quadriceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, E. A.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Blaber, E.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Markitantova, Y. V.; Grigoryan, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle histomorphology from microgravity specimens showed signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia relative to ground controls. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei, compared to vivarium and ground controls, and central location of myonuclei, low density of myofibers in the tissue, and of myofibrils within a fiber, as well as fragmentation and swelling of myofibers. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appeared to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed myofibers. Many of them, however, showed evidence of apoptotic cells and myofibril degradation, suggesting that long-term unloading in microgravity may affect late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals demonstrated normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new myofibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscles was observed both in microgravity and ground control groups, using Pax7 and Myogenin

  10. Self-efficacy, pain, and quadriceps capacity at baseline predict changes in mobility performance over 2 years in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Nicholas M; Gatti, Anthony A; Stratford, Paul W; Maly, Monica R

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which baseline measures of quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, knee pain and self-efficacy for functional tasks, and their interactions, predicted 2-year changes in mobility performance (walking, stair ascent, stair descent) in women with knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that lesser strength, power and self-efficacy, and higher pain at baseline would each be independently associated with reduced mobility over 2 years, and each of pain and self-efficacy would interact with strength and power in predicting 2-year change in stair-climbing performance. This was a longitudinal, observational study of women with clinical knee osteoarthritis. At baseline and follow-up, mobility was assessed with the Six-Minute Walk Test, and stair ascent and descent tasks. Quadriceps strength and power, knee pain, and self-efficacy for functional tasks were also collected at baseline. Multiple linear regression examined the extent to which 2-year changes in mobility performances were predicted by baseline strength, power, pain, and self-efficacy, after adjusting for covariates. Data were analyzed for 37 women with knee osteoarthritis over 2 years. Lower baseline self-efficacy predicted decreased walking (β = 1.783; p = 0.030) and stair ascent (β = -0.054; p baseline pain intensity/frequency predicted decreased walking performance (β = 1.526; p = 0.002). Lower quadriceps strength (β = 0.051; p = 0.015) and power (β = 0.022; p = 0.022) interacted with lesser self-efficacy to predict worsening stair ascent performance. Strategies to sustain or improve mobility in women with knee osteoarthritis must focus on controlling pain and boosting self-efficacy. In those with worse self-efficacy, developing knee muscle capacity is an important target.

  11. Effect of gender on strength gains after isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback in knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Equebal, A; Nezamuddin, M; Kumar, R; Lenka, P K

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of gender on strength gains after five week training programme that consisted of isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback to the quadriceps muscle. Forty-three (20 men and 23 women) patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), were placed into two groups based on their gender. Both groups performed isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback for five days a week for five weeks. Both groups reported gains in muscle strength after five week training. However, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups (P=0.224). The results suggest that gender did not affect gains in muscle strength by isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Mohr, Magni; Fulford, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced...... men performed five sets of intense single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure on four separate occasions: for two visits (6 mg·kg-1 caffeine vs placebo), quadriceps 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed to quantify phosphocreatine kinetics and pH, and for the remaining two...... calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes. We...

  13. Comparative analysis of quadriceps and hamstrings strength in knee osteoarthritis before and after total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naasson Trindade Cavanellas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Compare the maximal isokinetic muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles between patients with knee osteoarthritis and patients submitted to total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Volunteers were divided into five groups (n = 20: Control; Ahlbäck I and II; Ahlbäck IV; six months after total knee arthroplasty; 12 months after total knee arthroplasty. An isokinetic knee strength evaluation was conducted for the quadriceps and hamstrings at 60°/s. Results: Significant differences in the peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings were found among the groups (p < 0.001. The Ahlbäck IV, six-month, and 12-month postoperative groups demonstrated lower values when compared to the Control and Ahlbäck I and II groups. When percentage values were compared to the Control group, mean differences ranged from 7% to 41%. Conclusion: Patients with healthy knees or early stage osteoarthritis have higher quadriceps and hamstrings strengths than those with a more advanced stage of the disease, even after knee replacement. These findings suggest that the traditional rehabilitation programs do not recover strength to levels observed in individuals without knee osteoarthritis.

  14. Morphological and qualitative characteristics of the quadriceps muscle of community-dwelling older adults based on ultrasound imaging: classification using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Kera, Takeshi; Hirayama, Ryo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    Muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound imaging represent both increased muscle volume and connective tissue accumulation. In combination, these ultrasound measurements can be utilized for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine whether morphological and qualitative characteristics classified by quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound are associated with muscle strength, physical function, and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity were measured using ultrasound imaging in 1239 community-dwelling older adults. Latent class analyses were conducted to classify participants based on similarity in the subcutaneous fat thickness (FT), quadriceps muscle thickness (MT), subcutaneous fat echo intensity (FEI), and muscle echo intensity (MEI), which were assessed using ultrasound imaging. Morphological and qualitative characteristics were classified into four types as follows: (A) normal, (B) sarcopenic obesity, (C) obesity, and (D) sarcopenia type. Knee extension strength was significantly greater in A than in B and D. FT and percent body fat were greater in C than in the other types. The correlation between the ultrasound measures and knee extension strength differed among the classification types. The classification types were significantly associated with sarcopenia prevalence. Classification of the morphological and qualitative characteristics obtained from ultrasound imaging may be useful for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

  15. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  16. Roller-massager application to the quadriceps and knee-joint range of motion and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Squires, David J; Noftall, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Behm, David G; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2015-02-01

    Roller massagers are used as a recovery and rehabilitative tool to initiate muscle relaxation and improve range of motion (ROM) and muscular performance. However, research demonstrating such effects is lacking. To determine the effects of applying a roller massager for 20 and 60 seconds on knee-joint ROM and dynamic muscular performance. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University laboratory. Ten recreationally active men (age = 26.6 ± 5.2 years, height = 175.3 ± 4.3 cm, mass = 84.4 ± 8.8 kg). Participants performed 3 randomized experimental conditions separated by 24 to 48 hours. In condition 1 (5 repetitions of 20 seconds) and condition 2 (5 repetitions of 60 seconds), they applied a roller massager to the quadriceps muscles. Condition 3 served as a control condition in which participants sat quietly. Visual analog pain scale, electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris during roller massage and lunge, and knee-joint ROM. We found no differences in pain between the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions. During 60 seconds of roller massage, pain was 13.5% (5.7 ± 0.70) and 20.6% (6.2 ± 0.70) greater at 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively, than at 20 seconds (P joint ROM was 10% and 16% greater in the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions, respectively, than the control condition (P joint ROM and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge.

  17. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  18. Evaluation of central and peripheral fatigue in the quadriceps using fractal dimension and conduction velocity in young females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beretta-Piccoli

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD and conduction velocity (CV as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans.A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years performed two knee extensions: (1 at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC for 30 s, and (2 at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays.Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01 was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task.Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions.

  19. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, pfatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

  20. Anthropometric and quantitative EMG status of femoral quadriceps before and after conventional kinesitherapy with and without magnetotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graberski Matasović, M; Matasović, T; Markovac, Z

    1997-06-01

    The frequency of femoral quadriceps muscle hypotrophy has become a significant therapeutic problem. Efforts are being made to improve the standard scheme of kinesitherapeutic treatment by using additional more effective therapeutic methods. Beside kinesitherapy, the authors have used magnetotherapy in 30 of the 60 patients. The total of 60 patients, both sexes, similar age groups and intensity of hypotrophy, were included in the study. They were divided into groups A and B, the experimental and the control one (30 patients each). The treatment was scheduled for the usual 5-6 weeks. Electromyographic quantitative analysis was used to check-up the treatment results achieved after 5 and 6 weeks of treatment period. Analysis of results has confirmed the assumption that magnetotherapy may yield better and faster treatment results, disappearance of pain and decreased risk of complications. The same results were obtained in the experimental group, only one week earlier than in the control group. The EMG quantitative analysis has not proved sufficiently reliable and objective method in the assessment of real condition of the muscle and effects of treatment.

  1. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  2. Core strengthening and synchronized swimming: TRX® suspension training in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (Ptraining in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.

  3. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  4. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  5. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  6. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R.D.; Andrushko, Justin W.; Renshaw, Doug W.; Chilibeck, Philip D.; Farthing, Jonathan P.; Danielson, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. Methods: 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Conclusions: Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease. PMID:29670495

  7. Strengthening Regulatory Competence through Techno-managerial Knowledge Integration: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhotla, S.

    2016-01-01

    Competence development is the process of identifying the competencies required to perform a given job, role or set of tasks successfully at workplace. Strengthening regulatory competence, for the nuclear regulator, is essential to ensure skilled and competent human resources for performing the functions of the Regulatory Body. The strengthening of existing competence level for the Indian nuclear regulator, takes into account the understanding of the elements such as legal basis and regulatory processes governing operations of regulatory body, technological competences for performing regulatory functions, competences pertinent to regulatory practices, and competences related to personal and interpersonal effectiveness within the organization. Competency data from AERB divisions was compiled to identify gaps at various positions with recommendations for making specialized training modules and modifications to basic and refresher training modules. The exercise is aimed at providing continual improvement in skills and knowledge of human resources at AERB in a phased manner. (author)

  8. Eccentric strengthening effect of hip-adductor training with elastic bands in soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Hölmich, Per; Bandholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    programme, including one hip-adduction exercise, on eccentric and isometric hip-adduction strength, using elastic bands as external load. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy, sub-elite soccer players, mean (±SD) age of 22.1 (±3.3) years, were randomised to either training or control. During the mid-season break......BACKGROUND: Soccer players with weak hip-adductor muscles are at increased risk of sustaining groin injuries. Therefore, a simple hip-adductor strengthening programme for prevention of groin injuries is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of an 8-week hip-adductor strengthening...... sessions per week (weeks 7-8) with 3×8 RM. Eccentric hip-adduction (EHAD), isometric hip-adduction (IHAD) and isometric hip-abduction (IHAB) strength, and the IHAD/IHAB ratio were measured assessor-blinded preintervention and postintervention, using reliable hand-held dynamometry procedures. RESULTS...

  9. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  10. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  11. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  12. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  13. Augmentation of Deglutitive Thyrohyoid Muscle Shortening by the Shaker Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation. PMID:18685891

  14. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  16. Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity (Lebanon) ... Women's Rights and Citizenship framework; to strengthen and rationalize its institutional ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference.

  17. Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: the influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; De Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Koffes, Fabiana De Carvalho; Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52 males), were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The H/Q isokinetic peak torque ratios were calculated at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ and 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by gender, female soccer players produced lower H/Q peak torque ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than males involved in the same sport. However, when H/Q peak torque ratio was assessed at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹, there were no significant differences between the sexes. In the analysis by sport, there were no differences among females at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹. In contrast, male soccer players had significantly higher H/Q peak torque ratios than judokas (66 ± 12% vs. 57 ± 14%, respectively). Female handball players produced significantly lower peak torque ratios at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ than judokas or soccer players, whereas males presented no ratio differences among sports At 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by velocity, women's muscular ratios assessed at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ were significantly lower than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ for all sports; among men, only judokas presented lower ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. The present results suggest that sport modality and angular velocity influence the isokinetic strength profiles of men and women.

  18. Torque decrease during submaximal evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle is linked not only to muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, Boris; Lepers, Romuald; Martin, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the torque decrease induced by submaximal electromyostimulation (EMS) of the quadriceps muscle. It was hypothesized that torque decrease after EMS would reflect the fatigability of the activated motor units (MUs), but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited as a result of changes in axonal excitability threshold. Two experiments were performed on 20 men to analyze 1) the supramaximal twitch superimposed and evoked at rest during EMS (Experiment 1, n = 9) and 2) the twitch response and torque-frequency relation of the MUs activated by EMS (Experiment 2, n = 11). Torque loss was assessed by 15 EMS-evoked contractions (50 Hz; 6 s on/6 s off), elicited at a constant intensity that evoked 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The same stimulation intensity delivered over the muscles was used to induce the torque-frequency relation and the single electrical pulse evoked after each EMS contraction (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, supramaximal twitch was induced by femoral nerve stimulation. Torque decreased by ~60% during EMS-evoked contractions and by only ~18% during MVCs. This was accompanied by a rightward shift of the torque-frequency relation of MUs activated and an increase of the ratio between the superimposed and posttetanic maximal twitch evoked during EMS contraction. These findings suggest that the torque decrease observed during submaximal EMS-evoked contractions involved muscular mechanisms but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited due to changes in axonal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. 99mTc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy to assess the response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation of normal quadriceps femoris muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekindil, Y.; Sarikaya, A.; Birtane, M.; Pekindil, G.; Salan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely used for improving muscle strength by simultaneous contraction in the prevention of muscle atrophy. Although there exist many clinical methods for evaluating the therapeutic response of muscles, 99m Tc-sestamibi which is a skeletal muscle perfusion and metabolism agent has not previously been used for this purpose. The aim of our work was to ascertain whether 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy is useful in the monitoring of therapeutic response to NMES in healthy women. The study included 16 women aged between 21 and 45, with a mean age of 32.7±6.4. Both quadriceps femoris muscles (QFM) of each patient were studied. After randomization to remove the effect of the dominant side, one QFM of each patient was subjected to the NMES procedure for a period of 20 days. NMES was performed with an alternating biphasic rectangular current, from a computed electrical stimulator daily for 23 minutes. After measurement of skinfold thickness over the thigh, pre- and post-NMES girth measurements were assessed in centimeters. Sixty minutes after injections of 555 MBq 99m Tc-sestamibi, static images of the thigh were obtained for 5 minutes. The thigh-to-knee uptake ratio was calculated by semiquantitative analysis and normalized to body surface area (NUR=normalized uptake ratio). The difference between the pre and post NMES NUR values was significant (1.76±0.31 versus 2.25±0.38, p=0.0000). The percentage (%) increase in NUR values also well correlated with the % increase in thigh girth measurements (r=0.89, p=0.0000). These results indicated that 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy as a new tool may be useful in evaluating therapeutic response to NMES. (author)

  20. Effects of a prior high-intensity knee-extension exercise on muscle recruitment and energy cost: a combined local and global investigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Bringard, Aurélien; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2009-06-01

    The effects of a priming exercise bout on both muscle energy production and the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent exercise bout are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a prior exercise bout which is known to increase O(2) supply and to induce a residual acidosis could alter energy cost and muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent heavy-intensity knee-extension exercise. Fifteen healthy subjects performed two 6 min bouts of heavy exercise separated by a 6 min resting period. Rates of oxidative and anaerobic ATP production, determined with (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and breath-by-breath measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake were obtained simultaneously. Changes in muscle oxygenation and muscle fibre recruitment occurring within the quadriceps were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography. The priming heavy-intensity exercise increased motor unit recruitment (P exercise bout but did not alter muscle energy cost. We also observed a reduced deoxygenation time delay, whereas the deoxygenation amplitude was increased (P exercise led to an increased recruitment of motor units in the early part of the second bout of heavy exercise. Considering the increased oxidative cost and the unaltered energy cost, one could suggest that our results illustrate a reduced metabolic strain per fibre.

  1. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  2. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  3. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  4. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  5. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  7. Therapeutic exercises for the control of temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Rocha Moraes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a multifactorial disease. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an accurate and correct diagnosis. In this context, conservative treatments, including therapeutic exercises classified as stretching, relaxation, coordination, strengthening and endurance, are oftentimes prescribed. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of the present article was to conduct a literature review concerning the types of exercises available and the efficacy for the treatment of muscular TMD. METHODS: The review included researches carried out between 2000 and 2010, indexed on Web of Science, PubMed, LILACS and BBO. Moreover, the following keywords were used: Exercise, physical therapy, facial pain, myofascial pain syndrome, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. Studies that did not consider the subject "TMD and exercises", used post-surgery exercises and did not use validated criteria for the diagnosis of TMD (RDC/TMD were not included. RESULTS: The results comprised seven articles which proved therapeutic exercises to be effective for the treatment of muscular TMD. However, these studies are seen as limited, since therapeutic exercises were not applied alone, but in association with other conservative procedures. In addition, they present some drawbacks such as: Small samples, lack of control group and no detailed exercise description which should have included intensity, repetition, frequency and duration. CONCLUSION: Although therapeutic exercises are considered effective in the management of muscular TMD, the development of randomized clinical trials is necessary, since many existing studies are still based on the clinical experience of professionals.

  8. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  9. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  10. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  11. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  12. Catalysis-enhanced strengthening of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, L.N.; Shchukin, E.D.; Burenkova, L.N.; Romanovskij, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Change in the strength of compressed tablets of the catalyst on the basis of ZrO 2 (84 mass %) and Y 2 O 3 (16 mass %) after conducting the endothermal reaction of the methanol and ethanol dehydration at 700-800 deg C is studied. It is shown, that the key factor, determining the strengthening effect by 65-88% is not at all the reaction exothermal nature, which could lead to local heating of the catalyst surface. In reality significant increase in concentration of surface defects, as compared to the equilibrium at the given temperature is achieved on the account of conjugation of processes of catalysis and surface defects formation [ru

  13. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  14. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  15. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  16. Low- Versus High-Intensity Plyometric Exercise During Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Terese L; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Lentz, Trevor A; Indelicato, Peter A; Trumble, Troy N; Shuster, Jonathan J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2016-03-01

    Plyometric exercise is used during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to facilitate the return to sports participation. However, clinical outcomes have not been examined, and high loads on the lower extremity could be detrimental to knee articular cartilage. To compare the immediate effect of low- and high-intensity plyometric exercise during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction on knee function, articular cartilage metabolism, and other clinically relevant measures. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-four patients who underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction (mean, 14.3 weeks after surgery; range, 12.1-17.7 weeks) were assigned to 8 weeks (16 visits) of low- or high-intensity plyometric exercise consisting of running, jumping, and agility activities. Groups were distinguished by the expected magnitude of vertical ground-reaction forces. Testing was conducted before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] subjective knee form) and a biomarker of articular cartilage degradation (urine concentrations of crosslinked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [uCTX-II]). Secondary outcomes included additional biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism (urinary concentrations of the neoepitope of type II collagen cleavage at the C-terminal three-quarter-length fragment [uC2C], serum concentrations of the C-terminal propeptide of newly formed type II collagen [sCPII]) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α), functional performance (maximal vertical jump and single-legged hop), knee impairments (anterior knee laxity, average knee pain intensity, normalized quadriceps strength, quadriceps symmetry index), and psychosocial status (kinesiophobia, knee activity self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing). The change in each measure was compared between groups. Values before and after the intervention were compared with the groups

  17. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  18. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2013-07-15

    The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.

  19. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength mediate the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-01-01

    Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise therapy for knee pain and osteoarthritis remains a key element of conservative treatment, recommended in clinical guidelines. Yet systematic reviews point to only modest benefits from exercise interventions. One reason for this might be that clinical trials tend to use a one-size-fits-all approach to exercise, effectively disregarding the details of their participants' clinical presentations. This uncontrolled before-after study (TargET-Knee-Pain aims to test the principle that exercises targeted at the specific physical impairments of older adults with knee pain may be able to significantly improve those impairments. It is a first step towards testing the effectiveness of this more individually-tailored approach. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 participants from an existing observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain. Participants will all have at least one of the three physical impairments of weak quadriceps, a reduced range of knee flexion and poor standing balance. Each participant will be asked to undertake a programme of exercises, targeted at their particular combination and degree of impairment(s, over the course of twelve weeks. The exercises will be taught and progressed by an experienced physiotherapist, with reference to a "menu" of agreed exercises for each of the impairments, over the course of six fortnightly home visits, alternating with six fortnightly telephone calls. Primary outcome measures will be isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion range of motion, timed single-leg standing balance and the "Four Balance Test Scale" at 12 weeks. Key secondary outcome measures will be self-reported levels of pain, stiffness and difficulties with day-to-day functional tasks (WOMAC. Outcome measures will be taken at three time-points (baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks by a study nurse blinded to the exercise status of the participants. Discussion This study (Targ

  1. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  2. The strengthening effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.R.; Ison, K.T.; Gishen, P

    2000-06-01

    AIM: To examine whether single-needle vertebroplasty is effective in strengthening vertebrae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four adjacent intact lumbar vertebrae were removed from each of nine adult post-mortem subjects. One or two vertebra of each set was injected with low viscosity acrylic bone cement using a single-track posterolateral approach. Vertebral strength was measured during constant rate axial compression. RESULTS: Single-needle injection delivered different quantities of cement (1-8 ml) in an asymmetric distribution. Injected vertebrae were stronger than controls in 10 out of 12 cases (P < 0.01), suggesting that cement injection increases the load needed to cause initial vertebral fracture. Compression was continued past the point of initial failure, to simulate progressive vertebral collapse. Injected specimens were more resistant to deformation than control specimens (P < 0.05), most of which initially deformed with little increase in load. CONCLUSION: Single-track injection of bone cement appeared to strengthen vertebrae against both initial failure and subsequent collapse. The magnitude of strength increase from vertebroplasty was variable, and did not correlate with the volume of cement injected. Further investigation is needed to optimize the technique. Gishen, P. (2000)

  3. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To explore the international aspects of nuclear accidents, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency initiated and established an international nuclear emergency 'exercise culture', starting with the INEX 1 table-top exercise, the first international nuclear emergency exercise in 1993, followed by the series of real time command-post exercises INEX 2 and INEX 2000 (five exercises between 1996 - 2001). Deficiencies in the area of communication and information exchange were the most significant findings of the INEX 2 series and corrective actions represent a major step forward in nuclear emergency management. The development of a new communication and information exchange strategy, which is currently implemented by various countries as well as by the international community, has strengthened our preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies. In addition, one of these exercises explored for the first time third party liability procedures and compensation after a nuclear accident. Regarding the role of international organizations, the INEX 2 series contributed to a better clarification regarding the roles of relevant international organizations, their obligations and responsibilities, and how their response in the case of a nuclear emergency are co-ordinated and harmonized. On the national level, many countries participating in INEX 1 and INEX 2 exercises used the experiences and lessons learned to modify and improve national procedures for nuclear emergency preparedness and management. Countries also used the outcome of the exercises to update bilateral agreements and arrangements. As an important follow-up of the lessons learned, an OECD/NEA-working group established the report: monitoring and data management strategies for nuclear emergencies. To test the implementation of the features of the outcome of the report, e.g. the effectiveness of developed data matrix and the effectiveness of proposed communication strategies employing new technologies, the INEX-2000

  4. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  5. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft: intermediate-term clinical outcome after 24-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Arndt P; Lange, Vivien; Gille, Justus; Voigt, Christine; Fröhlich, Susanne; Stuhr, Markus; Jürgens, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although known as a possible graft option for decades, quadriceps tendon grafts have often been termed a second-line graft option. We report a consecutive case series using this method as the primary treatment line. The rationale for this study was to evaluate the midterm results of this method in a prospective and consecutive case series. The primary study question was to determine the clinical results 24-36 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. The study population included 55 patients, of whom 24 were female (43.6%). The mean age at the index procedure was 31.7 years (15-58 years). All patients received an ACL construction using a bone block-free quadriceps tendon graft fixed with resorbable cross-pins. The postoperative regimen included partial weight-bearing for 3 weeks and flexion limited to 90° for six weeks; an orthosis was not used. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months (24.3-38.5 months) after the index procedure. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score and examination form was assessed, as well as the Lysholm and Gillquist score and the Tegner activity index. The Rolimeter arthrometer was used to assess the anterior laxity of the knee. Graft harvesting was possible in all cases; a bony extension was never required. On average, graft length was measured at 8.8 cm (7.5-10 cm). The mean IKDC subjective score at follow-up was 80.44 points (55.17-100 points, standard deviation [SD] 12.05). The mean preinjury Tegner activity index was 4.98 (2-7) compared to a mean value of 4.16 (2-7, SD 0.8) at follow-up. There was a mean loss of 0.82 index points. The average Lysholm and Gillquist score was 89 points (65-100, SD 17.7). Of the results, 89.1% were in the good or very good groups; in one case (1.8%), the result was poor, while the rest were fair. ACL reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon

  7. The effects of the sagittal plane malpositioning of the patella and concomitant quadriceps hypotrophy on the patellofemoral joint: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksahin, Ertugrul; Kocadal, Onur; Aktekin, Cem N; Kaya, Defne; Pepe, Murad; Yılmaz, Serdar; Yuksel, H Yalcin; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common symptom after intramedullary nailing in tibia shaft fracture. Moreover, patellofemoral malalignment is also known to be a major reason for anterior knee pain. Patellofemoral malalignment predisposes to increased loading in patellar cartilage. In the previous study, we have demonstrated the quadriceps atrophy and patellofemoral malalignment after intramedullary nailing due to tibia shaft fracture. In this study, our aim was to clarify the effects of quadriceps atrophy and patellofemoral malalignment with the pathologic loading on the joint cartilage. Mesh models of patellofemoral joint were constructed with CT images and integrated with soft tissue components such as menisci and ligaments. Physiological and sagittal tilt models during extension and flexion at 15°, 30° and 60° were created generating eight models. All the models were applied with 137 N force to present the effects of normal loading and 115.7 N force for the simulation of quadriceps atrophy. Different degrees of loading were applied to evaluate the joint contact area and pressure value with the finite element analysis. There was increased patellofemoral contact area in patellar tilt models with respect to normal models. The similar loading patterns were diagnosed in all models at 0° and 15° knee flexion when 137 N force was applied. Higher loading values were obtained at 30° and 60° knee flexions in sagittal tilt models. Furthermore, in the sagittal tilt models, in which the quadriceps atrophy was simulated, the loadings at 30° and 60° knee flexion were higher than in the physiological ones. Sagittal malalignment of the patellofemoral joint is a new concept that results in different loading patterns in the patellofemoral joint biomechanics. This malalignment in sagittal plane leads to increased loading values on the patellofemoral joint at 30° and 60° of the knee flexions. This new concept should be kept in mind during the course of diagnosis and treatment

  8. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  9. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jubeau

    Full Text Available Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS, corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP. Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01 and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001 at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body but also on exercise intensity and/or duration.

  10. Improving the Q:H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kavin K W; DiPasquale, Angela A

    2011-10-01

    Plyometric training programs have been implemented in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Plyometric exercises are designed to aid in the improvement of muscle strength and neuromuscular control. Our purpose was to examine the effects of plyometric training on lower leg strength in women. Thirty (age = 20.3 ± 1.9 years) recreationally active women were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed a plyometric training program for 6 weeks, 3 d·wk(-1). All subjects attended 4 testing sessions: before the start of the training program and after weeks 2, 4, and 6. Concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength (dominant leg) was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60 and 120°·s(-1). Peak torque, average peak torque, and average power (AvgPower) were measured. The results revealed a significant (p plyometric group than in the control group at testing session 4 and that AvgPower was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group in testing sessions 2-4. Our results indicate that the plyometric training program increased hamstring strength while maintaining quadriceps strength, thereby improving the Q:H strength ratio.

  11. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Y. Ishigaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method: We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results: The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ≥7/10 points. Conclusions: The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported.

  12. Arthroscopic evaluation of patellofemoral congruence with rotation of the knee joint and electrical stimulation of the quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Inoue, Yutaka; Kitamura, Kazuya; Honda, Akio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pathoanatomic features of patellar instability by arthroscopically comparing patellofemoral congruence with rotation of the knee joint and/or electrical stimulation of the quadriceps (ESQ) between knees with and without patellar instability. We retrospectively examined 83 knee joints in 83 patients. The joints were classified into 2 groups: group 1 comprised those without a history of patellar dislocation and included 59 patients (25 male and 34 female patients), and group 2 comprised those with a history of patellar dislocation and included 24 patients (9 male and 15 female patients). Evaluation of patellofemoral congruence at 30° of flexion of the knee joint was conducted based on an axial radiograph and arthroscopic findings. The congruence angle was measured on the radiograph. The position of the patellar central ridge (PPCR) on the trochlear groove during arthroscopy was measured using still video frames of knee joints with rotational stress and/or ESQ. Statistical differences in the measurements between the 2 groups were assessed with the unpaired t test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of each measurement. There were significant differences (P congruence angle on radiographs and PPCR in knee joints with rotational stress and/or ESQ on arthroscopy. External and internal rotation of the knee joint caused lateral and medial patellar shift, respectively, in both groups, but the shift was significantly larger in group 2. ESQ in addition to rotation caused further patellar shift in group 2 but reduced patellar shift in group 1. Measurement of PPCR with external rotation of the knee and ESQ was the only method to show an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 1. There were significant differences in the effects of rotation of the knee joint and/or ESQ on patellofemoral congruence at 30° of flexion of the knee joint on arthroscopy between knees with and without patellar

  13. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  14. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  15. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    resonance imaging, muscle biopsies were obtained bilaterally from vastus lateralis for determination of myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, and maximal muscle strength was assessed by 1RM testing and in an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees /s. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased (P ...Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same...... individual trained one leg at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) (heavy load, HL) while training the other leg at 15.5% 1RM (light load, LL). Eleven sedentary men (age 25 +/- 1 yr) trained for 12 wk at three times/week. Before and after the intervention muscle hypertrophy was determined by magnetic...

  16. The effect of targeted exercise on knee-muscle function in patients with persistent hamstring deficiency following ACL reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenhof, Bo; Jørgensen, Uffe; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, using hamstring auto-graft is a common surgical procedure, which often leads to persistent hamstring muscle-strength deficiency and reduced function. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effect...... at 12-24 months' post surgery, will be recruited through outpatient clinics and advertisements. Patients will be randomized to a 12-week progressive, strength and neuromuscular exercise group (SNG) with supervised training twice weekly or a control intervention (CON) consisting of a home-based, low......-intensity exercise program. Outcome measures include between-group change in maximal isometric knee-flexor strength (primary outcome) and knee-extensor muscle strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios of the leg that has been operated on and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (secondary...

  17. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of pre-operative quadriceps strength training on knee-extensor strength before and shortly following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Troelsen, Anders; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) report knee pain, limitation in physical activities and low quality of life. The two primary treatments for knee OA are non-surgical treatment (e.g., exercise) and surgery (total knee arthroplasty (TKA)); however, national guidelines recommend non...

  19. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  20. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al 2 O 3 , is very similar to the GlidCop trademark alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to ∼3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90 degrees C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of ±0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as ∼2 x 10 -9 s -1 . These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys

  1. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  2. Brownfield regeneration: Towards strengthening social cohesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In broader terms, the paper refers to the topic of brownfield regeneration, as one of the most complex mechanisms for sustainable spatial development. In addition to the fact that brownfield regeneration demands a variety of instruments, such as: tax subsidies, the change of land use ownership, soil remediation, planning regulative amendments, etc., the complexity of brownfield regeneration is primarily seen in a number of stakeholders participating in such a process. Thus, the paper focuses on the social aspect of brownfield regeneration - precisely, on researching the community role and reviewing the possibilities for achieving the 'local' interests in complex developmental processes. The main research hypothesis is that brownfield regeneration positively affects the creation of and strengthening the social cohesion in the areas close to the brownfield site. More precisley, the paper presents the ways towards strenghtening social cohesion in the initial phase of the brownfield regeneration process, as well as the effects of such a process in its operationalisation phase on social cohesion. The thesis is examined by two main parameters: 1 participation of local community, and 2 social costs and benefits of brownfield regeneration versus greenfield investment. The research results are presented in the form of argumentative essay. In fact, the critical overview of arguments for and against the main research hypothesis is provided based on the review of interdisciplinary literature in the domain of brownfield regeneration. Such research organisation ensures the identification and description of the measures needed for strengthening social cohesion, as an utmost goal of this research. The final research contribution is about offering the guidelines for similar methodological approach in urban research.

  3. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  4. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  5. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  6. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  7. Tibiofemoral loss of contact area but no changes in peak pressures after meniscectomy in a Lapine in vivo quadriceps force transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leumann, Andre; Fortuna, Rafael; Leonard, Tim; Valderrabano, Victor; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The menisci are thought to modulate load transfer and to absorb shocks in the knee joint. No study has experimentally measured the meniscal functions in the intact, in vivo joint loaded by physiologically relevant muscular contractions. Right knee joints of seven New Zealand white rabbits were loaded using isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscles controlled by femoral nerve stimulation. Isometric knee extensor torques at the maximal and two submaximal force levels were performed at knee angles of 70°, 90°, 110°, and 130°. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral contact areas and pressure distributions were measured using Fuji Presensor film inserted above and below the menisci and also with the menisci removed. Meniscectomy was associated with a decrease in tibiofemoral contact area ranging from 30 to 70% and a corresponding increase in average contact pressures. Contact areas measured below the menisci were consistently larger than those measured on top of the menisci. Contact areas in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and peak pressures in tibiofemoral and PFJs, were not affected by meniscectomy. Contact areas and peak pressures in all joints depended crucially on knee joint angle and quadriceps force: The more flexed the knee joint was, the larger were the contact areas and the higher were the peak pressures. In agreement with the literature, removal of the menisci was associated with significant decreases in tibiofemoral contact area and corresponding increases in average contact pressures, but surprisingly, peak pressures remained unaffected, indicating that the function of the menisci is to distribute loads across a greater contact area.

  8. Association between leg strength and muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris with the physical activity level in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Arévalo-Arévalo, Juan Manuel; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-03

    Aging is a complex physiological process whose main feature is the progressive loss of functionality, which may be delayed or attenuated by improving physical fitness.  To determine the association between leg strength and the muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in relation to physical activity level in the elderly.  Thirty-two functionally autonomous people over 80 years (men: 82.80±2.09 years; women: 83.77±4.09 years) participated in this study. The Barthel Index, the Yale Physical Activity Survey and the Chair Stand Test were the instruments used.  There were significant differences between sexes in muscle area (pmen. The muscle area and the Chair Stand Test correlated significantly with the walk index (r=0.445, pactivity index (r=0.430, pactivity index, muscle area and the Chair Stand Test, only the latter behaved as a predictor variable.  Muscle strength and muscle mass of quadriceps showed a significant association with the physical activity level in older people. Leg muscle strength was useful to reveal muscle mass and physical activity level in older people, which is relevant as a clinical practice indicator.

  9. Electrically induced contraction levels of the quadriceps femoris muscles in healthy men: the effects of three patterns of burst-modulated alternating current and volitional muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael G; Broughton, Alex J; Larsen, Ben R; Dinius, Josh W; Cimbura, Mac J; Davis, Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare electrically induced contraction levels produced by three patterns of alternating current in fatigued and nonfatigued skeletal muscles. Eighteen male volunteers without health conditions, with a mean (SD) age of 24.9 (3.4) yrs were randomly exposed to a fatiguing volitional isometric quadriceps contraction and one of three patterns of 2.5-KHz alternating current; two were modulated at 50 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with five cycles per burst and 90% burst duty cycle with 45 cycles per burst), and one pattern was modulated at 100 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with 2.5 cycles per burst). The electrically induced contraction levels produced by the three patterns of electrical stimulation were compared before and after the fatiguing contraction. The 10% burst duty cycles produced 42.9% (95% confidence interval, 29.1%-56.7%) and 32.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.2%-45.9%) more muscle force (P stronger muscle contractions. Furthermore, the stimulation patterns had no influence on the difference in muscle force before and after the fatiguing quadriceps contraction. Consequently, for clinical applications in which high forces are desired, the patterns using the 10% burst duty cycle may be helpful.

  10. Effect of retro and forward walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, and mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-12

    Walking, a closed kinetic chain (CKC) activity, is widely used in knee rehabilitation as it allows early weight bearing and movement. It has been suggested that retro-walking may provide additional benefits beyond those experienced by forward-walking. The present study will investigate the effect of retro- and forward-walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, balance and mobility in knee Osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Sixty-nine participants with knee OA will be recruited from the outpatient department in this randomized controlled trial. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups; retro walking, forward walking or control group. The training program will be 3 days/week for 6 weeks. In addition, all the participants will receive a standard physiotherapy training program. An independent assessor blinded to group assignment will measure quadriceps muscle strength, knee pain intensity, functional disability, and mobility at baseline and 6 weeks after training. The results of this study will enhance our understanding on the therapeutic effects of walking (retro- or forward-walking) in knee OA. The findings from this study will help determine whether retro- or forward-walking or both are effective in the rehabilitation of subjects with knee OA. Controlled Trials ISRCTN12850845, Registered 26 January 2015.

  11. Do exercises used in injury prevention programmes modify cutting task biomechanics? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Simic, Milena; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    Some injury prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of ACL rupture. Although the most common athletic task leading to ACL rupture is cutting, there is currently no consensus on how injury prevention programmes influence cutting task biomechanics. To systematically review and synthesise the scientific literature regarding the influence of injury prevention programme exercises on cutting task biomechanics. The three largest databases (Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched for studies that investigated the effect of injury prevention programmes on cutting task biomechanics. When possible meta-analyses were performed. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, a total of 100 participants received exercises that are part of ACL injury prevention programmes and 76 participants served in control groups. Most studies evaluated variables associated with the quadriceps dominance theory. The meta-analysis revealed decreased lateral hamstrings electromyography activity (p ≤ 0.05) while single studies revealed decreased quadriceps and increased medial hamstrings activity and decreased peak knee flexion moment. Findings from single studies reported that ACL injury prevention exercises reduce neuromuscular deficits (knee valgus moment, lateral trunk leaning) associated with the ligament and trunk dominance theories, respectively. The programmes we analysed appear most effective when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal women. The exercises used in injury prevention programmes have the potential to improve cutting task biomechanics by ameliorating neuromuscular deficits linked to ACL rupture, especially when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft: intermediate-term clinical outcome after 24–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz AP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Arndt P Schulz,1 Vivien Lange,2 Justus Gille,1 Christine Voigt,3 Susanne Fröhlich,4 Markus Stuhr,1 Christian Jürgens5 1Department of Orthopedics, Trauma, and Sports Medicine, University Hospital Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Sana Regio Klinikum, Wedel, Germany; 3Department of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy, Diakoniekrankenhaus Friederikenstift, Hannover, Germany; 4Department of Orthopedics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 5Department of Orthopedics, Trauma, and Sports Medicine, BG Trauma Hospital Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Introduction: Although known as a possible graft option for decades, quadriceps tendon grafts have often been termed a second-line graft option. We report a consecutive case series using this method as the primary treatment line. The rationale for this study was to evaluate the midterm results of this method in a prospective and consecutive case series. The primary study question was to determine the clinical results 24–36 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. Materials and methods: The study population included 55 patients, of whom 24 were female (43.6%. The mean age at the index procedure was 31.7 years (15–58 years. All patients received an ACL construction using a bone block-free quadriceps tendon graft fixed with resorbable cross-pins. The postoperative regimen included partial weight-bearing for 3 weeks and flexion limited to 90° for six weeks; an orthosis was not used. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months (24.3–38.5 months after the index procedure. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC subjective score and examination form was assessed, as well as the Lysholm and Gillquist score and the Tegner activity index. The Rolimeter arthrometer was used to assess the anterior laxity of the knee. Results: Graft harvesting was possible in all cases

  14. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  15. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  16. Experience in exercise evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickerton, George E [Office of Emergency Planning, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-09-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises.

  17. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  18. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  19. Experience in exercise evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1989-01-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises

  20. Eating and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery smoothie Turkey on whole-grain bread with vegetables Don't forget to drink fluids. You need adequate fluids before, during and after exercise to help prevent dehydration. To stay well-hydrated for exercise, the American ...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear loose-fitting clothing, and exercise in a temperature-controlled room. Do not exercise outside when it ... breathing. There are even prenatal yoga and Pilates classes designed for pregnant women. These classes often teach ...

  2. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  3. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  4. The Effects of Local Vibration on Balance, Power, and Self-Reported Pain After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Lisa; Peer, Kimberly S; Miller, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Muscle fatigue and acute muscle soreness occur after exercise. Application of a local vibration intervention may reduce the consequences of fatigue and soreness. To examine the effects of a local vibration intervention after a bout of exercise on balance, power, and self-reported pain. Single-blind crossover study. Laboratory. 19 healthy, moderately active subjects. After a 30-min bout of full-body exercise, subjects received either an active or a sham vibration intervention. The active vibration intervention was performed bilaterally over the muscle bellies of the triceps surae, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteals. At least 1 wk later, subjects repeated the bout, receiving the other vibration intervention. Static balance, dynamic balance, power, and self-reported pain were measured at baseline, after the vibration intervention, and 24 h postexercise. After the bout of exercise, subjects had reduced static and dynamic balance and increased self-reported pain regardless of vibration intervention. There were no differences between outcome measures between the active and sham vibration conditions. The local vibration intervention did not affect balance, power, or self-reported pain.

  5. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  6. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  7. Exercise and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Per

    2017-01-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been...... hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be “healthy” but may in fact be therapeutic....

  8. Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling...... instead of 3D calculations to predict the response of a structure and that it opens up for simpler evaluation of strengthened concrete structures using the finite element method....

  9. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  11. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  12. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  13. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  14. Exercise and Your Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  15. WOMEN AND EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.

  16. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  17. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  18. Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Ali Fadhil; Zonglin, Wang

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.

  19. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  20. Enhancing facial aesthetics with muscle retraining exercises-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-08-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. 'Smile' is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects.