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Sample records for qtls influence fitness

  1. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  2. The Future is The Past: Methylation QTLs in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Hoffmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have remarkably advanced insight into the genetic basis of schizophrenia (SCZ. Still, most of the functional variance in disease risk remains unexplained. Hence, there is a growing need to map genetic variability-to-genes-to-functions for understanding the pathophysiology of SCZ and the development of better treatments. Genetic variation can regulate various cellular functions including DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark with important roles in transcription and the mediation of environmental influences. Methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs are derived by mapping levels of DNA methylation in genetically different, genotyped individuals and define loci at which DNA methylation is influenced by genetic variation. Recent evidence points to an abundance of meQTLs in brain tissues whose functional contributions to development and mental diseases are still poorly understood. Interestingly, fetal meQTLs reside in regulatory domains affecting methylome reconfiguration during early brain development and are enriched in loci identified by GWAS for SCZ. Moreover, fetal meQTLs are preserved in the adult brain and could trace early epigenomic deregulation during vulnerable periods. Overall, these findings highlight the role of fetal meQTLs in the genetic risk for and in the possible neurodevelopmental origin of SCZ.

  3. The influence of age and aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Rabøl, R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Mitochondrial function has previously been studied in ageing, but never in humans matched for maximal oxygen uptake ((V)·O2max). Furthermore, the influence of ageing on mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is not known. METHODS: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochond...

  4. Whole-exome sequencing identifies common and rare variant metabolic QTLs in a Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousri, Noha A; Fakhro, Khalid A; Robay, Amal; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mohney, Robert P; Zeriri, Hassina; Odeh, Tala; Kader, Sara Abdul; Aldous, Eman K; Thareja, Gaurav; Kumar, Manish; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar M; Mohamoud, Yasmin A; Mezey, Jason G; Malek, Joel A; Crystal, Ronald G; Suhre, Karsten

    2018-01-23

    Metabolomics-genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) have uncovered many metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) influencing human metabolic individuality, though predominantly in European cohorts. By combining whole-exome sequencing with a high-resolution metabolomics profiling for a highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population, we discover 21 common variant and 12 functional rare variant mQTLs, of which 45% are novel altogether. We fine-map 10 common variant mQTLs to new metabolite ratio associations, and 11 common variant mQTLs to putative protein-altering variants. This is the first work to report common and rare variant mQTLs linked to diseases and/or pharmacological targets in a consanguineous Arab cohort, with wide implications for precision medicine in the Middle East.

  5. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  6. Online Influence and Sentiment of Fitness Tweets: Analysis of Two Million Fitness Tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickey, Theodore; Breslin, John G

    2017-10-31

    Publicly available fitness tweets may provide useful and in-depth insights into the real-time sentiment of a person's physical activity and provide motivation to others through online influence. The goal of this experimental approach using the fitness Twitter dataset is two-fold: (1) to determine if there is a correlation between the type of activity tweet (either workout or workout+, which contains the same information as a workout tweet but has additional user-generated information), gender, and one's online influence as measured by Klout Score and (2) to examine the sentiment of the activity-coded fitness tweets by looking at real-time shared thoughts via Twitter regarding their experiences with physical activity and the associated mobile fitness app. The fitness tweet dataset includes demographic and activity data points, including minutes of activity, Klout Score, classification of each fitness tweet, the first name of each fitness tweet user, and the tweet itself. Gender for each fitness tweet user was determined by a first name comparison with the US Social Security Administration database of first names and gender. Over 184 days, 2,856,534 tweets were collected in 23 different languages. However, for the purposes of this study, only the English-language tweets were analyzed from the activity tweets, resulting in a total of 583,252 tweets. After assigning gender to Twitter usernames based on the Social Security Administration database of first names, analysis of minutes of activity by both gender and Klout influence was determined. The mean Klout Score for those who shared their workout data from within four mobile apps was 20.50 (13.78 SD), less than the general Klout Score mean of 40, as was the Klout Score at the 95th percentile (40 vs 63). As Klout Score increased, there was a decrease in the number of overall workout+ tweets. With regards to sentiment, fitness-related tweets identified as workout+ reflected a positive sentiment toward physical activity

  7. Fitness landscapes among many options under social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiado, Camila C S; Brock, William A; Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2016-09-21

    Cultural learning represents a novel problem in that an optimal decision depends not only on intrinsic utility of the decision/behavior but also on transparency of costs and benefits, the degree of social versus individual learning, and the relative popularity of each possible choice in a population. In terms of a fitness-landscape function, this recursive relationship means that multiple equilibria can exist. Here we use discrete-choice theory to construct a fitness-landscape function for a bi-axial decision-making map that plots the magnitude of social influence in the learning process against the costs and payoffs of decisions. Specifically, we use econometric and statistical methods to estimate not only the fitness function but also movements along the map axes. To search for these equilibria, we employ a hill-climbing algorithm that leads to the expected values of optimal decisions, which we define as peaks on the fitness landscape. We illustrate how estimation of a measure of transparency, a measure of social influence, and the associated fitness landscape can be accomplished using panel data sets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common.

  9. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-10-20

    Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have

  10. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  11. Bipartite Community Structure of eQTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platig, John; Castaldi, Peter J; DeMeo, Dawn; Quackenbush, John

    2016-09-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses have identified genetic associations with a wide range of human phenotypes. However, many of these variants have weak effects and understanding their combined effect remains a challenge. One hypothesis is that multiple SNPs interact in complex networks to influence functional processes that ultimately lead to complex phenotypes, including disease states. Here we present CONDOR, a method that represents both cis- and trans-acting SNPs and the genes with which they are associated as a bipartite graph and then uses the modular structure of that graph to place SNPs into a functional context. In applying CONDOR to eQTLs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we found the global network "hub" SNPs were devoid of disease associations through GWAS. However, the network was organized into 52 communities of SNPs and genes, many of which were enriched for genes in specific functional classes. We identified local hubs within each community ("core SNPs") and these were enriched for GWAS SNPs for COPD and many other diseases. These results speak to our intuition: rather than single SNPs influencing single genes, we see groups of SNPs associated with the expression of families of functionally related genes and that disease SNPs are associated with the perturbation of those functions. These methods are not limited in their application to COPD and can be used in the analysis of a wide variety of disease processes and other phenotypic traits.

  12. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement.To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material.Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall.There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy.We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  13. Literacy for QTLS achieving the minimum core

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Literacy for QTLS is written specifically with the needs of all those training to teach or currently working in the lifelong learning sector in mind. This highly practical and easy-to-use text will help you identify your areas of strength and weakness, develop your knowledge and skills in order to pass the national literacy test and adopt strategies that you can use to support the language and literacy skills of your own learners.Packed with test-your-knowledge questions, examples and recommendations for best practice, this book, closely linked to the QTLS standards, is essential reading for a

  14. Influence of aerobic fitness on vasoreactivity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Preston L; Kelley, Edward T; McCoy, Stephanie M; Credeur, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and vasodilatory function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD); however, the relation between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., low flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC), and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) is unclear. To test the hypothesis that L-FMC and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) will be related to aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Twenty men (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited, and divided evenly into a higher (HF) vs. lower (LF) aerobic fitness group, quantified via YMCA cycle ergometry (VO 2 peak extrapolation), and a 3-min step test (1-min heart rate recovery). Duplex Doppler-ultrasound was used to assess brachial artery FMD and L-FMC. Estimated VO 2 peak (HF = 55 ± 10 vs. LF = 38 ± 5 mL/kg/min) and heart rate recovery (HF = 36 ± 10 vs. LF = 25 ± 8 beats) were greater in the HF group (P aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Longitudinal or interventional studies are warranted to support causality, and to distinguish whether L-FMC is more sensitive to changes in aerobic fitness than FMD.

  15. Scepticism and corporate social responsibility communications: the influence of fit and reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers tend to be sceptical about companies' corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications. We tested the influence of fit and reputation on consumer scepticism when confronted with a cause-related marketing (CRM) advertisement. In a 2 (fit vs. no fit) by 3 (bad reputation, unknown

  16. CSR and skepticism: the influence of fit and reputation on skepticism towards CSR communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Frandsen, F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Consumers tend to be skeptic sometimes towards CSR outlets or communication of companies. In this experiment we tested the influence of fit and reputation on consumer skepticism when confronted with a Cause Related Marketing advertisement. DESIGN In a two (Fit versus no Fit) by three (bad

  17. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  18. Soil physical properties influencing the fitting parameters in Philip and Kostiakov infiltration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Among the many models developed for monitoring the infiltration process those of Philip and Kostiakov have been studied in detail because of their simplicity and the ease of estimating their fitting parameters. The important soil physical factors influencing the fitting parameters in these infiltration models are reported in this study. The results of the study show that the single most important soil property affecting the fitting parameters in these models is the effective porosity. 36 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qifei; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Du, Binbin; Li, Chengdao; Sun, Dongfa

    2017-11-07

    Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages. A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%-77.78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits. Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Influence of Amyloid on Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Christian, Bradley T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD.

  1. Starting participation in an employee fitness program: attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-11-01

    This article presents a study of the determinants of starting participation in an employee fitness program. Information from 488 employees, recruited from two worksites, was obtained. From these employees the determinants of participation were studied. A questionnaire based on two theoretical models was used. The Stages of Change model was used to measure the health behavior, consisting of precontemplation (no intention to participate), contemplation (considering participation), preparation (intending to participate within a short period), and action (participating in fitness). The possible determinants were measured according to the ASE model, including the attitude toward an employee fitness program, social influence, and self-efficacy expectations. Subjects in action stage were most convinced of the benefits of participation in the employee fitness program and of their own skills to participate in a fitness program. Subjects in precontemplation stage were least convinced of the advantages of participation and had the lowest self-efficacy scores. Subjects in action stage experienced the most social support to participate in the employee fitness program. Health education for employees within industrial fitness programs can be tailored toward their motivational stage. Promotional activities for industrial fitness programs should concentrate on persons in the precontemplation and contemplation stages, since people in these stages are insufficiently convinced of the advantages of a fitness program and expect many problems with regard to their ability to participate in the program.

  2. Longitudinal influence of musculo-skeletal injuries and extra physical education on physical fitness in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if (A) injuries and (B) increased physical education (PE) influenced the development of physical fitness in schoolchildren. Simultaneously, to investigate if a possible PE effect was modified by sport participation outside school hours....... This was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. Six schools with 270 min of PE (extra PE) and four schools with 90 min of PE were followed up for 2.5 years. In total, 1054 children were included for analysis (normal PE = 443, extra PE = 611). Development in fitness was analyzed using composite z-scores from six...... fitness tests measured four times. Information of injury and sport was derived from weekly automated mobile phone text messages surveying the presence of musculo-skeletal pain and organized sport participation. Injury and extra PE both influenced the development of physical fitness. Injury decreased...

  3. Three dimensional fuzzy influence analysis of fitting algorithms on integrated chip topographic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhong Wei; Wang, Yi Jun; Ye, Bang Yan; Brauwer, Richard Kars

    2012-01-01

    In inspecting the detailed performance results of surface precision modeling in different external parameter conditions, the integrated chip surfaces should be evaluated and assessed during topographic spatial modeling processes. The application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable influence on topographic mathematical features. The influence mechanisms caused by different surface fitting algorithms on the integrated chip surface facilitate the quantitative analysis of different external parameter conditions. By extracting the coordinate information from the selected physical control points and using a set of precise spatial coordinate measuring apparatus, several typical surface fitting algorithms are used for constructing micro topographic models with the obtained point cloud. In computing for the newly proposed mathematical features on surface models, we construct the fuzzy evaluating data sequence and present a new three dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluating method. Through this method, the value variation tendencies of topographic features can be clearly quantified. The fuzzy influence discipline among different surface fitting algorithms, topography spatial features, and the external science parameter conditions can be analyzed quantitatively and in detail. In addition, quantitative analysis can provide final conclusions on the inherent influence mechanism and internal mathematical relation in the performance results of different surface fitting algorithms, topographic spatial features, and their scientific parameter conditions in the case of surface micro modeling. The performance inspection of surface precision modeling will be facilitated and optimized as a new research idea for micro-surface reconstruction that will be monitored in a modeling process

  4. Three dimensional fuzzy influence analysis of fitting algorithms on integrated chip topographic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhong Wei; Wang, Yi Jun [Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou (China); Ye, Bang Yan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Brauwer, Richard Kars [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2012-10-15

    In inspecting the detailed performance results of surface precision modeling in different external parameter conditions, the integrated chip surfaces should be evaluated and assessed during topographic spatial modeling processes. The application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable influence on topographic mathematical features. The influence mechanisms caused by different surface fitting algorithms on the integrated chip surface facilitate the quantitative analysis of different external parameter conditions. By extracting the coordinate information from the selected physical control points and using a set of precise spatial coordinate measuring apparatus, several typical surface fitting algorithms are used for constructing micro topographic models with the obtained point cloud. In computing for the newly proposed mathematical features on surface models, we construct the fuzzy evaluating data sequence and present a new three dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluating method. Through this method, the value variation tendencies of topographic features can be clearly quantified. The fuzzy influence discipline among different surface fitting algorithms, topography spatial features, and the external science parameter conditions can be analyzed quantitatively and in detail. In addition, quantitative analysis can provide final conclusions on the inherent influence mechanism and internal mathematical relation in the performance results of different surface fitting algorithms, topographic spatial features, and their scientific parameter conditions in the case of surface micro modeling. The performance inspection of surface precision modeling will be facilitated and optimized as a new research idea for micro-surface reconstruction that will be monitored in a modeling process.

  5. The Influence of Textile Materials Mechanical Properties upon Virtual Garment Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina ANCUTIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D virtual representation of garment provides high potential for design, product development and marketing processes, especially in mass customization strategies implementation. Clothing industry rapidly turns to virtual simulation which not only presents realistic 3D view of garment but also simulates mechanical behaviour of materials. 3D CAD systems can be used to define strain distribution in virtual garment which describes garment fit without actually producing the garment. Strain and distance ease between body and garment depends not only upon body measurements and garment construction, but also on mechanical and structural properties of selected material. The aim of this research was to investigate virtual garment fit using "Modaris 3D Fit" (Lectra software subjected to fabrics mechanical (tensile, bending, shear and structural (composition, thickness, area density properties investigating strain distribution in garment and distance ease between garment and human body. It was defined that for diagonal cut garments the highest influence upon garment fit has fabric tensile properties in weft direction. The highest influence is obtained at high distance ease and small strain values zones and at negative distance ease and high strain values zones. Therefore, presented method could be used for tight-fitted garments also for garments with draperies on purpose to investigate garment fit upon fabrics used.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.486

  6. Influence of Manual Labor at Work on Muscular Fitness and Its Relationship With Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eric D; Thompson, Brennan J; Sobolewski, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of workplace manual labor on measures of muscular fitness, with a secondary aim to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and work performance in blue-collar (BC) workers. Leg extension isokinetic strength at slow and fast velocities, hamstring and hip-flexor flexibility, and low back muscular endurance were examined in young and older BC workers and white-collar (WC) controls, while work performance was examined in the BC cohort. There were no differences in muscular fitness variables between BC and WC groups; however, the older men had lower low back muscular endurance (-43.0%) and strength at slow (-9.4%) and fast (-12.7%) velocities. Work performance was associated with strength at fast velocities (r = 0.633) in the older BC workers. Leg strength may influence work performance, with higher velocities becoming more important in older workers.

  7. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted

  8. Discovery of Consistent QTLs of Wheat Spike-Related Traits under Nitrogen Treatment at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-related traits such as spike length (Sl, fertile spikelet number (Fsn, sterile spikelet number (Ssn, grain number per spike (Gns, and thousand-kernel weight (Tkw are important factors influencing wheat yield. However, reliably stable markers that can be used for molecular breeding in different environments have not yet been identified. In this study, a double haploid (DH population was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of five spike-related traits under four different nitrogen (N supply dates in two locations and years. Seventy additive QTLs with phenotypic variation ranging from 4.12 to 34.74% and 10 major epistatic QTLs were identified. Eight important chromosomal regions on five chromosomes (1B, 2B, 2D, 5D, and 6A were found. Sixteen stable QTLs were detected for which N application had little effect. Among those stable QTLs, QSl.sdau-2D-1, and QSl.sdau-2D-2, with phenotypic variation explained (PVE of 10.4 and 24.2%, respectively, were flanked by markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 in the same order. The QTLs QSsn.sdau-2B-1, QFsn.sdau-2B-1, and QGns.sdau-2B, with PVE ranging from 4.37 to 28.43%, collocated in the Xwmc179-Xbarc373 marker interval. The consistent kernel wheat QTL (QTkw.sdau-6A on the long arm of chromosome 6A, flanked by SSR markers Xbarc1055 and Xwmc553, showed PVE of 5.87–15.18%. Among these stable QTLs, the two flanking markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 have been validated using different varieties and populations for selecting Sl. Therefore, these results will be of great value for marker-assisted selection (MAS in breeding programs and will accelerate the understanding of the genetic relationships among spike-related traits at the molecular level.

  9. Discovery of Consistent QTLs of Wheat Spike-Related Traits under Nitrogen Treatment at Different Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiying; Cui, Yong; Han, Qingdian; Fang, Wenqi; Li, Jifa; Tian, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Spike-related traits such as spike length (Sl), fertile spikelet number (Fsn), sterile spikelet number (Ssn), grain number per spike (Gns), and thousand-kernel weight (Tkw) are important factors influencing wheat yield. However, reliably stable markers that can be used for molecular breeding in different environments have not yet been identified. In this study, a double haploid (DH) population was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of five spike-related traits under four different nitrogen (N) supply dates in two locations and years. Seventy additive QTLs with phenotypic variation ranging from 4.12 to 34.74% and 10 major epistatic QTLs were identified. Eight important chromosomal regions on five chromosomes (1B, 2B, 2D, 5D, and 6A) were found. Sixteen stable QTLs were detected for which N application had little effect. Among those stable QTLs, QSl.sdau-2D-1 , and QSl.sdau-2D-2 , with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 10.4 and 24.2%, respectively, were flanked by markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 in the same order. The QTLs QSsn.sdau-2B-1, QFsn.sdau-2B-1 , and QGns.sdau-2B , with PVE ranging from 4.37 to 28.43%, collocated in the Xwmc179 - Xbarc373 marker interval. The consistent kernel wheat QTL ( QTkw.sdau-6A ) on the long arm of chromosome 6A, flanked by SSR markers Xbarc1055 and Xwmc553 , showed PVE of 5.87-15.18%. Among these stable QTLs, the two flanking markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 have been validated using different varieties and populations for selecting Sl. Therefore, these results will be of great value for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs and will accelerate the understanding of the genetic relationships among spike-related traits at the molecular level.

  10. Development of molecular map and identification of QTLs linked to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Five major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in both seasons for ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. ... QTL analysis was performed using QTL Cartographer ..... (DST), New Delhi, for the financial support (GrantPS-170/2010).

  11. Influence of Age and Aerobic Fitness on the Multifractal Characteristics of Electrocardiographic RR Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal properties of electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR time-series offer insight into its long-term correlation structure, independently of RR variability. Here we quantify multifractal characteristics of RR data during 24-hour diurnal-nocturnal activity in healthy participants. We tested the hypotheses that (1 age, gender and aerobic fitness influence RR multifractal properties, and that (2 these are influenced by circadian variation.Seventy adults (39 males aged 19-58 years and of various fitness levels were monitored using 24-hour ECG. Participants were dichotomised by median age and fitness for sub-group analysis. Gender and fitness were independent of age (p=0.1, p>0.5. Younger/older group ages were substantially different (p<0.0005 and were independent of gender and fitness. Multifractality was quantified using the probability spectrum of Hölder exponents (h, from which modal h (h* and the full-width and half-widths at half-maximum measures (FWHM, HWHM+ and HWHM- were derived. FWHM decreased (p=0.004 and h* increased (p=0.011 in older people, indicating diminished long-range RR correlations and weaker anti-persistent behavior. Anti-persistent correlation (h* was strongest in the youngest/fittest individuals and weakest in the oldest/least fit individuals (p=0.015. Long-range correlation (HWHM+/FWHM was strongest in the fittest males and weakest in the least fit females (p=0.007-0.033.Multifractal RR characteristics in our healthy participants showed strong age-dependence with diminished long-range anti-persistent correlation in older people. Circadian variation of these characteristics was influenced by fitness and gender: fitter males and females of all ages had the greatest degree of multifractality or long-range order. Multifractal characterisation appears to be a useful method for exploring the physiological basis of long-term correlation structure in RR time-series as well as the benefits thereon of physical fitness training.

  12. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González-Browne

    Full Text Available Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas.

  13. Gender and race influence metabolic benefits of fitness in children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Vanessa A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing obesity and poor cardiovascular fitness (CVF contribute to higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. While the relative contributions of fitness and body fat on development of insulin resistance (IR in children and adolescents remains unresolved, gender- and race-specific differences likely exist in the degree to which CVF influences IR and risk for T2DM. Better understanding of how gender and race affect interactions between body fat, CVF, and metabolic health would be helpful in designing effective and targeted strategies to reduce obesity-associated disease risk. We evaluated whether metabolic benefits of fitness on reducing inflammation and insulin resistance (IR are affected by gender and race. Methods This cross-sectional study included 203 healthy children (mean age 12.2 y, 50% male, 46% non-Hispanic white (NHW, 54% racially diverse (RD. Fasting insulin, glucose, hsCRP, and adiponectin were measured; race was self-reported; cardiovascular fitness (CVF was evaluated by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. Associations between inflammation and gender, race, and CVF were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Multivariate regression analysis identified independent predictors of IR. Results Fitness and inflammation were inversely related in both males and females (p Conclusions In middle school children, the beneficial effects of fitness vary based on gender and race. High CVF has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect in male and RD children. While BMI is the strongest predictor of IR in the study group as a whole, fitness is a significant predictor of IR only in males, and race is a significant predictor of IR only in females.

  14. Fretting wear simulation of press-fitted shaft with finite element analysis and influence function method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyong; Kwon, Seok Jin [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper the fretting wear of press-fitted specimens subjected to a cyclic bending load was simulated using finite element analysis and numerical method. The amount of microslip and contact variable at press-fitted and bending load condition in a press-fitted shaft was analysed by applying finite element method. With the finite element analysis result, a numerical approach was applied to predict fretting wear based on modified Archard's equation and updating the change of contact pressure caused by local wear with influence function method. The predicted wear profiles of press-fitted specimens at the contact edge wear compared with the experimental results obtained by rotating bending fatigue tests. It is shown that the depth of fretting wear by repeated slip between shaft and boss reaches the maximum value at the contact edge. The initial surface profile is continuously changed by the wear at the contact edge, and then the corresponding contact variables are redistributed. The work establishes a basis for numerical simulation of fretting wear on press fits.

  15. Fretting wear simulation of press-fitted shaft with finite element analysis and influence function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyong; Kwon, Seok Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the fretting wear of press-fitted specimens subjected to a cyclic bending load was simulated using finite element analysis and numerical method. The amount of microslip and contact variable at press-fitted and bending load condition in a press-fitted shaft was analysed by applying finite element method. With the finite element analysis result, a numerical approach was applied to predict fretting wear based on modified Archard's equation and updating the change of contact pressure caused by local wear with influence function method. The predicted wear profiles of press-fitted specimens at the contact edge wear compared with the experimental results obtained by rotating bending fatigue tests. It is shown that the depth of fretting wear by repeated slip between shaft and boss reaches the maximum value at the contact edge. The initial surface profile is continuously changed by the wear at the contact edge, and then the corresponding contact variables are redistributed. The work establishes a basis for numerical simulation of fretting wear on press fits

  16. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  17. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  18. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking metabolic QTLs with network and cis-eQTLs controlling biosynthetic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wentzell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation between individuals of a species is often under quantitative genetic control. Genomic analysis of gene expression polymorphisms between individuals is rapidly gaining popularity as a way to query the underlying mechanistic causes of variation between individuals. However, there is little direct evidence of a linkage between global gene expression polymorphisms and phenotypic consequences. In this report, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs-controlling glucosinolate content in a population of 403 Arabidopsis Bay x Sha recombinant inbred lines, 211 of which were previously used to identify expression QTLs controlling the transcript levels of biosynthetic genes. In a comparative study, we have directly tested two plant biosynthetic pathways for association between polymorphisms controlling biosynthetic gene transcripts and the resulting metabolites within the Arabidopsis Bay x Sha recombinant inbred line population. In this analysis, all loci controlling expression variation also affected the accumulation of the resulting metabolites. In addition, epistasis was detected more frequently for metabolic traits compared to transcript traits, even when both traits showed similar distributions. An analysis of candidate genes for QTL-controlling networks of transcripts and metabolites suggested that the controlling factors are a mix of enzymes and regulatory factors. This analysis showed that regulatory connections can feedback from metabolism to transcripts. Surprisingly, the most likely major regulator of both transcript level for nearly the entire pathway and aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation is variation in the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway, AOP2. This suggests that natural variation in transcripts may significantly impact phenotypic variation, but that natural variation in metabolites or their enzymatic loci can feed back to affect the transcripts.

  20. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

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    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  1. Sesquiterpene lactone stereochemistry influences herbivore resistance and plant fitness in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jeffrey R; Whitney, Kenneth D

    2014-03-01

    Stereochemical variation is widely known to influence the bioactivity of compounds in the context of pharmacology and pesticide science, but our understanding of its importance in mediating plant-herbivore interactions is limited, particularly in field settings. Similarly, sesquiterpene lactones are a broadly distributed class of putative defensive compounds, but little is known about their activities in the field. Natural variation in sesquiterpene lactones of the common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), was used in conjunction with a series of common garden experiments to examine relationships between stereochemical variation, herbivore damage and plant fitness. The stereochemistry of sesquiterpene lactone ring junctions helped to explain variation in plant herbivore resistance. Plants producing cis-fused sesquiterpene lactones experienced significantly higher damage than plants producing trans-fused sesquiterpene lactones. Experiments manipulating herbivore damage above and below ambient levels found that herbivore damage was negatively correlated with plant fitness. This pattern translated into significant fitness differences between chemotypes under ambient levels of herbivore attack, but not when attack was experimentally reduced via pesticide. To our knowledge, this work represents only the second study to examine sesquiterpene lactones as defensive compounds in the field, the first to document herbivore-mediated natural selection on sesquiterpene lactone variation and the first to investigate the ecological significance of the stereochemistry of the lactone ring junction. The results indicate that subtle differences in stereochemistry may be a major determinant of the protective role of secondary metabolites and thus of plant fitness. As stereochemical variation is widespread in many groups of secondary metabolites, these findings suggest the possibility of dynamic evolutionary histories within the Asteraceae and other plant families showing

  2. Three QTLs for Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Berloo, van R.; Have, ten A.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus was identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as S. habrochaites LYC4. In order to identify loci involved in quantitative resistance (QTLs) to B. cinerea, a population of

  3. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers associated with QTLs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Parents and. F3 families had significant differences in studied traits (p ≤. 0.01). In this study, SSR and RAPD markers were used together for constructing linkage groups and rescanning the genome of rapeseed to identify QTLs controlling winter survival and related traits. For this, the parental polymorphism ...

  4. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... This paper reports on the development of a genetic ... RILs along with the two parental lines were evaluated in the screen- .... A genetic linkage map of cowpea showing the QTLs (in green) that is associated with the resistance.

  5. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers associated with QTLs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of importance of winter survival in winter type of Brassica napus, this study was performed to identify the QTLs controlling winter survival and related traits using SSR and RAPD markers. For this, an F2:3 population of 200 families derived from crossing between cv. 'SLMO46' (winter type and cold resistant) and cv.

  6. Pre-Participation Physical Fitness does not Influence Adherence to a Supervised Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Akio Nishijuka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation tends to reduce mortality. However, it requires medium/long-term adherence to regular physical exercise. It is relevant to identify the variables that affect adherence to an supervised exercise program (SEP. Objective: To evaluate the influence of pre-participation levels of aerobic and non-aerobic physical fitness components in medium-term adherence to SEP. Methods: A total of 567 SEP participants (65 ± 12 years (68% men were studied. Participants adherent to the program for less than 6 months (48% (non-adherent - NAD were compared with 52% of participants who were adherent for 6 months or more (adherents - AD. In the non-aerobic fitness, flexibility (FLX (Flexitest and muscle power (MPW/body weight in standing rowing (watts/kg were evaluated while aerobic fitness was obtained by direct measure of VO2max/body weight (VO2. These measurements were normatized for sex and age based on percentiles (P (P-FLX/P-MPW of reference data or percentages of predicted (P-VO2. Additionally, AD and NAD with extreme results (tertiles were simultaneously compared for the three variables. Results: There was no difference between AD and NAD for non-aerobic results, in median [P25-P75], P-FLX: 30 [13-56] and 31 [9-52], respectively, (p = 0.69 and P-MPW: 34 [17-58] and 36 [16-62], respectively (p = 0.96, and for aerobic results (mean ± standard error P-VO2 (75.9 ± 1.3% and 75.0 ± 1.3%, respectively (p = 0.83. When comparing extreme tertiles, a difference was found for P-MPW in the lower tertile only, with a slight advantage of AD over NAD- 9 [5-16] versus 4 [1-11] (p = 0.04. Conclusion: Although awareness of the pre-participation levels of aerobic and non-aerobic physical fitness components is useful for individualized exercise prescription, these variables do not seem to influence medium-term adherence to SEP.

  7. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Gibberella ear rot, in corn, caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Liakat; Taylor, Jeff H; Jie, Liu; Sun, Genlou; William, Manilal; Kasha, Ken J; Reid, Lana M; Pauls, K Peter

    2005-06-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of corn (Zea mays) grown in northern climates. Infected corn is lower yielding and contains toxins that are dangerous to livestock and humans. Resistance to ear rot in corn is quantitative, specific to the mode of fungal entry (silk channels or kernel wounds), and highly influenced by the environment. Evaluations of ear rot resistance are complex and subjective; and they need to be repeated over several years. All of these factors have hampered attempts to develop F. graminearum resistant corn varieties. The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the genes for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. A recombinant inbred (RI) population, produced from a cross between a Gibberella ear rot resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62), was field-inoculated and scored for Gibberella ear rot symptoms in the F4, F6, and F7 generations. The distributions of disease scores were continuous, indicating that resistance is probably conditioned by multiple loci. A molecular linkage map, based on segregation in the F5 RI population, contained 162 markers distributed over 10 linkage groups and had a total length of 2237 cM with an average distance between markers of 13.8 cM. Composite interval mapping identified 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Gibberella ear rot resistance following silk inoculation and 18 QTLs following kernel inoculation in 4 environments that accounted for 6.7%-35% of the total phenotypic variation. Only 2 QTLs (on linkage group 7) were detected in more than 1 test for silk resistance, and only 1 QTL (on linkage group 5) was detected in more than 1 test for kernel resistance, confirming the strong influence of the environment on these traits. The majority of the favorable alleles were derived from the resistant parent (CO387). The germplasm and markers for QTLs with significant phenotypic effects may be useful for marker-assisted selection

  8. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  9. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  10. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding.

  11. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA. The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions.

  12. Influence of laser-welding and electroerosion on passive fit of implant-supported prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiana Bernardon; De Arruda Nobilo, Mauro Antonio; Pessanha Henriques, Guilherme Elias; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Guimaraes, Magali Beck

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of laser welding and electroerosion procedure on the passive fit of interim fixed implant-supported titanium frameworks. Twenty frameworks were made from a master model, with five parallel placed implants in the inter foramen region, and cast in commercially pure titanium. The frameworks were divided into 4 groups: 10 samples were tested before (G1) and after (G2) electroerosion application; and another 10 were sectioned into five pieces and laser welded before (G3) and after (G4) electroerosion application. The passive fit between the UCLA abutment of the framework and the implant was evaluated using an optical microscope Olympus STM (Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) with 0.0005mm of accuracy. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between G1 and G2, G1 and G3, G1 and G4, G2 and G4. However, no statistical difference was observed when comparing G2 and G3. These results indicate that frameworks may show a more precise adaptation if they are sectioned and laser welded. In the same way, electroerosion improves the precision in the framework adaptation.

  13. The influence of motivation on stress: is it stressful not to fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present research elaborates on the regulatory fit hypothesis by investigating a biological stress marker in a motivational fit- and non-fit-situation. Recent stress theories lead to the assumption that the participants' stress level in fit-situations remains constant or rather decreases, whereas under non-fit-conditions an increase of the stress activity is observed. We tested this hypothesis by assessment of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a saliva-based stress marker presumed to reflect noradrenergic activity. The results indicated that participants in a fit-situation show a decrease in sAA, whereas participants in a non-fit-situation demonstrate a contrary effect with an increase in sAA. These findings extend the concept of regulatory fit by illustrating that there are differences in sAA activity depending on whether participants are in a fit-situation. The experience of regulatory fit appears to be associated with a reduction of stress.

  14. Influence of different tightening forces before laser welding to the implant/framework fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira-Júnior, Clebio Domingues; Neves, Flávio Domingues; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Prado, Célio Jesus; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo César

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of abutment screw tightening force before laser welding procedures on the vertical fit of metal frameworks over four implants. To construct the frameworks, prefabricated titanium abutments and cylindrical titanium bars were joined by laser welding to compose three groups: group of manual torque (GMT), GT10 and GT20. Before welding, manual torque simulating routine laboratory procedure was applied to GTM. In GT10 and GT20, the abutment screws received 10 and 20 Ncm torque, respectively. After welding, the implant/framework interfaces were assessed by optical comparator microscope using two methods. First, the single screw test (SST) was used, in which the interfaces of the screwed and non-screwed abutments were assessed, considering only the abutments at the framework extremities. Second, the interfaces of all the abutments were evaluated when they were screwed. In the SST, intergroup analysis (Kruskal Wallis) showed no significant difference among the three conditions of tightening force; that is, the different tightening force before welding did not guarantee smaller distortions. Intragroup analysis (Wilcoxon) showed that for all groups, the interfaces of the non-screwed abutments were statistically greater than the interfaces of the screwed abutments, evidencing distortions in all the frameworks. ANOVA was applied for the comparison of interfaces when all the abutments were screwed and showed no significant difference among the groups. Under the conditions of this study, pre-welding tightness on abutment screws did not influence the vertical fit of implant-supported metal frameworks.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness alters the influence of a polygenic risk score on biomarkers of AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Darst, Burcu F; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Hogan, Kirk J; Hermann, Bruce P; Cook, Dane B; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2017-04-25

    To examine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from APOE4, CLU, and ABCA7 is associated with CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modifies the association between the PRS and CSF biomarkers. Ninety-five individuals from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention were included in these cross-sectional analyses. They were genotyped for APOE4 , CLU , and ABCA7 , from which a PRS was calculated for each participant. The participants underwent lumbar puncture for CSF collection. β-Amyloid 42 (Aβ 42 ), Aβ 40 , total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were quantified by immunoassays, and Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 and tau/Aβ 42 ratios were computed. CRF was estimated from a validated equation incorporating sex, age, body mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test for associations between the PRS and CSF biomarkers. In addition, by including a PRS×CRF term in the models, we examined whether these associations were modified by CRF. A higher PRS was associated with lower Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ( p interactions for Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ( p = 0.003), t-tau/Aβ 42 ( p = 0.003), and p-tau/Aβ 42 ( p = 0.001). Specifically, the association between the PRS and these CSF biomarkers was diminished in those with higher CRF. In a late-middle-aged cohort, CRF attenuates the adverse influence of genetic vulnerability on CSF biomarkers. These findings support the notion that increased cardiorespiratory fitness may be beneficial to those at increased genetic risk for AD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  17. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  18. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p manufacture of four-unit FDPs.

  19. The influence of end of day silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens fit on ocular comfort, physiology and lens wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James; Hall, Lee; Mroczkowska, Stephanie; Hunt, Olivia A; Bilkhu, Paramdeep; Drew, Tom; Sheppard, Amy

    2015-10-01

    To quantify the end-of-day silicone-hydrogel daily disposable contact lens fit and its influence of on ocular comfort, physiology and lens wettability. Thirty-nine subjects (22.1±3.5 years) were randomised to wear each of 3 silicone-hydrogel daily-disposable contact lenses (narafilcon A, delefilcon A and filcon II 3), bilaterally, for one week. Lens fit was assessed objectively using a digital video slit-lamp at 8, 12 and 16h after lens insertion. Hyperaemia, non-invasive tear break-up time, tear meniscus height and comfort were also evaluated at these timepoints, while corneal and conjunctival staining were assessed on lens removal. Lens fit assessments were not different between brands (P>0.05), with the exception of the movement at blink where narafilcon A was more mobile. Overall, lag reduced but push-up speed increased from 8 to 12h (P0.05). Movement-on-blink was unaffected by wear-time (F=0.403, P=0.670). A more mobile lens fit with one brand did not indicate that person would have a more mobile fit with another brand (r=-0.06 to 0.63). Lens fit was not correlated with comfort, ocular physiology or lens wettability (P>0.01). Among the lenses tested, objective lens fit changed between 8h and 12h of lens wear. The weak correlation in individual lens fit between brands indicates that fit is dependent on more than ocular shape. Consequently, substitution of a different lens brand with similar parameters will not necessarily provide comparable lens fit. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of information technologies on technical fitness of students in sport-oriented physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine influence of information technologies in sport-oriented physical education on technical fitness of students, practicing football indoors. Material: in the researches students (boys - n=40 of 18-20 years’ age participated. Standard tests on physical condition were used. For determination of motor skills and abilities we used: juggling with ball; kick in pre-set sector of goal; shuttle run 4 x 10 meters with dribbling; kick for distance. Results: structural model of sport-oriented students’ physical education with application of information technologies has been formed. In the model all students are trained in sport-oriented academic groups by chosen kinds of sports (motor functioning. Such approach envisages holistic form of program material construction and unified algorithm of students’ progress assessment. Conclusions: the wholeness of sport-oriented physical education’s functioning is ensured at the account of application of information technologies. It permits to optimize motor skills’ training process. In this case single form of building of program material is created.

  1. Mapping of QTLs for Germination Characteristics under Non-stress and Drought Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra MARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic factors controlling traits associated with seed germination under drought stress conditions, leads to identification and development of drought tolerant varieties. Present study by using a population of F2:4 derived from a cross between a drought tolerant variety, Gharib (indica and a drought sensitive variety, Sepidroud (indica, is to identify and compare QTLs associated with germination traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Through QTL analysis, using composite interval mapping, regarding traits such as germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, radicle length (RL, plumule length (PL, coleorhiza length (COL and coleoptile length (CL, totally 13 QTLs were detected under pole drought stress (−8 MPa poly ethylene glycol 6000 and 9 QTLs under non-stress conditions. Of the QTLs identified under non-stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-5 and GR (qGR-1 explained 21.28% and 19.73% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. Under drought stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-3 and PL (qPL-5 explained 18.34% and 18.22% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. A few drought-tolerance-related QTLs identified in previous studies are near the QTLs detected in this study, and several QTLs in this study are novel alleles. The major QTLs like qGR-1, qGP-4, qRL-12 and qCL-4 identified in both conditions for traits GR, GP, RL and CL, respectively, should be considered as the important and stable trait-controlling QTLs in rice seed germination. Those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve drought tolerance by marker-assisted selection in rice.

  2. How Transformational Leadership Influences Work Engagement Among Nurses: Does Person-Job Fit Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Ugwu, Leonard I; Eze, Onyinyechi A

    2018-03-01

    The current study examines whether person-job fit moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement. Data were collected using cross-sectional design from 224 (15 male and 209 female) hospital nurses. Participants completed measures of transformational leadership, person-job fit, and work engagement. Moderated multiple regression results showed that transformational leadership had a significant positive predictive relationship with work engagement, and person-job fit had a significant positive predictive relationship with work engagement. Simple slope analysis showed that person-job fit moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement such that transformational leadership was more positively related to work engagement for nurses with high person-job fit compared with those with low person-job fit. Thus, all the hypotheses were confirmed. The findings were discussed, and suggestions for future research were offered.

  3. Influence of fitness and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity to musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, David; Taylor, Adrian; Backx, Karianne; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relationships between physical activity and fitness and reactivity to a musical performance stressor (MPS). Numerous studies suggest that being fitter and more physically active has a beneficial effect on individuals' cardiovascular responses to laboratory-based mental challenges. The results are equivocal regarding the transfer of such benefits to real world contexts such as musical performance. Forty six advanced music students completed this assessment. All participants completed a 20-min pre-performance assessment of heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Participants also completed baseline measures and a sub-maximal fitness assessment on a separate day. A positive association between fitness and HR pre-MPS was found. Fitness was also positively associated with root mean square SD RR(interval) before the MPS. Higher fitness was related to lower state anxiety post-MPS. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to classical musicians' day-to-day work and performance.

  4. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  5. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of Manufacturing Methods of Implant-Supported Crowns on External and Internal Marginal Fit: A Micro-CT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Izabela C M; Monteiro, Silas Borges; Martins, Raíssa; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Gomes, Erica A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of different manufacturing methods of single implant-supported metallic crowns on the internal and external marginal fit through computed microtomography. Forty external hexagon implants were divided into 4 groups ( n = 8), according to the manufacturing method: GC, conventional casting; GI, induction casting; GP, plasma casting; and GCAD, CAD/CAM machining. The crowns were attached to the implants with insertion torque of 30 N·cm. The external (vertical and horizontal) marginal fit and internal fit were assessed through computed microtomography. Internal and external marginal fit data ( μ m) were submitted to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( α = .05). Qualitative evaluation of the images was conducted by using micro-CT. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the groups for vertical misfit ( P = 0.721). There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) for the internal and horizontal marginal misfit in the groups GC, GI, and GP, but it was found for the group GCAD ( P ≤ 0.05). Qualitative analysis revealed that most of the samples of cast groups exhibited crowns underextension while the group GCAD showed overextension. The manufacturing method of the crowns influenced the accuracy of marginal fit between the prosthesis and implant. The best results were found for the crowns fabricated through CAD/CAM machining.

  7. Influence of Manufacturing Methods of Implant-Supported Crowns on External and Internal Marginal Fit: A Micro-CT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela C. M. Moris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of different manufacturing methods of single implant-supported metallic crowns on the internal and external marginal fit through computed microtomography. Methods. Forty external hexagon implants were divided into 4 groups (n=8, according to the manufacturing method: GC, conventional casting; GI, induction casting; GP, plasma casting; and GCAD, CAD/CAM machining. The crowns were attached to the implants with insertion torque of 30 N·cm. The external (vertical and horizontal marginal fit and internal fit were assessed through computed microtomography. Internal and external marginal fit data (μm were submitted to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=.05. Qualitative evaluation of the images was conducted by using micro-CT. Results. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the groups for vertical misfit (P=0.721. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for the internal and horizontal marginal misfit in the groups GC, GI, and GP, but it was found for the group GCAD (P≤0.05. Qualitative analysis revealed that most of the samples of cast groups exhibited crowns underextension while the group GCAD showed overextension. Conclusions. The manufacturing method of the crowns influenced the accuracy of marginal fit between the prosthesis and implant. The best results were found for the crowns fabricated through CAD/CAM machining.

  8. QTLs for heading date and plant height under multiple environments in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmin; Hu, Wei; Tan, Cong; Xing, Yongzhong

    2017-02-01

    Both heading date and plant height are important traits related to grain yield in rice. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both traits under 3 long-day (LD) environments and 1 short-day (SD) environment. A total of eight QTLs for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were detected by composite interval mapping under LD conditions. Additional one QTL for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were identified by Two-QTL model under LD conditions. Among them, major QTLs qHd7.1, qHd7.2 and qHd8 for heading date, and qPh1 and qPh7.1 for plant height were commonly detected. qHd7.1 and qHd7.2 were mapped to small regions of less than 1 cM. Genome position comparison of previously cloned genes with QTLs detected in this study revealed that qHd5 and qPh3.1 were two novel QTLs. The alleles of these QTLs increasing trait values were dispersed in both parents, which well explained the transgressive segregation observed in this population. In addition, the interaction between qHd7.1 and qHd8 was detected under all LD conditions. Multiple-QTL model analysis revealed that all QTLs and their interactions explained over 80% of heading date variation and 50% of plant height variation. Two heading date QTLs were detected under SD condition. Of them, qHd10 were commonly identified under LD condition. The difference in QTL detection between LD and SD conditions indicated most heading date QTLs are sensitive to photoperiod. These findings will benefit breeding design for heading date and plant height in rice.

  9. Influence of fitness and age on the endothelial response to acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2018-04-16

    What is the central question of the study? The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age and fitness on the vascular response to acute inflammation in younger and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? In older adults, cardiorespiratory fitness level has a differential impact on endothelial function following acute inflammation: older moderately fit adults have a greater decrease in endothelial function, similar to that of younger adults. These findings have important implications of further supporting the beneficial effects of higher cardiorespiratory fitness in maintaining vascular reactivity and the ability to respond to stressors. Inflammation is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular events and reduced vascular function with aging. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and better vascular function. We evaluated the role of fitness in the vascular response to acute inflammation in 26 younger (YA) and 62 older (OA) adults. We used an influenza vaccine to induce acute inflammation. Blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), augmentation index (AIx@75), carotid elastic modulus (Ep) and inflammatory markers were measured before and 24-hours after vaccination. VO 2 peak was measured via a treadmill test. Fit was defined as a VO 2 peak greater than the age- and sex-determined 50 th percentile according to the American College of Sports Medicine. An interaction effect existed for the FMD response during acute inflammation (p fit: 11.5 ± 1.8 to 9.2 ± 1.3%; moderately fit: 11.9 ± 0.8 to 9.0 ± 0.8%) and moderately fit OA (7.5 ± 1.0 to 3.9 ± 0.8%) had similar reductions in FMD at 24h (p fit OA did not reduce FMD at 24h (5.5 ± 0.4 to 5.2 ± 0.5%, p > 0.05). The reduction in FMD in YA was similar between fitness groups (p > 0.05). All groups had similar reductions in mean arterial pressure and increases in inflammatory markers. AIx@75 and Ep did not

  10. The Influences on Teaching Perspectives of Australian Physical Education Teacher Education Students: The First-Year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Pill, Shane

    2016-01-01

    There has been a paucity of literature investigating the teaching beliefs and intentions of Australian physical education teacher education (PETE) students that enter teacher training. The First-year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) study explores the teaching perspectives of first year PETE students; including teaching…

  11. Isolate dependency of Brassica rapa resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the B. rapa R500 x IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive glucosinolates are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  12. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  13. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  14. Sperm influences female hibernation success, survival and fitness in the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    . Using the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, we artificially inseminated queens (females) with sperm from one or several males and show that sire groups (groups of brother males) vary in their effects on queen hibernation survival, longevity and fitness. In addition, multiply inseminated queens always had...

  15. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  16. Influence of Different CAM Strategies on the Fit of Partial Crown Restorations: A Digital Three-dimensional Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M; Valcanaia, A; Neiva, G; Mehl, A; Fasbinder, D

    2018-04-09

    CAM fabrication is an important step within the CAD/CAM process. The internal fit of restorations is influenced by the accuracy of the subtractive CAM procedure. Little is known about how CAM strategies might influence the fit of CAD/CAM fabricated restorations. The aim of this study was to three-dimensionally evaluate the fit of CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic partial crowns fabricated with three different CAM strategies. The null hypothesis was that different CAM strategies did not influence the fitting accuracy of CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic partial crowns. Preparation for a partial crown was performed on a maxillary right first molar on a typodont. A chairside CAD/CAM system with the intraoral scanning device CEREC Omnicam (Dentsply Sirona, York, PA, USA) and the 3+1 axis milling unit CEREC MCXL was used. There were three groups with different CAM strategies: step bur 12 (12), step bur 12S (12S), and two step-mode (12TWO). The zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic Celtra Duo (Dentsply Sirona) was used as the CAD/CAM material. A new 3D method for evaluating the fit was applied, consisting of the quadrant scan with the intraoral scanning device CEREC Omnicam. The scan of the PVS material adherent to the preparation and the preparation scan were matched, and the difference analysis was performed with special software OraCheck (Cyfex AG, Zurich, Switzerland). Three areas were selected for analysis: margin (MA), axial (AX), and occlusal (OC). Statistical analysis was performed using 80% percentile, one-way ANOVA, and the post hoc Scheffé test with α=0.05. Statistically significant differences were found both within and between the test groups. The aspect axial fit results varied from 90.5 ± 20.1 μm for the two-step milling mode (12TWO_AX) to 122.8 ± 12.2 μm for the milling with step bur 12S (12S_AX). The worst result in all groups was found for the aspect occlusal fit with the highest

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE ENHANCED PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE PHYSICAL FITNESS OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak, Gregor; Strel, Janko; Leskošek, Bojan; Kovač, Marjeta

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed as a cluster-randomised quasi-experiment to assess the effect of the implementation of school-based kinesiological intervention, through which some schools in Slovenia offer an enhanced physical education curriculum, on children's physical fitness in the first four years of schooling. A total of 328 children from nine Slovenian primary schools were assigned to kinesiological intervention (n=157) and control groups (n=171). Data from the SLOFIT database was used to comp...

  18. Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2010-02-01

    Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of QTLs for Arsenic Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a RIL Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Song, Guiliang; Qi, Hongyuan; Liu, Jingbao; Tang, Jihua

    2011-01-01

    The Arsenic (As) concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels. PMID:22028786

  20. Identification of QTLs for arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. using a RIL population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    Full Text Available The Arsenic (As concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels.

  1. Fitness drivers in the threatened Dianthus guliae Janka (Caryophyllaceae): disentangling effects of growth context, maternal influence and inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, D; Gullo, T; Bernardo, L

    2011-01-01

    We studied inbreeding depression, growth context and maternal influence as constraints to fitness in the self-compatible, protandrous Dianthus guliae Janka, a threatened Italian endemic. We performed hand-pollinations to verify outcomes of self- and cross-fertilisation over two generations, and grew inbred and outbred D. guliae offspring under different conditions - in pots, a common garden and field conditions (with/without nutrient addition). The environment influenced juvenile growth and flowering likelihood/rate, but had little effect on inbreeding depression. Significant interactions among genetic and environmental factors influenced female fertility. Overall, genetic factors strongly affected both early (seed mass, seed germination, early survival) and late (seed/ovule ratio) life-history traits. After the first pollination experiment, we detected higher mortality in the selfed progeny, which is possibly a consequence of inbreeding depression caused by over-expression of early-acting deleterious alleles. The second pollination induced a strong loss of reproductive fitness (seed production, seed mass) in inbred D. guliae offspring, regardless of the pollination treatment (selfing/crossing); hence, a strong (genetic) maternal influence constrained early life-history traits of the second generation. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that self-compatibility does not prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding in D. guliae populations, and may increase the severe extinction risk if out-crossing rates decrease. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  3. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  4. The Influence of Different Recycling Scenarios on the Mechanical Design of an LED Weatherproof Light Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Camañes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the high relevance of material selection for the sustainable development of an LED weatherproof light fitting. The research reveals how this choice modifies current and future end of life scenarios and can reduce the overall environmental impact. This life cycle assessment has been carried out with Ecotool, a software program especially developed for designers to assess the environmental performance of their designs at the same time that they are working on them. Results show that special attention can be put on the recycling and reusing of the product from the initial stages of development.

  5. For Fit's Sake: A Norms-Based Approach to Healthy Behaviors Through Influence of Presumed Media Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Lee, Edmund W J; Ng, Kaijie; Leong, Grace S H; Tham, Tiffany H M

    2016-09-01

    Based on the influence of presumed media influence (IPMI) model as the theoretical framework, this study examines how injunctive norms and personal norms mediate the influence of healthy lifestyle media messages on public intentions to engage in two types of healthy lifestyle behaviors-physical activity and healthy diet. Nationally representative data collected from 1,055 adults in Singapore demonstrate partial support for the key hypotheses that make up the extended IPMI model, highlighting the importance of a norms-based approach in health communication. Our results indicate that perceived media influence on others indirectly shaped public intentions to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors through personal norms and attitude, providing partial theoretical support for the extended IPMI model. Practical implications for health communicators in designing health campaigns media messages to motivate the public to engage in healthy lifestyle are discussed.

  6. The implementation of Football Fitness is highly influenced by interorganizational implementation behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    . As the voluntary based sport is heavily state funded, the non-governmental sports organizations representing the voluntary sports clubs e.g. in a political manner, feel they have to position the role of sport to legitimize their existence. In this quest the connection of sport and health plays a huge role. The way......The voluntary based sports system is challenged by societal changes. Firstly the latest years have shown a transformation in the sport activity pattern, whereas still more are involved with sport in a self-organized or commercial form and secondly the state’s overall financial ability is reduced...... in which the role of sports for enhancing health has progressed from a passive and symbolic approach to one that is more explicit, ambitious and organized, is fairly new. In Denmark the Football Association has launched a concept called Football Fitness, which is a football based concept for health...

  7. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

  8. Influence of polyurethane resin dies on the fit and adaptation of full veneer crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Graeme R R; Vohra, Fahim

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane resin is a possible alternative to type IV dental stone for fabrication of indirect restorations however its dimensional accuracy is questionable. The aim was to investigate the dimensional accuracy of silica filled polyurethane resin die material by evaluating the marginal fit and adaptation of indirect gold castings. Experimental, in vitro study. Totally 40 copper plated replicas of a nickel chrome master die analogous to a veneer gold crown preparation were made and impressions recorded using polyvinylsiloxane material. Twenty impressions were poured in type IV dental stone (control group (Vel-mix, Kerr, UK) and the remaining (n = 20) in silica filled polyurethane die material (test group) (Alpha Die MF, CA, USA). Gold castings were fabricated for each die using standardized techniques. The castings were seated on their respective copper plated dies, embedded in resin and sectioned. The specimens were analyzed by measuring marginal opening and the area beneath the casting at a ×63 magnification and using image analysis software. Data were analyzed using a Student's t-test. No significant difference was observed between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). The mean marginal opening for type IV, dental stone and polyurethane resin, was 57 ± 22.6 μm and 63.47 ± 27.1 μm, respectively. Stone displayed a smaller area beneath the casting (31581 ± 16297 μm 2 ) as compared to polyurethane resin (35003 ± 23039 μm 2 ). The fit and adaptation of indirect gold castings made on polyurethane and type IV dental stone dies were comparable.

  9. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  10. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  11. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention. PMID:25426094

  12. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  13. Influence of space use on fitness and the reintroduction success of the Laysan teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Laniawe, L.P.; Vekasy, M.S.; Klavitter, J.L.; Berkowitz, P.; Crampton, L.H.; Walters, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Translocation is an important tool for wildlife conservation and biodiversity restoration, but an inefficient one because of the unpredictability of success. Predictors of success such as habitat quality of the release site and number of individuals released have been identified, but the dynamics of successful translocations remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the relationship of individual post-release movements to population establishment. In 2004, Laysan teal Anas laysanensis were reintroduced by translocating 20 wild birds from Laysan Island to Midway Atoll. Twenty-two additional wild founders were brought the next year. We monitored the survival, reproductive success and movements of the 42 translocated individuals and their offspring for 4 years. Additionally, we monitored population size from 2004 to 2010. Unlike most translocations, we did not observe elevated post-release mortality despite flight-feather trimming to prevent immediate dispersal off-island: first year survival was > 90% and survival rates until 2009 were 0.65±0.08 for founding adults. Laysan teal flew between the two main islands of Midway Atoll, and offspring had significantly larger maximum movement distances than founders. We monitored 84 nests and observed a significant, negative relationship of home range size to productivity for founding females. Flightless founders did not show fidelity to their release sites, but had strong fidelity to annual home ranges after attaining flight. Although we observed a component Allee effect on mate-finding, this did not translate into a demographic Allee effect, and generally, the high fitness of founders contributed substantially to successful population establishment. Laysan teal abundance increased linearly until 2009, but showed evidence of population regulation afterwards. The population estimate was 473 (95% confidence interval 439–508) in 2010. On the much larger main Hawaiian Islands, we expect greater post

  14. Art as an indicator of male fitness: does prenatal testosterone influence artistic ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocchiola, Danae

    2014-05-28

    In his groundbreaking research, Geoffrey Miller (1999) suggests that artistic and creative displays are male-predominant behaviors and can be considered to be the result of an evolutionary advantage. The outcomes of several surveys conducted on jazz and rock musicians, contemporary painters, English writers (Miller, 1999), and scientists (Kanazawa, 2000) seem to be consistent with the Millerian hypothesis, showing a predominance of men carrying out these activities, with an output peak corresponding to the most fertile male period and a progressive decline in late maturity. One way to evaluate the sex-related hypothesis of artistic and cultural displays, considered as sexual indicators of male fitness, is to focus on sexually dimorphic traits. One of them, within our species, is the 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D), which is a marker for prenatal testosterone levels. This study combines the Millerian theories on sexual dimorphism in cultural displays with the digit ratio, using it as an indicator of androgen exposure in utero. If androgenic levels are positively correlated with artistic exhibition, both female and male artists should show low 2D:4D ratios. In this experiment we tested the association between 2D:4D and artistic ability by comparing the digit ratios of 50 artists (25 men and 25 women) to the digit ratios of 50 non-artists (25 men and 25 women). Both male and female artists had significantly lower 2D:4D ratios (indicating high testosterone) than male and female controls. These results support the hypothesis that art may represent a sexually selected, typically masculine behavior that advertises the carrier's good genes within a courtship context.

  15. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF, assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference were collected. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests, adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05 associated with height (r = 0.19 and PAI (r = 0.21, while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12; WC (r = -0.19; TC (r = -0.16; TG (r = -0.16; LDL (r = -0.16 and MRS (r = -0.16. Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003 to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03 to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02. Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation.

  16. Influence of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness on the atherogenic index of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Blaha, Michael J; Loprinzi, Paul D

    Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), calculated as LOG 10 (triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), may have greater utility over other metrics in predicting risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous work demonstrates the associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with triglycerides high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and CVD. Limited research has examined these parameters and their potential additive associations with AIP, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 307 adults 20-49 years). Sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed via accelerometry. CRF was assessed via submaximal treadmill testing. Using median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score (ranging from 0-3) was created, indicating the number of these positive characteristics (eg, above median CRF) each participant possessed. Above median MVPA was associated with significantly lower AIP values (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.01; P = .03), whereas above-median CRF (β = -0.0009; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.08; P = .98) and below-median sedentary behavior (β = -0.02; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.08; P = .60) were not. Compared to those with a PACS score of 0, those with a score of 1 or 2 did not have significantly reduced AIP values (β = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.10; P = .59, and β = 0.007; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.13; P = .90, respectively); however, those with a score of 3 did (β = -0.14; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.001; P = .04). Interventions targeting improvements in lipid profile (AIP) may wish to promote adequate MVPA over CRF or decreased sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation. PMID:19153792

  18. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen x dark agouti F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation.

  19. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus x domestica

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-03-31

    Fruit firmness, a quality quantitative trait, has long been established as a key textural property and one of the essential parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life of apples. Loss of firmness, also referred to as fruit softening, is undesirable in apples and represents a serious problem for growers in many countries. This results in the reduction of apple shelf life and in turn influences its commercialization. Low firmness impacts negatively on the sensory values of juiciness, crunchiness and crispness. Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions with the environment. Identification of these loci is key for the determination of genetic candidate markers that can be implemented in marker assisted selection and breeding for trees and/or cultivars that can yield firmer fruits with economic value. In turn, this technique can help reduce the time needed to evaluate plants and new cultivars could become available faster. This review provides an overview of quantitative trait loci (QTL), including additional putative QTLs that we have identified, and genes associated with firmness and their importance to biotechnology, the breeding industry and eventually the consumers.

  20. The influence of fire exposure on austenitic stainless steel for pressure vessel fitness-for-service assessment: Experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Shu, Wenhua; Zuo, Yantian

    2017-04-01

    The austenitic stainless steels are widely applied to pressure vessel manufacturing. The fire accident risk exists in almost all the industrial chemical plants. It is necessary to make safety evaluation on the chemical equipment including pressure vessels after fire. Therefore, the present research was conducted on the influences of fire exposure testing under different thermal conditions on the mechanical performance evolution of S30408 austenitic stainless steel for pressure vessel equipment. The metallurgical analysis described typical appearances in micro-structure observed in the material suffered by fire exposure. Moreover, the quantitative degradation of mechanical properties was investigated. The material thermal degradation mechanism and fitness-for-service assessment process of fire damage were further discussed.

  1. Exploring the Fitness Centre Industry in Malaysia; What Factors Influence Joining and Retention and Prevents People from Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen B

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia’s fitness centre industry has seen rapid growth over the last 6 years with the opening of more than 25 international chain outlets of which the majority is owned by California Fitness, Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. An increasing population and year on year GDP growth, together with the support of the Malaysian government, contribute to further the growth of the industry. The purpose of the study is to explore, investigate and reveal information about the growth a...

  2. Identification of female-specific QTLs affecting an emotionality-related behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Moisan, M P; Chaouloff, F; Mormède, C; Mormède, P

    1999-09-01

    The influence of genetic factors on psychological traits and disorders has been repeatedly demonstrated; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such an influence remain largely unknown. Anxiety-related disorders constitute the most common class of mental disorder in humans, with women being diagnosed far more frequently than men. A better understanding of the genetic and gender-related mechanisms mediating anxiety traits should enable the development of more rational methods for preventing and treating anxiety disorders. In this study we have aimed to identify, for the first time, quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing anxiety/emotionality-related traits in rats. To this end, two strains-Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)-that differ for several behavioral measures of anxiety/emotionality were intercrossed. A QTL analysis of the F2 population revealed suggestive loci for various traits, including behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and blood pressure. In addition, one major QTL explaining 50.4% of the total variance (LOD = 7.22) was identified on chromosome 4 for the locomotion in the central and aversive area of the open field. Two other relevant QTLs have been recently mapped near this chromosomic region in the rat, which also harbors Tac1r, the gene encoding for the substance P receptor. Our major QTL affected females but not males and its effect depended on the type of cross (LEW or SHR grandmothers). The present results reveal a complex genetic basis underlying emotional behaviors and they confirm the existence of interactions between genetic factors and sex for this kind of trait. Further investigation of the loci identified herein may give clues to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety-related ones.

  3. A sibling method for identifying vQTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Johnson, Rebecca; Domingue, Ben; Dawes, Christopher; Boardman, Jason; Siegal, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The propensity of a trait to vary within a population may have evolutionary, ecological, or clinical significance. In the present study we deploy sibling models to offer a novel and unbiased way to ascertain loci associated with the extent to which phenotypes vary (variance-controlling quantitative trait loci, or vQTLs). Previous methods for vQTL-mapping either exclude genetically related individuals or treat genetic relatedness among individuals as a complicating factor addressed by adjusting estimates for non-independence in phenotypes. The present method uses genetic relatedness as a tool to obtain unbiased estimates of variance effects rather than as a nuisance. The family-based approach, which utilizes random variation between siblings in minor allele counts at a locus, also allows controls for parental genotype, mean effects, and non-linear (dominance) effects that may spuriously appear to generate variation. Simulations show that the approach performs equally well as two existing methods (squared Z-score and DGLM) in controlling type I error rates when there is no unobserved confounding, and performs significantly better than these methods in the presence of small degrees of confounding. Using height and BMI as empirical applications, we investigate SNPs that alter within-family variation in height and BMI, as well as pathways that appear to be enriched. One significant SNP for BMI variability, in the MAST4 gene, replicated. Pathway analysis revealed one gene set, encoding members of several signaling pathways related to gap junction function, which appears significantly enriched for associations with within-family height variation in both datasets (while not enriched in analysis of mean levels). We recommend approximating laboratory random assignment of genotype using family data and more careful attention to the possible conflation of mean and variance effects.

  4. A sibling method for identifying vQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Ben; Dawes, Christopher; Boardman, Jason; Siegal, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The propensity of a trait to vary within a population may have evolutionary, ecological, or clinical significance. In the present study we deploy sibling models to offer a novel and unbiased way to ascertain loci associated with the extent to which phenotypes vary (variance-controlling quantitative trait loci, or vQTLs). Previous methods for vQTL-mapping either exclude genetically related individuals or treat genetic relatedness among individuals as a complicating factor addressed by adjusting estimates for non-independence in phenotypes. The present method uses genetic relatedness as a tool to obtain unbiased estimates of variance effects rather than as a nuisance. The family-based approach, which utilizes random variation between siblings in minor allele counts at a locus, also allows controls for parental genotype, mean effects, and non-linear (dominance) effects that may spuriously appear to generate variation. Simulations show that the approach performs equally well as two existing methods (squared Z-score and DGLM) in controlling type I error rates when there is no unobserved confounding, and performs significantly better than these methods in the presence of small degrees of confounding. Using height and BMI as empirical applications, we investigate SNPs that alter within-family variation in height and BMI, as well as pathways that appear to be enriched. One significant SNP for BMI variability, in the MAST4 gene, replicated. Pathway analysis revealed one gene set, encoding members of several signaling pathways related to gap junction function, which appears significantly enriched for associations with within-family height variation in both datasets (while not enriched in analysis of mean levels). We recommend approximating laboratory random assignment of genotype using family data and more careful attention to the possible conflation of mean and variance effects. PMID:29617452

  5. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  6. Mapping QTLs Controlling Flowering Time and Important Agronomic Traits in Pearl Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.

  7. Bilaterally Asymmetric Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs): QTLs That Affect Laxity in the Right Versus Left Coxofemoral (Hip) Joints of the Dog (Canis familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Kevin; Lawler, Dennis F.; Adler, Fred R.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lark, Karl G.

    2004-01-01

    In dogs hip joint laxity that can lead to degenerative joint disease (DJD) is frequent and heritable, providing a genetic model for some aspects of the human disease. We have used Portuguese water dogs (PWDs) to identify Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate laxity in the hip joint.A population of 286 PWDs, each characterized by ca. 500 molecular genetic markers, was analyzed for subluxation of the hip joint as measured by the Norberg angle, a quantitative radiographic measure of laxit...

  8. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  9. Mössbauer parameters of ordinary chondrites influenced by the fit accuracy of the troilite component: an example of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimova, A. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (Hungary); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of the fit accuracy of the troilite component in the Mössbauer spectra of ordinary chondrites on the parameters obtained for other spectral components was evaluated using the Mössbauer spectrum of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with light lithology as a typical example. It was shown that with respect to the application of a usual sextet component where quadrupole interaction is taken into account in the first-order perturbation limit, substantial improvement of the spectrum fit can be achieved either by using the full Hamiltonian description of the troilite component or by its formal approximation with the superposition of three symmetric doublet components. Parameter values obtained for the main spectral components related to olivine and pyroxene were not sensitive to the fit of troilite component while parameters of the minor spectral components depended on the way of troilite component fitting.

  10. The influence of regulatory fit and interactivity on brand satisfaction and trust in E-health marketing inside 3D virtual worlds (Second Life).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie; Lee, Kwan Min

    2010-12-01

    Interactive three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments like Second Life have great potential as venues for effective e-health marketing and e-brand management. Drawing from regulatory focus and interactivity literatures, this study examined the effects of the regulatory fit that consumers experience in interactive e-health marketing on their brand satisfaction and brand trust. The results of a two-group comparison experiment conducted within Second Life revealed that consumers in the regulatory fit condition show greater brand satisfaction and brand trust than those in the regulatory misfit condition, thus confirming the persuasive influence of regulatory fit in e-brand management inside 3D virtual worlds. In addition, a structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated the mediating role of consumers' perceived interactivity in explaining the processional link between regulatory fit and brand evaluation. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Detection of obesity QTLs on mouse chromosomes 1 and 7 by selective DNA pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.A.; Phillips, S.J. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)

    1996-06-15

    The inheritance of obesity has been analyzed in an intercross between the lean 129/Sv mouse strain and the obesity-prone EL/Suz mouse strain. The weights of three major fat pads were determined on 4-month-old mice, and the sum of these weights, divided by body weight, was used as an adiposity index. The strategy of selective DNA pooling was used as a primary screen to identify putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting adiposity index. DNA pools representing the leanest 15% and fattest 15% of the F2 progeny were compared for differential allelic enrichment using widely dispersed microsatellite variants. To evaluate putative QTLs, individual genotyping and interval mapping were employed to estimate QTL effects and assess statistical significance. One QTL affecting adiposity index, which accounted for 12.3% of phenotypic variance in gender-merged data, was mapped to the central region of Chromosome (Chr) 7. The QTL allele inherited from EL conferred increased adiposity. A second QTL that accounts for 6.3% of phenotypic variance was identified on Chr 1 near D1Mitt211. At both QTLs, the data are consistent with dominant inheritance of the allele contributing to obesity. The possible relationships between these QTLs and previously described obesity QYLs, major obesity mutations, and candidate genes are discussed. 42 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  13. Mapping of QTLs for frost tolerance and heading time using SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection for complex genetic traits, such as frost tolerance, can be simplified in plant breeding programs when linked markers were detected. The use of microsatellite markers for tagging and mapping important genes or QTLs is a goal in wheat genetic projects. In this study, 200 microsatellite markers were studied and ...

  14. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  15. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F 14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00-14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13-34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  16. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  17. Cross-Population Joint Analysis of eQTLs: Fine Mapping and Functional Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been shown as a powerful tool to uncover the genetic underpinnings of many complex traits at molecular level. In this paper, we present an integrative analysis approach that leverages eQTL data collected from multiple population groups. In particular, our approach effectively identifies multiple independent cis-eQTL signals that are consistent across populations, accounting for population heterogeneity in allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium patterns. Furthermore, by integrating genomic annotations, our analysis framework enables high-resolution functional analysis of eQTLs. We applied our statistical approach to analyze the GEUVADIS data consisting of samples from five population groups. From this analysis, we concluded that i) jointly analysis across population groups greatly improves the power of eQTL discovery and the resolution of fine mapping of causal eQTL ii) many genes harbor multiple independent eQTLs in their cis regions iii) genetic variants that disrupt transcription factor binding are significantly enriched in eQTLs (p-value = 4.93 × 10-22). PMID:25906321

  18. Association between QTLs and morphological traits toward sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Kamal; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2016-01-01

    Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson’s correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9. A Mantel test suggested a weak relationship between the observed phenotypes and allelic variation patterns, implying the independent nature of morphological and molecular variations. Teqing and Tetep were found to be the most resistant cultivars. IR65482-4-136-2-2, MR219-4, and MR264 showed improved resistance potentials. These results suggest that the morphological traits and QTLs which have been found to associate with sheath blight resistance are a good choice to enhance resistance through pyramiding either 2 QTLs or QTLs and traits in susceptible rice cultivars. PMID:27795687

  19. Detection of elevated CO2 responsive QTLs for yield and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... ... of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Accepted 12 May, 2008. A mapping population of IR24 (indica) chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs.) in Asominori. (japonica) background was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for response to elevated CO2 in.

  20. The influence of screw type, alloy and cylinder position on the marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilio, Daniela; Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Rossetti, Leylha Maria Nunes; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2006-04-01

    Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5mm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05). Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13 microm) than the hexagonal screws (27.93 microm). Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. 1) The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2) The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3) cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values.

  1. La calidad percibida de servicio y su influencia en la fidelidad de usuarios mayores en centros de fitness públicos (Influence of perceived service quality on loyalty among elderly users of public fitness centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo García, Ainara Bernal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing number of elderly people attending sports centres leading to interest in the evaluation of perceived quality due to its impact on loyalty. Thus, the objectives of this study/survey were to determine perceived quality and customer loyalty among users older than 55 years old attending public fitness centres, to analyze whether there were significant differences between users, and to examine if perceived quality influenced customer loyalty. We used a sample of 610 users of public fitness centres (406 women and 204 men, performing exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, t-test and one-way ANOVA, and linear regression. The results show reliable and valid scales of service quality (employees, programs, and facilities and loyalty. Significant differences were found in the employees and facilities dimensions regarding gender, age, and educational background and in the programs dimension regarding gender, educational background, marital status, and duration of the practice session. A positive influence was found between quality and customer loyalty. These findings suggest the importance of good quality management.

  2. Influence of pre- and post-usage flushing frequencies on bacterial water quality of non-touch water fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Miranda; Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Kundi, Michael; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-08-30

    Non-touch fittings have been reported to be susceptible for Pseudomonas aeruginosa accumulation. A number of factors may contribute to this, including the frequency of usage, duration of water stagnation, or presence of plastic materials. Programmable non-touch fittings are appearing which allow regular automated post-flushing with cold water to prevent water stagnation. However, the ideal duration of post-flushing is unknown as well as the effect of pre-rinsing with cold water before use. Eight non-touch fittings with brass valve blocks were mounted on a mobile test sink and connected to the same central water pipe source, differing only in presence or absence of water connection pipes, length of connection pipe, frequency of usage, and time intervals for pre- and post-usage water flush. The total bacteria colony-forming unit (cfu) counts were obtained by the spread plate technique. Low frequency of water use in combination with a long stagnating water column resulted in high bacterial cfu counts. Post-usage flushing for 2 seconds did not differ from no flushing. Flushing for 10 seconds with cold water after use or 30 seconds flush before use were both the most effective measures to prevent non-touch fittings from biofilm formation over a period of 20 weeks. Further improvements in water fitting technology could possibly solve the problem of bacterial water contamination in health care settings.

  3. A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Melzer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57, CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21, IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13, LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10, GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7, SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7, CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6 and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6 genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R, altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA, variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1 and altered transcription (GGT1. We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha levels (p = 6.8x10(-40, but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis

  4. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  5. Both epistatic and additive effects of QTLs are involved in polygenic induced resistance to disease: a case study, the interaction pepper - Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, V; Palloix, A

    1996-09-01

    To study the resistance of pepper to Phytophthora capsici, we analyzed 94 doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from the intraspecific F1 hybrid obtained from a cross between Perennial, an Indian pungent resistant line, and Yolo Wonder, an American bell-pepper susceptible line, with 119 DNA markers. Four different criteria were used to evaluate the resistance, corresponding to different steps or mechanisms of the host-pathogen interaction: root-rot index, receptivity, inducibility and stability. Three distinct ANOVA models between DNA marker genotypes and the four disease criteria identified 13 genomic regions, distributed across several linkage groups or unlinked markers, affecting the resistance of pepper to P. capsici. Some QTLs were criterion specific, whereas others affect several criteria, so that the four resistance criteria were controlled by different combinations of QTLs. The QTLs were very different in their quantitative effect (R(2) values), including major QTLs which explained 41-55% of the phenotypic variance, intermediate QTLs with additive or/and epistatic action (17-28% of the variance explained) and minor QTLs. Favourable alleles of some minor QTLs were carried in the susceptible parent. The total phenotypic variation accounted for by QTLs reached up to 90% for receptivity, with an important part due to epistasis effects between QTLs (with or without additive effects). The relative impact of resistance QTLs in disease response is discussed.

  6. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaukab Azeem; Erdogan Tabur

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Underweight (UW) individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT) plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009) stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT) on t...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SCREW TYPE, ALLOY AND CYLINDER POSITION ON THE MARGINAL FIT OF IMPLANT FRAMEWORKS BEFORE AND AFTER LASER WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Castilio, Daniela; Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Rossetti, Leylha Maria Nunes; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. METHODS: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected p...

  8. The influence of the presence of deviant item score patterns on the power of a person-fit statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    In studies investigating the power of person-fit statistics it is often assumed that the item parameters that are used to calculate the statistics can be estimated in a sample without aberrant persons. However, in practical test applications calibration samples most likely will contain aberrant

  9. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  10. Mapping of QTLs for Leaf Malondialdehyde Content Associated with Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing JIANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the final product of lipid peroxidation, and MDA content can reflect the stress tolerance of plants. To map QTLs conditioning the MDA content in rice leaves, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population with 247 lines derived from an indica-indica cross Zhenshan 97B×Milyang 46, and a linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers were used. The RIL population showed a transgressive segregation in the MDA content of rice leaves. Two QTLs for the MDA content in rice leaves were detected in the intervals RG532–RG811 and RG381–RG236 on chromosome 1, with the additive effects from maternal and paternal parents, accounting for 4.33% and 4.62% of phenotype variations, respectively.

  11. Lung eQTLs to help reveal the molecular underpinnings of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hao

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified loci reproducibly associated with pulmonary diseases; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these associations are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to discover genetic variants affecting gene expression in human lung tissue, to refine susceptibility loci for asthma identified in GWAS studies, and to use the genetics of gene expression and network analyses to find key molecular drivers of asthma. We performed a genome-wide search for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL in 1,111 human lung samples. The lung eQTL dataset was then used to inform asthma genetic studies reported in the literature. The top ranked lung eQTLs were integrated with the GWAS on asthma reported by the GABRIEL consortium to generate a Bayesian gene expression network for discovery of novel molecular pathways underpinning asthma. We detected 17,178 cis- and 593 trans- lung eQTLs, which can be used to explore the functional consequences of loci associated with lung diseases and traits. Some strong eQTLs are also asthma susceptibility loci. For example, rs3859192 on chr17q21 is robustly associated with the mRNA levels of GSDMA (P = 3.55 × 10(-151. The genetic-gene expression network identified the SOCS3 pathway as one of the key drivers of asthma. The eQTLs and gene networks identified in this study are powerful tools for elucidating the causal mechanisms underlying pulmonary disease. This data resource offers much-needed support to pinpoint the causal genes and characterize the molecular function of gene variants associated with lung diseases.

  12. Identification of QTLs Associated to Plant Architecture in Cassava (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana después del arroz, el azúcar y el maíz, posicionándose por esta razón como un cultivo primordial para la seguridad alimentaria. Su arquitectura ha sido considerada como un factor clave que subyace a la fisiología del rendimiento, relacionando características morfológicas con productividad. En este trabajo se evaluaron diferentes características de arquitectura vegetal en yuca. Los caracteres fueron evaluados en una población F1 compuesta por 133 hermanos completos (familia K sembrados en dos lugares biogeográficamente diferentes: La Vega (Cundinamarca y Arauca (Arauca en Colombia. Las características evaluadas relacionadas con la arquitectura vegetal fueron altura de la planta (AT, número de brotes (NB, longitud entrenudos (LE, número de raíces (NR, peso de raíces (PR, pigmentación del peciolo (PP, área de la hoja (AH y tipo de hoja (TH. A partir de los datos obtenidos y empleando un mapa genético de alta densidad basado en SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms se llevó a cabo un análisis de QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci. Se lograron identificar tres QTLs para La Vega asociados con los caracteres altura total, número de brotes y área de la hoja. Para Arauca se detectaron tres QTLs asociados con altura total, longitud de entrenudos y número de brotes. Los QTLs se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de ligamiento y explicaron entre 18,93 y 41,92 % de la variación genética.

  13. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  14. Mapping QTLs controlling kernel dimensions in a wheat inter-varietal RIL mapping population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruiru; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Liwei; Xie, Quan; Jia, Haiyan; Yu, Dong; Huang, Yulong; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Seven kernel dimension QTLs were identified in wheat, and kernel thickness was found to be the most important dimension for grain weight improvement. Kernel morphology and weight of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affect both yield and quality; however, the genetic basis of these traits and their interactions has not been fully understood. In this study, to investigate the genetic factors affecting kernel morphology and the association of kernel morphology traits with kernel weight, kernel length (KL), width (KW) and thickness (KT) were evaluated, together with hundred-grain weight (HGW), in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai, with data from five trials (two different locations over 3 years). The results showed that HGW was more closely correlated with KT and KW than with KL. A whole genome scan revealed four QTLs for KL, one for KW and two for KT, distributed on five different chromosomes. Of them, QKl.nau-2D for KL, and QKt.nau-4B and QKt.nau-5A for KT were newly identified major QTLs for the respective traits, explaining up to 32.6 and 41.5% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Increase of KW and KT and reduction of KL/KT and KW/KT ratios always resulted in significant higher grain weight. Lines combining the Nanda 2419 alleles of the 4B and 5A intervals had wider, thicker, rounder kernels and a 14% higher grain weight in the genotype-based analysis. A strong, negative linear relationship of the KW/KT ratio with grain weight was observed. It thus appears that kernel thickness is the most important kernel dimension factor in wheat improvement for higher yield. Mapping and marker identification of the kernel dimension-related QTLs definitely help realize the breeding goals.

  15. SNP-based linkage mapping for validation of QTLs for resistance to ascochyta blight in lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimna Sudheesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a self-pollinating, diploid, annual, cool-season, food legume crop that is cultivated throughout the world. Ascochyta blight (AB, caused by Ascochyta lentis Vassilievsky, is an economically important and widespread disease of lentil. Development of cultivars with high levels of durable resistance provides an environmentally acceptable and economically feasible method for AB control. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of AB resistance is hence highly desirable, in order to obtain insight into the number and influence of resistance genes. Genetic linkage maps based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been developed from three recombinant inbred line (RIL populations. The IH x NF map contained 460 loci across 1461.6 cM, while the IH x DIG map contained 329 loci across 1302.5 cM and the third map, NF x DIG contained 330 loci across 1914.1 cM. Data from these maps were combined with a map from a previously published study through use of bridging markers to generate a consensus linkage map containing 689 loci distributed across 7 linkage groups (LGs, with a cumulative length of 2429.61 cM at an average density of one marker per 3.5 cM. Trait dissection of AB resistance was performed for the RIL populations, identifying totals of two and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs explaining 52% and 69% of phenotypic variation for resistance to infection in the IH x DIG and IH x NF populations, respectively. Presence of common markers in the vicinity of the AB_IH1- and AB_IH2.1/AB_IH2.2-containing regions on both maps supports the inference that a common genomic region is responsible for conferring resistance and is associated with the resistant parent, Indianhead. The third QTL was derived from Northfield. Evaluation of markers associated with AB resistance across a diverse lentil germplasm panel revealed that the identity of alleles associated with AB_IH1 predicted

  16. LOD score exclusion analyses for candidate QTLs using random population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Wen

    2003-11-01

    While extensive analyses have been conducted to test for, no formal analyses have been conducted to test against, the importance of candidate genes as putative QTLs using random population samples. Previously, we developed an LOD score exclusion mapping approach for candidate genes for complex diseases. Here, we extend this LOD score approach for exclusion analyses of candidate genes for quantitative traits. Under this approach, specific genetic effects (as reflected by heritability) and inheritance models at candidate QTLs can be analyzed and if an LOD score is < or = -2.0, the locus can be excluded from having a heritability larger than that specified. Simulations show that this approach has high power to exclude a candidate gene from having moderate genetic effects if it is not a QTL and is robust to population admixture. Our exclusion analysis complements association analysis for candidate genes as putative QTLs in random population samples. The approach is applied to test the importance of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene as a potential QTL underlying the variation of bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis.

  17. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  18. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  19. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouneyrac, C., E-mail: catherine.mouneyrac@uco.f [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Perrein-Ettajani, H. [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Amiard-Triquet, C. [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. - Fitness, and behaviour in Nereis diversicolor are affected by anthropogenic pressure.

  20. The influence of different fitting functions on paleodose determination in ESR dating of tooth enamel-Taking Longgupo tooth fossils as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Fei; Yin Gongming; Liu Chunru; Gao Lu; Li Jianping; Jean-Jacques Bahain; Tristan Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Paleodose determination is essential for ESR dating,and the D E value is influenced by the mathematical functions used for dose response data points fitting. At present, single saturation exponential (SSE) fitting is commonly used for ESR dating. It is valid when the number of trap sites is constant, but when the increasing irradiation dose induces new traps, the dose response curve will not follow a unique SSE function. In this study,in addition to SSE, the double saturation exponential (DSE) and exponential plus linear(EPL) functions were used to fit the ESR data of eight tooth fossil samples from Longgupo early Pleistocene site in Wushan, Chongqing.The results show that the D E values calculated by SSE fitting function are systematically higher than DSE and EPL, and the residual sum of square of SSE is larger than the other two. Compared with known reference dose value, we found that DSE has the smallest relative deviation among the three functions, and the SSE has the largest deviation. The study indicates that the SSE function overestimates D E value of tooth fossil samples from old sites, while the D E value determined by DSE functions seems closer to the true value of paleodose. (authors)

  1. Effect of Multicomponent Training on Blood Pressure, Nitric Oxide, Redox Status, and Physical Fitness in Older Adult Women: Influence of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS3 Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Alexandre Trapé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the genotype or haplotype (interaction of the NOS3 polymorphisms [-786T>C, 894G>T (Glu298Asp, and intron 4b/a] on the response to multicomponent training (various capacities and motor skills on blood pressure (BP, nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness in older adult women. The sample consisted of 52 participants, who underwent body mass index and BP assessments. Physical fitness was evaluated by six-minute walk, elbow flexion, and sit and stand up tests. Plasma/blood samples were used to evaluate redox status, nitrite concentration, and genotyping. Associations were observed between isolated polymorphisms and the response of decreased systolic and diastolic BP and increased nitrite concentration and antioxidant activity. In the haplotype analysis, the group composed of ancestral alleles (H1 was the only one to present improvement in all variables studied (decrease in systolic and diastolic BP, improvement in nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness, while the group composed of variant alleles (H8 only demonstrated improvement in some variables of redox status and physical fitness. These findings suggest that NOS3 polymorphisms and physical training are important interacting variables to consider in evaluating redox status, nitric oxide availability and production, and BP control.

  2. Competitive fitness during feast and famine: how SOS DNA polymerases influence physiology and evolution in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzett, Christopher H; Goodman, Myron F; Finkel, Steven E

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli DNA polymerases (Pol) II, IV, and V serve dual roles by facilitating efficient translesion DNA synthesis while simultaneously introducing genetic variation that can promote adaptive evolution. Here we show that these alternative polymerases are induced as cells transition from exponential to long-term stationary-phase growth in the absence of induction of the SOS regulon by external agents that damage DNA. By monitoring the relative fitness of isogenic mutant strains expressing only one alternative polymerase over time, spanning hours to weeks, we establish distinct growth phase-dependent hierarchies of polymerase mutant strain competitiveness. Pol II confers a significant physiological advantage by facilitating efficient replication and creating genetic diversity during periods of rapid growth. Pol IV and Pol V make the largest contributions to evolutionary fitness during long-term stationary phase. Consistent with their roles providing both a physiological and an adaptive advantage during stationary phase, the expression patterns of all three SOS polymerases change during the transition from log phase to long-term stationary phase. Compared to the alternative polymerases, Pol III transcription dominates during mid-exponential phase; however, its abundance decreases to SOS induction by exogenous agents and indicate that cell populations require appropriate expression of all three alternative DNA polymerases during exponential, stationary, and long-term stationary phases to attain optimal fitness and undergo adaptive evolution.

  3. Human X-chromosome inactivation pattern distributions fit a model of genetically influenced choice better than models of completely random choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Nisa K E; Pritchett, Sonja M; Howell, Robin E; Greer, Wenda L; Sapienza, Carmen; Ørstavik, Karen Helene; Hamilton, David C

    2013-01-01

    In eutherian mammals, one X-chromosome in every XX somatic cell is transcriptionally silenced through the process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Females are thus functional mosaics, where some cells express genes from the paternal X, and the others from the maternal X. The relative abundance of the two cell populations (X-inactivation pattern, XIP) can have significant medical implications for some females. In mice, the ‘choice' of which X to inactivate, maternal or paternal, in each cell of the early embryo is genetically influenced. In humans, the timing of XCI choice and whether choice occurs completely randomly or under a genetic influence is debated. Here, we explore these questions by analysing the distribution of XIPs in large populations of normal females. Models were generated to predict XIP distributions resulting from completely random or genetically influenced choice. Each model describes the discrete primary distribution at the onset of XCI, and the continuous secondary distribution accounting for changes to the XIP as a result of development and ageing. Statistical methods are used to compare models with empirical data from Danish and Utah populations. A rigorous data treatment strategy maximises information content and allows for unbiased use of unphased XIP data. The Anderson–Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and likelihood ratio tests indicate that a model of genetically influenced XCI choice better fits the empirical data than models of completely random choice. PMID:23652377

  4. The influence of areas of worklife fit and work-life interference on burnout and turnover intentions among new graduate nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila A; Laschinger, Heather

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationships among the overall person-job match in the six areas of worklife, work-life interference, new nurses' experiences of burnout and intentions to leave their jobs. As a large cohort of nurses approaches retirement, it is important to understand the aspects of the nurses work-life that are related to turnover among new graduate nurses to address the nursing workforce shortage. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 215 registered nurses working in Ontario acute hospitals was conducted using structural equation modelling. The fit indices suggested a reasonably adequate fit of the data to the hypothesised model [χ(2)  = 247, d.f. = 122, P = 0.001, χ(2) /d.f. = 2.32, Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.954, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.953, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06]. Person-job match in six areas of worklife had a direct negative effect on burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), which in turn had a direct positive effect on turnover intentions. Work-life interference also influenced turnover intentions indirectly through burnout. The study findings demonstrate that new graduate nurses' turnover intentions are a recurring problem, which could be reduced by improving nurses' working conditions. Retention of new graduate nurses could be enhanced by creating supportive working environments to reduce the susceptibility to workplace burnout, and ultimately, lower turnover intentions. Managers must employ strategies to enhance workplace conditions that promote a person-job fit and work-life balance to improve retention of new graduate nurses, and, thereby, lessen the nursing shortage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. QTLs for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay are associated with days to maturity in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yin-Won; Li, Baodu; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2013-08-01

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), primarily caused by Phomopsis longicolla, is a major contributor to poor soybean seed quality and significant yield loss, particularly in early maturing soybean genotypes. However, it is not yet known whether PSD resistance is associated with early maturity. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to PSD and days to maturity using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the PSD-resistant Taekwangkong and the PSD-susceptible SS2-2. Based on a genetic linkage map incorporating 117 simple sequence repeat markers, QTL analysis revealed two and three QTLs conferring PSD resistance and days to maturity, respectively, in the RIL population. Two QTLs (PSD-6-1 and PSD-10-2) for PSD resistance were identified in the intervals of Satt100-Satt460 and Sat_038-Satt243 on chromosomes 6 and 10, respectively. Two QTLs explained phenotypic variances in PSD resistance of 46.3 and 14.1 %, respectively. At the PSD-6-1 QTL, the PSD-resistant cultivar Taekwangkong contributed the allele with negative effect decreasing the infection rate of PSD and this QTL does not overlap with any previously reported loci for PSD resistance in other soybean genotypes. Among the three QTLs for days to maturity, two (Mat-6-2 and Mat-10-3) were located at positions similar to the PSD-resistance QTLs. The identification of the QTLs linked to both PSD resistance and days to maturity indicates a biological correlation between these two traits. The newly identified QTL for resistance to PSD associated with days to maturity in Taekwangkong will help improve soybean resistance to P. longicolla.

  6. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  7. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. [The influence of training on rehabilitation and keep-fit tables on the chosen parameters of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Joanna; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Leszczyński, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    More and more people in the world contend with overweight or obesity, and this phenomenon at the moment is being recognized as one of the most important problems of modern civilization observed in many developed countries. Change of the lifestyle connected with turning from the active life to the more sedentary one and bad eating habits led to the development of overweight and obesity at an alarmingly fast rate with the parallel development of interests directed on conducting the research and looking for the effective methods of fighting against the overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate some parameters of body weight among people being put on the healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life. A group of 50 patients treated in sanatorium were included into the observation. Double measurement of body weight and thickness of the skin and fat were performed during the first and last days of the fifteen day training on the formerly mentioned tables. The statistically important decrease of examined parameters including the real body weight, fat mass, the BMI indication and the thickness of the skin and fat folds was detected. The healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life causes the increase of the body fat-free weight. The positive acceptation of the rehabilitation on tables Slender-Life proves it should be applied.

  9. Retraction notice to: influence of post fit and post length on fracture resistance: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(3):496-500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    It has been notified to the Editorial Board, The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice (JCDP), that considerable script of the aforementioned article has been plagiarized from the article: Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of Post Fit and Post Length on Fracture Resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42(1):47-53. The same was confirmed after thorough evaluation and interpretation. In accordance to observe serious view in case of plagiarism, the Editorial Board, JCDP decided to take appropriate action against the act. Thus, it is herewith decided by the Editorial Board, JCDP to retract the title as addressed from the assigned issue.

  10. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  11. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  12. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  13. Expanding the Technology Acceptance Model with the Inclusion of Trust, Social Influence, and Health Valuation to Determine the Predictors of German Users’ Willingness to Continue using a Fitness App : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; Hegner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    According to one market research, fitness or running apps are hugely popular in Germany. Such a trend prompts the question concerning the factors influencing German users’ intention to continue using a specific fitness app. To address the research question, the expanded Technology Acceptance Model

  14. Influence of Adiposity, Physical Activity, Fitness, and Screen Time on Insulin Dynamics Over 2 Years in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Barnett, Tracie A; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Deladoëy, Johnny; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2016-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence showing that lifestyle habits play a critical role in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults, little is known regarding the impact of lifestyle habits on type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. To assess whether adiposity, fitness, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time predict insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion during a 2-year period in children with a family history of obesity. This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 630 children, having at least 1 obese parent, recruited from schools in Quebec, Canada, between July 2005 and December 2008 in the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort. Children were assessed at baseline (ages 8-10 years) and 2 years later. Fitness was measured by peak oxygen consumption, percentage of body fat (adiposity) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity using accelerometry, and screen time by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game, or computer use. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, season, and pubertal stage. The current analysis was completed in October 2015. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and an oral glucose tolerance test-based index (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index). Insulin secretion was measured using the area under the curve of insulin to glucose during the first 30 minutes of the oral glucose tolerance test and using the area under the curve of insulin to glucose over 2 hours. Of 630 children evaluated at baseline (mean [SD] age, 9.6 [0.9] years; 54.4% male; 56.2% normal weight, 19.2% overweight, and 22.7% obese), 564 were evaluated at 2-year follow-up. Adiposity and changes in adiposity were the central predictors of insulin dynamics over time. Every additional 1% of body fat at ages 8 to 10 years decreased insulin sensitivity by 2.9% (95% CI, -3.3% to -2.5%; P effect on adiposity levels

  15. The Influence of Sexual Orientation on the Perceived Fit of Male Applicants for Both Male- and Female-Typed Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Clarke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Exercise and self-esteem in middle-aged adults: multidimensional relationships and physical fitness and self-efficacy influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, E; Mihalko, S L; Bane, S M

    1997-02-01

    In the context of sedentary middle-aged adults, the present study examined the relationships among domain-specific and global levels of self-esteem over the course of a 20-week exercise program. Additionally, the roles played by physical fitness, body composition, self-efficacy, and exercise participation as possible contributors to changes in physical self-worth were examined. Significant improvements in self-esteem at all levels were discovered with global esteem, physical self-worth, and perceptions of physical condition and attractive body increasing. Tests of the hierarchical structure of self-esteem showed greater improvements in physical condition and physical self-worth than global esteem and the relationships between global esteem and subdomain levels were shown to be mediated by physical self-worth. Hierarchical regression analyses showed changes in ratings of importance to have little impact on changes in physical self-worth. Both changes in efficacy and aerobic capacity were demonstrated to account for modest but significant variation in physical self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-esteem, potential mediators of exercise effects on esteem, and the need to measure the constructs of interest appropriately.

  17. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Galamandjuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  18. The Influence of Sexual Orientation on the Perceived Fit of Male Applicants for Both Male- and Female-Typed Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Heather M; Arnold, Kara A

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galamandjuk L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  20. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Julia B

    2013-11-22

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level.

  1. Analysis of recombination QTLs, segregation distortion, and epistasis for fitness in maize multiple populations using ultra-high-density markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the maize genomic features would be useful for the study of genetic diversity and evolution and for maize breeding. Here, we used two maize nested association mapping (NAM) populations separately derived in China (CN-NAM) and the US (US-NAM) to explore the maize genomic features. The t...

  2. Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara (IRGC81848 Backcross Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. MALLIKARJUNA SWAMY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45% of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  3. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  4. Identifying cis-mediators for trans-eQTLs across many human tissues using genomic mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jiebiao; Pierce, Brandon L; Chen, Lin S

    2017-11-01

    The impact of inherited genetic variation on gene expression in humans is well-established. The majority of known expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) impact expression of local genes ( cis -eQTLs). More research is needed to identify effects of genetic variation on distant genes ( trans -eQTLs) and understand their biological mechanisms. One common trans -eQTLs mechanism is "mediation" by a local ( cis ) transcript. Thus, mediation analysis can be applied to genome-wide SNP and expression data in order to identify transcripts that are " cis -mediators" of trans -eQTLs, including those " cis -hubs" involved in regulation of many trans -genes. Identifying such mediators helps us understand regulatory networks and suggests biological mechanisms underlying trans -eQTLs, both of which are relevant for understanding susceptibility to complex diseases. The multitissue expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) program provides a unique opportunity to study cis -mediation across human tissue types. However, the presence of complex hidden confounding effects in biological systems can make mediation analyses challenging and prone to confounding bias, particularly when conducted among diverse samples. To address this problem, we propose a new method: Genomic Mediation analysis with Adaptive Confounding adjustment (GMAC). It enables the search of a very large pool of variables, and adaptively selects potential confounding variables for each mediation test. Analyses of simulated data and GTEx data demonstrate that the adaptive selection of confounders by GMAC improves the power and precision of mediation analysis. Application of GMAC to GTEx data provides new insights into the observed patterns of cis -hubs and trans -eQTL regulation across tissue types. © 2017 Yang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  6. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  7. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  8. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  9. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  12. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  13. Meta-analysis to refine map position and reduce confidence intervals for delayed canopy wilting QTLs in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow canopy wilting in soybean has been identified as a potentially beneficial trait for ameliorating drought effects on yield. Previous research identified QTLs for slow wilting from two different bi-parental populations and this information was combined with data from three other populations to id...

  14. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.

    2000-01-01

    to leaf rust by means of artificial infection, heading date, plant height and Kernel weight were assessed. For leaf rust resistance, 4 QTLs were localised, that explained 96.1% of the genetic variation. One QTL on chromosome 4H confirmed a position found in another genetic background and one mapped...

  15. Novel QTLs affecting rice kernel fissure resistance discovered in the cultivar ‘Saber’ augment those from ‘Cybonnet’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel fissures in rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by pre- or post-harvest stresses are the leading cause of breakage among milled rice. Such breakage causes economic losses for producers, millers, and marketers. Five QTLs for kernel fissure resistance (FR) were identified among a set of 275 RILs de...

  16. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  17. Identification of three QTLs with influence on susceptibility to helminth infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Göring, H. H.

      Intestinal helminth infections are causing health and welfare problems in both human and animal populations. A family, in which susceptibility towards Ascaris (large round worm) and Trichuris (whipworm) infections are segregating, was constructed. Our data demonstrate that genetic components...

  18. Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  20. Mapping of QTLs for Seed Phorbol Esters, a Toxic Chemical in Jatropha curcas (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amkul, Kitiya; Laosatit, Kularb; Somta, Prakit; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Suk-Ha; Tanya, Patcharin; Srinives, Peerasak

    2017-08-18

    Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas L.) is an oil-bearing plant that has potential to be cultivated as a biodiesel crop. The seed cake after oil extraction has 40-50% protein that can be used in animal feeds. A major limitation in utilizing the cake is the presence of phorbol esters (PE), a heat-tolerant toxic chemical. To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PE, we constructed a genetic linkage map from an F₂ population of 95 individuals from a cross "Chai Nat" × "M10" using 143 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. M10 is low in seed PE while Chai Nat is high. Seeds from each F₂ individual were quantified for PE content by high performance liquid chromatography. A single marker analysis revealed five markers from linkage group 3 (LG3) and nine markers from LG8 associated with seed PE. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified two QTLs, each on LG3 ( qPE3.1 ) and LG8 ( qPE8.1 ) responsible for the PE. qPE3.1 and qPE8.1 accounted for 14.10%, and 15.49% of total variation in seed PE, respectively. Alelle(s) from M10 at qPE3.1 increased seed PE, while at qPE8.1 decreased seed PE. qPE3.1 is a new loci for PE, while qPE8.1 is the same locus with that reported recently for PE.

  1. Dissection of QTLs for Hull Silicon Content on the Short Arm of Rice Chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-rong WU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The QTL qHUS6 for hull silicon content in rice was previously located on the short arm of rice chromosome 6. By using an F2:3 population segregating in the RM587–RM19784 region harboring qHUS6 in an isogenic background, two QTLs for hull silicon content were detected, of which qHUS6-1 was located in the distal region and qHUS6-2 in the region proximal to the centromere. Three rice plants carrying small heterozygous segments in the target region were selected, of which two covered the qHUS6-1 region and the other covered the qHUS6-2 region. Three F2:3 populations were derived from the selfed seeds of the three plants, respectively. QTL mapping was performed using the two populations segregating in the qHUS6-1 region, and qHUS6-1 was delimited to a 147.0-kb region flanked by the markers RM510 and RM19417. Five groups of F3 lines with different genotypic compositions in the qHUS6-2 region were selected from the other F2:3 population. Two QTLs were separated with two-way ANOVA, of which qHUS6-2a was located in the interval defined by RM19706–RM19795 and qHUS6-2b in the interval RM314–RM19665.

  2. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  3. Four-Year Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Influence on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M.; Egan, Caitlin M.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Hesson, Louise A.; Knowler, William C.; Lang, Wei; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on 4-year change in fitness and physical activity (PA), and to examine the effect of change in fitness and PA, adjusting for potential confounders, on glycemic control in the Look AHEAD Trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects were overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with available fitness data at 4 years (n = 3,942).This clinical trial randomized subjects to DSE or ILI. DSE subjects received standard care plus information related to diet, PA, and social support three times per year. ILI subjects received weekly intervention contact for 6 months, which was reduced over the 4-year period, and were prescribed diet and PA. Measures included weight, fitness, PA, and HbA1c. RESULTS The difference in percent fitness change between ILI and DSE at 4 years was significant after adjustment for baseline fitness and change in weight (3.70 vs. 0.94%; P Fitness change at 4 years was inversely related to change in HbA1c after adjustment for clinical site, treatment, baseline HbA1c, prescribed diabetes medication, baseline fitness, and weight change (P fitness and PA in overweight/obese individuals with T2DM. Change in fitness was associated with improvements in glycemic control, which provides support for interventions to improve fitness in adults with T2DM. PMID:23223405

  4. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content in adolescence: The Tromsø Study, Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Tore; Ahmed, Luai A; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Dennison, Elaine M; Evensen, Elin K; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Grimnes, Guri; Nilsen, Ole-Andreas; Schei, Berit; Tell, Grethe S; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Winther, Anne; Emaus, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral parameters in adolescence is unclear. We found a positive association between birth size and bone mineral content, attenuated by lifestyle factors. This highlights the impact of environmental stimuli and lifestyle during growth. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content later in life is unclear, especially in adolescence. This study evaluated the impact of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content among adolescents. We included 961 participants from the population-based Fit Futures study (2010-2011). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and total body (TB). BMD and BMC measures were linked with birth weight and length ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Linear regression models were used to investigate the influence of birth parameters on BMD and BMC. Birth weight was positively associated with BMD-TB and BMC at all sites among girls; standardized β coefficients [95% CI] were 0.11 [0.01, 0.20] for BMD-TB and 0.15 [0.06, 0.24], 0.18 [0.09, 0.28] and 0.29 [0.20, 0.38] for BMC-FN, TH and TB, respectively. In boys, birth weight was positively associated with BMC at all sites with estimates of 0.10 [0.01, 0.19], 0.12 [0.03, 0.21] and 0.15 [0.07, 0.24] for FN, TH and TB, respectively. Corresponding analyses using birth length as exposure gave significantly positive associations with BMC at all sites in both sexes. The significant positive association between birth weight and BMC-TB in girls, and birth length and BMC-TB in boys remained after multivariable adjustment. We found a positive association between birth size and BMC in adolescence. However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for weight, height and physical activity during adolescence.

  6. QTLs for tolerance of drought and breeding for tolerance of abiotic and biotic stress: an integrated approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalabh Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L. growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tolerant BC2F3-derived population was developed from the cross of tropical japonica cultivar Moroberekan (blast- and drought-tolerant and high-yielding indica variety Swarna (blast- and drought-susceptible through phenotypic selection for blast tolerance at the BC2F2 generation. The population was studied for segregation distortion patterns and QTLs for GY under drought were identified along with study of epistatic interactions for the trait. RESULTS: Segregation distortion, in favour of Moroberekan, was observed at 50 of the 59 loci. Majority of these marker loci co-localized with known QTLs for blast tolerance or NBS-LRR disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of segregation distortion, high variation for DTF, PH and GY was observed and several QTLs were identified under drought stress and non-stress conditions for the three traits. Epistatic interactions were also detected for GY which explained a large proportion of phenotypic variance observed in the population. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy allowed us to identify QTLs for GY along with rapid development of high-yielding purelines tolerant to blast and drought with considerably reduced efforts. Apart from this, it also allowed us to study the effects of the selection cycle for blast tolerance. The developed lines were screened at IRRI and in the target environment, and drought and blast tolerant lines with high yield were identified. With tolerance to two major stresses and high yield potential, these

  7. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  8. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of a passive and friction fit implant abutment interface and the influence of occlusal table dimension on the stress distribution pattern on the implant and surrounding bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaraz, Hasan; Paulose, Anoopa; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth; Hussain, Akhter

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the stress distribution pattern in the implant and the surrounding bone for a passive and a friction fit implant abutment interface and to analyze the influence of occlusal table dimension on the stress generated. Materials and Methods: CAD models of two different types of implant abutment connections, the passive fit or the slip-fit represented by the Nobel Replace Tri-lobe connection and the friction fit or active fit represented by the Nobel active conical connection were made. The stress distribution pattern was studied at different occlusal dimension. Six models were constructed in PRO-ENGINEER 05 of the two implant abutment connection for three different occlusal dimensions each. The implant and abutment complex was placed in cortical and cancellous bone modeled using a computed tomography scan. This complex was subjected to a force of 100 N in the axial and oblique direction. The amount of stress and the pattern of stress generated were recorded on a color scale using ANSYS 13 software. Results: The results showed that overall maximum Von Misses stress on the bone is significantly less for friction fit than the passive fit in any loading conditions stresses on the implant were significantly higher for the friction fit than the passive fit. The narrow occlusal table models generated the least amount of stress on the implant abutment interface. Conclusion: It can thus be concluded that the conical connection distributes more stress to the implant body and dissipates less stress to the surrounding bone. A narrow occlusal table considerably reduces the occlusal overload. PMID:26929518

  9. Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) and Developing Diagnostic Markers Linked to Orange Rust Resistance in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiping; Islam, Md S; Sood, Sushma; Maya, Stephanie; Hanson, Erik A; Comstock, Jack; Wang, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of table sugar used in the world and has become a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Sugarcane production has been threatened by many diseases, and fungicide applications for disease control have been opted out for sustainable agriculture. Orange rust is one of the major diseases impacting sugarcane production worldwide. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and developing diagnostic markers are valuable for breeding programs to expedite release of superior sugarcane cultivars for disease control. In this study, an F 1 segregating population derived from a cross between two hybrid sugarcane clones, CP95-1039 and CP88-1762, was evaluated for orange rust resistance in replicated trails. Three QTLs controlling orange rust resistance in sugarcane (qORR109, qORR4 and qORR102) were identified for the first time ever, which can explain 58, 12 and 8% of the phenotypic variation, separately. We also characterized 1,574 sugarcane putative resistance ( R ) genes. These sugarcane putative R genes and simple sequence repeats in the QTL intervals were further used to develop diagnostic markers for marker-assisted selection of orange rust resistance. A PCR-based Resistance gene-derived maker, G1 was developed, which showed significant association with orange rust resistance. The putative QTLs and marker developed in this study can be effectively utilized in sugarcane breeding programs to facilitate the selection process, thus contributing to the sustainable agriculture for orange rust disease control.

  10. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error ε made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R 2 statistic (R a 2 ). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R a 2 statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R a 2 increases

  11. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  12. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Renewable Energies, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, Pozo Izquierdo Beach s/n, 35119 Santa Lucia, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error {epsilon} made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R{sup 2} statistic (R{sub a}{sup 2}). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R{sub a}{sup 2} statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R{sub a}{sup 2} increases. (author)

  13. La calidad percibida de servicio y su influencia en la fidelidad de usuarios mayores en centros de fitness públicos (Influence of perceived service quality on loyalty among elderly users of public fitness centres)

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo García, Ainara Bernal; Ainara Bernal; Alejandro Lara; Pablo Galán

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad es patente el aumento de la población mayor en los servicios deportivos, lo cual hace necesario la evaluación de la percepción de calidad debido a su repercusión sobre la fidelidad. Por esta razón, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron conocer la percepción de calidad y la fidelidad en clientes mayores de 55 años en centros de fitness públicos. Analizar si existen diferencias significativas en la percepción de calidad de este grupo de población. Y, examinar si la calidad perci...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Root Traits and the Associated QTLs for Maize Seedlings Grown in Paper Roll, Hydroponics and Vermiculite Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Gao, Kun; Shan, Shengchen; Gu, Riling; Wang, Zhangkui; Craft, Eric J; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing; Chen, Fanjun

    2017-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) plays an important role in the acquisition of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the environment. Currently RSA is rarely considered as criteria for selection to improve nutrient uptake efficiency in crop breeding. Under field conditions roots can be greatly influenced by uncontrolled environment factors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop fast selection methods for evaluating root traits of young seedlings in the lab which can then be related to high nutrient efficiency of adult plants in the field. Here, a maize recombination inbred line (RILs) population was used to compare the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen and phosphorous efficiency traits. The phenotypes of eight RSA-related traits were evaluated in young seedlings using three different growth systems (i.e., paper roll, hydroponics and vermiculite), and then subjected to correlation analysis with N efficiency and P efficiency related traits measured under field conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) of RSA were determined and QTL co-localizations across different growth systems were further analyzed. Phenotypic associations were observed for most of RSA traits among all three culture systems. RSA-related traits in hydroponics and vermiculite weakly correlated with Nitrogen (NupE) uptake efficiency ( r = 0.17-0.31) and Phosphorus (PupE) uptake efficiency ( r = 0.22-0.34). This correlation was not found in the paper roll growth system. A total of 14 QTLs for RSA were identified in paper rolls, 18 in hydroponics, and 14 in vermiculite. Co-localization of QTLs for RSA traits were identified in six chromosome regions of bin 1.04/1.05, 1.06, 2.04/2.05, 3.04, 4.05, and 5.04/5.05. The results suggest the problem of using the phenotype from one growth system to predict those in another growth system. Assessing RSA traits at the seedling stage using either hydroponics or a vermiculite system appears better suited than the paper roll system as an important index

  15. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host-plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-04-01

    QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host-plant resistance genes. Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 229358 and PI 227687. PI 229358's resistance is conferred by three quantitative trait loci (QTLs): M, G, and H. PI 227687's resistance is conferred by QTL-E. The letters indicate the soybean Linkage groups (LGs) on which the QTLs are located. This study aimed to determine if pyramiding PI 229358 and PI 227687 QTLs would enhance soybean resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and if pyramiding these QTLs with Bt (cry1Ac) enhances resistance against Bt-tolerant pests. The near-isogenic lines (NILs): Benning(ME), Benning(MGHE), and Benning(ME+cry1Ac) were developed. Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) were evaluated in detached-leaf and greenhouse assays with soybean looper [SBL, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], fall armyworm [FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], and velvetbean caterpillar [VBC, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)]; and in field-cage assays with SBL. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was tested in detached-leaf assays against SBL, VBC, and Southern armyworm [SAW, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer)]. In the detached-leaf assay, Benning(ME) showed the strongest antibiosis against CEW, FAW, and VBC. In field-cage conditions, Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) suffered 61 % less defoliation than Benning. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was more resistant than Benning(ME) and Benning (cry1Ac) against SBL and SAW. Agriculturally relevant levels of resistance in soybean can be achieved with just two loci, QTL-M and QTL-E. ME+cry1Ac could present an opportunity to protect the durability of Bt

  16. Mapping and validation of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice from an indica cultivar Habiganj Boro VI (Hbj.BVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Partha S; Khatun, Hasina; Das, Nomita; Sarker, Md Mahathir; Anisuzzaman, M

    2017-12-01

    Yellowing, stunting, and seedling death associated with cold stress is a common problem in many Asian countries for winter rice cultivation. Improvement of cultivars through marker-assisted selection of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage from locally adapted germplasm/cultivar is the most effective and sustainable strategy to resolve this problem. A study was undertaken to map QTLs from 151 F 2:3 progenies of a cross between a cold susceptible variety, BR1 and a locally adapted traditional indica cultivar, Hbj.BVI. A total of six significant QTLs were identified for two cold tolerance indices-cold-induced leaf discoloration and survival rate after a recovery period of seven days on chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and 12. Among these QTLs, qCTSL - 8 - 1 and qCTSS - 8 - 1 being co-localized into RM7027-RM339 on chromosome 8 and qCTSL - 12 - 1 and qCTSS - 12 - 1 into RM247-RM2529 on chromosome 12 showed 12.78 and 14.96% contribution, respectively, to the total phenotypic variation for cold tolerance. Validation of QTL effect in BC 1 F 3 population derived a cross between a cold susceptible BRRI dhan28 and Hbj.BVI showed dominating effect of qCTSL - 12 - 1 on cold tolerance at seedling stage and it became stronger when one or more other QTLs were co-segregated with it. These results suggest that the QTLs identified in this study are stable and effective on other genetic background also, which warrant the use of these QTLs for further study aiming to cultivar development for seedling stage cold tolerance.

  17. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  19. Influence of the corn resistance gene Mv on the fitness of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and on the transmission of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Brewbaker, J L; Bressan, A

    2013-08-01

    Crops that are resistant to pests and pathogens are cost-effective for the management of pests and diseases. A corn (Zea mays L.) breeding program conducted in Hawaii has identified a source of heritable resistance to maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus). This resistance is controlled by the gene Mv, which has been shown to have a codominant action. To date, no studies have examined whether the resistance associated with this gene affects only MMV or whether it also affects the insect vector, the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Here, we examined the life history of the corn planthopper and its ability to transmit MMV on near isogenic lines that were homozygous dominant (Mv/Mv), homozygous recessive (mv/mv), or heterozygous (Mv/mv) for the gene. A field trial was also conducted to study the colonization of the corn plants with different genotypes by the planthopper. Although field observations revealed slightly lower densities ofplanthoppers on corn with the genotype Mv/Mv than on the inbreds with the genotype mv/mv and their hybrids with the genotype Mv/mv, laboratory assays showed no effects of the gene on planthopper development, longevity, or fecundity. In the field, the corn lines Mv/Mv had a lower incidence of MMV-infected plants. However, in the greenhouse, the transmission of MMV to corn seedlings did not differ across the near isogenic lines, although the corn lines Mv/Mv showed a delayed onset of symptoms compared with the corn lines mv/mv and Mv/mv. The acquisition of MMV by corn planthoppers on the corn genotypes Mv/Mv and Mv/mv averaged 0.2, whereas the acquisition on the corn genotypes mv/mv averaged > 0.3. Our results show that the Mv gene does not influence the fitness of the planthopper vector, suggesting that it may confer resistance by other means, possibly by limiting virus replication or movement within the host plant.

  20. The benefits of interpersonal regulatory fit for individual goal pursuit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Rusbult, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work examines whether individual goal pursuit is influenced by advice and suggestions from interaction partners whose regulatory orientation is perceived to fit (vs. not fit) the individual's orientation. We sought to investigate whether such interpersonal regulatory fit yields

  1. Improved resolution in the position of drought-related QTLs in a single mapping population of rice by meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtois Brigitte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis of QTLs combines the results of several QTL detection studies and provides narrow confidence intervals for meta-QTLs, permitting easier positional candidate gene identification. It is usually applied to multiple mapping populations, but can be applied to one. Here, a meta-analysis of drought related QTLs in the Bala × Azucena mapping population compiles data from 13 experiments and 25 independent screens providing 1,650 individual QTLs separated into 5 trait categories; drought avoidance, plant height, plant biomass, leaf morphology and root traits. A heat map of the overlapping 1 LOD confidence intervals provides an overview of the distribution of QTLs. The programme BioMercator is then used to conduct a formal meta-analysis at example QTL clusters to illustrate the value of meta-analysis of QTLs in this population. Results The heat map graphically illustrates the genetic complexity of drought related traits in rice. QTLs can be linked to their physical position on the rice genome using Additional file 1 provided. Formal meta-analysis on chromosome 1, where clusters of QTLs for all trait categories appear close, established that the sd1 semi-dwarfing gene coincided with a plant height meta-QTL, that the drought avoidance meta-QTL was not likely to be associated with this gene, and that this meta-QTL was not pleiotropic with close meta-QTLs for leaf morphology and root traits. On chromosome 5, evidence suggests that a drought avoidance meta-QTL was pleiotropic with leaf morphology and plant biomass meta-QTLs, but not with meta-QTLs for root traits and plant height 10 cM lower down. A region of dense root QTL activity graphically visible on chromosome 9 was dissected into three meta-QTLs within a space of 35 cM. The confidence intervals for meta-QTLs obtained ranged from 5.1 to 14.5 cM with an average of 9.4 cM, which is approximately 180 genes in rice. Additional file 1 Alignment of markers on the Bala

  2. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  3. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  4. An Assessment of the Factors that Influence the Promotion and Delivery of Sport, Fitness, and Health Courses: Contributors of Marketing to Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ketra L.; O'Bryant, Camille; Costa, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Examined the demographics of college students enrolled in sport, fitness, and health program (SFHP) courses, investigating frequency of enrollment in courses, reasons for enrolling, and evaluation of course quality. Student surveys indicated that the main reasons for enrolling related to skill development or enhancement of knowledge about health…

  5. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1 markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering, flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight, 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers, we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1, maturity (2, plant height (1, grain yield (1, test weight (2, kernel weight (4, tillering (1 and grain protein content (2. Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM, 4B (80-82 cM and 5A (296-297 cM harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75 with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  6. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Background Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. Objective We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Methods Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. Results We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Conclusions Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications

  7. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...... identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified. ed in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields...

  8. Identification of putative QTLs for seedling stage phosphorus starvation response in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn. by association mapping and cross species synteny analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf and P deficient (Pdef treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants. The low P tolerant genotypes were characterised by increased shoot and root length and increased root hair induction with longer root hairs under Pdef, than under Psuf. Association mapping of P response traits using mixed linear models revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Two QTLs (qLRDW.1 and qLRDW.2 for low P response affecting root dry weight explained over 10% phenotypic variation. In silico synteny analysis across grass genomes for these QTLs identified putative candidate genes such as Ser-Thr kinase and transcription factors such as WRKY and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH. The QTLs for response under Psuf were mapped for traits such as shoot dry weight (qHSDW.1 and root length (qHRL.1. Putative associations of these QTLs over the syntenous regions on the grass genomes revealed proximity to cytochrome P450, phosphate transporter and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI genes. This is the first report of the extent of phenotypic variability for P response in finger millet genotypes during seedling-stage, along with the QTLs and putative candidate genes associated with P starvation tolerance.

  9. Identification of putative QTLs for seedling stage phosphorus starvation response in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) by association mapping and cross species synteny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M; Ceasar, S Antony; Vinod, K K; Duraipandiyan, V; Ajeesh Krishna, T P; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2017-01-01

    A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants. The low P tolerant genotypes were characterised by increased shoot and root length and increased root hair induction with longer root hairs under Pdef, than under Psuf. Association mapping of P response traits using mixed linear models revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two QTLs (qLRDW.1 and qLRDW.2) for low P response affecting root dry weight explained over 10% phenotypic variation. In silico synteny analysis across grass genomes for these QTLs identified putative candidate genes such as Ser-Thr kinase and transcription factors such as WRKY and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH). The QTLs for response under Psuf were mapped for traits such as shoot dry weight (qHSDW.1) and root length (qHRL.1). Putative associations of these QTLs over the syntenous regions on the grass genomes revealed proximity to cytochrome P450, phosphate transporter and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) genes. This is the first report of the extent of phenotypic variability for P response in finger millet genotypes during seedling-stage, along with the QTLs and putative candidate genes associated with P starvation tolerance.

  10. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn. Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of

  11. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Vinod, K K; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  12. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    Full Text Available Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidic acid (C20:0, gadoleic acid (C20:1, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022' and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20' were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE. Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  13. Mapeamento de QTLs para reação ao oídio e mancha-angular do feijoeiro-comum em diferentes locais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Leonardo Cunha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram mapear, em diferentes locais, marcadores RAPD ligados a QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci de reação do feijoeiro-comum ao oídio e à mancha-angular, avaliar a interação de QTLs por locais e comparar os métodos de mapeamento e regressão múltipla no processo de detecção de QTLs. Foram avaliadas 196 linhagens recombinantes, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Carioca e Flor de Mayo, em duas épocas de cultivo: época da seca, para mancha-angular, e inverno para oídio, nos anos de 1996, 1997 e 1998, em dois locais de Minas Gerais. Foram conduzidos sete experimentos de avaliação fenotípica utilizando o delineamento experimental em látice quadrado simples. Os resultados mostraram que a interação QTLs por locais foi significativa, mas foram identificados alguns QTLs com maior estabilidade. O método da regressão múltipla detectou maior número de marcadores ligados a QTLs do que o processo de mapeamento por intervalo composto; não houve concordância entre os resultados apresentados pelos dois métodos. Os marcadores que se mostraram mais estáveis e promissores para serem utilizados em programas de seleção assistida foram OPR02-832, OPD08-759 e OPN10-851 para reação a oídio; OPN02-436, e OPN07-1072 para reação à mancha-angular.

  14. The influence of the internalization of emotional regulation on mental health among the Taiwanese people: the moderating effect of cultural fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    This study used a 2-stage questionnaire survey to explore whether self-regulation by withholding negative emotions (SRWNE) affects mental health and examines further whether cultural fit can moderate the relationship between SRWNE and mental health. The 2-stage studies used data collected from 405 (time 1) and 313 (time 2) full-time staff employed by private and public enterprises in Taiwan. The author tested hypotheses through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that controlled SRWNE through external regulation and introjected regulation is significantly associated positively with somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression, whereas autonomous SRWNE through identified regulation is significantly associated negatively with anxiety and insomnia, and social dysfunction. In addition, this study also found that cultural fit may moderate the relationship between SRWNE or introjected regulation and identified regulation and the mental health indicators. © 2012 APJPH.

  15. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  16. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  17. [Influence of coping material selection and porcelain firing on marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer- aided manufacturing of zirconia and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuiling, Liu; Liyuan, Yang; Xu, Gao; Hong, Shang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of coping material and porcelain firing on the marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns. Zirconia ceramic implant (group A, n = 8) and titanium metal ceramic implant-supported crowns (group B, n = 8) were produced from copings using the CAD/CAM system. The marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were measured by using a light-body silicone replica technique combined with micro-computed tomography scanning to obtain a three-dimensional image. Marginal gap (MG), horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD), and axial wall (AW) were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. Prior to porcelain firing, the measurements for MG, HMD, and AW of copings in group A were significantly larger than those in group B (P 0.05). Porcelain firing significantly reduced MG (P 0.05). The marginal fits of CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns were superior to those of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic-supported crowns. The fits of both the CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns were obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  18. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  19. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Faustine; Chauvel, Louis

    2018-04-20

    Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications for public health: the digital self

  20. Influence of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Horbonos-Andronova

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to determine the effect of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness. Results: significant differences in the level of development of basic motor qualities tourists conductors between the experimental and control groups. Material and Methods: the used theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, teacher testing, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 90 people, 64 of them – men and 26 – wom...

  1. The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, James L; Sax, Andrew T; Hughes, Gareth I; Jenkins, David G; Aitken, Joanne F; Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey C; Bolam, Kate A; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors. Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks. HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p body composition for colorectal cancer survivors. HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.

  2. The influence of sport club participation on physical activity, fitness and body fat during childhood and adolescence: The LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Cochrane, Thomas; Cunningham, Ross B; Olive, Lisa S; Davey, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal effect of sport participation in physical activity, fitness and body fat changes during childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal study (134 boys, 155 girls) of Australian youth aged 8-16 years. Physical activity was assessed by pedometers and accelerometers, fitness by the 20m shuttle-run, body fat by DEXA and club sport participation by questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of sport participation and gender differences. Sports club participants were more physically active at all age groups than non-participants; boys took an extra 1800 steps (psports participants (boys 27% and girls 20% higher, both psport participant girls had 2.9% less body fat (psports participants but their greater PA diminished during adolescence, this being more evident among girls. Only 20% of sports club participants met the recommended daily average of 60min MVPA. Sport participants were more active, fitter and had less body fat (girls only) than non-sports participants. However, the associated benefits of sport with PA diminished during adolescence and the majority of sports participants did not meet recommended levels of PA. Strategies aiming to maximise the benefits of sports participation may be enhanced by providing special attention to the early adolescent period particularly among girls. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6±4.2 years answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions.

  4. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  5. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  6. Identification of QTLs for grain yield and grain-related traits of maize (Zea mays L.) using an AFLP-map, different testers, and cofactor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajimone Marsan, P.; Gorni, C.; Chitto, A.; Redaelli, R.; Vijk, van R.; Stam, P.; Motto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We exploited the AFLP?1(AFLP? is a registered trademark of Keygene, N.V.) technique to map and characterise quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and two grain-related traits of a maize segregating population. Two maize elite inbred lines were crossed to produce 229 F2 individuals

  7. Mediation Analysis Demonstrates That Trans-eQTLs Are Often Explained by Cis-Mediation : A Genome-Wide Analysis among 1,800 South Asians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Tong, Lin; Chen, Lin S.; Rahaman, Ronald; Argos, Maria; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Esko, Tonu; Zaman, Rakibuz; Islam, Tariqul; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Baron, John A.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of human genes are regulated by genetic variation near the transcribed sequence (cis-eQTL, expression quantitative trait locus), and many cis-eQTLs have implications for human disease. Less is known regarding the effects of genetic variation on expression of distant genes

  8. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Maris, P.C.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F-2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1,

  9. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giband Marc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb and G. hirsutum (Gh, differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2, 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and

  10. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Llewellyn, Danny; Jacobs, John; Arioli, Tony; Becker, David; Calhoun, Steve; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Liu, Shiming; Palaï, Oumarou; Georges, Sophie; Giband, Marc; de Assunção, Henrique; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna; Claverie, Michel; Gawryziak, Gérard; Jean, Janine; Vialle, Michèle; Viot, Christopher

    2010-06-28

    Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh x Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and

  11. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  12. Influence of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Horbonos-Andronova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness. Results: significant differences in the level of development of basic motor qualities tourists conductors between the experimental and control groups. Material and Methods: the used theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, teacher testing, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 90 people, 64 of them – men and 26 – women. Conclusions: determined that the overall level of physical qualities tourists conductors is low; no single structure building training process of preparation tourists conductors 12–13 years; no innovative technologies; narrow range of physical training of athletes. Established that additional means of physical training significantly affect the level of physical qualities tourists conductors 12–13 years at a stage of previous base preparation

  13. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Junjie; Luo, Shaobo; Niu, Yu; Huang, Rukui; Wen, Qingfang; Su, Jianwen; Miao, Nansheng; He, Weiming; Dong, Zhensheng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Hu, Kailin

    2018-01-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD)-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48%) of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future. PMID:29706980

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals Multiple QTLs Governing Tolerance Response for Seedling Stage Chilling Stress in Indica Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat K. Pradhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop is sensitive to cold stress at seedling stage. A panel of population representing 304 shortlisted germplasm lines was studied for seedling stage chilling tolerance in indica rice. Six phenotypic classes were exposed to six low temperature stress regimes under control phenotyping facility to investigate response pattern. A panel of 66 genotypes representing all phenotypic classes was used for ensuring genetic diversity, population structure and association mapping for the trait using 58 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 2 direct trait linked markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected in the panel population for the trait. Deviation of Hardy-Weinberg's expectation was detected in the studied population using Wright's F statistic. The panel showed 30% variation among population and 70% among individuals. The entire population was categorized into three sub-populations through STRUCTURE analysis. This revealed tolerance for the trait had a common primary ancestor for each sub-population with few admix individuals. The panel population showed the presence of many QTLs for cold stress tolerance in the individuals representing like genome-wide expression of the trait. Nineteen SSR markers were significantly associated at chilling stress of 8°C to 4°C for 7–21 days duration. Thus, the primers linked to the seedling stage cold tolerance QTLs namely qCTS9, qCTS-2, qCTS6.1, qSCT2, qSCT11, qSCT1a, qCTS-3.1, qCTS11.1, qCTS12.1, qCTS-1b, and CTB2 need to be pyramided for development of strongly chilling tolerant variety.

  15. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48% of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future.

  16. Natural variation in partial resistance to Pseudomonas syringae is controlled by two major QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Perchepied

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-level, partial resistance is pre-eminent in natural populations, however, the mechanisms underlying this form of resistance are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used the model pathosystem Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst - Arabidopsis thaliana to study the genetic basis of this form of resistance. Phenotypic analysis of a set of Arabidopsis accessions, based on evaluation of in planta pathogen growth revealed extensive quantitative variation for partial resistance to Pst. It allowed choosing a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Bayreuth and Shahdara for quantitative genetic analysis. Experiments performed under two different environmental conditions led to the detection of two major and two minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs governing partial resistance to Pst and called PRP-Ps1 to PRP-Ps4. The two major QTLs, PRP-Ps1 and PRP-Ps2, were confirmed in near isogenic lines (NILs, following the heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs strategy. Analysis of marker gene expression using these HIFs indicated a negative correlation between the induced amount of transcripts of SA-dependent genes PR1, ICS and PR5, and the in planta bacterial growth in the HIF segregating at PRP-Ps2 locus, suggesting an implication of PRP-Ps2 in the activation of SA dependent responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that variation in partial resistance to Pst in Arabidopsis is governed by relatively few loci, and the validation of two major loci opens the way for their fine mapping and their cloning, which will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying partial resistance.

  17. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  18. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  19. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  20. Does outpatient physical therapy with the aim of improving health-related physical fitness influence the level of physical activity in patients with long-term musculoskeletal conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, I; Tveter, A T; Moseng, T; Dagfinrud, H

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate any change in self-reported level of physical activity in patients receiving a general physical exercise programme in addition to disease-specific physiotherapy treatment. Pre-post-intervention study. Outpatient physiotherapy clinics. One hundred and ninety patients with long-term musculoskeletal conditions attending outpatient physiotherapy were recruited from seven physiotherapy clinics. Physiotherapy including disease-specific modalities and a general individually tailored exercise programme. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the programme. International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form (IPAQ-sf) and COOP WONCA functional assessment charts. Forty-two patients were excluded from the analysis because they did not complete the IPAQ-sf correctly or dropped out during the treatment period. There was a significant increase in the number of metabolic equivalent task (MET)-min/week for vigorous and moderate-intensity activities, walking and total physical activity. The number of exercise sessions per week increased from 1.8 [standard deviation (SD) 0.9] to 2.2 (SD 1.2) (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with a low level of physical activity decreased by 12%, and the proportion of the participants who did not/could not exercise decreased from 26% to 8%. The COOP WONCA charts showed significant improvements in the physical fitness, feelings, daily activities and social activities items. A significant increase was found in the number of MET-min/week for all activity levels. Therefore, a general physical exercise programme initiated by a physiotherapist led to a positive change in level of physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How does a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy influence perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity? The Norwegian fit for delivery study, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakstad, Lene A H; Vistad, Ingvild; Sagedal, Linda Reme; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Torstveit, Monica K

    2018-05-03

    To develop effective health promotional and preventive prenatal programs, it is important to understand perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, including exercise and sport participation. The aims of the present study was 1) to assess the effect of prenatal lifestyle intervention on the perceived barrier to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy and the first year after delivery and 2) identify the most important perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at multiple time points during and after pregnancy. This secondary analysis was part of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study, a combined lifestyle intervention evaluated in a blinded, randomized controlled trial. Healthy, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational weeks, age ≥ 18 years and body mass index ≥19 kg/m 2 were recruited via healthcare clinics in southern Norway, including urban and rural settings. Participants were randomized to either twice-weekly supervised exercise sessions and nutritional counselling (n = 303) or standard prenatal care (n = 303). The principal analysis was based on the participants who completed the standardized questionnaire assessing their perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at inclusion (gestational week 16, n = 589) and following intervention (gestational week 36, n = 509), as well as six months (n = 470) and 12 months (n = 424) postpartum. Following intervention (gestation week 35.4 ± 1.0), a significant between-group difference in perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity was found with respect to time constraints: "... I do not have the time" (intervention: 22 vs. control: 38, p = 0.030), mother-child safety concerns: "... afraid to harm the baby" (intervention: 8 vs. control: 25, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy: "... I do not believe/think that I can do it" (intervention: 3 vs. control: 10, p = 0.050). No positive effect was seen

  2. Identification of QTLs influencing agronomic traits in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. I. Total height, flag-leaf height and stem diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, S.G.; Satovic, Z.; Petersen, K.K.; Dolstra, O.; Martin, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed the first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for agronomic traits in a cross between F1.1 (P1) and F1.7 (P7) entries of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Both lines are offspring of the cross between MS-90-2 and MS-88-110. A map based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers

  3. Influence of Diamondlike Carbon Coating of Screws on Axial Tightening Force and Stress Distribution on Overdenture Bar Frameworks with Different Fit Levels and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Bacchi, Atais; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the axial tightening force applied by conventional and diamondlike carbon (DLC)-coated screws and to verify, through three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA), the stress distribution caused by different framework materials and prosthetic screws in overdenture frameworks with different misfit levels. The axial tightening force applied by the screw was evaluated by means of a titanium matrix connected to a load cell. Conventional titanium or DLC-coated screws were tightened with a digital torque wrench, and the load values were recorded. The values were applied in an FEA to a bar-clip attachment system connected to two 4.0 × 11-mm external-hexagon titanium implants placed in an anterior edentulous arch. DLC-coated and conventional screws were modeled with their respective axial forces obtained on the experimental evaluation for three bar framework materials (titanium, nickel-chromium, and cobalt-chromium) and three levels of misfit (100, 150, and 200 μm). Von Mises stresses for prosthetic components and maximum principal stress and microstrains (maximum principal strains) for bone tissue were measured. The mean force applied by the conventional screw was 25.55 N (± 1.78); the prosthetic screw coated with a DLC layer applied a mean force of 31.44 N (± 2.11), a statistically significant difference. In the FEA, the DLC screw led to higher stresses on the framework; however, the prosthetic screw suffered lower stress. No influence of screw type was seen in the bone tissue. Titanium frameworks reduced the stress transmitted to the bone tissue and the bar framework but had no influence on the screws. Higher misfit values resulted in an increased stress/strain in bone tissue and bar framework, which was not the case for retention screws.

  4. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  5. Flow structure and heat transfer in a square duct fitted with dual/quadruple twisted-tapes: Influence of tape configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiamsa-ard, S.; Changcharoen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical predictions reported of thermohydraulic characteristics of square ducts equipped with dual and quadruple twisted tapes (DTs and QTs) with different configurations. The studied cases include (1) dual co-tapes (Co-DTs), (2) dual counter-tapes (C-DTs), (3) diagonal dual counter-tapes (C-DDTs), (4) diagonal dual co-tapes (Co-DDTs), (5) quadruple co-tapes (Co-QTs), (6) quadruple counter tapes (CC-QTs) and (7) quadruple counter-tapes (PC-QTs). The results of these cases are compared with those of a smooth duct (a duct without tape insert) and also the one with a single tape (ST). The prediction involves using the RNG k-ε turbulent model under constant wall heat flux condition in the turbulent flow regime for the Reynolds number ranging from 6000 to 14000. The prediction indicates that thermohydraulic characteristics in ducts with twisted tape are strongly dependent on number and configuration of tapes. However, the influence of tape number is more significant than that of tape configuration. Heat transfer and friction increase as tape number increases. QTs offer superior heat transfer to DTs but their thermal performance factors are lower. For the tape inserts determined, DTs with diagonal configuration (Co-DDTs and C-DDTs) is the best design as the tapes offer the best thermal performance. The highest thermal performance factors given by Co-DTs, Co-DDTs, C-DTs, C-DDTs, Co-QTs, PC-QTs and CC-QTs, are around 1.21, 1.35, 1.25, 1.38, 1.08, 1.18, and 1.22, respectively

  6. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ctm

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions ... influences the sensory perception of fruits by consumers. (Harker et al. ..... direct comparisons between studies are difficult.

  7. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  8. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  9. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  10. Fine-mapping resolves Eae23 into two QTLs and implicates ZEB1 as a candidate gene regulating experimental neuroinflammation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Stridh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms involved in multiple sclerosis (MS, we studied genetic regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rats, assuming a conservation of pathogenic pathways. In this study, we focused on Eae23, originally identified to regulate EAE in a (LEW.1AV1xPVG.1AV1F2 cross. Our aim was to determine whether one or more genes within the 67 Mb region regulate EAE and to define candidate risk genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used high resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis in the 10th generation (G10 of an advanced intercross line (AIL to resolve Eae23 into two QTLs that independently regulate EAE, namely Eae23a and Eae23b. We established a congenic strain to validate the effect of this region on disease. PVG alleles in Eae23 resulted in significant protection from EAE and attenuated CNS inflammation/demyelination. Disease amelioration was accompanied with increased levels of Foxp3(+ cells in the CNS of the congenic strain compared to DA. We then focused on candidate gene investigation in Eae23b, a 9 Mb region linked to all clinical phenotypes. Affymetrix exon arrays were used to study expression of the genes in Eae23b in the parental strains, where none showed differential expression. However, we found lower expression of exon 4 of ZEB1, which is specific for splice-variant Zfhep1. ZEB1 is an interleukin 2 (IL2 repressor involved in T cell development. The splice-specific variance prompted us to next analyze the expression of ZEB1 and its two splice variants, Zfhep1 and Zfhep2, in both lymph node and spleen. We demonstrated that ZEB1 splice-variants are differentially expressed; severity of EAE and higher IL2 levels were associated with down-regulation of Zfhep1 and up-regulation of Zfhep2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We speculate that the balance between splice-variants of ZEB1 could influence the regulation of EAE. Further functional studies of ZEB1 and the splice-variants may unravel

  11. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Mediation Analysis Demonstrates That Trans-eQTLs Are Often Explained by Cis-Mediation: A Genome-Wide Analysis among 1,800 South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Tong, Lin; Chen, Lin S.; Rahaman, Ronald; Argos, Maria; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Esko, Tonu; Zaman, Rakibuz; Islam, Tariqul; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Baron, John A.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of human genes are regulated by genetic variation near the transcribed sequence (cis-eQTL, expression quantitative trait locus), and many cis-eQTLs have implications for human disease. Less is known regarding the effects of genetic variation on expression of distant genes (trans-eQTLs) and their biological mechanisms. In this work, we use genome-wide data on SNPs and array-based expression measures from mononuclear cells obtained from a population-based cohort of 1,799 Bangladeshi individuals to characterize cis- and trans-eQTLs and determine if observed trans-eQTL associations are mediated by expression of transcripts in cis with the SNPs showing trans-association, using Sobel tests of mediation. We observed 434 independent trans-eQTL associations at a false-discovery rate of 0.05, and 189 of these trans-eQTLs were also cis-eQTLs (enrichment Pmediator based on Sobel Pmediation signals in two European cohorts, and while only 7 trans-eQTL associations were present in one or both cohorts, 6 showed evidence of cis-mediation. Analyses of simulated data show that complete mediation will be observed as partial mediation in the presence of mediator measurement error or imperfect LD between measured and causal variants. Our data demonstrates that trans-associations can become significantly stronger or switch directions after adjusting for a potential mediator. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is expected in the presence of strong cis-trans confounding and when the measured cis-transcript is correlated with the true (unmeasured) mediator. In conclusion, by applying mediation analysis to eQTL data, we show that a substantial fraction of observed trans-eQTL associations can be explained by cis-mediation. Future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying widespread cis-mediation and their relevance to disease biology, as well as using mediation analysis to improve eQTL discovery. PMID:25474530

  13. Worse renal disease in postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats: detection of novel QTLs affecting hypertensive kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertension increases after menopause with 75% of postmenopausal women developing hypertension in the United States, along with hypertensive end organ diseases. While human and animal model studies have indicated a protective role for estrogen against cardiovascular disease and glomerulosclerosis, clinical studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women have shown polar results with some improvement in hypertension but worsening of hypertensive kidney disease, or no effect at all. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of postmenopausal hypertension and its target organ complications is more complex than projected, and that loss of endogenous estrogens induces epigenetic changes that alter genetic susceptibility to end-organ complications per se resulting in pathogenetic mechanisms beyond correction by hormone replacement. We studied postmenopausal-induced changes in renal disease and performed a total genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting kidney disease in postmenopausal 16m-old F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross female rats. We used glomerular injury score (GIS as quantitative trait. We compared QTLs amongst premenopausal, ovariectomized and postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats using identical phenotype characterization. Postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats exhibited increased hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (P<0.01 and equivalent levels of kidney disease when compared to premenopausal and ovariectomized F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats respectively. We detected three significant to highly significant GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm1 on chromosome 4, LOD 3.54; GIS-pm2 on chromosome 3, LOD 2.72; GIS-pm3 on chromosome 5, LOD 2.37 and two suggestive GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm4 on chromosome 2, LOD 1.70; GIS-pm5 on chromosome 7, LOD 1.28, all of which were unique to this postmenopausal population. Detection of increased renal disease phenotype in postmenopausal and ovariectomized subjects suggests a

  14. Worse renal disease in postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats: detection of novel QTLs affecting hypertensive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension increases after menopause with 75% of postmenopausal women developing hypertension in the United States, along with hypertensive end organ diseases. While human and animal model studies have indicated a protective role for estrogen against cardiovascular disease and glomerulosclerosis, clinical studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women have shown polar results with some improvement in hypertension but worsening of hypertensive kidney disease, or no effect at all. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of postmenopausal hypertension and its target organ complications is more complex than projected, and that loss of endogenous estrogens induces epigenetic changes that alter genetic susceptibility to end-organ complications per se resulting in pathogenetic mechanisms beyond correction by hormone replacement. We studied postmenopausal-induced changes in renal disease and performed a total genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting kidney disease in postmenopausal 16m-old F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross female rats. We used glomerular injury score (GIS) as quantitative trait. We compared QTLs amongst premenopausal, ovariectomized and postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats using identical phenotype characterization. Postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats exhibited increased hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (P<0.01) and equivalent levels of kidney disease when compared to premenopausal and ovariectomized F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats respectively. We detected three significant to highly significant GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm1 on chromosome 4, LOD 3.54; GIS-pm2 on chromosome 3, LOD 2.72; GIS-pm3 on chromosome 5, LOD 2.37) and two suggestive GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm4 on chromosome 2, LOD 1.70; GIS-pm5 on chromosome 7, LOD 1.28), all of which were unique to this postmenopausal population. Detection of increased renal disease phenotype in postmenopausal and ovariectomized subjects suggests a protective role of

  15. Fine-Mapping Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene: Separate QTLs Identified for Hypertension and for ACE Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Min; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Fann, Cathy S. J.; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Kang, Chih-Sen; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been implicated in multiple biological system, particularly cardiovascular diseases. However, findings associating ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism with hypertension or other related traits are inconsistent. Therefore, in a two-stage approach, we aimed to fine-map ACE in order to narrow-down the function-specific locations. We genotyped 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE from 1168 individuals from 305 young-onset (age ≤40) hypertension pedigrees, and found four linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. A tag-SNP, rs1800764 on LD block 2, upstream of and near the ACE promoter, was significantly associated with young-onset hypertension (p = 0.04). Tag-SNPs on all LD blocks were significantly associated with ACE activity (p-value: 10–16 to ACE activity were found between exon13 and intron18 and between intron 20 and 3′UTR, as revealed by measured haplotype analysis. These two major QTLs of ACE activity and the moderate effect variant upstream of ACE promoter for young-onset hypertension were replicated by another independent association study with 842 subjects. PMID:23469169

  16. Identification of QTLs Associated with Callogenesis and Embryogenesis in Oil Palm Using Genetic Linkage Maps Improved with SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

  17. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  18. Identification of QTLs associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis in oil palm using genetic linkage maps improved with SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting

    Full Text Available Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for dura (ENL48 and pisifera (ML161, the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs in 23 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.

  19. Genetic Variation and Association Analysis of the SSR Markers Linked to the Major Drought-Yield QTLs of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabkhkar, Narjes; Rabiei, Babak; Samizadeh Lahiji, Habibollah; Hosseini Chaleshtori, Maryam

    2018-02-24

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses, which hampers the production of rice worldwide. Informative molecular markers are valuable tools for improving the drought tolerance in various varieties of rice. The present study was conducted to evaluate the informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in a diverse set of rice genotypes. The genetic diversity analyses of the 83 studied rice genotypes were performed using 34 SSR markers closely linked to the major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of grain yield under drought stress (qDTYs). In general, our results indicated high levels of polymorphism. In addition, we screened these rice genotypes at the reproductive stage under both drought stress and nonstressful conditions. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between 11 SSR marker alleles and the plant paddy weight under stressful conditions. Under the nonstressful conditions, 16 SSR marker alleles showed a significant correlation with the plant paddy weight. Finally, four markers (RM279, RM231, RM166, and RM231) demonstrated a significant association with the plant paddy weight under both stressful and nonstressful conditions. These informative-associated alleles may be useful for improving the crop yield under both drought stress and nonstressful conditions in breeding programs.

  20. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  2. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, o...

  3. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  4. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  5. Direct fitness of group living mammals varies with breeding strategy, climate and fitness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Rivera, Daniela S; Hayes, Loren D

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding how variation in fitness relates to variation in group living remains critical to determine whether this major aspect of social behaviour is currently adaptive. 2. Available evidence in social mammals aimed to examine this issue remains controversial. Studies show positive (i.e. potentially adaptive), neutral or even negative fitness effects of group living. 3. Attempts to explain this variation rely on intrinsic and extrinsic factors to social groups. Thus, relatively more positive fitness effects are predicted in singularly breeding as opposed to plural breeding species. Fitness effects of sociality in turn may depend on ecological conditions (i.e. extrinsic factors) that influence associated benefits and costs. 4. We used meta-analytic tools to review how breeding strategy or ecological conditions influence the effect size associated with direct fitness-sociality relationships reported in the mammalian literature. Additionally, we determined how taxonomic affiliation of species studied, different fitness and sociality measures used, and major climatic conditions of study sites explained any variation in direct fitness effect size. 5. We found group living had modest, yet positive effects on direct fitness. This generally adaptive scenario was contingent not only upon breeding strategy and climate of study sites, but also on fitness measures examined. Thus, positive and significant effects characterized singular as opposed to plural breeding strategies. 6. We found more positive fitness effects on studies conducted in tropical as opposed to temperate or arid climates. More positive and significant effects were noted on studies that relied on group fecundity, male fecundity and offspring survival as measures of fitness. 7. To conclude, direct fitness consequences of mammalian group living are driven by interspecific differences in breeding strategy and climate conditions. Other factors not examined in this study, namely individual variation in

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  7. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  8. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  9. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  10. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  11. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  12. The influence of mold temperature on the fit of cast crowns with commercially pure titanium Influência de temperaturas do molde na adaptação de coroas fundidas em titânio comercialmente puro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sotero Fragoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti has been widely applied to fabricate cast devices because of its favorable properties. However, the mold temperature recommended for the manufacture of casts has been considered relatively low, causing inadequate castability and poor marginal fit of cast crowns. This study evaluated and compared the influence of mold temperature (430°C - as control, 550°C, 670°C on the marginal discrepancies of cast CP Ti crowns. Eight bovine teeth were prepared on a mechanical grinding device and impressions were used to duplicate each tooth and produce eight master dies. Twenty-four crowns were fabricated using CP Ti in three different groups of mold temperature (n = 8: 430°C (as control, 550°C and 670°C. The gap between the crown and the bovine tooth was measured at 50 X magnification with a traveling microscope. The marginal fit values of the cast CP Ti crowns were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.03. The 550°C group (95.0 µm showed significantly better marginal fit than the crowns of the 430°C group (203.4 µm and 670°C group (213.8 µm. Better marginal fit for cast CP Ti crowns was observed with the mold temperature of 550°C, differing from the 430°C recommended by the manufacturer.O titânio comercialmente puro (Ti c.p. tem sido largamente empregado na elaboração de estruturas protéticas fundidas devido às suas propriedades favoráveis. Entretanto, a temperatura do molde recomendada pelo fabricante tem sido considerada baixa, causando inadequada fundibilidade e precária adaptação marginal de coroas fundidas. Este estudo avaliou e comparou a influência de temperaturas do molde (430°C - como controle, 550°C, 670°C na discrepância marginal de coroas fundidas em Ti c.p. Oito dentes bovinos foram preparados em um torno mecânico e moldados para produzirem oito modelos-mestre. Vinte e quatro coroas foram confeccionadas em Ti c.p. para três grupos de temperatura do molde (n = 8: 430°C (como

  13. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clerc, Sigrid; van Manen, Daniëlle; Coulonges, Cédric; Ulveling, Damien; Laville, Vincent; Labib, Taoufik; Taing, Lieng; Delaneau, Olivier; Montes, Matthieu; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zagury, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Background Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS. Methods We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate. Results Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%). Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV. PMID:26367535

  14. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Spadoni

    Full Text Available Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS.We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate.Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%. Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV.

  15. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  16. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  17. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  18. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  19. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  20. A influência do genótipo da ECA sobre a aptidão cardiovascular de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeser Alves Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (gene ECA tem sido amplamente estudado em relação a fenótipos de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, contudo a associação do genótipo da ECA com corridas de meia-distância tem sido pouco investigada. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a possível influência da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA (I/D sobre a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de meia-distância por parte de brasileiros jovens do sexo masculino. A validade da previsão de VO2max em relação ao genótipo da ECA também foi analisada. MÉTODOS: Um grupo homogêneo de homens jovens moderadamente ativos foi avaliado em um teste de corrida (V1600 m; m.min-1 e em um teste adicional em esteira ergométrica para a determinação de VO2max. Posteriormente, o [(0,177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max real e previsto foi comparado com os genótipos da ECA. RESULTADOS: O VO2max e V1600m registrados para os genótipos DD, ID e II foram 45,6 (1,8; 51,9 (0,8 e 54,4 (1,0 mL.kg-1.min-1 e 211,2 (8,3; 249,1 (4,3 e 258,6 (5,4 m.min-1, respectivamente e foram significativamente mais baixos para os genótipos DD (p BACKGROUND: The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the possible influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE genotype (I/D on cardiovascular fitness and middle-distance running performance of Brazilian young males. The validity of VO2max to predict the ACE genotype was also analyzed. METHODS: A homogeneous group of moderately active young males were evaluated in a 1,600 m running track test (V1600m; m.min-1 and in an incremental treadmill test for VO2max determination. Subsequently, the actual and the predicted [(0.177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max were compared to ACE genotypes. RESULTS: The VO2max and V1600m

  1. Coupling of MIC-3 overexpression with the chromosomes 11 and 14 root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance QTLs provides insights into the regulation of the RKN resistance response in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne D

    2016-09-01

    Genetic analysis of MIC-3 transgene with RKN resistance QTLs provides insight into the resistance regulatory mechanism and provides a framework for testing additional hypotheses. Resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is mediated by two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosomes 11 and 14. The MIC-3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton3) protein accumulates specifically within the immature galls of RKN-resistant plants that possess these QTLs. Recently, we showed that MIC-3 overexpression in an RKN-susceptible cotton genotype suppressed RKN egg production but not RKN-induced root galling. In this study, the MIC-3 overexpression construct T-DNA in the single-copy transgenic line '14-7-1' was converted into a codominant molecular marker that allowed the marker assisted selection of F2:3 cotton lines, derived from a cross between 14-7-1 and M-240 RNR, having all possible combinations of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs with and without the MIC-3 overexpression construct. Root-knot nematode reproduction (eggs g(-1) root) and severity of RKN-induced root galling were assessed in these lines. We discovered that the addition of MIC-3 overexpression suppressed RKN reproduction in lines lacking both resistance QTLs and in lines having only the chromosome 14 QTL, suggesting an additive effect of the MIC-3 construct with this QTL. In contrast, MIC-3 overexpression did not improve resistance in lines having the single chromosome 11 QTL or in lines having both resistance QTLs, suggesting an epistatic interaction between the chromosome 11 QTL and the MIC-3 construct. Overexpression of MIC-3 did not affect the severity of RKN-induced root galling regardless of QTL genotype. These data provide new insights into the relative order of action of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs and their potential roles in regulating MIC-3 expression as part of the RKN resistance response.

  2. [Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Silvia; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness. To establish the relationship between a sedentary behavior (sit ≥4 hours/day) and physical fitness in 457 women aged 65 years or older. Physical fitness was evaluated by 8 adapted tests from "Senior Fitness Test" and "Eurofit Testing Battery". ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups according to the hours of sitting and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of the sedentary behavior with low fitness, using as reference the 20th percentile of the normative values in Spain (EXERNET Project). Sedentary women had lower balance, legs and arms strength, arms flexibility, walking speed and endurance (p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat ≥4 hours/day had higher odds for having low fitness in most of the mentioned tests, regardless of the hours of walking (p < 0.05). Sitting for a long time has a negative influence on physical fitness among postmenopausal women independently of walking time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  4. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  5. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  6. Identification of QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew and SSR markers diagnostic for powdery mildew resistance genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Monforte, Antonio J; Sugiyama, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Yoshiteru; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is an important foliar disease in melon. To find molecular markers for marker-assisted selection, we constructed a genetic linkage map of melon based on a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from crosses between highly resistant AR 5 and susceptible 'Earl's Favourite (Harukei 3)'. The map spans 877 cM and consists of 167 markers, comprising 157 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 7 sequence characterized amplified region/cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers and 3 phenotypic markers segregating into 20 linkage groups. Among them, 37 SSRs and 6 other markers were common to previous maps. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci for resistance to powdery mildew. The effects of these QTLs varied depending on strain and plant stage. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained for resistance to the pxA strain was similar between QTLs (R (2) = 22-28%). For resistance to pxB strain, the QTL on linkage group (LG) XII was responsible for much more of the variance (41-46%) than that on LG IIA (12-13%). The QTL on LG IIA was located between two SSR markers. Using an independent population, we demonstrated the effectiveness of these markers. This is the first report of universal and effective markers linked to a gene for powdery mildew resistance in melon.

  7. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  8. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  9. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  10. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  11. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  12. Relationships Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta; Park, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, the influences of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA %S]) on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness were explored. Data were abstracted from a completed study that included 51 overweight or obese subjects with T2DM ( n = 18), impaired glucose tolerance ( n = 8), or normal glucose tolerance ( n = 25). Relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (VO 2 peak and VT) were determined using correlational analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. A statistically significant relationship was observed between HbA1c and cardiovascular fitness. However, BMI and HOMA %S did not influence the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness. HbA1c contributes to VO 2 peak and VT in obese and overweight subjects across glucose tolerance categories. Significant results were achieved despite the fact that there was a limited range of HbA1c based on the study inclusion criteria. This finding suggests that even a mild decrease in glycemic control can negatively influence cardiovascular fitness.

  13. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  14. Fine-mapping and cross-validation of QTLs linked to fatty acid composition in multiple independent interspecific crosses of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Yaakub, Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Katialisa; Mayes, Sean; Massawe, Festo; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Jansen, Johannes; Low, Leslie Eng Ti; Ithnin, Maizura; Kushairi, Ahmad; Arulandoo, Xaviar; Rosli, Rozana; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Sritharan, Kandha; Lim, Chin Ching; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-04-14

    The commercial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) produces a mesocarp oil (commonly called 'palm oil') with approximately equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). An increase in unsaturated FAs content or iodine value (IV) as a measure of the degree of unsaturation would help to open up new markets for the oil. One way to manipulate the fatty acid composition (FAC) in palm oil is through introgression of favourable alleles from the American oil palm, E. oleifera, which has a more unsaturated oil. In this study, a segregating E. oleifera x E. guineensis (OxG) hybrid population for FAC is used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to IV and various FAs. QTL analysis revealed 10 major and two putative QTLs for IV and six FAs, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 distributed across six linkage groups (LGs), OT1, T2, T3, OT4, OT6 and T9. The major QTLs for IV and C16:0 on LGOT1 explained 60.0 - 69.0 % of the phenotypic trait variation and were validated in two independent BC2 populations. The genomic interval contains several key structural genes in the FA and oil biosynthesis pathways such as PATE/FATB, HIBCH, BASS2, LACS4 and DGAT1 and also a relevant transcription factor (TF), WRI1. The literature suggests that some of these genes can exhibit pleiotropic effects in the regulatory networks of these traits. Using the whole genome sequence data, markers tightly linked to the candidate genes were also developed. Clustering trait values according to the allelic forms of these candidate markers revealed significant differences in the IV and FAs of the palms in the mapping and validation crosses. The candidate gene approach described and exploited here is useful to identify the potential causal genes linked to FAC and can be adopted for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in oil palm.

  15. Attracting applicants on the web: PO fit, industry culture stereotypes, and website design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.E.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Klehe, U.-C.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the extent to which industry culture stereotypes influence job-seekers' Person-Organization fit when job-seekers inspect organizations' websites. We proposed that PO fit would relate to Person-Industry (PI) fit, which is the fit between personal values and industry culture

  16. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  17. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  18. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  19. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  20. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  1. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  2. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  3. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  4. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  5. A High-Density Integrated DArTseq SNP-Based Genetic Map of Pisum fulvum and Identification of QTLs Controlling Rust Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Barilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pisum fulvum, a wild relative of pea is an important source of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated species against fungal diseases of economic importance like the pea rust caused by Uromyces pisi. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to this fungal disease, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population was generated from a cross between two P. fulvum accessions, IFPI3260 and IFPI3251, and genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology. A total of 9,569 high-quality DArT-Seq and 8,514 SNPs markers were generated. Finally, a total of 12,058 markers were assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid chromosomes of P. fulvum and P. sativum. The newly constructed integrated genetic linkage map of P. fulvum covered an accumulated distance of 1,877.45 cM, an average density of 1.19 markers cM−1 and an average distance between adjacent markers of 1.85 cM. The composite interval mapping revealed three QTLs distributed over two linkage groups that were associated with the percentage of rust disease severity (DS%. QTLs UpDSII and UpDSIV were located in the LGs II and IV respectively and were consistently identified both in adult plants over 3 years at the field (Córdoba, Spain and in seedling plants under controlled conditions. Whenever they were detected, their contribution to the total phenotypic variance varied between 19.8 and 29.2. A third QTL (UpDSIV.2 was also located in the LGIVand was environmentally specific as was only detected for DS % in seedlings under controlled conditions. It accounted more than 14% of the phenotypic variation studied. Taking together the data obtained in the study, it could be concluded that the expression of resistance to fungal diseases in P. fulvum originates from the resistant parent IFPI3260.

  6. Fitness-driven deactivation in network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Peng, Xiao-Long; Fu, Xin-Chu; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Individual nodes in evolving real-world networks typically experience growth and decay—that is, the popularity and influence of individuals peaks and then fades. In this paper, we study this phenomenon via an intrinsic nodal fitness function and an intuitive ageing mechanism. Each node of the network is endowed with a fitness which represents its activity. All the nodes have two discrete stages: active and inactive. The evolution of the network combines the addition of new active nodes randomly connected to existing active ones and the deactivation of old active nodes with a possibility inversely proportional to their fitnesses. We obtain a structured exponential network when the fitness distribution of the individuals is homogeneous and a structured scale-free network with heterogeneous fitness distributions. Furthermore, we recover two universal scaling laws of the clustering coefficient for both cases, C(k) ∼ k −1 and C ∼ n −1 , where k and n refer to the node degree and the number of active individuals, respectively. These results offer a new simple description of the growth and ageing of networks where intrinsic features of individual nodes drive their popularity, and hence degree

  7. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Silvia; Stolk, Ronald P.; Liem, Eryn T.; Lemmink, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this

  8. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  9. Fitness on facebook: advertisements generated in response to profile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide relevant and

  10. Knowledge translation to fitness trainers: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Kristi B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.

  11. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  12. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  13. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  14. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  15. Employee Fitness Programs: Exploring Relationships between Perceived Organizational Support toward Employee Fitness and Organizational Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of employee fitness programs on organizational sustainability performance from the perspective of organizational support as perceived by employees. Organizational sustainability performance was specified as a second-order factor, which was affected by three first-order factors: financial performance, social performance, and environmental performance. A snowball sampling method was employed to conduct an online survey of working adults in Shanghai to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that perceived organizational support toward employee fitness has a positive and significant effect on organizational sustainability performance, and the positive effect is mediated by job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study also provides theoretical and managerial implications.

  16. Temporal issues in person–organization fit, person–job fit and turnover: The role of leader–member exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Corine; Biron, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Person–environment fit has been found to have significant implications for employee attitudes and behaviors. Most research to date has approached person–environment fit as a static phenomenon, and without examining how different types of person–environment fit may affect each other. In particular, little is known about the conditions under which fit with one aspect of the environment influences another aspect, as well as subsequent behavior. To address this gap we examine the role of leader–member exchange in the relationship between two types of person–environment fit over time: person–organization and person–job fit, and subsequent turnover. Using data from two waves (T1 and T2, respectively) and turnover data collected two years later (T3) from a sample of 160 employees working in an elderly care organization in the Netherlands, we find that person–organization fit at T1 is positively associated with person–job fit at T2, but only for employees in high-quality leader–member exchange relationships. Higher needs–supplies fit at T2 is associated with lower turnover at T3. In contrast, among employees in high-quality leader–member exchange relationships, the demands–abilities dimension of person–job fit at T2 is associated with higher turnover at T3. PMID:27904171

  17. Temporal issues in person-organization fit, person-job fit and turnover: The role of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Corine; Biron, Michal

    2016-12-01

    Person-environment fit has been found to have significant implications for employee attitudes and behaviors. Most research to date has approached person-environment fit as a static phenomenon, and without examining how different types of person-environment fit may affect each other. In particular, little is known about the conditions under which fit with one aspect of the environment influences another aspect, as well as subsequent behavior. To address this gap we examine the role of leader-member exchange in the relationship between two types of person-environment fit over time: person-organization and person-job fit, and subsequent turnover. Using data from two waves (T1 and T2, respectively) and turnover data collected two years later (T3) from a sample of 160 employees working in an elderly care organization in the Netherlands, we find that person-organization fit at T1 is positively associated with person-job fit at T2, but only for employees in high-quality leader-member exchange relationships. Higher needs-supplies fit at T2 is associated with lower turnover at T3. In contrast, among employees in high-quality leader-member exchange relationships, the demands-abilities dimension of person-job fit at T2 is associated with higher turnover at T3.

  18. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Earliness per se QTLs and their interaction with the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a in the Cutler × AC Barrie spring wheat population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, A; Iqbal, M; Navabi, A; Randhawa, H; Pozniak, C; Spaner, D

    2013-08-01

    Earliness per se regulates flowering time independent of environmental signals and helps to fine tune the time of flowering and maturity. In this study, we aimed to map earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting days to flowering and maturity in a population developed by crossing two spring wheat cultivars, Cutler and AC Barrie. The population of 177 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was genotyped for a total of 488 SSR and DArT polymorphic markers on all 21 chromosomes. Three QTLs of earliness per se affecting days to flowering and maturity were mapped on chromosomes 1B (QEps.dms-1B1 and QEps.dms-1B2) and 5B (QEps.dms-5B1), in individual environments and when all the environments were combined. A QTL affecting flowering time (QFlt.dms-4A1) was identified on chromosome 4A. Two grain yield QTLs were mapped on chromosome 5B, while one QTL was mapped on chromosome 1D. The population segregated for the photoperiod insensitive gene, Ppd-D1a, and it induced earlier flowering by 0.69 days and maturity by 1.28 days. The photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a interacted in an additive fashion with QTLs for flowering and maturity times. The earliness per se QTL QFlt.dms-5B.1 inducing earlier flowering could help to elongate grain filling duration for higher grain yield. Hence, chromosome 5B possesses promising genomic regions that may be introgressed for higher grain yield with earlier maturity through marker-assisted selection in bread wheat.

  20. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  1. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  2. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  3. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  4. Public Participation and Institutional Fit: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.

  5. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  7. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  8. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufeng Qie

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  10. Influences on British South Asian Women's Choice of Teaching as a Career: "You're Either a Career Person or a Family Person; Teaching Kind of Fits in the Middle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Graham; MacKenzie, Lin; Manning, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of the first year of a four year research project into the influences on British South Asian women's choice of teaching as a career. Trainees from minority ethnic groups on a secondary PGCE (Postgraduate Certificate in Education) course in the English West Midlands were invited to discuss, both in focus groups and…

  11. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  12. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation

  13. On analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Ivanov, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of providing accurate recommended analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections is discussed, and a number of approaches are considered on the sample case of neon and its ions. The previously known fits are being reassessed using complete experimental and theoretical data, with the preference for experiment, to avoid systematic shifts introduced by the present calculation methods. The feasibility of the standard BELI formula is investigated in detail, and a number of other analytical expressions is suggested, approximating single-ionization cross sections in the whole range of energies. The factors influencing the accuracy of the fits and the physical meaning of the parameters obtained are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  15. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  16. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  17. Assessing fitness for work: GPs judgment making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michelle; Thorley, Kevan; Van Hout, Marie-Claire

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of a fitness for work consultation is well documented. General practitioners (GPs) find that such consultations often create conflict and they feel ill-prepared for the task. We aimed to examine the consultation process in the fitness for work consultation and to report on the response of GPs to two hypothetical consultations of work related sickness absence, one of a psychological and one of a physical nature. Three areas of the consultation were examined; social/family circumstances, workplace history and information required assessing the severity of the condition. We used a randomized design using an online questionnaire completed by 62 GPs located in the Republic of Ireland. Analysis was conducted in NVivo 8 qualitative software using thematic and content analysis techniques. GPs may be expected to collect and consider information relating to social, domestic, financial, lifestyle and workplace factors, including workload, job satisfaction, job strain, work ethic, inter staff relationships and employee support mechanisms. The mode of presentation may trigger specific information seeking in the consultation. GPs may evaluate fitness for work in a variety of ways depending on medical and non-medical factors. Further research should further examine the factors that may influence the GPs decision to prescribe sickness leave.

  18. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  19. Comparing Person Organization Fit and Person Job Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ardıç

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies conducted to analyze the effects of person-organization fit (POF and person-job fit (PJF on individual outcomes, little is known about which of these fit associates stronger with individual variables (i.e., intention to quit job, IQJ, and perceived individual performance, PIP. Therefore the purpose of the study is to compare the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP. The sample of the study consists of security guards working at a private company's civil aviation safety department. Totally 98 security guards participated to the research. Results indicated that, the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP were not significantly different. Consequently the results indicate that POF and PJF associate similarly with critical individual outcomes.

  20. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg

    d Institute for Sports Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, South Africa e Institute for Food ... The American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for health/fitness .... It is important to stress that the focus of this study was not.

  1. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  2. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  3. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    . The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  4. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  5. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  6. Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving; Exercise; does exercise help quit smoking; exercises after quitting smoking; exercise after smoking; exercise and quitting smoking; exercise and smoking; smoking articles; articles about smoking; articles on smoking; articles about smoking; article on smoking; health articles on smoking; smoking article; benefits of physical activity; benefits for physical activity; benefit of physical activity; benefits to physical activity; daily physical activities; daily physical activity; healthy physical activities; healthy physical activity; health activities; activity for health; exercise physical activity and health; health activities; health activities for kids; health and fitness activities; health benefits for physical activity; health benefits from physical activity; health benefits of physical activity; health benefits physical activity; health promotion activities; physical exercise; exercise and physical activity; exercise and physical health; exercise for physical fitness; health benefits of physical fitness; how to do physical exercise; physical activity and exercise; physical activity exercise; physical health; physical health and fitness; physical health and wellness; physical health benefits; physical Health fitness; what are the benefits of physical fitness; physical fitness; about physical fitness; benefits of physical fitness; how to improve physical fitness; physical fitness; physical fitness article; fitness; fitness article; fitness articles; fitness plans; health and fitness; exercise; benefits of regular exercise on health; exercise plan; exercise tips; routine; best work out routine for overweight women

  7. Identification of QTLs for resistance to sclerotinia stem rot and BnaC.IGMT5.a as a candidate gene of the major resistant QTL SRC6 in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in many important dicotyledonous crops, including oilseed rape (Brassica napus, is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and imposes huge yield loss each year worldwide. Currently, breeding for Sclerotinia resistance in B. napus, as in other crops, can only rely on germplasms with quantitative resistance genes. Thus, the identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL for S. sclerotiorum resistance/tolerance in this crop holds immediate promise for the genetic improvement of the disease resistance. In this study, ten QTLs for stem resistance (SR at the mature plant stage and three QTLs for leaf resistance (LR at the seedling stage in multiple environments were mapped on nine linkage groups (LGs of a whole genome map for B. napus constructed with SSR markers. Two major QTLs, LRA9 on LG A9 and SRC6 on LG C6, were repeatedly detected across all environments and explained 8.54-15.86% and 29.01%-32.61% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Genotypes containing resistant SRC6 or LRA9 allele showed a significant reduction in disease lesion after pathogen infection. Comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and data mining from previous gene profiling experiments identified that the Arabidopsis homologous gene of IGMT5 (At1g76790 was related to the SRC6 locus. Four copies of the IGMT5 gene in B. napus were isolated through homologous cloning, among which, only BnaC.IGMT5.a showed a polymorphism between parental lines and can be associated with the SRC6. Furthermore, two parental lines exhibited a differential expression pattern of the BnaC.IGMT5.a gene in responding to pathogen inoculation. Thus, our data suggested that BnaC.IGMT5.a was very likely a candidate gene of this major resistance QTL.

  8. Universality Classes of Interaction Structures for NK Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungmin; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Ferretti, Luca; Krug, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    Kauffman's NK-model is a paradigmatic example of a class of stochastic models of genotypic fitness landscapes that aim to capture generic features of epistatic interactions in multilocus systems. Genotypes are represented as sequences of L binary loci. The fitness assigned to a genotype is a sum of contributions, each of which is a random function defined on a subset of k ≤ L loci. These subsets or neighborhoods determine the genetic interactions of the model. Whereas earlier work on the NK model suggested that most of its properties are robust with regard to the choice of neighborhoods, recent work has revealed an important and sometimes counter-intuitive influence of the interaction structure on the properties of NK fitness landscapes. Here we review these developments and present new results concerning the number of local fitness maxima and the statistics of selectively accessible (that is, fitness-monotonic) mutational pathways. In particular, we develop a unified framework for computing the exponential growth rate of the expected number of local fitness maxima as a function of L, and identify two different universality classes of interaction structures that display different asymptotics of this quantity for large k. Moreover, we show that the probability that the fitness landscape can be traversed along an accessible path decreases exponentially in L for a large class of interaction structures that we characterize as locally bounded. Finally, we discuss the impact of the NK interaction structures on the dynamics of evolution using adaptive walk models.

  9. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  10. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    bonus to make working out convenient and facilitate work / life balance . This was secondary to the hope that a fitness program would produce healthier...workforce; and 3) become an employer of choice and promote work life balance .88 34 Strategic plans and supporting objectives of the Army Installation

  11. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  12. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...

  13. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  14. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  15. Social and genetic interactions drive fitness variation in a free-living dolphin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Krützen, Michael; Mann, Janet; Connor, Richard C; Bejder, Lars; Sherwin, William B

    2010-11-16

    The evolutionary forces that drive fitness variation in species are of considerable interest. Despite this, the relative importance and interactions of genetic and social factors involved in the evolution of fitness traits in wild mammalian populations are largely unknown. To date, a few studies have demonstrated that fitness might be influenced by either social factors or genes in natural populations, but none have explored how the combined effect of social and genetic parameters might interact to influence fitness. Drawing from a long-term study of wild bottlenose dolphins in the eastern gulf of Shark Bay, Western Australia, we present a unique approach to understanding these interactions. Our study shows that female calving success depends on both genetic inheritance and social bonds. Moreover, we demonstrate that interactions between social and genetic factors also influence female fitness. Therefore, our study represents a major methodological advance, and provides critical insights into the interplay of genetic and social parameters of fitness.

  16. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  17. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  18. Person-organization fit and turnover intention: exploring the mediating effect of work engagement and the moderating effect of demand-ability fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jui-Chen; Lee, Yin-Ling; Tseng, Mei-Man

    2014-03-01

    Person-organization (P-O) fit is an important influencing factor on the intentions and attitudes of hospital nurses. The authors used a motivation-mechanism approach to conceptualize work engagement as a mediator and demand-ability (D-A) fit as a moderator to elicit the role of P-O fit in the turnover intention of nurses. This article explores whether the work engagement of nurses mediates the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention and examines whether D-A fit moderates this relationship. The sample comprised 349 nurses working for two regional hospitals in Yilan County, Taiwan. Linear regression modeling analysis was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. Results indicate that P-O fit has a negative effect on participant turnover intention. In addition, the work engagement of participants was found to mediate the impact of P-O fit on turnover intention. A new significant interactive relationship was discovered such that high D-A fit strengthened the negative relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention. The work engagement of professional nurses has attracted increasing attention in the literature on fit, particularly with regard to the linkage between P-O and fit-turnover intention. This study enhances the understanding of the function of P-O fit by considering perceived D-A fit. Nurse turnover is the main reason for the current shortage of nurses in Taiwan. Therefore, if the cognitive values of nurses and the organizational culture fit with hospital value systems, common values may facilitate a higher degree of nurse work engagement and, in turn, decrease turnover intention. In addition, recruiting employees with high D-A fit may help hospitals enhance the negative relationship between P-O fit and nurse turnover intention.

  19. An inventory of the South African fitness industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among many of the key players within the South African fitness industry, there ..... Tennis courts. Indoor track .... to track the influence of this initiative on the growth of the industry, both in ... members have NQF-aligned qualifications in their field.

  20. Causes of customer dropouts in fitness and wellness centres: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify which factors have an influence on customer dropouts in fitness and wellness centres in Spain based on the opinion of the agents involved in their management (managers, employees and customers). For that purpose, an interview was designed for each of the key agents to analyse ...

  1. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse and...

  2. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  3. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  4. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  5. Back school for fitness treinees

    OpenAIRE

    Líbalová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    In introductory chapters the work deals with theoretical starting points of exercising in fitness centres. It focuses on anatomical and physiological basis of exercises and neuromuscular imbalances which may be caused by inadequate exertion. In further chapters the work enlightens about the rudiments of sport training, training of strength and model form of a training unit. In final chapters suitable techniques of exercises of individual muscular systems are discussed. Common mistakes done by...

  6. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  7. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  8. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  9. ANYOLS, Least Square Fit by Stepwise Regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwoods, C.L.; Mathews, S.

    1986-01-01

    Description of program or function: ANYOLS is a stepwise program which fits data using ordinary or weighted least squares. Variables are selected for the model in a stepwise way based on a user- specified input criterion or a user-written subroutine. The order in which variables are entered can be influenced by user-defined forcing priorities. Instead of stepwise selection, ANYOLS can try all possible combinations of any desired subset of the variables. Automatic output for the final model in a stepwise search includes plots of the residuals, 'studentized' residuals, and leverages; if the model is not too large, the output also includes partial regression and partial leverage plots. A data set may be re-used so that several selection criteria can be tried. Flexibility is increased by allowing the substitution of user-written subroutines for several default subroutines

  10. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544 in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó. Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification

  11. Contribution of radiobiology to the problem of general fitness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the present scarce literary data it can be taken as proved that between the numerous properties of the organism usually considered as biologically valuable (high fertility, longevity, higher body weight, resistance to fasting, radiation, and infection agents, certain favorable parameters of CNS) there exist many single and multiple positive correlations. The existence of these correlations allows for the introduction of the working concept of general fitness, stimulating further interdisciplinary research in this field important both in practice and theory. Most correlated manifestations of fitness demonstrated a masked influence of the organism's genotype even though the manner of this manifestation on the phenotype level remains considerably obscure. The efficiency of the haematopoietic system is doubtless one of the mechanisms of general fitness; it is determined by the very complex coordination of several cytokinetic parameters. Important factors are the efficiency of regulation mechanisms at CNS level, the endocrine system, and the regulators of cell populations. Generally highest fitness is connected with a ''balanced'' regulation type, which is characterized by optimal activation of the homeostatic regulation mechanism. In studying the causes of general fitness a systems approach is inevitable which evaluates the levels of individual factors not ''mechanically'' or linearly but from the point of view of the needs of the whole organism and with the application of concepts established by the systems theory (e.g. by the theory of automatic regulation). The sensitivity of an organism to irradiation with ionizing radiation turns out to be a suitable criterion of its general fitness. (author)

  12. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Where does fitness fit in theories of perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-12-01

    Interface theory asserts that neither our perceptual experience of the world nor the scientific constructs used to describe the world are veridical. The primary argument used to uphold this claim is that (1) evolution is driven by a process of natural selection that favors fitness over veridicality, and (2) payoffs do not vary monotonically with truth. I argue that both the arguments used to bolster this claim and the conclusions derived from it are flawed. Interface theory assumes that perception evolved to directly track fitness but fails to consider the role of adaptation on ontogenetic time scales. I argue that the ubiquity of nonmonotonic payoff functions requires that (1) perception tracks "truth" for species that adapt on ontogenetic time scales and (2) that perception should be distinct from utility. These conditions are required to pursue an adaptive strategy to mitigate homeostatic imbalances. I also discuss issues with the interface metaphor, the particular formulation of veridicality that is considered, and the relationship of interface theory to the history of ideas on these topics.

  14. INFOS: spectrum fitting software for NMR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A., E-mail: alsi@nmr.phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Software for fitting of NMR spectra in MATLAB is presented. Spectra are fitted in the frequency domain, using Fourier transformed lineshapes, which are derived using the experimental acquisition and processing parameters. This yields more accurate fits compared to common fitting methods that use Lorentzian or Gaussian functions. Furthermore, a very time-efficient algorithm for calculating and fitting spectra has been developed. The software also performs initial peak picking, followed by subsequent fitting and refinement of the peak list, by iteratively adding and removing peaks to improve the overall fit. Estimation of error on fitting parameters is performed using a Monte-Carlo approach. Many fitting options allow the software to be flexible enough for a wide array of applications, while still being straightforward to set up with minimal user input.

  15. An investigation of motivational variables in CrossFit facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Julie A; Knapp, Bobbi A; Massengale, Brittany D

    2014-06-01

    CrossFit is a growing fitness trend in the United States; however, little systematic research has addressed specific motivational principles within this unique exercise environment. The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of gender and membership time on perceptions of motivational climate and goals within the CrossFit environment. Specifically, people may set goals related to self-improvement (i.e., mastery) or focus on their performance in comparison to others (i.e., performance). Motivational climate refers to an individual's perception of being encouraged to focus on either mastery or performance goals from CrossFit trainers. A total of 144 members (88 females; 56 males) completed questionnaires to assess participants' perceptions of CrossFit goal structures and perceptions of the motivational climate encouraged by the trainer within their CrossFit box. Results indicated a significant main effect for gender on preferred goals (p ≤ 0.05), with males reporting higher levels of performance approach goals and females reporting higher levels of master avoidance goals. Participants who reported shorter membership times were found to have significantly higher mastery-related goals than individuals who reported longer membership times (p ≤ 0.05). The results from the study suggest that practitioners should consider how perceptions of the motivational climate and goals in group-based exercise settings such as CrossFit may vary based on demographic variables, and that these differences may impact how to most effectively motivate, encourage, and instruct group members, particularly with regard to helping members set goals that most effectively address their approach to the CrossFit regimen.

  16. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator: A pilot study | van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the web-based FitTrack Index may be considered an appropriate tool to evaluate exercise capacity and cardiovascular fitness in healthy individuals following an aerobic training programme. Keywords: Aerobic fitness, Exercise ability, Recreational fitness, Cardiovascular fitness, ...

  17. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  18. How Can Managers Promote Salespeople's Person-Job Fit? The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lu-Ming; Yu, Tsu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the impact of salespeople's subjective person-job fit on the salespeople's intention to quit. Moreover, this study further investigates how the subjective person -job fit could be influenced by the cooperative learning and support in the organization. Person-job fit is an important issue for salespeople's career…

  19. Influence of physical fitness parameters on relative age effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the onset of puberty, boys experience great changes in growth and development. As such, boys who differ in age even by less than 12 months display significant differences in size, strength, power and skill levels and is known as Relative Age Effect (RAE). This study attempted to determine the prevalence of RAE in ...

  20. Construction and fitting of NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Isao; Itahashi, Takayuki; Izawa, Naoki; Okazaki, Shuji

    1994-01-01

    NUCEF consists of two criticality experiment devices, three alpha-gamma cells, the experimental equipments contained in about 90 glove boxes and many others. The background and the course of the construction and fitting of NUCEF are described on the selection of important research, the rationalization of facilities, the integration of the criticality safety experiments facility(CSEF) and the TRU safety test facility(TRUST), the safety examination, and the construction and fitting. The whole NUCEF, the static criticality facility(STACY), the transient criticality facility(TRACY), the mock-up test of the machinery and equipment for both criticality facilities, the solution fuel preparation facility, cells and glove boxes and the equipment contained in them, the analysis facility consists of four analysis rooms, and the radioactive waste facility for gas, liquid and solid wastes are described. The classification of these facilities based on the relevant laws is shown. The way of thinking in the basic design and the detailed design is explained. The permission of nuclear reactor installation and the use of nuclear fuel substances was obtained. The design and the method of works were approved. The inspection is reported. The measures for the security are explained. (K.I.)

  1. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  2. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  3. Segmentation in sport services: a typology of fitness customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Voráček

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers customer typology in fitness centres. The main aim of our survey is to state the basic segments of fitness customers and create their typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. The results of our research are as follows: we identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male (we called them student, shark, mature and three are female (manager, hunter, and student. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres.

  4. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Profile of Undergraduate Biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for developing sedentary habits, which could lead to reduced cardiorespiratory fitness. ... This study therefore examined the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) profile of ... A modified sub-maximal cycle ergometer protocol was used to estimate ...

  6. The roles and interactions of symbiont, host and environment in defining coral fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J.C.; Olsen, J.L.; Berkelmans, R; Bleuler-Martinez, S.A.; Willis, B.; van Oppen, M.J H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reef-building corals live in symbiosis with a diverse range of dinoflagellate algae ( genus Symbiodinium) that differentially influence the fitness of the coral holobiont. The comparative role of symbiont type in holobiont fitness in relation to host genotype or the environment, however,

  7. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyake, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Oda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including s...

  8. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  9. Teachers’ remaining career opportunities : The role of value fit and school climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, J; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Nijendijk, K; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    In light of an aging teacher population, this study investigates the influence of school climate and personschool (P-S) value fit on teachers' perspectives regarding their career futures. The results, based on a sample of 147 teachers, indicate that P-S value fit is positively associated with

  10. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eryn T. Liem; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; Ronald P. Stolk; Sylvia I. Brouwer

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundFatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this

  11. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. Long; R. T. Bowyer; Warren P. Porter; Paul Mathewson; Kevin L. Monteith; Scott L. Findholt; Brian L. Dick; John G. Kie

    2016-01-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North...

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Gait Changes among Firefighters after a Live Burn Training Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Colburn

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: A 14-MET criterion failed to distinguish gait or balance characteristics in this group. However, less fit firefighters did require more time to complete the balance test (p = 0.003. Aerobic fitness alone does not predict gait changes among firefighters following a live burn evolution but does appear to influence functional balance.

  13. The Impact of Values-Job Fit and Age on Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Ouweland, Loth; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that both individual and job-related factors influence a worker's work-related learning. This study combines these factors, examining the impact of fit between one's work values and job characteristics on learning. Although research indicates that fit benefits multiple work-related outcomes, little is known about the impact of fit…

  14. The influence of screw type, alloy and cylinder position on the marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding Influência do tipo de parafuso, liga e da posição do cilindro na adaptação marginal das infra-estruturas sob implantes antes e após a soldagem a laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castilio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. METHODS: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5mm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05. RESULTS: Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13µm than the hexagonal screws (27.93 µm. Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2 The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3 cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values.A desadaptação na interface abutment-cilindro protético pode causar perda da pré-carga, levando ao afrouxamento ou fratura dos parafusos de ouro e tit

  15. Mapping organizational members' sense of fit

    OpenAIRE

    Billsberry, Jon; Marsh, Philip; Moss-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Despite its importance in the organizational behavior literature, person–organization (P–O) fit remains an elusive construct. One reason for this is the lack of research about organizational members’ own sense of their P–O fit. In this paper we report an empirical study that explored organizational members’ own sense of fit using storytelling and causal mapping techniques. The results suggest that organizational members categorize their perceptions of their fit into five discrete domains (job...

  16. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997) (The...

  17. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  18. HRM and Fit: Survival of the fittest!?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Boon (Corine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the nature of ‘fit’ in strategic HRM? This is the question guiding this thesis. Although the idea of fit is theoretically convincing, empirical evidence to support the role of fit is limited. Previous studies on fit have mainly focused on the alignment between HRM and strategy

  19. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  20. Relationship among Fitness, Morphological Characteristics, Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific morphological and fitness demands of the sport are, therefore, not fully understood. The purpose of this ... The findings convincingly suggest that coaches should include fitness, morphological and skills tests in their coaching and fitness programmes, team selection and talent identification processes. Keywords: ...

  1. Exercise, fitness, and the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Molloy, Michael G; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and gut symptomatology have long been connected. The possibility that regular exercise fosters intestinal health and function has been somewhat overlooked in the scientific literature. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss a selection of recent, relevant, and innovative studies, hypotheses and reviews that elucidate a complex topic. The multiorgan benefits of regular exercise are extensive. When taken in moderation, these benefits transcend improved cardio-respiratory fitness and likely reach the gut in a metabolic, immunological, neural, and microbial manner. This is applicable in both health and disease. However, further work is required to provide safe, effective recommendations on physical activity in specific gastrointestinal conditions. Challenging methodology investigating the relationship between exercise and gut health should not deter from exploring exercise in the promotion of gastrointestinal health.

  2. Becoming fit for transnational comparability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John Benedicto; Ulf, Olsson; Kenneth, Petersson

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, Danish teacher education discourse has emerged from a distinctly national vocational seminary tradition, into a modernized university college discourse that increasingly fits the transnational templates of comparability, albeit at a slower pace than her Swedish neighbor. It is often difficult...... of modern nations, if they are to succeed in “an increasingly competitive global race among knowledge economies.” In the case of the Bologna Process, the transformative effects are often rather direct. More often, however, effects touch upon national educational agendas in indirect ways, in terms......This chapter traces how national teacher education policy discourse in Denmark and Sweden is being transformed by opaque, albeit often inclusive, processes in transnational policy forums, such as the Bologna Process, OECD, and EU. This is facilitated by “soft law” surrounding the imagined needs...

  3. Influence of authoritarian leadership style on safety behavior of miners:effect of identification of miners to managers and regulatory focus fit%管理者的威权领导风格对矿工安全行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 宫晶晶

    2017-01-01

    The safety behavior of miners is the basis of work safety in coal mine, and the leadership style of managers has important influence on the safety behavior of miners.A theoretical model on the influence relationship of authoritarian leadership style on safety behavior was established by introducing into the regulatory focus theory and the identification theory, and the data of 544 questionnaires was applied to verify the model.The results showed that the authoritarian leadership style is an important situational factor influencing the safety behavior of miners.The authoritarian leadership style has positive influence to safety behavior through the identification of miners to managers, which plays a mediate effect between them.The regulatory focus fit between managers and miners has regulatory effect between the identification of miners to managers and the safety behavior, and the high fit degree of regulatory focus will enhance the mediate effect of identification of miners to managers.The research enriches the action mechanism and the boundary conditions of leadership style and safety behavior of miners, and it has certain significance to coal mine safety management practices.%矿工安全行为是煤矿安全生产的基础保障,而管理者的领导风格对矿工安全行为有重要影响.引入调节焦点理论和认同理论,构建威权领导风格对安全行为影响关系的理论模型.以544份调查问卷的数据对理论模型进行检验,结果发现:威权领导风格是影响矿工安全行为的重要情境因素;威权领导风格会通过矿工对管理者认同而正向影响安全行为,矿工对管理者认同在二者间具有中介作用;管理者-矿工间的调节焦点适配在矿工对管理者认同和安全行为之间有调节效应,而且调节焦点的高适配度会强化矿工对管理者认同的中介效果.研究丰富了领导风格与矿工安全行为的作用机制和边界条件,对煤矿安全管理实践有一定的启示意义.

  4. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Examines social fitness, the combination of resources from social connections that influence how individuals respond to stressful circumstances, to identify methods of increasing social connectedness and support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  5. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  6. Physical self-concept and physical fitness in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E

    2011-08-01

    This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. [Studies of marker screening efficiency and corresponding influencing factors in QTL composite interval mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Ming; Wan, Ping

    2002-06-01

    environments could enhance marker screening power, the former had a greater influence on QTLs with larger main and/or epistatic effects, while the later on QTLs with small main and/or epistatic effects. The simulation of 100 times was also conducted to study the influence of different marker number and density on marker screening power. It is indicated that the marker screening power would decrease if there were too many markers, especially with high density in a mapping population, which suggested that a mapping population with definite individuals could only hold limited markers. According to the simulation study, the reasonable number of markers should not be more than individuals. The simulation study of marker screening under multiple environments showed high total power of marker screening. In order to relieve the problem that marker screening power restricted the efficiency of QTL mapping, markers identified in multiple environments could be used to construct two search intervals.

  8. New ROOT Graphical User Interfaces for fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maline, D Gonzalez; Moneta, L; Antcheva, I

    2010-01-01

    ROOT, as a scientific data analysis framework, provides extensive capabilities via Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for performing interactive analysis and visualizing data objects like histograms and graphs. A new interface for fitting has been developed for performing, exploring and comparing fits on data point sets such as histograms, multi-dimensional graphs or trees. With this new interface, users can build interactively the fit model function, set parameter values and constraints and select fit and minimization methods with their options. Functionality for visualizing the fit results is as well provided, with the possibility of drawing residuals or confidence intervals. Furthermore, the new fit panel reacts as a standalone application and it does not prevent users from interacting with other windows. We will describe in great detail the functionality of this user interface, covering as well new capabilities provided by the new fitting and minimization tools introduced recently in the ROOT framework.

  9. Mapping of Ppd-B1, a Major Candidate Gene for Late Heading on Wild Emmer Chromosome Arm 2BS and Assessment of Its Interactions with Early Heading QTLs on 3AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wu, Shasha; Ding, Mingquan; Li, Jingjuan; Shi, Zhaobin; Wei, Wei; Guo, Jialian; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yurong; Rong, Junkang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat heading date is an important agronomic trait determining maturation time and yield. A set of common wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring; CS)-wild emmer (T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccoides (TDIC)) chromosome arm substitution lines (CASLs) was used to identify and allocate QTLs conferring late or early spike emergence by examining heading date. Genetic loci accelerating heading were found on TDIC chromosome arms 3AL and 7BS, while loci delaying heading were located on 4AL and 2BS. To map QTLs conferring late heading on 2BS, F2 populations derived from two cross combinations of CASL2BS × CS and CASL3AL × CASL2BS were developed and each planted at two times, constituting four F2 mapping populations. Heading date varied continuously among individuals of these four populations, suggesting quantitative characteristics. A genetic map of 2BS, consisting of 23 SSR and one single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) marker(s), was constructed using these F2 populations. This map spanned a genetic length of 53.2 cM with average marker density of 2.3 cM. The photoperiod-sensitivity gene Ppd-B1 was mapped to chromosome arm 2BS as a SSCP molecular marker, and was validated as tightly linked to a major QTL governing late heading of CASL2BS in all mapping populations. A significant dominance by additive effect of Ppd-B1 with the LUX gene located on 3AL was also detected. CS had more copies of Ppd-B1 than CASL2BS, implying that increased copy number could elevate the expression of Ppd-1 in CS, also increasing expression of LUX and FT genes and causing CS to have an earlier heading date than CASL2BS in long days.

  10. Damped-dynamics flexible fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Julio A; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2008-10-01

    In fitting atomic structures into EM maps, it often happens that the map corresponds to a different conformation of the structure. We have developed a new methodology to handle these situations that preserves the covalent geometry of the structure and allows the modeling of large deformations. The first goal is achieved by working in generalized coordinates (positional and internal coordinates), and the second by avoiding harmonic potentials. Instead, we use dampers (shock absorbers) between every pair of atoms, combined with a force field that attracts the atomic structure toward incompletely occupied regions of the EM map. The trajectory obtained by integrating the resulting equations of motion converges to a conformation that, in our validation cases, was very close to the target atomic structure. Compared to current methods, our approach is more efficient and robust against wrong solutions and to overfitting, and does not require user intervention or subjective decisions. Applications to the computation of transition pathways between known conformers, homology and loop modeling, as well as protein docking, are also discussed.

  11. The best-fit universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-10-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model -- one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Ω, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and ''most well motivated'' model, the current data point to a ''best-fit model'' with the following parameters: Ω B ≅ 0.03, Ω CDM ≅ 0.17, Ω Λ ≅ 0.8, and H 0 ≅ 70 km sec -1 Mpc -1 , which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such. 42 refs

  12. The best-fit universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-10-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model -- one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of {Omega}, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated'' model, the current data point to a best-fit model'' with the following parameters: {Omega}{sub B} {approx equal} 0.03, {Omega}{sub CDM} {approx equal} 0.17, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} {approx equal} 0.8, and H{sub 0} {approx equal} 70 km sec{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}, which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such. 42 refs.

  13. Quality of Life and Fitness in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy (EpiFit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Hagn, Claudia; Walch, Romana; Baumann, Matthias; Haberlandt, Edda; Frühwirth, Martin; Rostasy, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with idiopathic epilepsy compared with a healthy matched control group. Methods  In this study, 107 children conducted a 6-minute walk test, anthropometric parameters were measured, and HRQoL was assessed using a standardized questionnaire (KINDL-R). Children were divided into two groups: (1) the patient group ( n  = 48) and (2) the healthy control group ( n  = 59). Results  HRQoL of children with focal epilepsy was greater when compared with healthy children and children with generalized epilepsy. A significant association could be demonstrated for the 6-minute walk distance and mental wellbeing in children with epilepsy but not in healthy children. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the HRQoL and the amount of time spent in front of TV and computer in children with epilepsy and healthy children was seen. In children with focal epilepsy, a significant negative correlation could be shown between school sport and mental wellbeing as well as between school sport and self-esteem. Conclusion  HRQoL in children with idiopathic epilepsy is significantly associated with physical fitness and might be positively influenced by an adequate education of patients and parents, a reduction of consumption of computer and TV in combination with age- and disease-adapted physical activity and sports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. FItness programy a individuální přístup ve fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Rambous, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Souhrn: Tato diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou fitness programů a individuálru'ho přístupu ve fitness centrech. Celé téma zahrnuje rozpracování postupu při vytváření fitness programů a roli osobního trenéra ve fitness. Dále jsou zde uvedeny specifika některých fitness programů a v empirické části pak příklad dvou individuálních fitness programů. Název práce: Fitness programy a individuálnípřístup ve fitness Title: FITNESS PROGRAMS AND INDIVIDUAL CARE IN FITNESS Cíle práce: 1. podrobný p...

  15. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  16. The level of physical fitness in children aged 6-7years with low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Zaręba, Monika; Kozieł, Sławomir

    2017-08-01

    Level of physical fitness is related to the functional status of most of the bodily functions and so it appears to be very important to identify perinatal factors influencing physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of birth weight on the level of physical fitness in children 6-7years of age. Physical fitness was assessed using EUROFIT tests in 28,623 children, aged 6-7years, from rural areas in Poland. Children below the 10th percentile for birth weight for gestational age were defined as small for gestational age (SGA). The influence of birth weight on parameters of fitness was assessed by means of covariance analysis. With the controls of age, sex and body size, children of low birth weight have shown significantly lower levels of body flexibility and running speed. The leg strength of children with SGA turned out to be significantly lower only in 7-year-old boys. This study has revealed the significant influence of birth weight on physical fitness. The results suggest the importance of early intervention and its possible benefits for developing and maintaining the proper level of physical fitness further in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simulation of aspheric tolerance with polynomial fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the aspheric lens changes caused by machining errors, resulting in a change in the optical transfer function, which affects the image quality. At present, there is no universally recognized tolerance criterion standard for aspheric surface. To study the influence of aspheric tolerances on the optical transfer function, the tolerances of polynomial fitting are allocated on the aspheric surface, and the imaging simulation is carried out by optical imaging software. Analysis is based on a set of aspheric imaging system. The error is generated in the range of a certain PV value, and expressed as a form of Zernike polynomial, which is added to the aspheric surface as a tolerance term. Through optical software analysis, the MTF of optical system can be obtained and used as the main evaluation index. Evaluate whether the effect of the added error on the MTF of the system meets the requirements of the current PV value. Change the PV value and repeat the operation until the acceptable maximum allowable PV value is obtained. According to the actual processing technology, consider the error of various shapes, such as M type, W type, random type error. The new method will provide a certain development for the actual free surface processing technology the reference value.

  18. Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.vigneresse@univ-lorraine.fr

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Qualitative information from HSAB descriptors. • 2D–3D diagrams using chemical descriptors (χ, η, ω, α) and principles (MHP, mEP, mPP). • Estimate of the energy exchange during reaction paths. • Examples from complex systems (geochemistry). - Abstract: Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.

  19. Functional fitness level of military college cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fedak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and study influence of author’s physical training program on functional fitness of military college officers. Material: in the research 83 3rd year cadets of military college participated (experimental group, n=41; control group, n=42, of age 19-21 years. The cadets’ functional state was registered by indicators of Shtange’s test, Genchi test, test of Ruffiet - Dixon, Cooper’s test. The volume of trainings was 4 hours a week. Results: it was found that the acting training programs do not permit to completely prepare combat soldier’s organism for fulfillment of his tasks. We also found the purposefulness of special exercises and means’ application in physical trainings, which would be approached by their structure to military officers’ professional actions. Conclusions: it is recommended to conduct training with complex combining of different physical training sections (accelerated motion, overcoming obstacle course, hand-to-hand fighting and etc. with special means ( armor vest, tactic unloading system, helmet, weapon, gas mask, training grenades and so on.

  20. Fitness as 'social heritage': a study of elementary school pupils in Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud; Reeg, Annemarie

    2006-01-01

    information on attitudes towards the issue of sport and health as well as on sporting activities. In this contribution, we concentrate on the influence of parents and schools on the fitness and motor competencies of the children. The results of the test and the survey clearly showed correlations between...... the fitness level of the pupils and the education level of the parents. According to our results, fitness and physical skills are, at least to a certain extent, socially inherited. The fitness differences found in the different schools can be explained partly by the different social back ground......Health and fitness among children and adolescents is a subject currently receiving public attention. This article focuses on the fitness of German pupils (third and fourth grades) in five schools in Berlin with widely differing social catchment areas as well as children from differing social...

  1. Physical fitness differences between prepubescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze in which physical capabilities boys and girls are closer or distant. An additional objective was to find which of the body fat, physical activity, and somatotype factors have a greater effect on prepubescent children's physical fitness. This was a cross-sectional study involving 312 children (10.8 ± 0.4 years). The physical fitness assessment employed sets of aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance. The boys presented higher values in all selected tests, except tests of balance and flexibility, in which girls scored better. Gender differences in the physical fitness were greatest in the explosive strength of upper (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.09) and lower limbs (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.08), although with a medium-size effect of gender, and smaller in the abdominal (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.007) and upper limbs (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.003) muscular endurance, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.001). The endomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the girls, and the ectomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.31) and mesomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the boys, had the high-sized effect on the physical fitness. The physical activity in the girls, and the endomorphic and body fat in the boys, did not have a significant effect. These findings can help in the planning of activities that take into account the success and motivation of both boys and girls and thus increase levels of physical activity and physical fitness at school. However, in prepubescent children, one cannot neglect the influence of genetic determinism, observed from the morphoconstitutional point of view.

  2. Inferring genetic interactions from comparative fitness data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Kristina; Gavryushkin, Alex; Greene, Devin; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2017-12-20

    Darwinian fitness is a central concept in evolutionary biology. In practice, however, it is hardly possible to measure fitness for all genotypes in a natural population. Here, we present quantitative tools to make inferences about epistatic gene interactions when the fitness landscape is only incompletely determined due to imprecise measurements or missing observations. We demonstrate that genetic interactions can often be inferred from fitness rank orders, where all genotypes are ordered according to fitness, and even from partial fitness orders. We provide a complete characterization of rank orders that imply higher order epistasis. Our theory applies to all common types of gene interactions and facilitates comprehensive investigations of diverse genetic interactions. We analyzed various genetic systems comprising HIV-1, the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax , the fungus Aspergillus niger , and the TEM-family of β-lactamase associated with antibiotic resistance. For all systems, our approach revealed higher order interactions among mutations.

  3. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels on the Risk of Developing Atherogenic Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Charity B; Polinski, Kristen; Sarzynski, Mark A; Lavie, Carl J; Kokkinos, Peter F; Ahmed, Ali; Sui, Xuemei

    2016-10-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity. However, research about the impact of fitness on lipid abnormalities, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, has produced mixed results. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the influence of baseline fitness and changes in fitness on the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. All participants completed at least 3 comprehensive medical examinations performed by a physician that included a maximal treadmill test between 1976 and 2006 at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as a triad of lipid abnormalities: low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ([HDL-C] dyslipidemia during an average of 8.85 years of follow-up. High baseline fitness was protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in comparison with those with low fitness (odds ratio [OR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.89); however, this relationship became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels. Participants who maintained fitness over time had lower odds of developing atherogenic dyslipidemia than those with a reduction in fitness (OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91) after adjusting for baseline confounders and changes in known risk factors. High fitness at baseline and maintenance of fitness over time are protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  5. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  6. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  7. A person-environment fit approach to volunteerism : Volunteer personality fit and culture fit as predictors of affective outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Voskuijl, Olga F.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a person-environment (P-E) fit approach to explaining volunteer satisfaction, affective commitment, and turnover intentions. It was hypothesized that personality fit would explain additional variance in volunteer affective outcomes above and beyond motives to volunteer. This

  8. Devotional fitness: aspects of a contemporary religious system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Radermacher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe some more or less representative groups within the area of devotional fitness in the USA, to compare their ideas­ to those held in Christian congregations in Germany and to extract some of the most important features of these movements. The descriptive section, ‘Examples of fitness in US evangelicalism’, will have a short look at three of these movements and then examine one of them more thoroughly, namely, the concept of ‘Shaped by Faith’. The next part of the descriptive section (‘Aspects of religion and fitness in Germany’ will look into the connections between sports and religion in Christian congregations in Germany. In the third section, some of the historical trajec­tories which have influenced contemporary body ideals in both ‘religious’ and ‘secular’ contexts in the United States and Germany are briefly described. In the analytical section, the material is screened for striking similarities and recurring motifs and a preliminary definition of ‘devotional fitness’ is suggested. One particular feature of these currents, the blurring of genres, is dealt with more thoroughly in section ‘The blurring of genres in devotional fitness’. The article ends with some ideas as to how these concepts of devotional fitness could be researched within the analytical frame of cultural semiotics.

  9. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fit and the system theory of control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.; Rogier, J.J.H.; Leeuw, A.C.J. de

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss freedom of choice in action and its relationship with the concepts of fit and effectiveness from a managerial point of view and using a designing perspective. We have give our perspectives on fit as a construction, on freedom of choice and on dynamics. We regard the

  11. Are Physical Education Majors Models for Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamla, James; Snyder, Ben; Tanner, Lori; Wash, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…

  12. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  13. Health-Related Fitness and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; LeBlanc, Betty

    Because research indicates that American youth have become fatter since the 1960's, the development of fitness among young children should not be left to chance. Simple games, rhythms, and dance are not sufficient to insure fitness, for, during the regular free play situation, children very seldom experience physical activity of enough intensity…

  14. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  15. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  16. The neural network approach to parton fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Joan; Latorre, Jose I.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Piccione, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the neural network approach to global fits of parton distribution functions. First we review previous work on unbiased parametrizations of deep-inelastic structure functions with faithful estimation of their uncertainties, and then we summarize the current status of neural network parton distribution fits

  17. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milde, K.; Tomaszewski, P.K.; Stupnicki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280)

  18. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  19. Motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Ordís; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years. A sample of 94 adolescents participated in the study. To test motor competence, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 was used. Physical fitness was assessed using the following test items: standing broad jump, 20-m dash, reduced Cooper test, and sit-and-reach test. The results revealed a significant but weak relationship (0.248) between motor competence and physical fitness for the whole sample. More specifically, the correlation between the 2 variables was significant for girls (0.353) but not for boys (0.248). The relatively weak relationship between motor competence and physical fitness suggests that motor competence might not be critical in adolescents to maintain their physical fitness.

  20. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  2. Theoretically unprejudiced fits to proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobos, A.M.; Mackintosh, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    By using a spline interpolation method applied to all components of the proton optical potential we have fitted elastic scattering from 40 Ca and from 16 O at a range of energies. The potentials are highly oscillatory and we have shown that similar oscillations are found when the spline fitting procedure is applied to pseudo-data generated from potentials of known l-dependence. Moreover, we show how to find an l-independent potential equivalent to one that is l-dependent and we find that it is oscillatory and that various characteristic features of empirical spline fit potentials can be explained. Thus, by fitting the data with model indenpendt l-independent potentials we have found support for the contention that the nucleon optical potential should be viewed as being l-dependent. This work may be regarded as an example of the kind of physical information that can be gained by pursuing exact fits to proton elastic scattering data

  3. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  4. Crossing fitness canyons by a finite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of canyon crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the canyon on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the canyon is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the canyon and population size in the case of a fitness canyon at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.

  5. THE CPA QUALIFICATION METHOD BASED ON THE GAUSSIAN CURVE FITTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Adithia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Correlation Power Analysis (CPA attack is an attack on cryptographic devices, especially smart cards. The results of the attack are correlation traces. Based on the correlation traces, an evaluation is done to observe whether significant peaks appear in the traces or not. The evaluation is done manually, by experts. If significant peaks appear then the smart card is not considered secure since it is assumed that the secret key is revealed. We develop a method that objectively detects peaks and decides which peak is significant. We conclude that using the Gaussian curve fitting method, the subjective qualification of the peak significance can be objectified. Thus, better decisions can be taken by security experts. We also conclude that the Gaussian curve fitting method is able to show the influence of peak sizes, especially the width and height, to a significance of a particular peak.

  6. The Association of Aging and Aerobic Fitness With Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Bullock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the differential effects of aging and fitness on memory. Ninety-five young adults (YA and 81 older adults (OA performed the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST to assess high-interference memory and general recognition memory. Age-related differences in high-interference memory were observed across the lifespan, with performance progressively worsening from young to old. In contrast, age-related differences in general recognition memory were not observed until after 60 years of age. Furthermore, OA with higher aerobic fitness had better high-interference memory, suggesting that exercise may be an important lifestyle factor influencing this aspect of memory. Overall, these findings suggest different trajectories of decline for high-interference and general recognition memory, with a selective role for physical activity in promoting high-interference memory.

  7. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  8. Developmental pathways of fitness, and not baseline, predict fitness status at the end of childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Stodden, David F.; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally described that children fitness levels increase along childhood. Complementary to this idea is the notion that the tracking of children’s fitness is good to moderate during this developmental time, and that baseline (initial values) of fitness are determinant on fitness development. The importance of developmental pathways has been recently reinforced by a theoretical argument that predicts that healthy lifestyle trajectories will evolve through either a positive or n...

  9. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  10. "Getting Fit Basically Just Means, Like, Nonfat": Children's Lessons in Fitness and Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Darren; Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Current concerns about a childhood obesity crisis and children's physical activity levels have combined to justify fitness lessons as a physical education practice in New Zealand primary (elementary) schools. Researchers focused on children's understandings of fitness lessons argue that they construct fitness as a quest for an "ideal"…

  11. Transcending the Curricular Barrier between Fitness and Reading with FitLit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how FitLit, children's literature that spotlights the multiple aspects of health and well-being, offers a vehicle for integrating reading and fitness into existing classroom routines such as guided reading, read-alouds, independent reading, and reading and writing workshop. Sample FitLit titles are provided as well as a…

  12. Just a fad? Gamification in health and fitness apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Cannon, Ben; Sax, Tyler; Brodegard, David

    2014-08-04

    Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer's health behavior. An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (Pgamification (Pgamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (Pgamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry, which can potentially impact the efficacy of gamification apps to change behavior. Apps represent a very promising, burgeoning market and landscape in which to disseminate health behavior change interventions. Initial results show an abundant use of gamification in health and

  13. 10 CFR 26.189 - Determination of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of fitness. 26.189 Section 26.189 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.189 Determination of fitness. (a) A determination of fitness is the process entered...

  14. Set-fit effects in choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ellen R K; Inbar, Yoel; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    In 4 experiments, we investigate how the "fit" of an item with a set of similar items affects choice. We find that people have a notion of a set that "fits" together--one where all items are the same, or all items differ, on salient attributes. One consequence of this notion is that in addition to preferences over the set's individual items, choice reflects set-fit. This leads to predictable shifts in preferences, sometimes even resulting in people choosing normatively inferior options over superior ones.

  15. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  16. Fitness for service - A continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGonnagle, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fitness for service, as defined by this author, is the ability of a material, component, or system - the product - to perform its designated function. A fitness for service program promotes quality, assures reliability, enhances confidence and improves the safety of products - which is crucial in a critical industry as nuclear energy. Fitness for service necessitates strict adherence to and conformance with all safety and quality requirements. In short, the product must perform its designated function, under designated operational and environmental conditions, for a designated period of time

  17. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at implementing Fit-For-Purpose land administration solutions at county level. This will require a country specific strategy drawing from the recent GLTN publication on “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – Guiding Principles for Country Implementation”. The Fit...... administration; 4) Designing the country specific FFP spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 5) Capacity development; 6) Country specific instruction manuals; and 7) Economic benefits analysis. Finally, the paper presents some experiences and reflections from a case study on implementing the FFP approach...

  18. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  19. GENFIT - a generic track-fitting toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Johannes [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schlueter, Tobias [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    GENFIT is an experiment-independent track-fitting toolkit, which combines fitting algorithms, track representations, and measurement geometries into a modular framework. We report on a significantly improved version of GENFIT, based on experience gained in the Belle II, PANDA, and FOPI experiments. Improvements concern the implementation of additional track-fitting algorithms, enhanced implementations of Kalman fitters, enhanced visualization capabilities, and additional implementations of measurement types suited for various kinds of tracking detectors. The data model has been revised, allowing for efficient track merging, smoothing, residual calculation and alignment.

  20. Evolutionary Graphs with Frequency Dependent Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory was recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. In the previous papers about evolutionary graphs (EGs), the fitness of the residents in the EGs is in general assumed to be unity, and the fitness of a mutant is assumed to be a constant r. We aim to extend EG to general cases in this paper, namely, the fitness of a mutant is heavily dependent upon frequency. The corresponding properties for these new EGs are analyzed, and the fixation probability is obtained for large population.

  1. The role of individual differences on perceptions of wearable fitness device trust, usability, and motivational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael A; Michaelis, Jessica R; McConnell, Daniel S; Smither, Janan A

    2018-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a severe health concern in the United States with fewer than half of all Americans meeting the recommended weekly physical activity guidelines. Although wearable fitness devices can be effective in motivating people to be active, consumers are abandoning this technology soon after purchase. We examined the impact of several user (i.e. personality, age, computer self-efficacy, physical activity level) and device characteristics (trust, usability, and motivational affordances) on the behavioral intentions to use a wearable fitness device. Novice users completed a brief interaction with a fitness device similar to a first purchase experience before completing questionnaires about their interaction. We found computer self-efficacy, physical activity level, as well as personality traits indirectly increased the desire to use a fitness device and influenced the saliency of perceived motivational affordances. Additionally, trust, usability, and perceived motivational affordances were associated with increased intentions to use fitness devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synonymous Mutations at the Beginning of the Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Gene Impact Experimental Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Aneth S; Venev, Sergey V; Whitfield, Troy W; Caffrey, Daniel R; Marasco, Wayne A; Schiffer, Celia A; Kowalik, Timothy F; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Finberg, Robert W; Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Wang, Jennifer P; Bolon, Daniel N A

    2018-04-13

    The fitness effects of synonymous mutations can provide insights into biological and evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed the experimental fitness effects of all single-nucleotide mutations, including synonymous substitutions, at the beginning of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Many synonymous substitutions were deleterious both in bulk competition and for individually isolated clones. Investigating protein and RNA levels of a subset of individually expressed HA variants revealed that multiple biochemical properties contribute to the observed experimental fitness effects. Our results indicate that a structural element in the HA segment viral RNA may influence fitness. Examination of naturally evolved sequences in human hosts indicates a preference for the unfolded state of this structural element compared to that found in swine hosts. Our overall results reveal that synonymous mutations may have greater fitness consequences than indicated by simple models of sequence conservation, and we discuss the implications of this finding for commonly used evolutionary tests and analyses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Association Between Self-Rated Fitness and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karina Gregersen; Rosthøj, Susanne; Linneberg, Allan

    2018-01-01

    To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory...... fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kruskal's gamma correlation coefficient. All analyses were stratified according to gender. Data...... from 323 men and 426 women were analysed. There was a slight agreement between self-rated and objectively measured fitness in men (weighted kappa: 0.18, [95%CI: 0.13;0.23]) and a fair agreement in women (weighted kappa: 0.27, [95%CI: 0.22;0.32]). In both genders, self-rated fitness was positively...

  4. The Catch-22 of responsible luxury: effects of luxury product characteristics on consumers' perception of fit with corporate social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Catherine; Vanhamme, Joëlle; Lindgreen, Adam; Lefebvre, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The notion of “responsible luxury” may appear as a contradiction in terms. This article investigates the influence of two defining characteristics of luxury products—scarcity and ephemerality—on consumers’ perception of the fit between luxury and corporate social responsibility (CSR), as well as how this perceived fit affects consumers’ attitudes toward luxury products. A field experiment reveals that ephemerality moderates the positive impact of scarcity on consumers’ perception of fit betwe...

  5. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Macarena M.; Vergara, Felipe A.; Velásquez, Erikson J.A.; Marina, Raquel; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment.METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys) participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June). Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated...

  6. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  7. Fitness, Extrinsic Complexity and Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandon Gill

    2017-03-01

    We raise concerns about society’s continuing investment in academic research that discounts the extrinsic complexity of the domains under study. Future Research We highlight a need for research to operationalize the concepts of fitness and complexity in practice.

  8. Valves and fittings for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard specifies technical requirements for valves and pipe fittings in nuclear power stations with PWR type reactors. Details of appropriate materials, welding, surface treatment for corrosion protection, painting, and complementary supply are given

  9. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  10. Marine Corps Semper Fit Program Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-08

    issue, badminton , basketball, boxing, calisthenics, cardiovascular training, gymnastics, handball, jogging, martial arts, physical fitness training...cooler Hunting & Fishing Equipment - bow & arrows - quiver - rifle - shotgun - rod & reel - tacklebox - creel Sports Equipment - badminton set

  11. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  12. [Comparing the young asthmatics running fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belányi, Kinga; Gyene, István; Bak, Zsuzsa; Mezei, Györgyi

    2007-02-25

    Nowadays, doctors strongly recommend physical activity for asthmatic children, since the resulting improved physical fitness and psychological change also raise the quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of asthmatic children who regularly participate in therapeutic swimming, with asthmatic children who do not participate in this training and with non-swimming, healthy children using the 12 minute free running, Cooper test. The children from the swimmer asthmatic group (n= 51, age = 9-22 yrs) took part in a special, long term, swimming exercise program (Gyene method). Whereas, the non-swimmer asthmatics (n = 28, age = 8-22 yrs) and the healthy children (n: 179, age: 9-22 yrs) only took part in the normal school physical education classes. Fitness was measured using the Cooper test. Data was collected from 258 subjects and showed that the fitness of swimmer asthmatics is significantly better than that of the non-swimmer asthmatics and even better than that of the healthy subjects (swimmer/ non swimmer asthmatic p = 0.01; swimmer asthmatic/ healthy p test). The difference in the fitness acquired from swimming was the most pronounced for the 8-11 years old asthmatics, presumably because of greater motivational factors. No differences were found between genders for the two asthmatic groups, whereas healthy boys were found to have significantly greater levels of fitness than healthy girls. Fitness is substantially increased with regular swimming. The favourable effects of swimming are expressed not only in comparison with the non-swimmer asthmatics but with the healthy subjects too. The regular therapeutic swimming program helps the formation of running fitness too.

  13. Effects of ageing in physical fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Chiva, Oscar; Martín Moya, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is a natural and inevitable process with degenerative changes in most of the physical, physiological and psychological functions. Furthermore, the ageing process has an impact on the physical of elderly people. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide to readers of information about effects of ageing and changes in physical fitness as one of the major causes of chronic diseases of ageing people. In addition, the association between physical fitness and physical activity in...

  14. Design and qualification of nuclear fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppolani, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of nuclear fittings and presents its characteristics, its operating conditions and the safety function that they ensure. The classification of fittings and the consequences on its design are presented. The procedures of design verification and the validation in loop are given. Two equipments are finally presented: the Framatome Velan Rateau valve and the VR3-1500 LB valve [fr

  15. Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Kuij, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    This summary highlights the findings of the PhD-thesis ‘Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use’ (‘Housing associations and Real Estate Development: Fit for Use?’). A large part of the thesis contains a description of the complex organization of real estate development by housing associations. This summary contains the background, most important findings and answers on the main research questions. Background and objectives of the research Real estate development and h...

  16. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The three faces of ecological fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kent A

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success. Borrowing from Rosenberg and Bouchard (2009), fitness in this sense is ecological in that it is defined by the interactions between organisms and environments. There are three sorts of ecological fitness: the well-documented ability to compete, the ability to cooperate (as in mutualistic symbiosis), and a third sense of fitness that has received insufficient attention in evolutionary theory, the ability to construct. Following Lotka, it can be understood thermodynamically as the ability to maintain or enlarge the energy-circulating capacity of an ecosystem. An organism that does this could end with its gene frequency unchanged but its probability of survival enhanced since it would sustain or increase the total carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Photosynthesizers and other autotrophs are obvious candidates for organisms that are fit in the constructive sense, but any organisms, including heterotrophs, can exhibit constructive fitness if they have some mechanism for channeling external flows of free energy into their ecosystems. I will briefly examine the prospects for the human species in the light of these considerations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attentive processes, blood lactate and CrossFit®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Marchetta, Nunzio Salvatore; Giustiniani, Salvatore; Borbone, Carlo; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Petralia, Maria Cristina; Buscemi, Andrea; Coco, Marinella

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the influences of blood lactate produced during a specific session of CrossFit® on intensity and selectivity of attention. The first was evaluated by measuring the reaction time and the second by analyzing divided attention with a dual task. Fifteen male professionals of CrossFit® volunteered in the study. The training session was the Workout Of the Day (WOD) called 15.5, marked as: 27-21-15-9 repetitions (without recovery) in term of calories measured by using a rowing ergometer (e.g. 27 rowed calories) and in term of barbell full squats (raising a weight of 43 kg for men and of 29.5 kg for women). Blood lactate, blood glucose, reaction time, execution time of a dual task, number of errors and number of omissions were measured at rest, at the conclusion of the session and 15 minutes after its end. The levels of the blood lactate before the start of the session were considerably higher than those which normally occur at rest (CrossFit®, with high levels of blood lactate even at rest, should consequently have attentional performances somewhat limited.

  20. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  1. A Mediation Analysis on the Relationship of Physical Fitness Components, Obesity, and Academic Performance in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Pere, Palou; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene

    2018-04-20

    To examine the relationship between a battery of obesity indicators and physical fitness components with academic performance in children and to explore the combined and mediation role of the physical fitness components in the relationship between obesity and academic performance in children. A cross-sectional study including data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren (Balearic Islands) between 10 and 12 years of age (mean age, 10.98 ± 0.76 years) was conducted. Obesity measures (body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed-agility), and academic performance (Spanish language, Catalan language, English language, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, physical education, religion, and grade point average [GPA]) were collected. All obesity measures were negatively related to at least 3 of the 10 academic indicators, including GPA (β range, -0.135 to -0.229; all P fitness and speed-agility were positively related to all academic indicators (β range, 0.182 to 0.350; all P fitness with 3 academic indicators (β range, 0.143 to 0.253; all P fit had better academic performance than their unfit peers (score +0.75; P = .001). The association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility. This investigation contributes to the current knowledge by adding evidence about the crucial role of physical fitness in terms of academic performance rather than obesity status, suggesting that physical fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of obesity on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of perceived person-job fit on employee attitudes toward change in trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatzick, Christopher D; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2013-01-01

    Employee attitudes toward change are critical for health care organizations implementing new procedures and practices. When employees are more positive about the change, they are likely to behave in ways that support the change, whereas when employees are negative about the change, they will resist the changes. This study examined how perceived person-job (demands-abilities) fit influences attitudes toward change after an externally mandated change. Specifically, we propose that perceived person-job fit moderates the negative relationship between individual job impact and attitudes toward change. We examined this issue in a sample of Level 1 trauma centers facing a regulatory mandate to develop an alcohol screening and brief intervention program. A survey of 200 providers within 20 trauma centers assessed perceived person-job fit, individual job impact, and attitudes toward change approximately 1 year after the mandate was enacted. Providers who perceived a better fit between their abilities and the new job demands were more positive about the change. Further, the impact of the alcohol screening and brief intervention program on attitudes toward change was mitigated by perceived fit, where the relationship between job impact and change attitudes was more negative for providers who perceived a worse fit as compared with those who perceived a better fit. Successful implementation of changes to work processes and procedures requires provider support of the change. Management can enhance this support by improving perceived person-job fit through ongoing training sessions that enhance providers' abilities to implement the new procedures.

  3. Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Miller, Geoffrey; Mintz, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks-low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved as fitness indicators? One possibility is autism. Suppose that the ability of very young children to charm their parents evolved as a parentally selected fitness indicator. Young children would vary greatly in their ability to charm parents, that variation would correlate with underlying fitness, and autism could be the low-fitness extreme of this variation. This view explains many seemingly disparate facts about autism and leads to some surprising and testable predictions.

  4. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak [Formula: see text] 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.

  5. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  6. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, Papps (subjective norm) (−1.02, Papps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, Papps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (Papps (−1.72, Papps (−2.56, Papp users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising using apps, which was significantly more favorable among users than non-users (32.3 vs. 27.6, PApp usage and effectiveness appears to have a connection to usefulness (attitude) and to perceived difficulties of exercising using apps (perceived behavioral control). Exercise and exercise using apps are not influenced by peer influence (subjective norm). Intention to exercise using these particular apps decreased (behavioral intention). Those who

  7. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Youth fitness--problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNubile, N A

    1993-07-01

    Review of the current data in the area of youth fitness reveals some alarming trends. Children in the United States are fatter, slower, and weaker than their counterparts in other developed nations. In addition, U.S. children seem to be adopting a sedentary lifestyle at earlier ages. Although there is no easy solution to this problem, there are specific recommendations that can ensure improvement in this area. The cornerstone for any meaningful change must involve programs that seek to increase physical activity both in school and at home. Daily, quality physical education in grades K-12 should be mandated in all states. Parents should be educated regarding the critical importance and the multitude of benefits to be derived from their involvement in fitness-related activities with their children. A healthy balance must be established between sedentary activities, e.g., television and video games, and physical activity. All schools should establish fitness testing programs for children and these should be based on health-fitness parameters rather than on athletic performance variables. To ensure improvements in youth fitness across our nation, other interventions are also necessary. These include appropriate involvement of local communities, state and federal governments, the medical health professions, and the media. Specific strategies are available for each group.

  9. Fitness for duty - a regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Fitness for duty is a legal, moral, emotional, and political issue. It is therefore that type of issue that one would expect industry to run from, opting instead for government intervention and prescriptive regulations. This would allow the industry to hide behind the shield of doing what is necessary to comply. But fitness for duty is also a rational business issue. It involves getting a reasonable return on the investment in the people who are necessary to run the nuclear industry. It is within this context that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exercised its discretion to not undertake new rule making, instead giving the industry the mandate of pursuing this issue. The NRC has deferred rule making as long as the industry programs are effective in producing the desired results. The NRC has also retained the right to follow up on operational events and to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs in place. The industry, under the leadership of NUMARC, has risen to this challenge and has adopted the August 1985 Edison Electric Institute (EEI) fitness-for-duty program guidelines for implementation by all utilities. In evaluating the effectiveness of programs, the NRC is conducting inspections at some utilities. These inspections have confirmed that the EEI guidelines are being used as the basis for fitness-for-duty programs. Even though the nuclear industry has taken a generally strong stand on fitness for duty and has adopted reasonable guidelines for its assurance, there still remain several challenges

  10. A Study of the Physical Fitness and Influencing Fac-tors of Young PE Teachers in Higher Educational In-stitutions of Jiangsu Province%江苏省普通高校中青年体育教师体能现状及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 刘健

    2014-01-01

    以江苏省部分高校中青年体育教师体能测试的结果为研究对象,对其体能现状进行分析,发现体能测试成绩的高低与年龄的增长,不同专项的差异,男女性别的差异有相关性。但最主要因素是自身对体能的认知和体能训练的习惯。根据目前现状,有关部门应制定相关政策法规,定期组织体育教师进行体能训练与测试,并根据测试结果有相应的奖惩制度,督促体育教师加强体能训练,并适当合理安排教师的工作量,改善工作环境,提高福利待遇。%This essay analyses the results of young PE teachers’ fitness conditions in several schools in Jiangsu, and concludes that the scores in fitness tests are relevant to parameters such as age, sports, and gender with the training of physical fitness being the key factor. Based on current situation, the government departments concerned should make relevant laws and policies and organize regu-lar physical training and fitness tests for PE teachers. In addition,a corresponding system of rewards and penalties should also be established to urge PE teachers to improve their fitness conditions. Meanwhile, teaching staff should be wisely arranged to various teaching tasks so as to im-prove their teaching conditions and warfare system.

  11. Fitting neuron models to spike trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille eRossant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuitsin systems neuroscience.These studies require models of individual neurons with realisticinput-output properties.Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict theprecisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response tosomatically injected currents,if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficientand flexible enough to easily test different candidate models.We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator(a neural network simulator in Python, which allowsthe user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings.It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques toachieve efficiency.We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex andin the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking modelscan accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complexmulticompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model.

  12. Exertional and CrossFit-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle; Sundaram, Sneha; Schafhalter-Zoppoth, Ingeborg

    2017-07-14

    Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. A 31-year-old female presented with 2 days of bilateral upper extremity pain and soreness, which began 2 days after she completed a CrossFit workout. Workup revealed an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) of 18 441 U/L, consistent with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver function tests and elevated D-dimer, although her renal function was normal. She was hospitalized for 2 days and treated with IV fluids. This case report demonstrates that CrossFit exercises can lead to rhabdomyolysis, highlighting a condition that may be underdiagnosed and underreported.

  13. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  14. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Available

    2007-01-01

    LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths ΔK. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have ΔK that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient χ 2 reduction, i

  15. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  16. Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela

    As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data....... In a number of applications, the accuracy and efficiency of the least squares fit is central, and Per Christian Hansen, Víctor Pereyra, and Godela Scherer survey modern computational methods and illustrate them in fields ranging from engineering and environmental sciences to geophysics. Anyone working...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis...

  17. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than...... focusing on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analyzing the three core components: The spatial framework (large scale land parcel...... mapping) should be provided using affordable modern technologies such aerial imageries rather than field surveys. The legal framework must support both legal and social tenure, and the regulations must be designed along administrative rather than judicial lines. The fit-for-purpose approach must...

  18. A CAD System for Evaluating Footwear Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Bita Ture; de Amicis, Raffaele

    With the great growth in footwear demand, the footwear manufacturing industry, for achieving commercial success, must be able to provide the footwear that fulfills consumer's requirement better than it's competitors. Accurate fitting for shoes is an important factor in comfort and functionality. Footwear fitter measurement have been using manual measurement for a long time, but the development of 3D acquisition devices and the advent of powerful 3D visualization and modeling techniques, automatically analyzing, searching and interpretation of the models have now made automatic determination of different foot dimensions feasible. In this paper, we proposed an approach for finding footwear fit within the shoe last data base. We first properly aligned the 3D models using "Weighted" Principle Component Analysis (WPCA). After solving the alignment problem we used an efficient algorithm for cutting the 3D model in order to find the footwear fit from shoe last data base.

  19. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  20. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus